music dictionary : Cm - Conq

If any detail is incorrect or incomplete please advise us, using our dictionary amendment form.

If you would like to support our work writing and maintaining the teaching resources on this site please click on the donate button and follow the online instructions - thank you for your contribution.

CMabbreviation of 'Northern Mariana Islands' (US Trust Territory of the Pacific)
cmabbreviation of 'centimetre(s)', comédie en musique (French)
C major
key of C majorthe key of 'C major', do maggiore (Italian), C-Dur (German n.), ut majeur (French), do mayor (Spanish m.)
[entry corrected by Michael Zapf]
scale of C major
the scale of 'C major'
C minor
key of C minorthe key of 'C minor', do minore (Italian), c-moll (German n.), ut mineur (French), do menor (Spanish m.)
CMCacronym for the Computer Music Center at Columbia University
cmdaabbreviation of comédie mêlée d'ariettes (French)
CMNin music, an acronym for 'Common (Western) Music Notation'
key of C minor(German n.) the key of 'C minor'
CMYK colourscyan, magenta, yellow and black, (CMYK), form the basis of process printing. The "K", meaning 'key', is used to signify black to avoid confusion with blue. The combination of these primary subtractive colours in varying proportions is what creates the illusion of a full colour printed image. When all three subtractive primaries are combined as pure light, black is formed. But the interaction of chemical colour pigments with light when combined produces a dark muddy brown instead of a black. Because of the inability to produce an optical black, black ink needs to be added to the three primaries in order to overcome this problem
CMYK-Farbmodell(German n.) cyan, magenta, yellow, black (CMYK) (four colour printing process)
CNCacronym for 'Computer numerical control' (a computer "controller" that reads G-code and M-code commands and drives a machine tool, a powered mechanical device, etc.)
CNC-Drehmaschine(German f.) CNC lathe
CNN operaa somewhat deprecatory description of contemporary operas taking as themes news events; or of classical opera transposed to a contemporary setting. The name alludes to Cable News Network, CNN
  • CNN opera from which this extract has been taken
C clef sign(Danish) a clef sign which marks the position of the note C on the staff, for example, the alto clef
CNRabbreviation of Centre national de recherche (French: national research institute)
CNRSabbreviation of Centre national de la recherche scientifique (French: national scientific research institute)
Cnt.abbreviation of 'cornet'
Cntrabbreviation of 'cantor'
[entry supplied by Ed Batutis]
C.O.abbreviation of 'choir organ'
co.abbreviated form of come
CO2-Löschanlage(German f.) carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system, CO2 fire extinguishing system
Coacción(Spanish f.) coercion, compulsion
coaccionar(Spanish) to coerce, to compel
Coach(English, German m.) someone in charge of training an athlete or a team, a person who gives private instruction (as in singing, acting, etc.)
motor bus carrying many passengers, a railway carriage for passengers, a carriage pulled by four horses with one driver
Coachen(German n.) coaching
Coaching(English German n.) the job of a professional coach
coagular(Spanish) to coagulate, to clot (blood), to curdle (milk)
coagularse(Spanish) to coagulate, to clot (blood), to curdle (milk)
Coalición(Spanish f.) coalition
Coalition(French f.) coalition
Coalottinosynonymous with concertino
Coartada(Spanish f.) alibi
coartar(Spanish) to hinder, to restrict (freedom, etc.)
Coarticulationthe overlap among sounds in conversational speech. An example is the /s/ in "sue", which is produced with rounded lips because it is influenced by the upcoming /u/
coasser(French) to croak
Coatdressa dress that is tailored like a coat and buttons up the front
Coated paperpaper that has a coating applied to it giving the sheet a brighter, glossier appearance, and improved printability by preventing ink absorption. Paper was originally coated by hand, but by the mid-19th century the process was completely mechanised. Coatings are made from substances like china clay or calcium carbonate, and can account for 50% of a paper’s weight
Coautor (m.), Coautora (f.)(Spanish) coauthor
Co-Autor(German m.) coauthor
Coaxing(endearing) or coaxingly (endearingly), simpático (Spanish), accarezzevole (Italian), überredend (German), caressant (French)
Coban American term for a pinned wooden barrel, as used in some automatic music players
Cobalt(English, German n.) a hard ferromagnetic silver-white bivalent or trivalent metallic element
Cobarde(Spanish m.) coward
cobarde(Spanish) cowardly
Cobardía(Spanish f.) cowardice
Cobaye(French m.) guinea pig
Cobayo (m.), Cobaya (f.)(Spanish) guinea pig
Cobertera(Spanish f.) lid
Cobertizo(Spanish m.) lean-to, shelter
Cobertor(Spanish m.) blanket, bed-spread
Cobertura(Spanish f.) covering
Cobertura de seguros(Spanish f.) insurance cover
Cobija(Spanish f., Latin America) blanket, bedclothes
cobijar(Spanish) to shelter, to give protection (figurative), to give refuge (figurative)
cobijarse(Spanish) to take shelter, to take refuge (figurative)
Cobijo(Spanish m.) shelter
Coblatraditional Catalan street brass bands of Spain, who accompany the folk dance called the sardana
Cobra(English, Spanish f.) venomous Asiatic and African elapid snakes that can expand the skin of the neck into a hood
Cobrador (m.), Cobradora (f.)(Spanish) conductor, conductress (f.)
cobrar(Spanish) to collect, to earn, to charge, to cash (cheque), to recover (recuperate), to be paid
cobrarse(Spanish) to recover
Cobre(Spanish m.) copper, 'brass' (instruments)
Cobres(Spanish the brass (collective term: as in 'brass instruments'), cuivres (French)
Cobro(Spanish m.) collection, cashing (a cheque), payment
Cobsaa short-necked pear-shaped lute from Romania
Coburg-Insel(German f.) Coburg Island
Coburg Islandone of the members of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago in the Queen Elizabeth Islands, in the Canadian territory of Nunavut
Cobzaa short Moldavian short lute, with eight strings (four double courses), related to the cobsa and derived from the kopuz. The same instrument is called koboz in Hungary
Cocabauer(German m.) coca farmer
Cocablätter(German pl.) coca leaves
Cocada(Spanish f. - Latin America) sweet coconut
Cocain(German n.) cocaine
Cocaína(Spanish f.) cocaine
Cocainea narcotic (alkaloid) extracted from coca leaves
Cocaïne(French f.) cocaine
Cocarde(French f.) rosette
Cocarde tricolore(French f.) a roundel of ribbon to be worn mostly on hats. In 1789 the tricolore was adopted as a means to declare ones revolutionary sympathies, and later as a national symbol of the new France. By July 1792 a law was passed making it mandatory for all men to wear the tricolore cocarde. The following year the Societé des Républicaines-Révolutionnaires, a fervently Republican club of middle and lower class women, took to the streets threatening to whip any woman who failed to don the cockade, even though the wearing of them had not been mandated for women
cocardier (m.), cocardière (f.)(French) chauvinistic
cocasse(French) comical
Cocchiata(Italian) a serenade in a coach
Coccinelle(French f.) ladybird, (VW) beetle (car)
Cocción(Spanish f.) cooking, baking (technical), firing (pottery, etc.)
cocer(Spanish) to cook, to boil, to bake
Coche(Spanish m.) car, motor car, automobile, coach (of a train), carriage (of a train)
Coche cama(Spanish m.) sleeping car (in a train)
coche-cama(Spanish) sleeper (un compartimento coche-cama: a sleeping compartment)
Coche de dos puertas(Spanish m.) two-door car
Coche fúnebre(Spanish m.) hearse
Cochenille(German f.) cochineal
Cocher(French m.) coachman
cocher(French) to tick, to tick off, to check
Cochera(Spanish m.) garage; (de autobuses) depot
Coche restaurante(Spanish m.) dining-car
Coches de alquiler(Spanish rental cars (US), hire cars
Coches de choque(Spanish dodgems
Cochinada(Spanish f.) dirty thing
Cochineala scale insect (Dactylopius coccus) from Mexico and Central America that lives on prickly pear cactus, the female of which are full of red carminic acid. They are collected, dried and crushed to create red dyes that were highly prized by the early European textile industry and still used today. The crimson or carmine dye, also called carmine lake or crimson lake, is also called cochineal
(in gilding) it is used to create a transparent pigment making it attractive to gilders as a pigmentation material for finishes on leafed surfaces. It produces a brilliant scarlet
Cochinilla(Spanish f.) cochineal
Cochino(Spanish m.) pig
cochino(Spanish) dirty, filthy
Cochlea (s.), Cochleae (pl.)(English, German f.) the snail-shaped bone-encased fluid-filled organ of hearing. Anatomically, the cochlea is regarded as the inner ear. The cochlea receives vibrations conveyed from the timpanic membrane via the small bones of the middle ear. The last of these bones is connected to the oval window of the cochlea. Sound-induced vibrations are communicated to fluid in a tube-shaped chamber that is coiled to make 2 and one-half rotations. Motions of this fluid cause interior membranes (the tectorial and basilar membranes) to be displaced. Hair cells imbedded in these membranes are activated and the resulting neural impulses are communicated to the auditory nerve which exits from the cochlea. The cochlea is roughly the size of the tip of one's little finger
Cochlear implantconventional hearing aids simply amplify sound rather than making it clearer. Current cochlear implants allow people to listen easily to speech, but not music. An external box contains a microphone to pick up the sound, converts it from radiowaves into electrical signals (using batteries to power the implant) which are transmitted via an electrode inside the ear to the auditory nerve in the cochlea. A new implant is being developed by a team at the UK's National Physical Laboratory that resembles a comb, with a number of bar-shaped elements (or tines) that vibrate in response to sound. Each tine tuned to resonate like a tuning fork at a different, narrow range of frequencies and is coated with a piezoelectric material - which creates an electrically generated pulse - so it does not require an external power supply. By adjusting the length and diameter of the elements, the researchers have tuned each to resonate at a different, narrow range of frequencies. When a sound, such as a musical note, causes one of the elements to vibrate, the flexing of the piezoelectric material produces a small voltage. This is transmitted directly to the auditory nerve
Cochlearimplantat(German n.) cochlear implant
Cochlearisbahn(German f.) auditory system
Cochlée(French f.) or limaçon, cochlea
Cochon(French m.) pig (animal)
Cochon(French m./f.) pig (name given to a person)
cochon (m.), cochonne (f.)(French) filthy
Cochonnerie(French f.) filth, rubbish (poor quality product)
Cocido(Spanish m.) stew
cocido(Spanish) cooked
Cociente(Spanish m.) quotient
Cociente intelectual(Spanish m.) intelligence quotient, IQ
Cocina(Spanish f.) kitchen, cookery (the art of cooking), cuisine, cooker (equipment)
Cocina amueblada(Spanish f.) fitted kitchen
Cocina de gas(Spanish f.) gas cooker
Cocina eléctrica(Spanish f.) electric cooker
cocinar(Spanish) to cook
Cocinero(Spanish m.) cook
Cockaignepays de cocagne (French m.), Schlaraffenland (German n.), an imaginary land of great luxury and ease
in the early years of the nineteenth century the name Cockaigne began to be applied to London
Cockerspaniel(German m.) (English) cocker spaniel
Cocker spaniela small breed with wavy silky hair, originally developed in England
Cockle finisha finish on machine made paper that is made to resemble the uneven puckered finish of hand made paper. This effect is created by air drying the paper under little or no tension and is used most often for bond writing paper
Cockney(English, German m.) a native of the east end of London
Cockney(German n.) Londonese
Cockney-Akzent(German m.) cockney accent
Cockpit(English, German n.) compartment where the pilot sits while flying the aircraft
(English) a pit for cockfights, Hahnenkampfplatz (German m.)
[correction by Michael Zapf]
the name of the theatre used from 1617 by Queen Anne’s Men, named for their patron Anne of Denmark, James I's wife, of which Christopher Beeston was a member and for which Thomas Heywood wrote
Cocktail(Englis, German m., French m.) cocktail (drink), cocktail party
Cocktailbar(German f.) cocktail lounge
Cocktail dresscocktail dress or cocktail gown is a short knee length dress shape of the 1920s, lightweight wool, satin, silk and velvet fabrics cut to reveal the shoulders and arms worn at cocktail parties and other semi-formal and formal occasions
Cocktailempfang(German m.) cocktail reception
Cocktailglas(German n.) cocktail glass
Cocktail gowncocktail dress
Cocktailhappen(German m.) canapé
Cocktailkarte(German f.) cocktail menu
Cocktailkirsche(German f.) cocktail cherry
Cocktailkleid(German n.) cocktail dress
Cocktail musicsee 'lounge music'
Cocktailparty(German f.) cocktail party
Cocktailspieße(German pl.) cocktail sticks
Coco(Spanish m.) coconut, coconut palm, head, bogeyman
South American wooden block
Côcoa rhythm that is a blend of Northeastern Brazil and the Caribbean, played by a percussion ensemble on a variety of drums, surdo, congas, bells and cuicas
CoCoabbreviation of 'Concert Companion', a device invented by an American, Roland Valliere. It consists of a small screen held in the palm of the hand during concerts on which live messages sent from a control box flash explaining what is going on. One commentator describing the system reports that 'in the early stages of a performance of Stravinsky's Firebird, the CoCo reads: "Stravinsky's virtuosic orchestration reaches a climax in this passage, where the illusion WHOOSHES! is created by passing lines quickly from instrument to instrument.' The screen can also offer live close-ups of the conductor and soloists
Cocobaléstick fighting dance, a variation of the sicá style of bomba from Puerto Rica
see bomba
Cocodrilo(Spanish m.) crocodile
Cocon(French m.) cocoon
Coconut shellsthe shell of the coconut, split in two, and drummed on the floor or a board will produce a good simulation of the sound of horses galloping, for which purpose they are used as a sound-effect
Cocooning(English, German n.) the term given to the trend that sees individuals socialising less and retreating into their home more
Cocorico(French m.) cock-a-doodle-doo
CocoriddoSouth American 'border songs' that chose as their subjects those involved in the narcotics business
Cocosinseln(German pl.) Cocos (Keeling) Islands
Cocos (Keeling) Islandsthe Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands, also called Cocos Islands and Keeling Islands, is a territory of Australia. There are two atolls and twenty-seven coral islands in the group. The islands are located in the Indian Ocean, about halfway between Australia and Sri Lanka
Cocotier(French m.) coconut palm
Cocotte(French f.) porcelain or earthenware shallow dish, used for cooking
(French f.) a prostitute
Cocotte minute(French f.) pressure-cooker
Cóctel (s.), Cóctels (pl.), Cócteles (pl.)(Spanish m.) cocktail, cocktail party
Cocu(French m.) cuckold
Cod(slang) joke, hoax, parody, take-off
Cod.abbreviation of Codex (Latin)
Coda(English, German f., Italian f., from the Latin cauda, literally 'tail') a closing passage generally added to the end of a composition. A coda’s function is generally to provide a strong conclusion to the work, giving the piece a grander sense of finality. It can, however, introduce new musical material, as we sometimes see in Beethoven’s works, or in the 2nd movement of Brahms’s Ein deutsches Requiem (German Requiem)
see 'sonata form'
(Italian f.) beam
in dance, the finale of a classical ballet in which all the principal dancers appear separately or with their partners
in dance, the third and final dance of the classic pas de deux, pas de trois or pas de quatre
Coda sign
coda sign or 'jump to coda sign', a circle or oval with a cross inside it which directs the player to jump from that point to a section marked Coda
coda sign
Coda uncinata (s.), Code uncinate (pl.)(Italian) the flag attached to the tail of a note to show its length, for example, one flag for a quaver (eighth note), two flags for a semiquaver (sixteenth note), etc.
Codazo(Spanish m.) nudge (with one's elbow), tipoff (Mexico)
Code(English, German m., French m.) a set of rules or principles or laws (especially written ones)
codear(Spanish) to elbow, to nudge
Code-Buch(German n.) code book
Code de la route(French m.) Highway Code
Code erzeugen(German) to generate code
Codein(German n.) codeine
Codeinea derivative of opium, used as an antitussive (to relieve coughing) and an analgesic (to relieve pain)
Code Napoléon(French m., German m.) Napoleonic code (originally called the Code civil des Français), the French civil code, established under Napoléon I
coder(French) to (generate) code
Codes(French m. pl.) dipped headlights
Code-switchinga term used in linguistics. In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of one language to another, often in mid-sentence
Codetta(Italian, literally 'little tail') diminutive form of coda, a passage within a composition in sonata form which, while resembling a coda, occurs at the end of the exposition rather than at the end of the piece
linking passage between two thematic entries in a fugue
a short coda
Codex (s.), Codices (pl.)(Latin) a set of simple wooden boards sewn together used by the Romans from the 1st century AD. The early Coptic Christians of Egypt discovered that by folding sheets of vellum or parchment in half and sewing them through the fold, they could produce a book that could be written on both sides. Wooden boards held it together, and, to protect it when it was being carried, the whole book was slipped into a goatskin leather bag. Later the term codex was applied to any handwritten book, in particular one produced from Late Antiquity through to the Middle Ages. The scholarly study of manuscripts from the point of view of the bookmaking craft is called codicology. The study of ancient documents in general is called paleography
  • Codex from which this information has been taken
Code-Wort(German n.) code word
Codewörter(German pl.) codewords
Codgeror old codger, a man of mature years who is mildly eccentric
Codicia(Spanish f.) greed
codiciado(Spanish) coveted, sought after
codiciar(Spanish) to covet
codicioso(Spanish) greedy
codicioso de(Spanish) greedy for
Codicologythe study of a codex, an older handwritten book. It is closely related to palaeography, the study of handwriting in older manuscripts, and to philology, the study of language and culture in older texts. Codicology concerns itself chiefly with the book as a physical object and as an artifact that should be understood within its cultural context - it has therefore been referred to as 'the archaeology of the book'
  • Codicology from which this information has been taken
Codieren(German n.) cryptography (writing codes)
codieren(German) to encode, to code
Codierschlüssel(German m.) cipher
codiert(German) coded, encoded
codierte(German) encoded
codiertes Signal(German n.) coded signal
Codierung(German f.) coding, encoding
codifier(French) to codify
Código(Spanish m.) code
Código de la circulación(Spanish m.) Highway Code
Códigos HTML(Spanish HTML codes
Tabla de ASCII estándar, nombres de entidades HTML, ISO 10646, ISO 8879, ISO 8859-1 alfabeto romano numero 1
Soporte para browsers: todos los browsers
Dec HexSímboloNumero NombreDescripción

3220 0 espacio
3321!! signo de cierre de exclamación / admiración
3422"""comillas dobles
3523## signo de número
3624$$ signo de dólar
3725%% signo de porcentaje
3826&&&signo "&" / ampersand
3927'' comilla / apóstrofe
4028(( paréntesis izquierdo
4129)) paréntesis derecho
422A** asterisco
432B++ signo de más / adición
442C,, coma
452D-- signo de menos / sustracción / guíon / raya
462E.. punto
472F// barra oblicua - barra de división
Dec HexSímboloNumero NombreDescripción

483000 cero
493111 uno
503222 dos
513333 tres
523444 cuatro
533555 cinco
543666 seis
553777 siete
563888 ocho
573999 nueve
583A:: dos puntos
593B;&#59; punto y coma
603C<&#60;&lt;signo de menor que
613D=&#61; signo de igual
623E>&#62;&gt;signo de mayor que
633F?&#63; signo de interrogación - cierre
Dec HexSímboloNumero NombreDescripción

6440@&#64; símbolo arroba
Dec HexSímboloNumero NombreDescripción

915B[&#91; corchete izquierdo
925C\&#92; barra inversa
935D]&#93; corchete derecho
945E^&#94; signo de intercalación - acento circunflejo
955F_&#95; signo de subrayado
Dec HexSímboloNumero NombreDescripción

9660`&#96; acento grave
Dec HexSímboloNumero NombreDescripción

1237B{&#123; llave de apertura - izquierda
1247C|&#124; barra vertical
1257D}&#125; llave de cierre - derecho
1267E~&#126; signo de equivalencia / tilde
1277F &#127; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
Dec HexSímboloNumero NombreDescripción

12880 &#128; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
12981 &#129; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
13082 &#130; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
13183 &#131; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
13284 &#132; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
13385 &#133; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
13486 &#134; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
13587 &#135; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
13688 &#136; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
13789 &#137; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
1388A &#138; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
1398B &#139; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
1408C &#140; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
1418D &#141; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
1428E &#142; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
1438F &#143; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
Dec HexSímboloNumero NombreDescripción

14490 &#144; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
14591 &#145; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
14692 &#146; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
14793 &#147; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
14894 &#148; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
14995 &#149; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
15096 &#150; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
15197 &#151; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
15298 &#152; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
15399 &#153; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
1549A &#154; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
1559B &#155; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
1569C &#156; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
1579D &#157; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
1589E &#158; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
1599F &#159; (no definido en estándar HTML 4)
Dec HexSímboloNumero NombreDescripción

160A0 &#160;&nbsp;espacio sin separación
161A1¡&#161;&iexcl;signo de apertura de exclamación / admiración
162A2¢&#162;&cent;signo de centavo
163A3£&#163;&pound;signo de Libra Esterlina
164A4¤&#164;&curren;signo de divisa general
165A5¥&#165;&yen;signo de yen
166A6¦&#166;&brvbar;barra vertical partida
167A7§&#167;&sect;signo de sección
168A8¨&#168;&uml;diéresis - umlaut
169A9©&#169;&copy;signo de derechos de autor - copyright
170AAª&#170;&ordf;género feminino - indicador ordinal feminino
171AB«&#171;&laquo;comillas anguladas de apertura
172AC¬&#172;&not;signo de no - símbolo lógico
173AD­&#173;&shy;guión débil
174AE®&#174;&reg;signo de marca registrada
175AF¯&#175;&macr;macrón - raya alta
Dec HexSímboloNumero NombreDescripción

176B0°&#176;&deg;signo de grado
177B1±&#177;&plusmn;signo de más o menos
178B2²&#178;&sup2;superíndice dos - cuadrado
179B3³&#179;&sup3;superíndice tres - cúbico
180B4´&#180;&acute;acento agudo - agudo espaciado
181B5µ&#181;&micro;signo de micro
182B6&#182;&para;signo de fin de párrafo
183B7·&#183;&middot;punto medio - coma Georgiana
185B9¹&#185;&sup1;superíndice uno
186BAº&#186;&ordm;género masculino - indicador ordinal masculino
187BB»&#187;&raquo;comillas anguladas de cierre
188BC¼&#188;&frac14;fracción un cuarto
189BD½&#189;&frac12;fracción medio - mitad
190BE¾&#190;&frac34;fracción tres cuartos
191BF¿&#191;&iquest;signo de interrogación - apertura
Dec HexSímboloNumero NombreDescripción

192C0À&#192;&Agrave;A mayúscula con acento grave
193C1Á&#193;&Aacute;A mayúscula con acento agudo
194C2Â&#194;&Acirc;A mayúscula con acento circunflejo
195C3Ã&#195;&Atilde;A mayúscula con tilde
196C4Ä&#196;&Auml;A mayúscula con diéresis
197C5Å&#197;&Aring;A mayúscula con anillo
198C6Æ&#198;&AElig;diptongo AE mayúscula (ligadura)
199C7Ç&#199;&Ccedil;C cedilla mayúscula
200C8È&#200;&Egrave;E mayúscula con acento grave
201C9É&#201;&Eacute;E mayúscula con acento agudo
202CAÊ&#202;&Ecirc;E mayúscula con acento circunflejo
203CBË&#203;&Euml;E mayúscula con diéresis
204CCÌ&#204;&Igrave;I mayúscula con acento grave
205CDÍ&#205;&Iacute;I mayúscula con acento agudo
206CEÎ&#206;&Icirc;I mayúscula con acento circunflejo
207CFÏ&#207;&Iuml;I mayúscula con diéresis
Dec HexSímboloNumero NombreDescripción

208D0Ð&#208;&ETH;ETH islandesa mayúscula
209D1Ñ&#209;&Ntilde;N mayúscula con tilde - eñe mayúscula
210D2Ò&#210;&Ograve;O mayúscula con acento grave
211D3Ó&#211;&Oacute;O mayúscula con acento agudo
212D4Ô&#212;&Ocirc;O mayúscula con acento circunflejo
213D5Õ&#213;&Otilde;O mayúscula con tilde
214D6Ö&#214;&Ouml;O mayúscula con diéresis
215D7×&#215;&times;signo de multiplicación
216D8Ø&#216;&Oslash;O mayúscula with slash
217D9Ù&#217;&Ugrave;U mayúscula con acento grave
218DAÚ&#218;&Uacute;U mayúscula con acento agudo
219DBÛ&#219;&Ucirc;U mayúscula con acento circunflejo
220DCÜ&#220;&Uuml;U mayúscula con diéresis
221DDÝ&#221;&Yacute;Y mayúscula con acento agudo
222DEÞ&#222;&THORN;THORN islandesa mayúscula
223DFß&#223;&szlig;s minúscula (alemán) - Beta minúscula
Dec HexSímboloNumero NombreDescripción

224E0à&#224;&agrave;a minúscula con acento grave
225E1á&#225;&aacute;a minúscula con acento agudo
226E2â&#226;&acirc;a minúscula con acento circunflejo
227E3ã&#227;&atilde;a minúscula con tilde
228E4ä&#228;&auml;a minúscula con diéresis
229E5å&#229;&aring;a minúscula con anillo
230E6æ&#230;&aelig;diptongo ae minúscula (ligadura)
231E7ç&#231;&ccedil;c cedilla minúscula
232E8è&#232;&egrave;e minúscula con acento grave
233E9é&#233;&eacute;e minúscula con acento agudo
234EAê&#234;&ecirc;e minúscula con acento circunflejo
235EBë&#235;&euml;e minúscula con diéresis
236ECì&#236;&igrave;i minúscula con acento grave
237EDí&#237;&iacute;i minúscula con acento agudo
238EEî&#238;&icirc;i minúscula con acento circunflejo
239EFï&#239;&iuml;i minúscula con diéresis
Dec HexSímboloNumero NombreDescripción

240F0ð&#240;&eth;eth islandesa minúscula
241F1ñ&#241;&ntilde;eñe minúscula - n minúscula con tilde
242F2ò&#242;&ograve;o minúscula con acento grave
243F3ó&#243;&oacute;o minúscula con acento agudo
244F4ô&#244;&ocirc;o minúscula con acento circunflejo
245F5õ&#245;&otilde;o minúscula con tilde
246F6ö&#246;&ouml;o minúscula con diéresis
247F7÷&#247;&divide;signo de división
248F8ø&#248;&oslash;o barrada minúscula
249F9ù&#249;&ugrave;u minúscula con acento grave
250FAú&#250;&uacute;u minúscula con acento agudo
251FBû&#251;&ucirc;u minúscula con acento circunflejo
252FCü&#252;&uuml;u minúscula con diéresis
253FDý&#253;&yacute;y minúscula con acento agudo
254FEþ&#254;&thorn;thorn islandesa minúscula
255FFÿ&#255;&yuml;y minúscula con diéresis

HTML 4.01, ISO 10646, ISO 8879, alfabeto romano extendido A y B,
Soporte para browsers: Internet Explorer > 4, Netscape > 4
Dec HexSímboloNumero NombreDescripción

26810CČ&#268; C mayúscula con caron
26910Dč&#269; c minúscula con caron - acento hacek
338152Œ&#338; OE mayúscula (ligadura)
339153œ&#339; oe minúscula (ligadura)
352160Š&#352; S mayúscula con caron
353161š&#353; s minúscula con caron - acento hacek
376178Ÿ&#376; Y mayúscula con diéresis
402192ƒ&#402; f minúscula itálica - signo de función
Dec HexSímboloNumero NombreDescripción

82112013&#8211; raya corta
82122014&#8212; raya larga
82162018&#8216; comilla izquierda - citación
82172019&#8217; comilla derecha - citación
8218201A&#8218; comilla de citación - baja
8220201C&#8220; comillas de citación - arriba izquierda
8221201D&#8221; comillas de citación - arriba derecha
8222201E&#8222; comillas de citación - abajo
82242020&#8224; cruz
82252021&#8225; doble cruz
82262022&#8226;&bull;viñeta - bullet
82302026&#8230;&hellip;puntos suspensivos
82402030&#8240; signo de pro mil
836420AC&#8364;&euro;signo de euro
84822122&#8482; signo de marca registrada - trade mark
Codlinga young or small cod, perhaps salted
a greenish elongated English apple used for cooking
to cook (as eggs) in liquid slowly and gently just below the boiling point, to treat with extreme or excessive care or kindness, to pamper
Codo(Spanish m.) elbow, bend
Codology(Irish colloquial term) joke, leg-pull, untrue talk, nonsense
Codona bell
Codorniz(Spanish m.) quail
Codpieceor braguette, originally an inverted triangular section of cloth sewn into the hose around a man's groin, the codpiece by the sixteenth century was padded and boned and became so large that it was often used to carry small weapons, jewels, or food
Coeducación(Spanish f.) coeducation
Coeffichier(French, archaic) an ornament designed to be fixed to a person's hat
Coelstin d'amouror 'piano ex forte', a pinaoforte with a compass of 4 2/3 octaves, with two sets of hammers of different hardness, but without dampers, supposedly invented by Harman Bernard Vietor (or Viator), a London-based organist and piano maker who came to London, from Germany, sometime between the late 1750s or 1760, and flourished between 1761 and sometime after 1770
Coéquipier (m.), Coéquipière (f.)(French m./f.) team-mate
Coerción(Spanish f.) coercion
Coetáneo(Spanish m.) contemporary
coetáneo(Spanish) contemporary
Coetaneousof equal age, duration, or period, coeval
Coeur(French m.) heart, hearts (cards)
Coeur a ses raisons que la raison connaît point, le(French) the heart has reasons that the reason knows nothing of (that is, intuitive convictions)
Coeur d'artichaut(French) artichoke heart
Coeur de palmier(French) heart of palm
Coeval of the same age, existing at the same time, contemporary
Coexistence(French f.) coexistence
Coexistencia(Spanish f.) coexistence
coexister(French) to coexist
coexistir(Spanish) to coexist
Coffee CantataJ. S. Bach's Cantata BWV 211 composed for perfomance by Bach's Collegium at Zimmerman's Coffee House, Leipzig, between 1732 & 1734, to a libretto written by Christian Friedrich Henrici
Coffeeshop(German m.) coffee shop, cannabis cafe (jargon)
Coffee-Shop(German m.) coffee shop, cannabis cafe (jargon)
Coffinan oblong box in which a corpse is buried
the horny part of a horse's hoof
(in medieval cookery) a mould of pastry for a pie
Coffre(French m.) chest, safe (for valuables), boot (car)
(French m.) Korpus (German m.), cassa (armonica) (Italian f.), corpus, body (of a musical instrument), the belly or body of a lute, guitar, etc.
Coffre-fort (s.), Coffres-forts (pl.)(French m.) safe
coffrer(French) to lock up
Coffret(French m.) casket, box
Cofradía(Spanish f.) brotherhood
Cofre(Spanish m.) chest
Co-Fürst(German m.) co-prince (one of the co-rulers of Andorra)
Cogor cog-built vessel, a type of ship that first appeared in the 10th century, and was widely used from around the 12th century on. Cogs were generally built of oak, which was an abundant timber in the Baltic region
coger(Spanish) to take, to catch (train, bus, etc.), to take hold of, to pick up, to pick (fruit, etc.), to fit
coger a uno desprevenido(Spanish) to catch someone unawares
coger el tren(Spanish) to catch the train
coger la delantera(Spanish) to get ahead
cogerse(Spanish) to trap, to catch
coger un atajo(Spanish) to take a shortcut
cogió la puerta(Spanish) off he went (familiar)
cogli altri(Italian, literally 'with the others') an instruction given to a solo player after their solo has ended telling them to now follow the part of the other players
[entry provided by Brandon Hendrix]
cogli, coi(Italian pl.) with the (plural object)
coglie fiori nel giardino(Italian) picking the flowers in the garden
cogli instrumenti(Italian pl.) with the instruments
Cognac(English, German m., French m.) a brandy from the Cognac region of France
Cognac-coloureda range of colours from amber to brown
cognacfarben(German) cognac-coloured
Cognatecognates are words that match each other to some degree in sound and meaning, come from a common root in an older language, but did not actually serve as a root for each other. The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning "one" such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Une and uno are cognates (that is, cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages), but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives
Cognato(Italian m./f.) brother/sister in law
cogner(French) to knock
Cognitive biasesa pattern of deviation in judgment that occurs in particular situations. Implicit in the concept of a "pattern of deviation" is a standard of comparison; this may be the judgment of people outside those particular situations, or may be a set of independently verifiable facts. The existence of some cognitive biases has been verified empirically in the field of psychology
Cognitive sciencethe study of thinking, knowing, and intellectual reaction; of the process of comprehending, judging, remembering, and reasoning; and of the acquisition, organisation, and uses of knowledge
Cognomen (s.), Cognomina (pl.)(Latin) originally the third name of an Ancient Roman in the Roman naming convention, a nickname, a hereditary name (originally, the family name of a Roman citizen, i.e. a surname)
Cognoscente (s.), Cognoscenti (pl.)(Italian, literally 'those who know') connoisseurs of art, literature or music - those with refined tastes (the singular form is little used)
the word cognoscenti implies a deeper knowledge than connoisseur, although it is sometimes used in English with a hint of irony
Cogollo(Spanish m.) heart (lettuce, etc.), cream (figurative: the best), centre (figurative)
Cogote(Spanish m.) back of the neck
Cohabitation(French f.) living together
cohabiter(French) to live together
cohechar(Spanish) to bribe
Cohecho(Spanish m.) bribery
cohérent (m.), cohérente (f.)(French) coherent
coherente(Spanish) coherent
Cohesionin social policy, the bonding that bring members of a society, community or other group together
the grammatical and lexical relationship within a text or sentence
Cohésion(French f.) cohesion
Cohesión(Spanish f.) cohesion
Cohete(Spanish m.) rocket, pistol
Cohibición(Spanish f.) inhibition
cohibir(Spanish) to restrict, to inhibit (person)
cohibirse(Spanish) to feel inhibited, to restrain oneself
Cohorte(French f.) troop
Cohue(French f.) an unruly crowd, a noisy mob
coi(Italian pl.) with the
coi (m.), coite (f.)(French) silent
coi bassi(Italian pl.) with the basses
Coifa cap that fits the head loosely
a thick skullcap, as of leather, formerly worn under a hood of mail
mail hood covering the head
Coiffe(French f.) head-dress
coiffer(French) to do the hair of, to put on (hat), to cap (a bottle, etc.)
coiffé de(French) wearing
Coiffeur (m.), Coiffeuse (f.)(German m., French m.) hair stylist, hairdresser
Coiffeur de dames(French m.) a woman's hairdresser
Coiffeure(German f. - Switzerland) hairdressing
Coiffeuse(French f.) dressing-table
Coiffure(German f., French f.) hairstyle, hat, hairdressing (occupation) (originally also in the sense of head-dress)
(German f.- Switzerland) hairdressing salon
Coiffure bouffante(French f.) a hairdressing style in which the hair is made to stand away from the head
Coign of vantagean advantageous position for observation or action
Coiled trumpetsee 'trumpet, coiled'
Coimbra fadothe fado de Coimbra is a genre of fado originating in the city of Coimbra, Portugal. It was adopted as the music of the university students, becoming known as Fado de Estudante (student fado), but is usually considered the typical music of the city itself. It is performed with the traditional Coimbra guitar (guitarra de Coimbra), a modified version of Lisbon's fado guitar allegedly created by Artur Paredes, and usually accompanied by classic acoustic guitar and male voices
Coimbra guitarsee guitarra de Coimbra
Coin(French m.) corner, spot, wedge, die (for stamping metal, wood, etc.)
(French m.) punta (Italian f.), punte (Italian pl.), Ecke (German f. s.), Ecken (German f. pl.), corner(s) - on a stringed instrument (for example, a violin), the place where blocks (called corner blocks) are glued (above and below the bouts) on better quality instruments for strength
coincer(French) to jam, to wedge, to catch (entrap)
Coïncidence(French f.) coincidence
Coincidencia(Spanish f.) coincidence
coincidente(Spanish) coincidental
coincidir(Spanish) to coincide
dar la coincidencia(Spanish) to happen
coïncider(French) to coincide
Coing(French m.) quince
Coin pianonickelodeon
coi sordini(Italian) with the mutes
coi violini(Italian pl.) with the violins
Col(French m.) collar, neck (of a bottle)
(English, French m., German m.) (mountain) pass
col(s).abbreviation of 'column(s)'
col', coll', colla, collo(Italian) with the (singular object)
colà(Italian) there
Colaboracion(Spanish f.) contribution
Colaborador(Spanish m.) collaborator
Colaboradores(Spanish m. pl.) editorial board
colaborar(Spanish) to collaborate
Colabrodo(Italian m.) colander
Colachon(French m.) colascione
Coladeiraalso coladera or koladera, from the 1930s, a swifter form of morna, more light-hearted and humorous, with sensual rhythms. It is the successor to the funana and alsthough formerly dance music from Sao Vicente Island, it became the favourite dance (in which couples are so close that they appear "glued" together) of the Cape Verdeans
col arco(Italian) or coll'arco, with the bow
colare(Italian) to strain, to filter, to sieve, to cast (metal), to riddle, to pour out drop by drop, to flow, to run, to drain, to drop, to drip, to trickle, to leak, to melt, to gutter (candle), to sink
Colascione(Italian m., English, German m.) also calascione or colachon (French m.), the colascione closely resembles a three-course long-necked lute with a body of relatively small dimensions and single or double (usually metallic) strings. However, the name colascione was given to those instruments similar in form (long-necked lutes or another characterised by proportions in which length dominates) and those which were used for similar occasions (lute which accompanied a singer, played with a technique that did not use chords.)
Colaticcio(Italian m.) drippings, dregs
Colatoio(Italian m.) strainer, colander
Colazione(Italian f.) breakfast, lunch, luncheon, first or second meal of the day
prima colazione (Italian: breakfast)
col basso(Italian) with the bass
col c.abbreviated form of col canto
col canto(Italian, literally 'with the song') to follow the melody or the singer (in matters of tempo, etc.), colla parte, avec la voix
quaver, eighth note(Portuguese) quaver, an eighth note, a note one eighth the time value of a whole note or semibreve
Coldcream(German f./n.) an emulsion for softening and cleansing the skin
Cold Cream(English, German f.) an emulsion for softening and cleansing the skin
col destra(Italian) with the right hand
Cold readinga reading aloud from a script or other text without any rehearsal, usually in the context of an audition or workshop
Coldwavesince the middle of the 1990s, the term “coldwave” has been used in the US to describe a primarily American style of industrial music, mainly industrial metal and industrial rock
Colección(Spanish f.) collection, series
Colección antológica de pintura de los años sesenta(Spanish f.) retrospective of sixties paintings
Colección privada (s.), Colecciones privadas (pl.)(Spanish f.) private collection
Coleccionista(Spanish m./f.) collector
Colega(Spanish m./f.) colleague
Colegiata(Spanish f.) collegiate-church
Colei(Italian f.) she, that woman
Colendaa Romanian Christmas song
Colère(French f.) anger, fit of anger
coléreusement(French) angry, angrily, sternly, wrathful, adiratamente (Italian), zornig (German), aufgebracht (German)
coléreux (m.), coléreuse (f.)(French) quick-tempered, irascible, easily angered, peppery (personality)
colérique(French) quick-tempered, irascible, easily angered, peppery (personality)
col ginocchio(Italian) with the knee
Colibri(French m., Italian m.) humming-bird
Colica(Italian f.) colic, gripes
Colico(Italian m.) colic, griping
Colifichet(French m.) trinket, bauble, knick-knack, any small object of no great value
Colin(French m.) hake (fish)
Cölinblau(German n.) cerulean blue (light greenish-blue pigment consisting essentially of oxides of cobalt and tin)
Colindaa Romanian Christmas song
Colino(Italian m.) strainer
Colino da tè(Italian m.) tea-strainer
Colique(French f.) diarrhoea, colic
Colis(French m.) parcel
Colite(Italian f.) colitis
Colitis ulcerosa(German f.) colitis ulcerativa, ulcerative colitis
coll.abbreviation of 'collected by'
coll'see col'
Colla(Italian f.) glue, paste
collasee col'
collaborare(Italian) to collaborate
collaborare a(Italian) to contribute to, to write for (a newspaper, etc.)
Collaborateur (m.), Collaboratrice (f.)(French) collaborator
Collaboration(French f.) collaboration
Collaboration à(French f.) collaboration on, contribution to
Collaboratore (m.), Collaboratrice (f.)(Italian) collaborator, contributor
Collaborazione(Italian) collaboration
collaborer(French) to collaborate
collaborer à(French) to collaborate on, to contribute to (a publication)
colla destra(Italian) with the right hand
Colla di pesce(Italian f.) fish glue, isinglass
Collage (s.), Collagen (German pl.)(English, German f., from the French colle, 'glue') a technique, drawn from the visual arts, where musical fragments from other compositions are juxtaposed or overlapped within a new work
collage can be seen as a central force in the various arts of the twentieth century, including music. Collage in music should be considered as more than just a collection of other people's music used in another composer's piece. By expanding the idea of collage to include cultural explosions and reconstitutions, unilateral use of European and American ideas by each other, access to art and ideas of the non-Western world, and the mixture of culture and music theory, a strong transition between Modernism and Postmodernism can be followed. The modernist music of Stravinsky and Debussy at the fin-de-siècle introduced orientalist musical theories and sounds into their own music. This use of orientalism led the way for Primitivism and its various guises throughout the rest of the twentieth century. Collage took a front seat in the music and culture of the twentieth century after World War II. The techniques used in early film played an important role for the emergence of collage in post-war music by giving composers the chance to suggest many past musical styles in quick succession without using long transitions. Composers also continued the tradition of using cultural, literary, and architectural collages in their compositions instead of only creating collage by cutting and pasting from earlier composers
Collana(Italian f.) necklace, collection, series (of literary works)
Collant(Italian m. pl., French m. pl.) tights, leotard (of a dancer)
collant (m.), collante (f.)(French) skin-tight, sticky
colla parte(Italian, literally 'with the part') to follow the speed of the solo singer or principal instrumentalist
colla più gran forza e prestezza(Italian) as loud, and as quick as possible
colla punta d'arco(Italian) alla punta d'arco (Italian), at the point or tip of the bow, an der Bogenspitze (German f.), an der Spitze (German), avec la pointe de l'archet (French), de la pointe (French), à la pointe (French), con la punta del arco (Spanish)
colla punta dell'arco(Italian) in string playing, (play) with the point of the bow
coll'arco(Italian) mit dem Bogen (German), avec l'archet (French), (play) with the bow, a direction used at the end of a pizzicato passage
Collare(Italian m.) collar (dog, insignia), bands (clerical)
Collaretto(Italian m.) small collar, lace collar, shirt collar, neckband
colla sinistra(Italian) with the left hand
Collasso(Italian m.) collapse (medical)
Collation(English, French f.) light meal
collatorale(Italian) collateral, side
collaudare(Italian) to test, to approve, to pass
colla voce(Italian, literally 'with the voice') to follow the speed of the singer
collazionare(Italian) to collate, to compare (M.S.S., etc.)
Collazione(Italian f.) collation, patronage, gift of a benefice, transfer of a legacy
Colle(French f.) glue, paste (fish, meat, etc.), poser (a problem), (school) detention (slang)
(Italian m.) hill (of moderate height)
collesee col'
collect.abbreviation of 'collective', 'collectively'
Collectablea manufactured item that possesses the attractive characteristics necessary to cause someone to save it without any regard to its practical use. The term collectable entered general use in the 1930s to distinguish vintage objects from antiques which implies an age of at least a hundred years
Collectanea(Latin) collection (particularly, notes and quotations collected from various sources)
Collecte(French f.) collection
Collected seta published set containing all (or a selected subset) of a composer's works, usually edited by scholars and often representing a solid body of research in its own right
collecter(French) to collect
Collecteur(French m.) main sewer
collectif (m.), collective (f.)(French) collective, group (ticket, journey)
Collection(English, French f.) in modern atonal music, a term used for a group of notes, not necessarily what is defined as a 'set' (where the collection must be 'ordered') although a 'set' is a collection
collectionner(French) to collect
Collectionneur (m.), Collectionneuse (f.)(French) collector
Collective improvisationin jazz, a situation where several instrumentalists improvise at once
collectivement(French) collectively
Collective noun, Collective Pronouna noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team, two teams, or one pair, two pairs.) Many students forget that and mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. For instance, "Some of the the workers are gone" uses a plural verb, but "Some of the work is done" uses a singular verb
Collective nounsterms for groups of animals, birds and insects (for example, 'herd' of cows, 'flock' of birds, 'swarm' of insects, etc.)
Collective unconsciousin twentieth-century Jungian psychology, this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons
Collectivité(French f.) community
Colleen(from the Irish) a young (Irish) girl
Colleen bawn(from the Irish, 'darling girl') sweetheart
Collega (s.), Colleghi (pl.)(Italian m.) colleague(s)
Collegamento(Italian m.) connection, junction, union
collegare(Italian) to connect, to join, to link, to unite
collegato a(Italian) also insito in (Italian), connesso con (Italian), incidental to
College(English, German n.) a secondary school - for example, Eton College
(English, German n.) a postsecondary institution that provides an undergraduate education and, in some cases, master's level degrees. College, in a separate sense, is also a division of a university - for example, College of Business
Collège(French m.) (secondary) school, college
Collegiate churcha church served by a body of canons or prebendaries; not housing the throne of a bishop and therefore not a cathedral; served by secular canons rather than monks
Collegiat-Kirchesee Stiftskirche
Collégien (m.), Collégienne (f.)(French) schoolboy (m.), schoolgirl (f.)
College rockin the US, a term used to describe 1980s alternative rock before the term "alternative" came into common usage. So named because it was primarily played on college radio stations, these bands combined the experimentation of post punk and new wave with a more melodic pop style and an underground sensibility. It is not necessarily a genre term, but there do exist some common aesthetics among college rock bands
College youthsa name given to a society of bell-ringers that included gentlemen of learning and respectability amongst its members
Collegezeit(German f.) time at college, college days
Collégiale(French f.) a collegiate church
Collegiata(Italian f.) a collegiate church
Collegiate churchStiftskirche (German f., most commonly used), Collegiat-kirche (German f., rarer), Kollegiatkirche (German f., rarer), collegiata (Italian f.), collégiale (French f.), colegiata (Spanish f.), a church having, like a cathedral, a chapter of regular clergy (priests living by a monastic rule), who together perform the offices (canonical hours)
Collegiate Shaga form of swing dancing, similar to the Balboa (another swing dance), but with different footwork
Collegiat-kirche(German f.) a collegiate church
[entry provided by Michael Zapf]
Collegium musicuman association or guild of amateur musicians originally used in Germanic countries during the 16th-, 17th- and 18th-centuries and later used in North America in the 18th- and 19th-centuries to denote a similar association of musicians
col legno(Italian, literally 'with the stick') mit der Bogenstange (German), avec le bois (French), to strike the strings with the wood of the bow, rather than the hair. Col legno tends to work better on the lower positions. In higher positions the technique produces very little sound and you have to use a lot more violence (with the bow)
there are three forms of col legno:
col legnoto get a sound, you need to use a tiny bit of the hair of the bow. Using just the wood, there so little sound that when composers write col legno to be played fortissimo with a crescendo it can’t be done
col legno battutothe string is struck with the back of the bow. When col legno appears in the music, many players will be reluctant to do it. Bows are expensive and many believe that col legno damages the bow particularly if any great dynamic level is expected
col legno dell'arcosynonymous with col legno
col legno trattothe player drags the wood of the bow across instead of striking the string
Collègue(French m./f.) colleague
coller(French) to stick, to glue (apply adhesive, affix), to stick up, to stick, to keep in (at school) (slang), to stump (someone is unable to answer a question), to be sticky
coller à(French) to fit, to correspond to, to stick to
Collet(French m.) snare (trap)
Collet de violon(French m.) the neck of the violin
collet monté(French) prim and proper
Collezione(Italian f.) collection
Collie(English, German m.) or, in English, Border Collie, a silky-coated sheepdog with a long ruff and long narrow head developed in Scotland
Collier(German n., French m.) necklace (with jewels)
(French m.) (dog) collar
Colline(French f.) hill
Collision(French f.) collision (for example, between cars), clash (fight, struggle)
collnabbreviation of 'collection'
collo(Italian) with the
Collocationthe frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, the phrases "tall person" and "high mountain" seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. A non-native speaker might talk about a "high person" or "tall mountain," and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation
Collodiona colourless syrupy solution of pyroxylin in ether and alcohol, used as a coating for wounds or photographic films
Collodium(German n.) collodion
Colloque(French m.) symposium
Colloquialisma word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing
Colloquium (s.), Colloquia (pl.)an informal academic conference or group discussion
coll'ott., col 8vaabbreviated form of coll' ottava
coll'ottava(Italian, literally 'with the octave') to be played in octaves, by adding notes an octave higher or an octave lower
coll'ottava basso(Italian, literally 'with the octave below') to be played in octaves, by adding notes an octave lower
Colloquium (s.), Colloquia (pl.)(Latin) a discussion, a discourse, an address
Collotypealso called 'glass printing', a continuous tone printing process invented by Josef Albert in Germany in 1868. It starts with a glass plate coated with a photosensitive dichromate colloid gelatin. When exposed to light through a reverse negative, the lit areas harden into an insoluble finish in proportion to the tones of the image. The dichromate in areas with little or no exposure to light is washed out from the gelatin in cold water. It is then printed in a similar manor to a lithograph
coll'unghie(Italian) with the finger-nails
Collyer, William Bengo (1782-1854)Congregational minister and religious writer, author of hymns, services and popular lectures
Collyre(French m.) eye drops
colmater(French) seal, fill in (hole)
col martello(Italian) with the hammer
col mazzapicchio del tamburo(Italian) with the snare drum stick
Colofane(French f.) bow resin, bow rosin, colofonia (Italian f., Spanish f.), Kolophonium (German n.)
Colofonia(Italian f., Spanish f.) bow resin, bow rosin, Kolophonium (German n.), colophane (French f.)
Cologne CathedralKölner Dom (German m.) or Dom zu Köln (German m.), commenced in the Medieval period, this enormous building was not completed until the late nineteenth century. The cathedral has twelve church bells, of which four are medieval. The first was the 3.8-ton Dreikönigenglocke ("Bell of the Three Kings"), cast in 1418, installed in 1437, and recast in 1880. Two of the other bells, the Pretiosa (10.5 tons; at that time the largest bell in the Occident) and the Speciosa (5.6 tons) were installed in 1448 and remain in place today
[entry extended by Michael Zapf]
Colombe(French f.) dove
Colombianasflamenco style influenced by South American rhythms
Colombie(French f.) Colombia
Colon(French m.) settler, a colonist (particularly, a settler in a French colonial territory)
Colonnadea structure consisting of a row of evenly spaced columns
Colonel(French m.) colonel (military rank)
Coloniakübel(German m. - Austria) dustbin, refuse bin
Colonial (m.), Coloniale (f.)(French) colonial
colonial (m.), coloniale (f.)(French) colonial
Colonialismthe term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to "colonize" less powerful ones
Colonial periodAmerican historians use this term to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy - usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution)
Colonie(French f.) colony
Colonie de vacances(French f.) children's holiday camp
coloniser(French) to colonise
Colonna sonara(Italian f.) soundtrack
Colonne(French f.) column
Colonne vertébrale(French f.) spine
Colonne sonore(French f.) soundtrack
Colophane(French f.) bow resin, bow rosin
Colophon(Greek, literally 'summit', 'finishing touch') originating as early as the thirteenth century BC on ancient clay tablets, an inscription or a device added, originally by the scribe, to the end of a manuscript or printed book when it was completed (it supplies information similar to that found on the title-page of a modern book, i.e. facts about the scribe, the location of its production, the date it was completed, sometimes a donor might be mentioned)
(French) bow resin, bow rosin
Colophonium(Latin, German) bow resin, bow rosin
Colophonybow resin, bow rosin (a pine resin named after ancient Colophon, a town in Lydia that is part of modern Turkey)
Color(Latin) timbre, quality
Colorant(French m.) colouring
Coloration(French f.) colour, colouring
found in Ars Nova notation. Philippe de Vitry (1291-1361) suggested using ink colour to indicate a shift from duple to triple time or the reverse. During the 15th- and 16th-centuries, coloration was used as shorthand for dotted figures. The two types of coloration produced two slightly different results. In one case, when used in music to be played in duple meter (2/4, 4/4, etc.), coloration indicated triplets; in music written to be played in triple-meter (3/4, 6/8, etc.), coloration produced the effect of 2 against 3, what we know as 'hemiola' (for example, three crotchets (quarter notes) in a 6/8 bar). Half-coloration is a term applied to a two note ligature in which only one of the notes is 'in coloration'. The 'uncolored' note is of normal length while the 'colored' is shortened by a third of its time value
the term is also used to describe a pattern of pitches (longer than a motive) in an isorhythmic voice, possibly repeated but with varying rhythms
colorato (m.), colorata (f.)(Italian, an Italian term that is actually derived from the German Koloratur) or coloratura, extemporary or written vocalisation decorated with runs and cadenzas. generally employed to display the skill of the singer
the term may also be applied to similarly decorated instrumental writing
Coloratura(Italian f.) see colorato
Coloratura soprano
a term that may be used for:
a soprano acuto sfogatoa very high and acrobatic soprano with a range extending to the high F, such as the 'Queen of the Night' in Die Zauberflöte (Mozart)
a soprano leggeroa very flexible light soprano, often used in soubrette roles, such as 'Zerlina' in Don Giovanni (Mozart)
a high lyric sopranofor example, 'Sofie' in Der Rosenkavalier (Richard Strauss); 'Blondchen' in The Abduction from the Seraglio (Mozart)
female roles in Chinese operaparticularly those involving vocals with numerous trills and inflections
a non-classical singeralways denoting a singer of acrobatic range, easily accessing whistle register
Colorature(French f.) see colorato
Color carne(Spanish m.) flesh tone (skin colour)
Colordiapositivfilm(German m.) film for colour transparencies
Colores acordes(Spanish colours that go well together, colours that blend well together
Colornegativfilm(German m.) film for colour prints
colorer(French) to colour, to stain (wood)
Colorido tonal(Portuguese) tone-colour
colorier(French) to colour, to colour in
Coloris(French m.) colour
in music, the changes in vocal or instrumental 'tone colour' as a work progresses, whether those changes are achieved through changes in instrumentation (for example, in an orchestral work) or registration (for example, in a work for harpsichord or organ)
Color musicsee 'colour music'
Color proofingsee 'colour proofing'
Color reedsin the organ, reed stops designed to be used as solo stops
colossal(English, French) very large, huge, very substantial, tremendously
colossale(Italian) very large, huge, very substantial, tremendously
Colosse(French m.) giant
Colossus(Latin from the Greek) a gigantic statue, anything that impresses by its mere size
Colostrum(Latin) beestings, the first milk secreted by a mammal after parturition
Colotomica musical form defined by rhythmic cycles, which may involve major cycles that are subdivided into smaller cycles
a feature of gamelan
Colourantthat ingredient, whether dye or pigment, that imparts colour to another substance
Colourationsee 'coloration'
Colour field paintingabstract painting in which colour is emphasised and form and surface are correspondingly de-emphasised
Colour filtera transparent sheet of dyed glass, plastic, or gelatin used in photography to selectively absorb certain colours of the visual spectrum while permitting others to pass through
Colour musicFarbmusik (German f.), Farbenmusik (German f.), the correspondence between the seven notes of the musical octave and the seven colours in light has engaged the attention of philosophers, musical theorists, artists, physicists and mathematicians since the time of the ancient Greeks
[additional information by Michael Zapf]
Colour photo engravingan expensive, complicated and ultimately commercially unsuccessful, intaglio printing process by which a print simulating natural colour can be created from black & white photographs. This method was made possible by Frederick Ives’ invention of panchromatic emulsions in 1881
[entry corrected by Michael Zapf]
Colour proofingin printing this term describes a wide range of techniques which have been developed to reproduce full colour images from film or digital data available, prior to the actual print run; thus allowing the client, colour separation house and printer to view the "proofed" result, prior to the actual print run
Colour reedsin the organ, reed stops designed to be used as solo stops
Colour separationthe process of dividing an image into individual colour segments. Each colour segment is copied onto a printing plate, separately inked in different colours, and when printed in perfect registration produces a full coloured image
col piatto(Italian) with the flat
Colpo(Italian m.) a stroke, a blow
Colpo attutito(Italian m.) muffled stroke, muffled beat (of a drum)
Colpo d'arco(Italian m.) bow stroke, arcata (Italian f.), Bogenführung (German f.), Bogenstrich (German m.), Strichart (German f.), coup d'archet (French m.)
Colpo del battaglio(Italian m.) strike of the bell
Colpo di lingua(Italian m.) tonguing
Colpo di martello(French m.) hammer-blow
Colpo di tamburo(Italian m.) drumbeat
Colportagethe distribution of religious publications, books, tracts, etc., by carriers called colporteurs
colporter(French) to hawk
Colporteur (m.), Colporteuse (f.)(French) hawker
a travelling bookseller, one who sells books and pamphlets from door to door
Colpo secco sul piatto(Italian) short blow on the cymbals, short stroke on the cymbals
Colpo semplice(Italian m.) a single stroke, a single blow
Colpo soffice e lungo sul piatto(Italian m.) soft long cymbal blow
Colpo strisciato(Italian m.) striped beat, striped stroke
col pugno(Italian, literally 'with the fist') bang the piano with the fist
col punta d'arco(Italian) with the tip of the bow
Col roulé(French m.) polo-neck, turtle-neck (US)
cols.abbreviation of 'columns'
col sinistra(Italian) with the left hand
Colt(English, German m.) a young male horse under the age of four
col tallone della mano(Italian) with the wrist
Coltrane changesthe Coltrane changes (or Coltrane Matrix) are a substitute harmonic progression popularized by jazz musician John Coltrane on his 1960 album Giant Steps, specifically in his compositions "Giant Steps" and "Countdown", the latter which is a reharmonized version of Miles Davis's "Tune Up."
(St.) Columban boat songsee 'boat song'
Columbarium (s.), Columbaria (pl.)a building or a wall with niches or recesses for cinerary urns, originally a reference to Roman sepulchres, but now a reference to similar arrangements in a modern crematorium
Columbiaone of the three Cuban rumba rhythms, columbia is played in 6/8, sung with a combination of Spanish and African phrases, traditionally danced only by men in a dance often depicting a challenge one to another, and performed with tumbadoras, guataca or cowbell and claves, sometimes together with shekerés and bombo
Columbien(German n.) Colombia
Columnused to indicate a pillar of any shape, although strictly confined to cylindrical Classical pillars; in Romanesque and Gothic architecture more correctly known as a pier
a recurring piece or article in a newspaper, magazine or other publication
in typography, a column is one or more vertical blocks of text positioned on a page, separated by margins and/or rules
Columnistthe writer of a recurring piece or article in a newspaper, magazine or other publication
Coluna de ar(Portuguese) air-column
Colza(French m.) rape(-seed)
Colza oilor 'rape-seed oil', an edible light yellow to brown oil from rapeseed used also as a lubricant or illuminant
Colzaöl(German n.) colza oil
comabbreviation of componimento (Italian)
Com.abbreviation of 'Comedy'
Coma(English, German n., French m.) prolonged deep unconsciousness
(Spanish f.) comma (interval), comma (punctuation mark: ,)
Coma de Didymos(Spanish f.) comma of Didymus, also known as the syntonic comma, an interval defined by the frequency ratio 81:80
Coma de Holder(Spanish f.) Holdrian comma or Holder's comma (sometimes called the Arabian comma), a musical interval equivalent to 1/53 of an octave (i.e. 2^(1/53))
Coma de Mercator(Spanish f.) Mercador's comma, an interval defined by the frequency ratio of 53 pure fifths and 31 octaves, equivalant to 3.6 cents
Coma de Pitágoras(Spanish f.) Pythagorean comma, an interval defined by the frequency ratio 531441:524288
Coma Georgiana(Spanish f.) Georgian comma or middle dot (punctuation mark: ·) used in editions of classical and early medieval literature to mark off clauses
Coma pitagórica(Spanish f.) Pythagorean comma, an interval defined by the frequency ratio 531441:524288
Coma sintónica(Spanish f.) syntonic comma, also known as the comma of Didymus, an interval defined by the frequency ratio 81:80
Comando del suono(Italian m.) sound control
Comba series of tuned metal teeth arranged in a musical scale and providing the basic sound in a music box
Combat(French m.) fight, match (sport)
Combats(French m. pl.) fighting
Combats des Reines(French m. pl., literally 'Battle of the Queens') a traditional cow fight held annually in the western Alpine canton of Valais, in Aproz, Switzerland
combatif (m.), combative (f.)(French) eager to fight, fighting (spirit)
Combattant (m.), Combattante (f.)(French) fighter, combatant (military)
combattre(French) to fight
combien de(French) how much (quantity/weight), how many (quantity/in numbers) , how long (time)
Combinación(Spanish f.) combination, permutation (mathematics), slip (garment), connection (transport)
Combinación de aviones(Spanish f.) flight connections
Combinación de colores(Spanish f.) colour combination
Combinación de negocio(Spanish f.) merger (of companies)
Combinaison(French f.) combination, scheme, slip (female clothing), boiler suit, overalls, wetsuit (diving)
Combinaison d'aviateur(French f.) flying-suit
Combination actionthe type of mechanism operated with the hands or feet, which controls the work of the pistons in an organ
Combinational tonecombination note
Combination note
or 'resultant tone', a third note heard when two notes are played simultaneously:
differentialthe differential resultant first noticed by Giuseppe Tartini (1692-1770) in 1714the frequency of the comination note will be the difference of the frequencies of the two separate notes which are sounded
summationalthe theory of combination tones (including both summational and differential forms) developed in 1856 by Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894), from his work on the non-linear response of the earthe frequency of the comination note will be the sum of the frequencies of the two separate notes which are sounded
Combination pedal
a metal foot-lever above the organ pedals:
forte pedaldraws all the stops of its particular keyboard
mezzo pedaldraws the chief 8 ft. and 4 ft. stops of its particular keyboard
piano pedalpushes in all but a few of the softest stops on that particular keyboard
Combination tonecombination note
Combinative chansons a term coined by Maria Rika Maniates for a well-defined genre, which features a forme fixe in the superius, with inner voices employing a popular melody, usually a chanson à refrain evoking the chanson rustique. In many cases, the popular melody is presented in canon. The aim of these chansons was to combine popular and courtly styles. The form was cultivated primarily in the third quarter of the 15th century. The term quodlibet can be properly applied to the sixteenth-century German 'combinative chansons'
Combinatorialityin music using the twelve tone technique, combinatoriality is a side-effect of derived rows (tone rows whose entirety of twelve tones are constructed from a segment or portion of the whole) where combining different segments or sets, such that the pitch class content of the result fulfills certain criteria, usually the combination of hexachords which complete the full chromatic. The term was first described by Milton Babbitt
Combine(French f.) trick, fiddle (fraud)
Combiné(French m.) (telephone) receiver
Combined Rhythmmusic of the Dutch Antilles (formerly Dutch West Indies)
combiner(French) to combine, to devise
Comble(French m.) height
(French m.) the culmination (of something), the point of perfection, the acme
comblé (m.), comblée (f.)(French) brought to a state of perfection, superbly finished
Combles(French m.) attic, loft
combler(French) to fill, to make good (a deficit, etc.), to fulfil (a desire), to gratify (a person)
combler ... de cadeaux(French) to lavish gifts on ...
Combo (s.), Combos (pl.)(English, German f.) an abbreviation of 'combination') type of Latin ensemble developed in the 1950s through the influence of the jazz groups and big bands that employed the drum set, bass, piano in the jazz rhythm section format along with all of the standard Latin percussion of timbales (played by the drum set player), congas and the like. They also employed saxophones and sometimes guitar
Combustible(French m.) fuel
Combustion(English, French f.) burning
Come(Italian) as, like, the same as, as if
Comeback(English, German n.) rejoinder or retort (a witty or critical reply to a question or remark), return (to popularity, success, etc. after a period of obscurity or failure)
Come-back(German n.) comeback
Come da lontano(Italian) as from a distance
Comedia(Italian f., Spanish f.) comedy, play (in the theatre)
Comedia musical(Spanish f.) musical comedy
Comedian (s.), Comedians (pl.)a professional entertainer or actor who tells jokes or performs other comedic acts
[entry corrected by Michael Zapf]
Comédie(French f.) comedy, play
Comédie-ballet(French f.) a type of music-theatre devised by Molière (1622-1673) and Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632-1687) almost by accident as part of a performance of their comedy Les Fâcheux (1661) at the Vaux-le-Vicomte château of the Minister of Finance, Nicolas Foucquet (1615-1680) which was given to honour Louis XIV. The genre combines spoken dialogue, dance and music
Comédie-Française(French f.) or Théâtre Français is the only state theatre in France. It is also one of the few to have its own troupe of actors. The theatre has also been known as the Théâtre Nautique and as the Théâtre de la République. The best-known playwright associated with the Comédie-Française is Molière. He was considered the patron of French actors; however, he died seven years before the birth of La Maison de Molière, as the Comédie-Française is often styled
Comédie-humaine, la(French f., 'life's comedy') a figurative term meaning 'the panorama of life'
the title of Honoré de Balzac's (1799–1850) multi-volume collection of interlinked novels and stories depicting French society in the period of the Restoration and the July Monarchy (1815-1848)
Comédie-Italienne(French f.) the historical Comédie-Italienne presented to the French-speaking public spectacles performed by professional Italian actors originally in Italian but later in French. In 1762, the theatrical company in combination with the Théâtre national de l'Opéra-Comique was known as the Comédie-Italienne, under which it operated until 1780. A series of reforms during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, led to it performing opera seria as well as opera buffa, and being called the Théâtre des italiens or Théâtre-Italien
Comédie larmoyante(French f, literally 'tearful comedy') a genre of French drama of the eighteenth century originated by Pierre Carlet de Chamblain de Marivaux (commonly known as Marivaux) (1688-1763), French novelist and dramatist. In this type of sentimental comedy, the impending tragedy was resolved at the end, amid reconciliations and floods of tears. Plays of this genre that ended unhappily nevertheless allowed the audience to see that a "moral triumph" had been earned for the suffering heroes and heroines
Comédie lyrique(French f.) comic opera
Comédie mêlée d'ariettas(French f.) a type of French comic opera from the second half of the eighteenth century, light romantic comedies into which songs were inserted, sometimes including social or political comment
Comédie musicale(French f.) musical (comedy)
Comédien (m.), Comédienne (f.)(French) actor, actress (particularly those specialising in comedy)
Comédie noire(French f.) a dramatic work which has a tragic tone even though without a tragic ending
Comédie rose(French f.) a dramatic work which has an optimistic tone
Comédie rosse(French f.) a bitter, ironical comedy
Comedy (s.), Comedies (pl.)(English, German f., from the Greek komos, 'songs of merrimakers') today, a dramatic work that is light and often humorous or satirical in tone and that usually ends with a happy resolution. In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending although the material could be serious in tone and did not have to be humourous
Comedy of HumoursA Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical "types" of people, each character having the physiological and behavioural traits associated with a specific humour in the human body
Comedy of Innocencein anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action
a specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of human sacrifice in earlier times, for example, Abraham and Isaac, (Genesis 22:9-13)
Comedy of Mannersa comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and satirized according to high standards of intellect and morality. The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué. Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess. It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau
Comedy of the Absurda modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence
Comedy Rocka genre that mixes stereotypes of rock and roll lifestyle and general comedy with rock and roll music
come il primo tempo(Italian) in the same time as at first, as at the beginning
come prima(Italian) as before, as at first, as at the beginning (generally refering to an earlier tempo)
come retro(Italian) as before
Comer See(German m.) Lake Como or Lario, Lago di Como (Italian), Lach de Comm (Insubric), Larius Lacus (Latin), a lake of glacial origin in Lombardy, Northern Italy
comerse el coco(Spanish) to think hard
Comes(English, German m., from the Latin, literally 'attendant') a term used in counterpoint, for an answer or response, which was used by Fux and other theorists
see dux
come sopra(Italian) as above, as before, indicating the repetition of a previous, or similar passage (or of an earlier tempo)
come stà(Italian) as it stands, as it is written, without any alteration or additional embellishments
Comestiblesomething that can be eaten as food
comestible(French) edible
Comestibles(French m. pl.) foodstuffs
Comète(French f.) comet
come tempo del tema(Italian) in the same time as the theme
Comette, La(Saint Lucia, Caribbean) a Saint Lucian dance, a derivative of the minuet
come un mormorio(Italian) like a murmur
Comfort Letter(English, German m.) document prepared by an accounting firm assuring the financial soundness or backing of a company
Comic(English, German m.) comedian, short for comic book
Comiccómico (Spanish), buffo (Italian), Komisch (German), comique (French)
Cómica(Spanish f.) comic actress, comedienne
Comicalben(German pl.) comic books, comics (books)
Comicautor(German m.) comic book writer
Comic bookcomic for short, a magazine or book containing sequential art storytelling, as in comic strips and graphic novels. The term was first derived from newspaper strips, known as the funnies or the comics
Comicbuch(German n.) comic book
Comicfigur(German f.) comic character, character in a comic
Comicheft(German n.) comic book
Comicheft(German n.) comic (periodical)
Comic-Heft(German n.) comic (periodical)
Comicheftchen(German n.) comic (periodical)
Comicheld(German m.) comic-strip hero (for example, Superman)
Comico(Italian m.) comic actor, comedian, writer of comedies
Cómico(Spanish m.) comic actor, writer of comedies
comico (m.), comica (f.)(Italian) comic
cómico (m.), cómico (f.)(Spanish) comic
Comic operaópera bufa (Spanish f.), opera buffa (Italian f.), komische Oper (German f.), opéra comique (French), opéra bouffe (French)
[corrected by Michael Zapf]
a term in English for opéra-comique, opera that includes spoken dialogue
the term 'comic opera' causes inevitable confusion when it comes to definitions. The term is a translation of the Italian opera buffa. As properly used by musical historians, 'comic opera' refers specifically to the light-hearted musical plays that began to be offered as an alternative to weightier opera seria (seventeenth-century opera based on classical mythology) in Naples around the year 1700
Comicreihe(German f.) comic series
Comic reliefa humourous scene, incident, character, or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious or tragic moment. Comic relief is deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action
Comicserie(German f.) comic book series
Comicstreifen(German m.) comic strip
Comicstrip(German m.) comic strip
Comic Strip(English, German m.) a sequence of drawings telling a story in a newspaper or comic book
Comiczeichner(German m.) comic artist
Comillas(Spanish f. pl.) inverted commas (« », “ ”, ' ')
Comillas anguladas de apertura(Spanish f. pl.) opening guillemets («)
Comillas anguladas de cierre(Spanish f. pl.) closing guillemets (»)
Comillas dobles(Spanish f. pl.) double quotation marks (« », “ ”)
Cominciante(Italian) a beginner, in music, etc.
cominciare(Italian) to begin
Cominciata(Italian) the beginning, the commencement
Coming-of-Age storya novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. In German, a tale in the genre is called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman
Comingout(German n.) coming out
Coming-out(German n.) coming out
Coming outor coming out of the closet, a description of the voluntary public announcement of one's sexual orientation and gender identity
Comique(French m.) comic (actor), writer of comedy
comique(French) comic (genre), comical, comical aspect
Comisión(Spanish f.) committee, commission
Comitatus(Latin, literally 'companionship' or 'band') the term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to a hlaford (lord) in exchange for food, mead, and heriot, the loan of fine armour and weaponry. The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to modern Scottish "thane"), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Rome
Comité(French m., Spanish m.) committee
Comitya state or atmosphere of harmony or mutual civility and respect
comm(s)abbreviation of 'communion(s)'
Comma (s.), Commata (Greek pl.), Commas (English pl.)(English, from Greek, literally 'cut', 'crack') any of several small intervals, many, but not all, near an eighth of a tone (25 cents)
the best known of these are:
syntonic comma
comma of Didymus
Ptolemaic comma
the difference between four perfect fifths and two major thirds plus two octaves21.51 cents
Pythagorean comma
comma ditonicum
ditonic comma
the difference between seven octaves and twelve perfect fifths23.46 cents
the ratio between the Pythagorean comma and the syntonic comma1.9537 cents
the twelfth root of the Pythagorean comma1.9550 cents
one half of the semitonium
the difference between four perfect fifths plus two major thirds (in just intonation) and three octaves19.5 cents
septimal commaof which there are several (see link below for further details)
53-tET commaThere are 55.79763 syntonic commas and 51.15087 Pythagorean commas in the octave. Therefore one step in 53-tET is often named a comma because it is in the middle of them and 53-tET is a very accurate approximation to 5-limit just intonation scales. The major whole tone 9:8 is 9 commas and the minor whole tone 10:9 is 8 commas. The chromatic and diatonic semitones are respectively 4 and 5 commas22.485
Sauveur comma1/55 of an octave21.818
Henfling commaproposed name for 1/50 of an octave24.0
Comma de Didyme(French m.) or comma syntonique (French m.), in English, syntonic comma or comma of Didymus, the interval with the frequency ratio 81:80 (the difference between a Pythagorean third - 81:64 - and a just third - 5:4 or 80:64, which is equivalent to the ratio 81:80
Comma didimico(Spanish m., Italian m.) comma of Didymus, the interval with the frequency ratio 81:80 (the difference between a Pythagorean third - 81:64 - and a just third - 5:4 or 80:64) which is equivalent to the ratio 81:80
Comma enarmonico(Italian m.) enharmonic diesis (of Vincentino) or limma, the interval with the frequency ratio 128:125, equivalent to about 41 cent
Commandant(French m.) commander, major (military rank)
Commandant (de bord)(French m.) captain
Commandant en chef(French m.) Commander-in-Chief (military rank)
Commande(French f.) order (business)
Commande du son(French f.) sound control
Commandement(French m.) command, (religious) commandment
commander(French) to command, to order (purchase, sales), to be in command
commander à(French) to control
commander à ... de(French) to command ... to
Commanderyor 'commandry', monastic house of the military Order of Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, but later also for the Order of Teutonic Knights and others
the emoluments granted to a commander in a military order of knights
smallest division of a manor under the control of a commander of an order of knights
historical administrative level of China, which during the Zhou Dynasty (c.1046-256 BCE) was one level below a district
Commandes(French) controls (of an aircraft, etc.)
Commandryalternative spelling of 'commandery'
Comma of Didymusan alternative name for the 'syntonic comma' or 'Ptolemaic comma', an interval with a frequency ratio of 81:80, the key comma of meantone temperament
Comma pitagorico(Italian m.) Pythagorean comma, the interval with the frequency ratio 531441:524288
Comma pitagórico(Spanish m.) Pythagorean comma, the interval with the frequency ratio 531441:524288
Comma pythagoricien(French m.) Pythagorean comma, the interval with the frequency ratio 531441:524288
Comma sintonico(Spanish m., Italian m.) syntonic comma, the interval with the frequency ratio 81:80
Comma syntonique(French m.) or comma de Didyme (French m.), in English, syntonic comma or comma of Didymus, the interval with the frequency ratio 81:80 (the difference between a Pythagorean third - 81:64 - and a just third - 5:4 or 80:64, which is equivalent to the ratio 81:80
Commatic drift(in tuning theory) or 'commatic slippage', a major problem with the performance of music in 'just-intonation', especially on unaccompanied non-fixed-pitched instruments (i.e., string quartet or a cappella vocals), is the possibility of the overall tonality drifting in commatic increments, usually downward (called 'commatic depression') but in some cases upward (called 'commatic elevation'). The problem occurs mainly in diatonic music, and because of the ambiguity of the 2nd degree of the 'major' scale. This degree normally needs to be tuned to either of two ratios in order to fit harmonically all of the chords in the scale: as a 9:8 to fit the V (dominant) chord and its relatives, and as a 10:9 to fit the ii (supertonic) and IV (subdominant) chords and their relatives
[taken from and extended]
Commatic slippagesee 'commatic drift'
comme(French) as, like, as if, how
comme à l'ordinaire(French) as usual
comme appresso(Italian) as follows
comme avant(French) as before
comme c'est bon!(French) it's so good!
comme ci comme ça(French) so-so
comme dessus(French) as above
comme d'habitude(French) as usual
Commedia(Italian f.) comedy, play (as performed in the theatre) - also, the theatre itself
Commedia dell'arte(Italian f., the word arte being properly translated as a combination of 'tricks of the trade' (in Italian lazzi), and 'know-how') a dramatic genre, emerging in Italy in the sixteenth century, that had a strong influence on drama and thence on opera. It included stock characters, the zanni (the foolish servants), the best known being Arlecchino, Brighella, Scapino, Scaramuccia and Pulcinella. The plots lines went on to influence the greatest European playwrights, Shakespeare, Molière and Beaumarchais, and in due course the greatest opera composers including Mozart (Figaro) and Rossini (Il barbiere di Siviglia)
Commediante(Italian m./f.) comedian
also a pejorative term for a second-rate actor or actress
Commedia per musica(Italian f., literally 'comedy for music') a term applied in Italy, and particularly in Naples, to eighteenth-century comic opera (opera buffo)
Commedietta(Italian f.) originally comedietta, a short or inconsequential comedy
Commediographo (m.), Commediografa (f.)(Italian) playwright
comme d'une distance(French) as if from a distance
comme il faut(French) proper, properly, as is fitting, as is right and proper
Commémoration(French f.) commemoration
commémorer(French) to commemorate
Commençant(French) a beginner, in music, etc.
Commencement(French m.) beginning, start
commencer(French) to begin, to start, to commence
commencer à faire(French) to begin to do, to start to do
commencer par la queue(French) to begin at the end
comment(French) how
Commentaire(French m.) comment, commentary (on a text)
commentare(Italian) to comment (on), to annotate
Commentario(Italian m.) commentary
Commentatore (m.), Commentatrice (f.)(Italian) commentator
commenter(French) to comment on
comment et le pourquoi, le(French) the whys and wherefores
Commentateur (m.), Commentatrice (f.)(French) commentator
Commento(Italian m.) comment
comme pour faire(French) as if to do
comme quoi(French) to the effect that
Commérages(French m. pl.) gossip
Commerçant (m.), Commerçante (f.)(French) a shopkeeper, a merchant, a dealer, a trader (on a large scale)
commerçant, commerçante(French) shopping (e.g. mall), business-minded (person)
Commerce(French m.) trade, commerce (business), business (shop)
Commercial (s.), Commerciaux (pl.)(English, French m.) television, cinema, internet-based or radio advertisement
commercial(English, French) of or engaged in commerce, a project having profit as its principal aim
commercialiser(French) to market
commercialisable(French) marketable
Commère(French f.) gossip
a female compère
commettre(French) to commit
comme un écho lointain(French) like a distant echo
comme un rien(French) no bother, no trouble (at all)
Commis(French m.) (shop) assistant, (office) clerk
(French m.) waiter, assistant cook
Commissaire(French m.) (sport) steward
Commissaire (de police)(French m.) (police) superintendent
Commissaire-priseur (s.), Commissaires-priseurs (pl.)(French m.) auctioneer
Commissar(Russian m.) the head of a government department (in Soviet Russia)
Commissariat (de police)(French m.) police station
Commission(English, French f.) composition of a musical work, production of a work of art or task undertaken usually for an agreed payment
(French f.) errand, message
Commissioned workin music, one for which a composer is given a specific contract
Commission-Fehler(German m.) error of commission
Commissionnaire(French m.) errand-boy, a hotel messenger, a hotel porter
Commissions(French f. pl.) shopping
Commis voyageur(French m.) a commercial traveller
commodamente(Italian) comodomente, with an easy manner
Commode(French f.) a low chest (of drawers), a chair enclosing a chamber-pot
commode(French) handy, easy
commodetto(Italian) somewhat commodious, leisurely
Commodité(French f.) convenience
commodosee comodo
Commodore(English, German m.) a commissioned naval officer who ranks above a captain and below a rear admiral, a title for a very senior captain in the U.S. Navy
Commonagethe right to pasture animals on common land, the state of being held in common
Commonaltya class, or estate, composed of persons lacking clerical or noble rank
the estates of the realm were the broad divisions of society, usually distinguishing nobility, clergy, and commoners recognized in the Middle Ages and later in some parts of Europe. While various realms inverted the order of the first two, commoners were universally tertiary, and often further divided into burghers (also known as bourgeoisie) and peasants, and in some regions, there also was a population outside the estates. An estate was usually inherited and based on occupation, similar to a caste
Common chord
a triad composed of a root, a third, and a fifth
major triadroot, major third, perfect fifth
minor triadroot, minor third, perfect fifth
augmented triadroot, major third, augmented fifth
diminished triadroot, minor third, diminished fifth
a chord composed of a root, a third, a perfect fifth and an octave
major chordroot, major third, perfect fifth, octave
minor chordroot, minor third, perfect fifth, octave
augmented chordroot, major third, augmented fifth, octave
diminished chordroot, minor third, diminished fifth, octave
a chord that functions in two different keys and can therefore act as the pivot in 'pivot chord' or 'common chord' modulation
Common chord modulationpivot chord modulation
Commonizationthe linguistic term for an eponym - a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place
Common measuresee 'common meter'
Common meteralso called 'common metre', 'ballad meter', 'ballad metre', 'common measure', 'common time' or, in German (courtesy of Michael Zapf), Vagantenstrophe, consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB, in which the lines of iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables), commonly found in four-line hymn verse and often associated with ballads
see 'common time'
Common metresee 'common meter'
Common noteor 'common tone', a note (or in its plural, notes) that remains (in the plural form, remain) the same between two or more consecutive chords
Common note modulationor 'common tone modulation', tonzentrale Modulation (German f.), or tonzentrale Einführung (German f.), a type of modulation found most often in nineteenth-century music, a sustained or repeated pitch from the old key acts as a bridge between it and the new key. Usually, this pitch will be held alone before the music continues in the new key. For example, a held F from a section in Bb major could be used to transition to F major. This type of modulation can be seen in the second movement of Brahms’s Ein deutsches Requiem
[German equivalents provided by Michael Zapf]
Common practice notationa term synonymous with 'modern music notation'. This is the form of music notation familiar to most people. It involves crotchets (quarter notes), minims (half notes), rests, time signatures, etc.
Common practice eraor 'common practice period', a historical period of approximately 1650-1900 (described loosely as J.S. Bach to Brahms) during which music functions according to our concept of tonal harmony, the period to which Heinrich Schenker originally restricted the application of his approach to musical analysis
according to Phillip Magnuson in Microcosms there were five basic truths that constituted "common practice":
the essential organization was around one pitch, the tonic, which provided a "home base" to the ear. All other pitches worked to establish the pre-eminence of tonic
the essential vocabulary was a diatonic scale, a seven-note major or minor scale. Chromatic pitches, the remaining five, could be used, but only to enhance the diatonic ones
the essential texture was contrapuntal, independent lines which confirm the pre-eminence of tonic and are basically contained within the key
the essential sonority was consonant. Dissonance was used, but was always in the context of consonance, that is, required to resolve
the essential time organization was based on simple or compound meters, with 2, 3, or 4 consistent beats per bar (measure)
Common practice periodsee 'common practice era'
Commonsense(German m.) common sense
Common Sense(English, German m. from sensus communis (Latin)) sound judgment not based on specialised knowledge, native good judgment
Common timealso called 'common meter', when the accents occur on alternate beats, the time signature is 4/4 or a capital C
common time was originally called 'imperfect time'
as a collective term 'common times' are those key signatures or meters which have an even number of parts in a bar, for example, 2, 4, 6, etc.
Common tonesee 'common note'
Common tone modulationsee 'common note modulation'
Commonwealth(English, German n.) the people of a nation or state (the body politic), autonomous self-governing political unit (a republic)
so-named from its archaic meaning, i.e. the public good', the English state and government from the death of Charles I in 1649 to the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, including the Protectorate of 1653 to 1659
commosso(Italian) moved, excited
Commotion (cérébrale)(French f.) concussion
commotionné(French) shaken
comporre musica(Italian) to orchestrate (compose music)
commuer(French) to commute
commun (m.), commune (f.)(French) common, joint (effort, action), shared (task, etc.)
communal(French) of the commune, local
Communard(French m.) a supporter of the Paris Commune in 1871, a communalist
Communauté(French f.) community
Communauté des biens(French f.) shared estate (held in common by husband and wife)
commun des mortels, le(French) ordinary mortals
Commune(English, French f.) district, locality, shared housing
(French f.) the smallest administrative division in France, governed by a mayor and a council
communément(French) commonly
Communiant (m.), Communiante (f.)(French) (religious) communicant
communicare(Italian) to communicate, to pass in (information), to administer Communion to
communicatif (m.), communicative (f.)(French) communicative
Communication(English, French f.) communicating or being communicated (also the means by which information is communicated, as well as the information itself)
(French f.) (telephone) call
Communication interurbaine(French f.) long-distance call
Communicazione(Italian f.) call (telephone), phone call, communication
Communicazione dati(Italian f.) data communication
Communicazioni di mass(Italian f. pl.) (mass) media
communier(French) to receive communion, to commune (figurative)
Communio-Ekklesiologie(German f.) communio-ecclesiology
Communion(English, French f.) one of the antiphonal chants from the mass
Communion ecclesiologyor communio-ecclesiology, in a general sense, a reference to the understanding of the Catholic Church expressed in the documents of Vatican II, one that challenged overly juridical approaches through a retrieval of scriptural and patristic sources. To say that the Church is a "communion" is to emphasise that, although certain of its institutional structures remain essential, it finds its ultimate basis in relationships among human beings with God through Christ and in the Holy Spirit
Communiqué(English, German n., French m.) an official announcement or report by a government
communiquer(French) to pass on, to communicate, to impart (movement)
Communisme(French m.) communism
Communiste(French m./f.) communist
communiste(French) communist
Community of the Wayestablished in the 1930s, a small community set up in house, in Whitechapel, East London, owned by Doris Lester of Kingsley Hall. A Christian spiritual community, they spent their time spinning, weaving, dyeing, making wooden toys, printing and repairing shoes. They bartered their goods for vegetables grown by the unemployed in Kent
Community theatrealso called 'amateur theatre', performances given by amateur, as opposed to professional, actors
Communs(French m. pl.) outhouses, outbuildings
commuovere(Italian) to touch, to move (emotionally)
commuovere profondamente(Italian) to move deeply
commuoversi(Italian) to be touched
commutare(Italian) to change, to commute (sentence, punishment), to exchange (alter)
commutare in(Italian) to commute to
Commutateur(French m.) (electric) switch
Commutatore(Italian m.) commutator (electricity)
Commutazione(Italian f.) commutation (sentence, punishment)
como actriz está acabada(Spanish) she is finished as actress
como agua para chocolate(Spanish - Mexico) furious (familiar)
como alma que lleva el diablo(Spanish) like a bat out of hell (figurative)
¿cómo andamos de tiempo?(Spanish) how are we off for time?
¿cómo andas?(Spanish) how are you?, how's it going? (colloquial)
como anillo al dedo(Spanish) to suit down to the ground, to come in very handy (colloquial)
comodamente(Italian) commodamente, comfortably, moderately, conveniently, easily, with ease, quietly, with composure
comodo(Italian) commodo, convenient, comfortable, moderate, at an easy pace, easily, conveniently, quietly, moderately, without haste, with composure (at a moderate pace)
como es debido(Spanish) as is proper
¿cómo es de alto?(Spanish) how tall is it? how high is it?
(como) por arte de magia(Spanish) as if by magic
como prueba de mi agradecimiento(Spanish) as a token of my gratitude
como prueba de mi amistad(Spanish) as a sign of my friendship
como quiera que since(Spanish) however
¡como sigas así, te van a atizar!(Spanish) if you keep this up, they're going to clobber you!
¿cómo te apellidas?(Spanish) what's your surname?
¿cómo te atreves a pegarle?(Spanish) how dare you hit him?
como una bala(Spanish) like a shot
como un descosido(Spanish) a lot
Compin bebop, short for 'accompany', hence, a style of piano accompaniment where the player uses partial block chords in the right hand, placed sporadically through the music, rather than as a regular 'oom-pah' beat, is called 'comping'
comp.abbreviation of 'composed (by)' (as in 'comp. Smith' meaning 'composed by Smith'), 'compiler', 'compiled by'
comp(s).abbreviation of 'composer(s)'
Compasee kompa, Compas Direct
compact(English, French) dense, small (car)
Compact audio cassettea medium for audio storage was introduced by Philips in 1963 under the name 'Compact Cassette'
Compactdisc(German f.) compact disc
Compact Disc(English, German f.) or CD, a digitally encoded recording on an optical disk, that is smaller than a phonograph record, from which data on the disk is read by a laser
Compadre(Spanish m.) godfather, friend
Compaesano(Italian m./f.) fellow countryman, fellow countrywoman
Compagine(Italian f.) a team (squad)
Compagne(French f.) a companion
Compagnia(Italian f.) company, a party (a group)
Compagnia stabile(Italian f.) a repertory company
Compagnie(German f., French f.) company (business)
Compagno(Italian m./f.) a companion, a mate, (sports) partner, comrade (political)
Compagno di scuola(Italian m./f.) a schoolmate
Compagnon(German m., French m.) companion, workman
Compagnon de jeu(French m.) a playmate
Compagnon de voyage(French m.) a travelling companion
Compañero(Spanish m.) colleague, friend
Compañía de ópera(Spanish f.) opera company
Companion keyon an accordion, the key in which the companion row is pitched
Companion row
on an accordion, a diatonic row other than the home row:
on the 'Club System'the middle row
on the 'International System'the innermost and outermost rows
compar.abbreviation of 'comparative' (the form of an adjective or adverb used when comparing two things)
comparaître(French) to appear (in a court of law)
comparaître devant(French) to appear before (judge, magistrate, etc.)
comparaître en personne(French) to appear in person
comparer(French) to compare
comparabile(Italian) comparable
comparable(French) comparable
Comparaison(French f.) comparison, simile (literary)
comparare(Italian) to compare
Comparatif(French m.) comparative
comparatif (m.), comparative (f.)(French) comparative
Comparativo(Italian m.) comparative
comparativo(Italian) comparative
Comparazione(Italian f.) comparison, simile
Compare(Italian m.) godfather, witness (at a marriage)
comparé(French) comparative
comparire(Italian) to appear, to stand out
Comparsa(Spanish f.) group, extra (in the theatre)
Comparsa(Cuba) also called conga de comparsa, comparsa is a musical gathering, dance and parade taking place primarily during the Cuban Carnival
(Cuba) the specific musical group which plays the conga during the Cuban carnival
(Cuba) the term is sometimes, inaccurately used to describe the music that accompanies the Cuban carnival dance and parade, which is actually the conga
(Uruguay) a group of 50-100 parading drummers that performs candombé during Montevidean carnival
Comparse(French m./f.) stooge (pejorative)
Compartecipazione(Italian f.) sharing
Compartiment(French m.) compartment
Compartiment de queue(French) rear compartment (train)
compartimenter(French) to divide up
Compartimento(Italian m.) compartment, department (administrative)
Comparution(French f.) appearance (in a court of law)
Compas(French m.) (pair of) compasses, compass
CompasHaitian dance music
Compás(Spanish m.) meter, time-species
(Spanish m.) bar, measure
(Spanish m.) rhythm, rhythmic feel of a flamenco dance or song
Compàs(Catalan m.) meter, time-species
Compás africano(Spanish m.) a rhythmic pattern found in some music in triple time, where two bars of 3 (i.e. 1-2-3, 1-2-3) are played, over two bars (or measures), as three 'bars' of 2 (i.e. 1-2, 1-2, 1-2), although not specifically barred in that way. This rhythmic pattern is also called a 'hemiola'
Compás binario (s.), Compases binarios (pl.)(Spanish m.) duple time
Compás compuesto(Spanish m.) compound meter
Compás compuesto binario(Spanish m.) compound duple meter
Compás compuesto ternario(Spanish m.) compound triple meter
Compás cuaternario(Spanish m.) quadruple meter (for example, 4/4, 4/2, etc.)
Compás de cinco por cuatro(Spanish m.) 5/4 time
Compàs de cinc per quatre(Catalan m.) 5/4 time
Compás de cuatro por cuatro(Spanish m.) 4/4 time
Compás de cuatro por dos(Spanish m.) 4/2 time
Compás de cuatro por ocho(Spanish m.) 4/8 time
Compás de doce por ocho(Spanish m.) 12/8 time
Compàs de dos per dos(Catalan m.) 2/2 time
Compàs de dos per quatre(Catalan m.) 2/4 time
Compàs de dos per vuit(Catalan m.) 2/8 time
Compás de dos por cuatro(Spanish m.) 2/4 time
Compás de dos por dos(Spanish m.) 2/2 time
Compás de dos por ocho(Spanish m.) 2/8 time
Compàs de nou per quatre(Catalan m.) 9/4 time
Compàs de nou per vuit(Catalan m.) 9/8 time
Compás de nueve por cuatro(Spanish m.) 9/4 time
Compás de nueve por ocho(Spanish m.) 9/8 time
Compàs de quatre per dos(Catalan m.) 4/2 time
Compàs de quatre per quatre(Catalan m.) 4/4 time
Compàs de quatre per vuit(Catalan m.) 4/8 time
Compás de seis por cuatro(Spanish m.) 6/4 time
Compás de seis por ocho(Spanish m.) 6/8 time
Compàs de sis per quatre(Catalan m.) 6/4 time
Compàs de sis per vuit(Catalan m.) 6/8 time
Compàs de tres per dos(Catalan m.) 3/2 time
Compàs de tres per quatre(Catalan m.) 3/4 time
Compàs de tres per vuit(Catalan m.) 3/8 time
Compás de tres por cuatro(Spanish m.) 3/4 time
Compás de tres por dos(Spanish m.) 3/2 time
Compás de tres por ocho(Spanish m.) 3/8 time
Compas Directalso konpa direk, konpa or compa, a musical genre as well as a dance that originates from Haiti. It involves mostly medium-to-fast tempi with an emphasis on electric guitars, synthesizers, and either a solo alto saxophone, a horn section or a synthesizer equivalent. Unlike zouk, the lyrics are mostly in Haitian Creole, and it has a faster rhythm
  • Kompa from which this extract has been taken
Compases de espera(Spanish m. pl.) multibar rest
Compasillo(Spanish m.) 4/4 time, common time
Compasillo binario(Spanish m.) 2/2 time, alla breve, cut-time
Compás irregular (s.), Compases irregulares (pl.)irregular or odd meter (as, for example, 4/4 + 6/8, or the subdivision of a measure into irregular groups, for example, 7/8 played as 2/8 + 3/8 + 2/8, 3/8 + 4/8, etc.)
Compassregistro (Spanish), compasso (Italian), Kompass (German), etendue (French)
from the lowest to the highest note, the range of an instrument or voice
compassato(Italian) calmand collected
compassé(French) stilted
Compassion(French f.) compassion
Compassione(Italian f.) compassion
compassionevole(Italian) compassionate
Compasso(Italian m.) compass, a pair of compasses
Compass sawa handsaw with a narrow triangular blade for cutting curves
Compás ternario (s.), Compases ternarios (pl.)(Spanish m.) triple meter (for example, 3/4, 6/8, etc.)
compatible(French) compatible
Compatimento(Italian m.) pity, indulgence
compatir(French) to sympathise
compatir à(French) to share in
compatire(Italian) to pity, to make allowances for (to excuse)
Compatriotfellow countryman, fellow countrywoman
Compatriota(Italian m./f.) compatriot
Compatriote(French m./f.) compatriot
compatto(Italian) compact, dense, solid, united (figurative)
compendiare(Italian) to epitomise, to summarise
Compendio(Italian m.) outline, synopsis, compendium
Compendium (s.), Compendia (pl.)(Latin) an abridgement, an epitome, a personification, an embodiment in miniature
Compensation(English, French f.) something done or paid to make up for a wrong
Compensation mixturean organ mixture-stop, in the pedals, of a peculiar composition, and intended to assist the intonation of the pedal stops
compenser(French) to compensate for, to make up for
Compère(French m., literally 'gossip') accomplice, a person who introduces and comments upon the various turns in a variety show
a female accomplice was originally called a commère although the term is rarely used today
Comport (s.), Comperta (pl.)specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero
Compétence(French f.) competence
compétent (m.), compétente (f.)(French) competent
competente(Italian) competent
Competenza(Italian f.) competence
compétitif (m.), compétitive (f.)(French) competitive
Compétition(French f.) competition, (sporting) event
Competitive dancea major category or classification of danceforms or dance styles, where competition is the primary focus of the dancing
Competitore (m.), Competitrice (f.)(Italian) competitor
Competizione(Italian f.) competition
compiacevole(Italian) agreeable, pleasing, attractive
compiacevolmente(Italian) agreeably, pleasingly, attractively
Compiacimento(Italian m.) pleasure, attractiveness
Compieta(Italian) complin, compline, evening prayers
Compilationsomething that is compiled (as into a single book or file), the act of compiling (as into a single book or file or list)
Compilation albuman album (music or spoken-word) featuring tracks from one or multiple recording artists, often culled from a variety of sources (such as studio albums, live albums, singles, demos and outtakes)
Compiler (s.), Compiler (German pl.), Compilers (English pl.)(English, German m.) a person who compiles or gathers together information from a number of different sources (for example, for reference purposes), software that converts a set of high-level language statements into a different set (for example, these may be a lower-level representation or a representation that can be read by a different machine)
compilieren(German) to compile
compiliert(German) compiles, compiled
Compilierung(German f.) compilation
Compingin jazz, the practice of supplying background music comprised of chords while a soloist is improvising, most often accomplished by the keyboard or guitar player
Complaininglamentando (Italian), lagrimoso (Italian), klagend (German), plaintivement (French)
Complainte(French f.) lament (a sad song), endecha (Spanish)
Complaisance(French f.) kindness, indulgence
complaisant (m.), complaisante (f.)(French) kind, indulgent, compliant, accommodating, servile (pejorative)
complectior(Latin) enlarged
Complementsee 'complementary intervals'
Complément(French m.) complement, supplement, rest
complémentaire(French) complementary, supplementary
complementair Interval(Dutch) complementary interval
Complementary intervalsintervalo complementario (Spanish), intervallo complementare (Italian), intervalle complémentaire (French), Komplementärintervall (German)
or 'complements', pairs of intervals that combine to make another interval. They can combine to make an octave (which is the most common use of the term), as in the perfect fifth/perfect fourth, major third/minor sixth, and minor third/major sixth, or they can combine to make smaller intervals, as when major and minor thirds combine to make a perfect fifth
Complément d'information(French) further information, supplementary information
Complément (d'objet)(French) object (grammar)
Complemento(Italian m.) supplement
Complet(French m.) suit
complet (m.), complète (f.)(French) complete, full (train, hotel, theatre, etc.)
completamente anegados después del aguacero(Spansh) completely flooded after the rainstorm
Complete cadencea musical cadence, when the final notes of a verse in a chant are on the tonic
complètement(French) completely
Completenessthe second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy. By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and closure necessary to satisfy the audience
compléter(French) to complete, to complement
Complete worksan edition of all the known works of composer. The collected works of a composer are sometimes titled opera omnia (Latin), Sämtliche Werke (German), Gesamtausgabe (German), or oeuvres complètes (French). A volume of selected works may be titled Ausgewählte Werke (German)
Completorium(Latin) compline
Complexe(French m.) complex
complexe(French) complex
complexé(French) hung up
Complexité(French f.) complexity
Complex metersee 'additive meter'
Complex time signaturesee 'additive time signature'
Complex tonea sound produced by a musical instrument that evokes the sensation of a single pitch. It is composed of pure tones whose frequencies are generally taken from an exact (as in sustained instrument) or slightly altered (as in the piano) harmonic series over the perceived pitch
[taken from]
Compliance(English, German f.) conformity, acting according to certain accepted or established standards, guidelines, specifications or legislation
Compliantdisposed or willing to comply, accommodating, submissive, servile (pejorative)
Complication(English, French f.) involved or confused condition or state, difficulty
(French f.) complexity
Complice(French m.) accomplice
Complicité(French f.) complicity
Compliment(English, French m.) polite expression of greeting or praise
complimenter(French) to compliment
Compliments(French m. pl.) congratulations
Complinsee 'Compline'
Complinealso 'Complin', Komplet (German f.), the eighth service of the Divine Office, usually performed before retiring to bed, consisting of several responsories and psalms which are sung
[Komplet provided by Michael Zapf]
compliqué(French) complicated
compliquer(French) to complicate
Complot(French m.) plot
comploter(French) to plot
Componaster(German) a bad composer
Component parts and accessoriesparti componenti ed accessori (Italian f. pl.), Bestandteile und Zubehör (German pl.), parties composantes et accessoires (French pl.)
componere(Italian) to compose music
componiert(German) composed
componiren(German) to compose music
Componist(Dutch, German) composer
Componista(Italian m./f.) composer
Componitore (m.), Componitrice (f.)(Italian) composer of music
comporre(Italian) to set (type), to compose music
Comportement(French m.) behaviour, performance
comporter(French) to contain, to involve (implicate)
composant (m.), composante (f.)(French) compo)
Composé(French m.) compound
composé, composée(French) composed, affected, compound
"having a good temperament. ... It is also said that a man is composé to mean that he has, or acts as if he has, an air about him that is grave, an air that is serious and modest" — Dictionnaire de l'Académie Françoise (1694)
composé pour le piano(French) composed for the piano
Composer(English) a person who writes music
composer(French) to compose (a song, one's face, etc.), to make up, to dial (a number), to take an exam, to compromise
Composição(Portuguese) composition
Composição polifônica(Portuguese) polyphonic composition
Composición(Spanish f.) composition
Composiciónes corales(Spanish f. pl.) choral compositions
Composing(English, German n.) the act of the arranging parts in relation to each other so that they constitute the whole (as when writing music, writing a letter, working out the arrangement of elements in a drawing, painting or design)
Composite-chord-symbola symbol that consists of a Roman-numeral, indicating the chord's position in the scale, and the figured-bass, indicating its inversion
Composite monster(in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster) the term is one mythologists use to describe the fantastical creatures in Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the body-parts of various animals
Compositeur (m.), Compositrice (f.)(French) composer
compositie(Dutch) composition
Composition(English, French f.) composición (Spanish), composizione (Italian), Tonsatz (German)
(English, French f.) (in music) the work a composer writes, (in writing) an essay (usually on a few pages in length), (in painting, drawing, design) the relationship of elements to the whole
(French f.) exam, test
see 'musical composition'
Compositional Americanismsee 'Americanism, compositional'
Composition pedalKollektivtritt (German m.), (in the organ) invented by J. C. Bishop, a pedal that draws out or pushes in several stops at once
[German term supplied by Michael Zapf]
Compositor(English) a type-setter
originally, a typesetter in a Renaissance print shop
Compositor(Spanish m.) composer
Compositor (m.), Compositora (f.)(Portuguese) composer, type-setter
Compositore (m.), Compositrice (f.), Compositori (pl.)(Italian) composer, type-setter
Compositori di musica popolare(Italian m. pl.) tin-pan alley
Compositrice(Italian f.) (female) composer
Compositura(Italian) composition, musical work
Composizione(Italian f.) composition, arrangement, opus (musical work), report (composition), orchestration, composing (arrangement), composing (writing an original work)
Composizione di fiori(Italian f.) posy (arrangement of flowers)
Composizione di tavolino(Italian f.) table music, music to be sung at a table, musique de table, for example, part-songs, glees, catches, rounds, etc.
Composizione di versi(Italian f.) prosody (the art of versification)
Composizione floreale(Italian f.) flower arrangement
Composizione tipografica(Italian f.) typesetting
Compos mentis(Latin) of sound mind, legally competent
(in law) legally fit to conduct or defend proceedings
composter(French) to punch (ticket)
composto(Italian) composed, set to music
Compote(French f.) stewed fruit in syrup
Compote de pommes(French f.) stewed apples
Compotier(French m.) fruit dish
Compound harmonya standard chord with one or more essential notes doubled, often one at the octave in the bass
Compoundieren(German n.) compounding
Compound intervalintervalo compuesto (Spanish m.), intervallo composto (Italian m.), intervalle composé (French m.), zusammengesetztes Intervall (German n.)
an interval greater than an octave:
simple intervalcorresponding compound interval
Compound fifththe interval of a twelfth
Compound fourththe interval of an eleventh
Compoundinga term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ("neologism") that comes about by taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept
Compound meterritmo compuesto (Spanish), tempo composto (Italian), zusammengesetzter Takt (German), Zusammengesetzte Taktart (German), mesure composée (French)
or 'compound time'. For all compound time signatures:
the beat is a dotted note
each beat maybe sub-divided into three, for example, 6/8, 9/8, 12/8
the top number in the time signature is evenly divisible by 3, except where that number is 3 which is usually a simple time signature
compound time signatures show the number of notes in every bar (or measure) rather than the number of beats, for example 6/8 means 6 quavers (eighth notes) in each bar (measure) but these are usually counted as 2 'dotted crotchet' ('dotted quarter note') beats in each bar
an alternative term for 'additive meter', for example, 5/4, 7/4, 11/4
Compound secondthe interval of a ninth
Compound sevenththe interval of a fourteenth
Compound signs
three accidental signs used to cancel previously applied double flats or double sharps
natural sharp signnatural sharpsubstitutes a single sharp for a double sharp or double flat
natural flat signnatural flatsubstitutes a single flat for a double sharp or double flat
double natural signdouble naturalsubstitutes a natural for a double sharp or double flat
Compound sixththe interval of an thirteenth
Compound-Stahl(German m.) hardened steel
Compound thirdthe interval of a tenth
Compound timecompound meter
Compound time signaturesee 'compound meter'
compramos las entradas con anticipación(Spanish) we bought the tickets in advance
comprar(Spanish) to buy, to purchase, to buy off (figurative: bribe), to bribe (figurative)
comprar las entradas(Spanish) to buy the tickets
compréhensible(French) understandable
compréhensif (m.), compréhensive (f.)(French) understanding
Compréhension(French f.) understanding, comprehension
comprendre(French) to understand, to comprise
comprendre au quart de tour(French) to understand straight away, to understand first time off, to be quick on the uptake
Comprensivo(Italian m.) comprehensive
Compresse(French f.) compress
Compressed airaria comprimato (Italian f.), Druckluft (German f.), air comprimé (French m.), arie comprimado (Spanish m.)
Compressed harmonyclose harmony
Compressed scoreor 'short score', score with the voices and continuo but with all other instruments omitted
Compresseur(French m.) compressor
Compression(English, French f.) (electronics) reduction of the effective gain of an amplifier at one level of signal with respect to the gain at another signal level
(English, French f.) (in recording) the process of reducing the range of audio signals in a recording, thus decreasing the size of the file. MP3 compression eliminates frequencies inaudible to the human ear, though a bit rate below 128kbps produces a discernible loss in sound quality
(English, French f.) (in dance) the lowering of the body by bending the knees in a preparation for a step. The term is mostly used in describing the technique of ballroom dances of Standard (International style) of Smooth (American style) categories, 'waltzes', 'tango', 'foxtrots'
Compression(English, French f.) also called 'audio level compression' or 'limiting', a process that manipulates the dynamic range of an audio signal. Compression is used in sound recording and live sound reinforcement fields to improve the perceived quality of audio. A compressor is the device used to create compression
Compression(French f.) reduction
Compression de personnel(French f.) staff cuts
Compression wavea wave propagated by means of the compression of a fluid, such as a sound wave in air
Compressora device that produces 'compression'
Compressore(Italian m.) compressor
Comprimario (m.), Comprimaria (f.)a singer in Italian opera who takes a supporting role
Comprimé(French m.) tablet
Comprimé effervescent(French m.) effervescent tablet
comprimer(French) to compress, to reduce
compris (m.), comprise (f.)(French) included, agreed
compris entre(French) (contained) between
compromettre(French) to compromise
Compromis(French m.) compromise
Comptable(French m.) accountant
comptable(French) accounting
Comptabilité(French f.) accountancy, accounts, accounts department
comptant(French) (pay) in cash, (pay) cash, (buy, sell) for cash
Compte(French m.) count, (business, bank, etc.) account, right number (exact)
Compte à rebours(French m.) countdown
Compte-gouttes(French m.) dropper (medical)
compter(French) to count, to reckon, to charge for (bill for), to have (class, etc.), to consider
compter avec(French) to reckon with
Compte rendu(French m.) (an official) report, review (of a film, book, etc.)
compter faire(French) to expect to do
compter parmi(French) to be considered among
compter sur(French) to rely on
Compte-tours(French m.) rev counter
Compteur(French m.) meter
Compteur de vitesse(French m.) speedometer
Comptine(French f.) nursery rhyme
Comptoir(French m.) counter, bar (in a café)
compulser(French) to examine
Compurgationin addition to trial by ordeal, compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to determine innocence. A man accused of a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of "oath-helpers" who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character). If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation
Compurgatorone who swears upon the innocence and good character of a defendant
Computer (s.), Computer (German p.), Computers (English pl.)(English, German m.) a programmable device that performs mathematical calculations and logical operations, especially one that can process, store and retrieve large amounts of data
before the advent of mechancial or electronic devices, the term 'computer', as in in use from the mid 17th century, was a person specifically trained or particularly skilled in performing mathematical calculations. Teams of people were frequently used to undertake long and often tedious calculations, the work divided so that this could be done in parallel
Computerabteilung(German f.) computer department
Computer-aided designor CAD, a process that involves the use of computers in the design and engineering process
Computer-aided manufacturingor CAM, a process that involves the use of computer technology in the management, control, and operation of the manufacturing process
Computeranimation(German f.) computer animation, animatronics
Computer-Animation(German f.) computer animation, animatronics
Computer-assisted interactive tutorial systema tutorial system in which a computer is programmed to perform the role of teacher in (normally) a one-to-one tutorial
Computer-assisted learningor CAL, also called 'electronic learning' (or 'e-Learning' or 'eLearning'), a technology supported education/learning where the medium of instruction is computer technology. In some instances, no in-person interaction takes place. E-learning is used interchangeably in a wide variety of contexts. In companies, it refers to the strategies that use the company network to deliver training courses to employees. In the USA, it is defined as a planned teaching/learning experience that uses a wide spectrum of technologies, mainly Internet or computer-based, to reach learners. Lately in most Universities, e-learning is used to define a specific mode to attend a course or programmes of study where the students rarely, if ever, attend face-to-face for on-campus access to educational facilities, because they study online
computerbasiert(German) computer-based
computerbezogen(German) computer-related
Computerbildschirm(German m.) (computer) monitor, computer screen
Computerchip(German m.) computer chip
Computerdatei(German f.) computer file
Computerdatenband(German n.) computer tape
Computerdienst(German m.) computer service
Computerdienstleistungszentrum(German n.) computer service centre
Computereinzelhändler(German m.) computer retailer
Computerfachmann(German m.) computer expert
Computerfehlfunktion(German f.) computer malfunction
Computer-generated musicmusic composed by, or with the extensive aid of, a computer. Although any music which uses computers in its composition or realisation is computer-generated to some extent, the use of computers is now so widespread (in the editing of pop songs, for instance) that the phrase computer-generated music is generally used to mean a kind of music which could not have been created without the use of computers. We can distinguish two groups of computer-generated music: music in which a computer generated the score, which could be performed by humans, and music which is both composed and performed by computers
Computergeschäft(German n.) computer store, computer shop, computer business
computergespeichert(German) computer stored
computergespeicherte Daten(German pl.) computer stored data
computergesteuert(German) computer-controlled, computer-operated, computerised
computergestützt(German) computer-aided, computer-assisted, computerised
computergestützte Fabrikation(German f.) computer-aided manufacturing
computergestützte Fertigung(German f.) computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), computer-aided production
computergestützte Gestaltung(German f.) computer-aided design (CAD)
computergestützte Ingenieurtätigkeit(German f.) computer-aided engineering
computergestützte Konstruktion(German f.) computer-aided design (CAD)
computergestützte Montage(German f.) computer-aided assembly
computergestützter Unterricht(German m.) computer-aided instruction
computergestützte Schulung(German f.) computer-aided training
computergestütztes Fernstudium(German n.) computer-based distance learning
computergestütztes kollaboratives(German n.) computer supported collaborative learning
computergestütztes Lernen(German n.) e-learning, computer-assisted learning (CAL)
computergestütztes Publizieren(German n.) computer aided publishing, desktop publishing
computergestütztes Testen(German n.) computer-aided testing
computergestütztes Training(German n.) computer-aided training
computergestütztes Unterrichten(German n.) computer-aided teaching
computergestützte Übersetzung(German f.) computer-assisted translation
computergestützte Unterweisung(German f.) computer-aided instruction, computer-assisted instruction
Computergrafik(German f.) computer graphics
computerhaft(German) computer-like, like a computer
Computer-integrated manufacturinga term that applies when work stations are directly serviced by an automated material-handling system and controlled by a computer
computerisieren(German) to computerise
computerisierend(German) computerising
computerisiert(German) computerised, omputerises
computerisierte(German) computerised
computerisierte Datei(German f.) computerised file
computerisierte Systeme(German pl.) computerised systems
computerisiertes Wörterbuch(German n.) computerised dictionary
Computerisierung(German f.) computerisation
Computerjargon(German m.) computerese
Computerkenntnisse(German pl.) computer skills
Computerkompetenz(German f.) computer literacy
Computerkurs(German m.) computer course
Computerlehrgang(German m.) computer course
computerlesbar(German) machine-readable
Computermaus(German f.) computer mouse
Computermonitor(German m.) computer monitor
Computer music(English, Computermusik (German f.)) music generated or composed with the aid of computers. It also refers to a field of study that examines both the theory and application of new and existing technologies in the areas of music, sound design and diffusion, acoustics, sound synthesis, digital signal processing, and psychoacoustics. The field of computer music can trace its roots back to the origin of electronic music, and the very first experiments and innovations with electronic instruments at the turn of the twentieth century
Computer Music Centeror CMC, is the oldest center for electronic and computer music research in the United States. The Center was founded in the 1950s as the Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center at Columbia University
Computermusik(German f.) computer music
Computernetzwerk(German n.) computer network
computerorientiert(German) computer-oriented
Computerprogramm (s.), Computerprogramme (pl.)(German n.) computer programme, (computer) software
Computersimulation(German f.) computer simulation
Computerspiel (s.), Computerspiele (pl.)(German n.) computer game
Computersprache(German f.) computer language
Computerstimme(German f.) a robotic voice, a computer generated voice
Computerstudien(German pl.) computer studies
Computersystem(German n.) computer system
Computer-System(German n.) computer system
Computertechnik(German f.) computer engineering
Computertechniker(German m.) computer engineer, computer technician
Computertechnologie(German f.) computer technology
Computerteile(German pl.) hardware
Computertomograph(German m.) CT scanner, CAT scanner, computer tomograph
Computertomographie(German f.) CT scan, CAT scan, computer-assisted tomography, computed tomography, computerised axial tomography
computerunabhängig(German) computer-independent
computerunterstützt(German) computer assisted, computer-aided, computer-assisted
computerunterstützte Ausbildung(German f.) computer assisted instruction
computerunterstützte Konstruktion(German f.) computer-aided design
computerunterstützter Entwurf(German m.) computer-aided design (CAD)
computerunterstütztes Lehren und Lernen(German n.) computer-aided instruction (CAI)
computerunterstütztes Lernen(German n.) computer based learning
computerunterstützte Unterweisung(German f.) computer-aided instruction
Computerverkäufer(German m.) computer vendor
Computervirus(German n., coll. also m.) computer virus
[clarified by Michael Zapf]
Computerwesen(German n.) computing
Computerzubehör(German n.) computing equipment
Comstockeryfirst coined in a New York Times editorial in 1895, a reference to laws passed on 3rd Mar. 1873 at the urging of Anthony Comstock’s New York Society for the Suppression of Vice and the Y.M.C.A., prohibiting the U.S. mails to be used for the transmission of obscene materials. When the play, Mrs. Warren's Profession, by George Bernard Shaw was banned from the mail, Shaw remarked that "comstockery is the world's standing joke at the expense of the United States. Europe likes to hear of such things. It confirms the deep-seated conviction of the Old World that America is a provincial place, a second-rate country-town civilization after all"
com surdina(Portuguese) muted, with mutes
Comte (m.), Comtesse (f.)(German, French) count (m.), countess (f.)
Comté(French m.) county
Con(French m./f.) bloody fool (slang)
con(Italian) with, in a style expressive of, (with reference to a film, play, etc.) starring
(from the Latin, contra) against
con.abbreviation of contralto
con (m.), conne (f.)(French) bloody foolish (slang)
con 8va (s.), con 8vi (pl.)in keyboard music, if the notes are to be played with the right hand play the notes with those an octave above, if the notes are in the left hand play the notes with those an octave below
con abbandono(Italian) with self-abandonment, with abandon, with passion, with ardent feeling, unrestrained, nachlassend (German), mit Hingabe (German), hingebungsvoll (German), avec abandon (French)
con abbandono ed espressione(Italian) with passion and expression
con abbondanza(Italian) prosperously (affluently)
con abilità(Italian) with skill
con accelerazione(Italian) with increasing speed, mit Beschleunigung (German), zu schnellerem Zeitmaß übergehend (German)
con accento(Italian) accented, marked
con accuratezza(Italian) or con cura (Italian), with care, mit Sorgfalt (German), avec soin (French)
con adorazione(Italian) adoringly, mit Anbetung (German), avec adoration (French)
con affanno(Italian) puffing (breathing heavily), breathless, atemlos (German), essouflé (French)
(Italian) con angustia (Italian), affannosamente (Italian), affannoso (Italian), anxious, with anxiety, bangend (German), tourmenté (French), anxieusement (French)
con affanno, ma lieta(Italian) breathless with excitement
con affetto(Italian) with love, with affection, with warmth, with passion, with tenderness, with emotion, mit Zuneigung (German), liebevoll (German), avec affection (French)
con affezione(Italian) with warmth, with affection, with tenderness, in a style expressing tender emotion
con affabilità(Italian) in a pleasing, kindly manner
con afflizione(Italian) painfully (distressingly), sorrowfully, mournfully, with affliction, mit Traurigkeit (German)
con agallas(Spanish) gutsy (colloquial)
con agevolezza(Italian) lightly, easily, with ease, con facilità Italian), mit Leichtigkeit (German), avec aisance (French)
con agiatezza(Italian) prosperously (wealthy)
con agilità(Italian) with nimbleness, with agility, with clean and light expression, mit Behändigkeit (German), avec agilité (French)
con agitazione(Italian) con concitazione (Italian), agitato (Italian), concitato (Italian), with agitation, agitatedly, restlessly, hurriedly, erregt (German), unruhig (German), avec agitation (French), agité (French)
con ahínco(Spanish) eagerly
con aire acondicionado(Spanish) air-conditioned
con alcuna licenza(Italian) with a certain degree of freedom, usually with regard to tempo and expression
con allegrezza(Italian) joyfully, cheerfully, gaily, with lightness, mit Fröhlichkeit (German), avec allégresse (French)
con allegria(Italian) with vivacity, playfully (with merriment), in a lively manner, mit Fröhlichkeit (German), avec allégresse (French)
con alma(Italian) with soul, with spirit, ardently
con alterezza(Italian) proudly, with an elevated and sublime expression
con amabilità(Italian) con garbo (Italian), tenderly, with sweetness, with grace and gentleness, mit Liebenswürdigkeit (German), avec amabilité (French)
con amarezza(Italian) with sadness, with bitterness, bitterly, with affliction, mournfully, mit Bitterkeit (German), avec amertume (French)
con amargura(Spanish) bitterly
con amicizia(Italian) (good-)neighbourly (friendly)
con amor(Spanish) with love, lovingly, with affection, with devotion, fondly, tenderly
con amore(Italian) with love, lovingly, with affection, with devotion, fondly, tenderly, mit Liebe (German), avec amour (French)
(Italian) (performed) as a labour of love
con ampiezza(Italian) with breadth, mit Weite (German), mit Ausdehnung (German), avec ampleur (French)
con angore(Italian) with anxiety
con angoscia(Italian) with anguish
con angustia(Italian) con affanno (Italian), affannosamente (Italian), affannoso (Italian), anxious, with anxiety, bangend (German), tourmenté (French), anxieusement (French)
con animo, con anima(Italian) with boldness, with resolution, with soul, with spirit, spirited
the term is frequently confused with animato (Italian: animatedly, more lively)
con animazione(Italian) with animation, with decision, with boldness
con ansia(Italian) in suspense, nervously (anxiously)
(Spanish) eagerly
con ansiedad(Spanish) anxiously
con antelación(Spanish) in advance, in plenty of time, beforehand, prior
con antelación a su boda(Spanish) prior to her wedding
con anterioridad(Spanish) previously. before, previously, beforehand, in advance
con anterioridad a(Spanish) ... before ..., prior to ... (something)
con anterioridad a su llegada(Spanish) prior to his arrival
con anticipación(Spanish) in advance
con apprensione(Italian) nervously (with excitement)
con aptitudes musicales(Spanish) musically talented
con arditezza(Italian) boldly, spiritedly
con ardore(Italian) with ardour, with warmth
con arreglo a(Spanish) according to, in accordance with
con arrendevolezza(Italian) obligingly (accommodatingly)
con arroganza(Italian) proudly (with arrogance), arrogantly
con arte(Spanish) skilfully
con asiduidad(Spanish) frequently, regularly
con atención(Spanish) attentively
Conato(Italian m.) effort, attempt
con attenzione(Italian) in a marked style, with attention, carefully
con audacia(Italian) with boldness, with audacity, with firmness
con autorevolezza(Italian) powerfully (with a compelling strength)
con autorità(Italian) with authority, authoritative, peremptorily (in an authoritative way)
con autorizzazione(Italian) with permission
con bacchetta(Italian) with the side drum stick, with the snare drum stick, with the stick
con bacchetta di feltro(Italian) with the felt stick
con bacchetta di feltro duro(Italian) with the hard felt stick
con bacchetta di feltro morbido(Italian) with the soft felt stick
con bacchetta di ferro(Italian) with the iron stick
con bacchetta di flanella(Italian) with the flannel stick
con bacchetta di gomma(Italian) with the rubber mallet
con bacchetta di legno(Italian) with the wooden stick
con bacchetta di marimba(Italian) with the marimba mallet
con bacchetta di metallo(Italian) with the metal stick
con bacchetta di pelle(Italian) with the leather stick
con bacchetta di spugna(Italian) with the sponge-headed stick
con bacchetta di timpano(Italian) with the timpani stick
con bacchetta di xiloono(Italian) with the xylophone mallet
con bacchetta dura(Italian) with the hard stick
con bacchetta morbida(Italian) with the soft stick
con battente(Italian) with the beater
con battente del tamtam(Italian) with the gong mallet, with the tamtam mallet
con battente di campana(Italian) with the chime mallet
con battente di campanelli(Italian) with the glockenspiel mallet, with the bell mallet
con battente di sughero(Italian) with the cork mallet
con battente di vibrafono(Italian) with the vibraphone mallet
con battente del triangolo(Italian) with the triangle beater
con bellezza(Italian) with beauty (of tone), gracefully
con bizzarria(Italian) in a bizarre, fantastic or extravagant style
con bocca chiusa(Italian) with mouth closed, humming
con breve preavviso(Italian) at short notice
con brio(Italian) with spirit, with fire, with spirit and force, with vigour, with brilliancy, sprightly
con brio ed animato(Italian) with spirit and resolution
con brutti modi(Italian) pert (with bad manners)
con buongusto(Italian) tastefully
conc(s).abbreviation of 'concerto(s)', concertante (Italian), concertino (Italian)
Conca (s.), Conche (pl.)(Italian f.) large earthware basin, cavity, valley, hollow in the hills, shell, lock-basin in a canal
Conca dell'orecchio(Italian f.) hollow of the outer ear
Conca fessa(Italian f.) person of a weak constitution, person with weak health
Concaio(Italian m.) dealer in earthenware, potter
con calma(Italian) with calmness, with tranquilly, patiently (calmly)
con calore(Italian) with warmth, with passion, with fire
con carità(Italian) with tenderness
concassé(French) coarsely chopped
con catena e bacchetta tenera(Italian) with a chain and a soft stick
concatenare(Italian) to link together (of an argument, ideas, etc.)
Concatenazione armonica(Italian) harmony in which some parts are changing or moving while others are held or are sustained
con cattiveria(Italian) perversely (in an evil way)
Concausa(Italian f.) contribution, cause, pre-existing cause, aggravation of guilt
con cautela(Italian) cautiously (with caution), carefully (cautiously)
concave(English, French) curved like the interior of a sphere or circle
Concave pedalsa pedal board so constructed that the pedals are not at the same level, being so arranged that from the centre to the right and left they gradually rise
con cavità(Italian) pitted (indented)
Concavo(Italian m.) hollow
concavo(Italian) concave, hollow, vaulted
Concealed fifthssee 'hidden fifths'
Concealed octavessee 'hidden octaves'
concéder(French) to grant, to concede
concedere(Italian) to concede, to grant, to accord, to admit
Conceit (s.), Conceits (pl.)(English, German pl.) artistic device or effect, witty or ingenious turn of phrase
(English, German pl.) also termed metaphysical conceit in English, an elaborate poetic image or a far-fetched comparison of very dissimilar things (for example, elaborately comparing a beautiful woman to an object like a garden or the sun)
(English, German pl.) something conceived, especially, a novel or fanciful idea
amour propre, false pride, feelings of excessive pride, the trait of being unduly vain and conceited
con celerità(Italian) quickly, nimbly
Concento(Italian m.) concord, agreement, harmony, a collection of pieces, harmony of voice and instrument
Concentramento(Italian m.) concentration
Concentrando(Italian m., literally 'concentrating') an expression mark in music for the voice calling for an intensification of the tone
concentrare(Italian) to concentrate the sounds, to veil the sounds with mystery, to centre, to condense (figurative)
Concentration(French f.) concentration
Concentrazione(Italian f.) concentration (in an abstract sense and as a chemical process)
Concentré(French m.) concentrate
concentré(French) concentrated, condensed (milk), absorbed (person)
concentrico(Italian) concentric
Concentus(Latin) concord, harmony
(Latin) part music
(Latin) parts of the Ritual Song of the Roman Catholic Church, the counter to the accentus which is chanted or intoned by the one of the Sacred ministers, the concentus is sung by the Assistants or by a specially trained choir
concepibile(Italian) conceivable, imaginable
concepire(Italian) to conceive, to imagine, to beign to form, to form, to formulate, to draw up, to entertain (hopes, suspicions)
concepito(Italian) drawn up, worded
Concept(English, French m.) abstract idea, general notion
Concept arta form of illustration where the main goal is to convey a visual representation of a design, idea, and/or mood for use in movies, video games, or comic books before it is put into the final product
Concept albumin popular music, an album which is pre-planned (conceived), most often with all songs contributing to a single overall theme or unified story, this plan or story being the concept
Conceptart(German f.) concept art
Concept-Art(German f.) concept art
Conception(English, French f.) idea, plan, understanding, conceiving, being conceived
Conceptualof metal conceptions or concepts
Conceptual historyalso the History of Concepts, a term used to describe a branch of the humanities, in particular of historical and cultural studies, which deals with the historical semantics of terms. It sees the etymology and the change in meaning of terms as a forming a crucial basis for contemporary cultural, conceptual and linguistic understanding. Conceptual history deals with the evolution of paradigmatic ideas and value systems over time, such as "liberty" or "reform." It argues that social history – indeed all historical reflection – must begin with an understanding of historically contingent cultural values and practices in their particular contexts over time, not merely as unchanging ideologies or processes (i.e. as in Marxism)
Conceptualizeform a concept or idea of
Conceria(Italian f.) tannery
concerner(French) to concern
concernere(Italian) to concern, to regard, to be concerned with, to relate to
Concert(English, French) concierto (Spanish), concerto (Italian), Konzert (German)
(English, French m.) a musical performance in front of an audience
a concerto
Concert Aa', A4 or La4, the note used as a standard in the tuning of instruments and to which orchestras tune, having the frequency 440 Hz where Hz is the unit of frequency equivalent to one cycle per second
Concertant(French) concertante
Concertante(Spanish, Italian, from concertare, literally 'to act together') in the form of a concerto, where in an instrumental group, there is interplay between the performers, each allowed to display his or her virtuosity, either as an individual or as the member of a section
a concerto with two or more soloists
Concertante quartetsee quatuor concertant
concertare(Latin) to contend, to dispute, to debate
(Italian) to arrange, to agree, to get together, to concert, to plan together, to hatch (plot), to arrange, to adjust, to conduct (concert, rehearsal)
(Italian) to harmonise
concertarsi(Italian) to come to an understanding, to act in concert
Concert ariaa self contained piece usually for one voice with orchestral accompaniment, that does not form part of any larger work, for example, Ah Perfido by Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) and a number of concert arias by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)
concertato (m.), concertata (f.)(Italian) concerted, arranged, agreed upon
(Italian) a term applied to an ensemble work in which the players are treated equally
a somewhat oversimplified, but useful distinction between concertato (short for stile concertato) and concerto (short for stile concerto) can be made: the concertato style involves contrast between opposing groups of voices and groups of instruments: the concerto style, especially as it developed into the concerto grosso later in the Baroque, involves contrast between large and small groups of similar composition (later called ripieno and concertino)
  • Concertato from which the comment above has been taken
Concertato choralea form derived from the early seventeenth-century practice of setting hymns with different combination of voices, solo and choral, for each verse
Concertato stylesacred music in the concertato style in the early seventeenth century was descended from the 'motet': the texts that a hundred years earlier would have been set for a cappella voices singing in smooth polyphony, would now be set for voices and instruments in a concertato style. These pieces, no longer always called 'motets', were given a variety of names including concerto, Psalm (if a psalm setting), 'sinfonia', or symphoniae, for example, Heinrich Schütz's collections of Symphoniae Sacrae
Concert bandorchestra concertistica (Italian f.), a wind band, also called symphonic band, symphonic winds, wind orchestra, wind symphony, or wind ensemble, is a performing ensemble consisting of several members of the woodwind instrument family, brass instrument family and percussion instrument family. Its various repertoire include original wind compositions, arranged classical items, light music, and popular tunes. Though the instrumentation is similar, it is distinguished from the marching band in that its primary function is as a concert ensemble. The repertoire for a concert band may, however, contain marches
Concert companionsee 'CoCo'
Concert cymbalumdeveloped in Hungary in the 1870s by József Schunda, a large cymbalum, comparable in pitch range (and weight) to a small piano — but still played in the normal way with beaters. It stands on four legs, has many more strings, and the later models had a damping pedal. Prior to this, the player damped the strings by using his coat sleeves
Concert dancealso known as performance dance, a category of dances in which an audience watches but does not participate
Concert dance (twentieth century)
Concert des flûtes(French m.) or flûtes, in French organ repertoire, a resitration made up of softer flue combinations that were used alone (as opposed to accompanying a solo stop)
Concert d'orchestre(French m.) concert of classical music
Concerted musicmusic to be played by several voices or instruments, heard at the same time as opposed to one at a time and where all the parts are equally important, for example, string quartets, piano quintets, wind octets, etc.
Concertenart(German f.) concerto style
concertenmässig(German) concerto-like
Concert en ouverturean overture-suite in which a single soloist assumes the concertante role in the overture and in most, if not all, subsequent movements
Concert en plein-air(French m.) open-air concert
con certezza(Italian) certain knowledge, positively (absolutely)
Concert flutealso called 'Western concert flute' or 'C flute', the main flute in a modern symphony orchestra, a member of the family of transverse flutes
Concert flute pipean open wooden pipe rank with a sound somewhat louder and smoother thasn that of the orchestral instrument, found in an organ
Concert français(French m.) an extremely popular concert series founded by Anne-Danican Philador, who had earlier founded another concert series, the Concert spirtuel, for which he was granted a royal privilèe which permitted him to present 'de motets à grand choeur et de symphonies italiennes et françoises' at the Salle de Cent Suisses in the Tuileries on religious fête-days when the theatres and the Opéra were officially closed, the title Concert français is probably not Philidor's. This series which began on 20 Dec. 1727 was to be given twice weekly (Saturdays and Sundays) in winter and once a week in summer, with programmes that were generally secular, although not exclusively so. Their success can be put down to Philidor's good fortune in being able to secure the services of France's foremost singer of the times, Catherine-Nicole Le Maure (1704-1787), as well as that of Marie Antier (c.1687-1747), another singer approaching the height of her career. Unlike the Concert spirtuel which continued through to 1790, the Concert français continued for only about two years
Concert-geber(German) concert-giver
Concertgebouw(Dutch) concert hall
Concert grandlarge grand piano
Concert halla cultural building, which serves as performance venue, chiefly for classical instrumental music, sala da concerto (Italian), sala da concerti (Italian), Konzerthalle (German f.), Konzertsaal (German m.), salle de concert (French f.), sala de conciertos (Spanish)
Concertiplural of concerto
Concertinaa hexagonal instrument similar to the accordion but with no keyboard, operated by buttons or studs, the English concertina, patented by Charles Wheatstone in 1829, has a compass of between three and a half and four octaves with all the intermediate semitones and is a double-action instrument - that is, on expanding or compressing the bellows the same note is produced. The tenor, bass and double-bass concertinas are, like the accordion, single-action instruments - that is, they produce different notes depending on whether the bellows are being expanded or compressed. The German concertina of the same period was an inferior instrument, being single-action, and having only a diatonic scale. The concertina differs from the accordion in that its buttons never produce chords and travel parallel to the travel of the bellows (towards the opposite end of the instrument); there are also differences in the internal materials, construction, mechanics, and tone color, although the basic principles of sound production are identical
Concertinothe soloist group in a concerto grosso - the accompanying group is called ripieno
a smaller concerto in a free form, from the 19th- and 20th-centuries
(Spanish m., Italian m.) the name is sometimes applied to the first violin part (violino primo concertino), or a member of any other section (for example, violino secondo concertino) who might perform a similar role, in which are entered obbligato passages of other parts
concertiren(German) to match (for example, to match other parts as regards tone colour, dynamic levels, etc.)
Concertista(Italian m./f., Spanish m./f.) concert artist
Concertiste(French m./f.) concert artist
Concert italien(French m.) so named from 1724 and sponsored by Pierre Crozat (1661–1740), a rich financier and dilettante, this private concert series was held in the Tuileries palace on Thursdays and Saturdays. Its success may have been the incentive Anne Danican Philidor needed to inaugurate the Concert spirituel (which began on 18 Mar. 1725) and the Concert français (which began on 20 Dec. 1727)
Concert keythe key in which a musical instrument plays, which for a transposing instrument will not be the same as the key in which its part is notated
Concertmaster(English) the first violinist or leader of an orchestra
Concertmeester(Dutch) the first violinist or leader of an orchestra
Concert-meister(German m.) the first violinist or leader of an orchestra, conductor in a concert, the manager or chief conductor at a music academy
Concert musicmusica da concerto (Italian f.)
Concerto (s.), Concerti (pl.), Concertos (English pl.)(English, Italian m., French m.) concierto (Spanish), Konzert (German), concert (French)
in the seventeenth century, ensemble music for voice(s) and instrument(s)
after the seventeenth century, extended piece of music in which a solo instrument or instruments is contrasted with an orchestral ensemble, a form believed to have been invented by Giuseppe Torelli (who died in 1708), but which can be thought to have reached its maturity with the concertos of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)
a somewhat oversimplified, but useful distinction between concertato and concerto can be made: the concertato style involves contrast between opposing groups of voices and groups of instruments: the concerto style, especially as it developed into the concerto grosso later in the Baroque, involves contrast between large and small groups of similar composition (later called ripieno and concertino)
Concerto (s.), Concerti (pl.)(Italian m.) concert
Concerto da camera(Italian m., literally 'chamber concerto') one of the two types of concerto grosso, usually in the form of a suite, being introduced by a preludio and incorporating dance forms into its later movements. Later, the preludio was replaced by an ouverture to produce the 'overture-suite'
Concerto da chiesa(Italian m., literally 'church concerto') originally any sacred composition, later a composition for voice with organ accompaniment, before meaning a composition for solo instrument with some kind of accompaniment, in its most substantial guise, as one of the types of concerto grosso, formal in character and with alternating largo (or adagio) movements and allegro movements
Concerto de chasse(Italian and French) a concerto for hunting horns
Concerto delle Donne(Italian m.) the final decades of the sixteenth century saw the rise of female performers at court, especially in Ferrara with its famous singing ladies. The Duke, Alfonso ll, guarded the secrecy of his concerto delle Donne so jealously that he allowed only chosen guests to hear them in his private concerts, known as musica secreta. Yet as with all of the best kept secrets, the legendary fame of these women spread throughout and beyond Italy. They inspired composers and performers alike with their dazzling technique, and laid the foundations of an expressive and luxurious repertoire
Concerto di musica pop(Italian m.) pop concert
Concerto en suitea work similar in conception to a concert en ouverture, but beginning with a concerto-allegro movement in place of a French overture
Concert of Ancient Musican important London subscription series (flourished 1776–1848) established to perform music of the recent past. Other London-based bodies established at about the same time include the Anacreontic Society (1766), and the Catch Club (1761). In Paris the most important concert-giving society in the 18th century was Le Concert Spirituel, founded by the French composer Anne Philidor in 1725. Its rival, the Concerts des Amateurs, was founded in 1770. In Vienna the Tonkünstler Societät was formed in 1771
Concerto form
Concerto for orchestraa symphonic work in which individual players or sections drawn from the orchestra are given the opportunity to play the role of soloists
Concerto grande(Italian m.) a term sometimes employed for the large instrumental and vocal forces employed in large-scale public festivities that were designed to reflect the magnificence of court life: triumphal, funeral and carnival processions, tournaments, weddings, banquets, receptions and the intermedi that were a part of court theatre presentations. The concerto grande at Ferrara, including the cornett virtuoso Luigi Zenobi the highest-paid musician at court, included as many as fifty or sixty musicians, though the Florentine ambassador considered this a trifling thing compared to the hundred employed in such performances at Florence
Concerto grosso (s.), Concerti grossi (pl.)(Italian m., English, German n., from the Italian, literally 'large concert') orchestral form especially popular in the 17th- and 18th-centuries featuring the contrasting lines of a small group of players, the concertino, and the remainder of the ensemble, the ripieno. Stradella originated the concerto grosso: while Corelli in his Op. 6 was the first to publish works under this title, Stradella clearly uses the format earlier in one of his Sonate di viole. Since the two knew each other, a direct influence is likely. Bach's Brandenburg Concertos No. 1, 2, and 4 are concerti grossi
Concerto popolare(Italian m.) concert of popular music
Concerto ripieno(Italian m.) a concerto for strings without soloist, though one or more members of the ensemble may be treated soloistically. The term was not widespread during the eighteenth century but is found on autograph manuscripts of several works of this kind by Vivaldi
Concerto sinfonico(Italian m.) symphony concert
Concerto spirituale(Italian) a concert consisting chiefly of sacred music
Concert overturesingle-movement concert piece for orchestra, typically from the Romantic period, the immediate predecessor of Liszt's tone poem. They were theatrical, evocative orchestral movements that were created for performance independent of any opera or theatre-piece: for example, Felix Mendelssohn's Fingal's Cave or Hector Berlioz's Roman Carnival Overture
Concert performanceesecuzione di un concerto (Italian f.), esibizione musicale (Italian f.)
Concert pitchthe pitch at which non-transposing instruments sound
the pitch to which an ensemble tunes, today typically a'= 440Hz
Concertsaal(German) room for concerts, music room
Concert, salle de(French f.) concert hall
Concert seasonstagione concertistica (Italian f.), a series of concerts given over an extended period by a single orchestra, or to reflect a particular aspect of music, etc.
Concertspieler(German) soloist, concerto player
Concert spirituel(French m.) a concert of spiritual music
(French m.) one of the first public concert series which began in Paris in 1725 and ended in 1790; later, concerts or series of concerts of the same name occurred in Paris, Vienna, London and elsewhere. The series was founded to provide entertainment during Lent and on religious holidays when the other spectacles (the Paris Opera, Comédie-Francaise, and Comédie-Italienne) were closed. The programmes featured a mixture of sacred choral works and virtuosic instrumental pieces, and for many years took place in a magnificently-decorated Salle des Cent Suisses (Hall of the Hundred Swiss Guards) in the Tuileries Palace. They started at six o’clock in the evening and were primarily attended by well-to-do bourgeois, the lower aristocracy, and foreign visitors. In 1784 the concerts were moved to the stage area of the Salle des Machines (an enormous former opera house in the Tuileries), and in 1790, when the royal family was confined in the Tuileries, they took place in a Paris theatre
Concertstück(German n.) concert-piece or concerto, for example, Charles Hubert Hastings Parry (1848-1918), Concertstück in G minor, Cécile Chaminade (1857-1944), Concertstück for Piano & Orchestra, Ferruccio Busoni (1866-1924), Concertstück für Pianoforte mit Orchester Op. 31a
Concert tomssets of single headed tunable tom-toms, usually eight, two drums to each height-adjustable stand
Concert tourtour di concerto (Italian m.), a series of concerts, etc given by an orchestra, ensemble, group of musicians, soloist, etc., at different venues (either at home or overseas) usually without returning home during the period of the tour
concert Vleugel(Dutch) large grand piano
Concert zitheralso called the 'Alpine zither' and widely regarded as a very technically demanding instrument, the concert zither is the instrument on which virtuoso Anton Karas played the theme in the sound track of the movie "The Third Man". Similar in size and shape to the chord-zither, this instrument has a stretch of fretted fingerboard affixed to the instrument's top. This fingerboard usually accommodates five strings and is normally on the left side of the top, as you face the instrument. These 5 or so strings that span the fingerboard are the melody strings. To the right of the fingerboard are usually between 20 and 30 accompaniment strings
Concession(English, French f.) a right to use land or sell goods, a discount given, a thing conceded
(French f.) plot (of land)
Concessionnaire(French m./f.) (authorized) dealer
Concetto (s.), Concetti (pl.)(Italian m., literally 'concept') in Renaissance art theory, the intellectual or narrative program behind a work; a work's underlying theme. Concetti were often taken from the literature and mythology of Ancient Greece and Rome, as well as from the Bible
in 16th-century Italy, collections of concetti were published providing a series of ready-made sentences for all occasions, that could be used when writing letters. Certain prohibitions against forms of expression particularly when the person writing or the person in receipt was a woman made non-formulaic writing very difficult because the writer had to be conscious not only of his or her own feelings, as expressed on the page, but also those likely to be prompted in the reader
concevoir(French) to conceive (imagine, engender), to understand
con chiarezza(Italian) with brightness, brightly, clearly, distinctly, limpidly, with clarity
con chiodo(Italian) with a pin, with a nail
Conch shell horn
conch shellthis naturally occuring shell forms the basis of a number of traditional 'trumpet-like' instruments
Concierge(French m./f.) caretaker, a person in charge of a block of flats, a porter, a door-keeper
Concierto(Spanish m.) concerto, concert, agreement, concord (figurative)
Concierto para piano(Spanish m.) piano concerto
Concierto para dos pianos(Spanish m.) concerto for two pianos
Concierto para trompeta(Spanish m.) trumpet concerto
Concile(French m.) council
Conciliábulo(Spanish m.) secret meeting
Conciliación(Spanish f.) conciliation, reconciliation
Conciliation(English, French f.) the act of making calm or amenable, of pacifying, of reconciliation or of trying to gain the goodwill of
concilier(French) to reconcile
concinnare(Latin) to compile, to arrange
Concinnity(English) Glätte (German f.), through their arrangement or interarrangement, the way in which various parts of a work of art act harmoniously or purposefully with respect to one another and within the work as a whole
Concinnous(Latin) harmonising, coinciding in effect
con ciò(Italian) with this
concis (m.), concise (f.)(French) concise
Concision(English, French f.) the property of being brief but comprehensive
Concisión(Spanish f.) concision
conciso (m.), consisa (f.)(Spanish) concise, brief
Concitoyen (m.), Concitoyenne (f.)(French) fellow citizen
Concitamento(Italian m.) or concitazione, agitation
concitato(Italian) agitato (Italian), in an agitated and excited manner, expressing emotion, excited, fast, hurried, restless, erregt (German), unruhig (German), agité (French)
(Italian) roused, stirred up
see stile concitato
Concitazione(Italian f.) see concitamento
con civetteria(Italian) in a coquettish style
conclure(French) to conclude
conclure à(French) to conclude in favour of
concluant (m.), concluante (f.)(French) conclusive
Conclusio(German f., from Latin) conclusion
Conclusion(English, French f.) ending, end, summing-up, infer from, infer that, infer, reasoned judgement
in music, the conclusion may take the form of a coda or outro
Conclusione(Italian) the conclusion
concocter(French) to cook up
con comando a catena(Italian) chain-driven (machinery)
Concombre(French m.) cucumber
con commiserazione(Italian) pityingly (sympathetically)
con comodo(Italian) with ease, without constraint or effort, in a convenient time, at leisure
con compassione(Italian) poignantly (pitiably), pityingly (compassionately)
con competenza(Italian) proficiently (with proficiency), aptly
con compiacenza(Italian) obligingly (complaisantly)
con concitazione(Italian) con agitazione (Italian), agitato (Italian), concitato (Italian), with agitation, agitatedly, restlessly, hurriedly, erregt (German), unruhig (German), avec agitation (French), agité (French)
con condiscendenza(Italian) patronizingly (with condescension), obligingly (yieldingly)
con controllo a distanza(Italian) by remote control
Concordor 'concordant', a consonant interval or chord, that does not require resolution
see 'consonance'
see 'agreement'
Concordance(French f.) agreement, similarity
Concordant(French) pertaining to the voice, see basse-taille for which it is an alternative term
(French) archaic term for the baritone voice
see 'concord'
concordant (m.), concordante (f.)(French) in agreement, harmonious
Concordanten(German) notes, that when played together, produce a concord
Concordant interval
intervals, classified as follows:
perfect concordsperfect fourth, perfect fifth and perfect octave
imperfect concordsmajor and minor thirds, major and minor sixths
Concordat(English, French) an agreement between the Pope and a government or sovereign on religious matters. This often included both recognition and privileges for the Catholic Church in a particular country. Privileges might include influence on the structure and direction of state education, exemptions from certain legal matters and processes, and issues such as taxation and government funding directed to the Church, as well as the ability of a state to influence the selection of bishops within its territory. Although formally the name concordat was last used in 1980, secular organisations still report the use of concordats and similar type agreements between the Catholic Church and both national countries and bodies such as the EU
  • Concordat from which this material has been taken
Concordanza(Italian) concord, beauty
Concorde(French f.) concord
concorder(French) to agree
Concordia(Latin, Italian) concord, harmony
Concordia discors(Latin) discordant harmony
con corna(Italian) horny (zoolological)
con cortesia(Italian) politely
concourir(French) to compete
concourir à(French) to contribute towards
community and school set up by followers of Sacred Socialism at Alcott House on four acres of land with extensive gardens planted with fruittrees. Also a playground, lawns, walkways, arbours and summerhouse. The residents lived a spartan life of Physical Puritanism, eating a raw vegetarian diet and subscribing to a whole range of 'new' ideologies, including phrenology, hydropathy, mesmerism and celibacy. They promoted their ideas through printing The Heathian and New Age magazines. They established The British and Foreign Society for the Promotion of Humanity and the Abstinence of Animal Food, a forerunner of the Vegetarian Society. In 1848 the community disbanded, and the building was used as a cholera orphanage for girls, later known as `The National Orphan Home'
Concours(French m.) contest, competition, competitive examination, motor race, aid (help), combination (of circumstances)
Concours d'élégance(French m.) a contest held at the end of a motor rally in which the elegance of the cars as objects is the main consideration
concr.abbrevation of 'concrete' (real or specific, not imaginary or general, the opposite of abstract)
concret (m.), concrète (f.)(French) concrete
Concretein philosophy it is commonly considered that every object is either abstract or concrete. Abstract objects are sometimes called abstracta (sing. abstractum) and concrete objects are sometimes called concreta (sing. concretum)
Concrete diction, Concrete imagerylanguage that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language. For instance, calling a fruit "pleasant" or "good" is abstract, while calling a fruit "cool" or "sweet" is concrete
concrètement(French) in concrete terms
Concrete musicsee musique concrète
Concrete poetryalso called 'shaped poetry; and 'visual poetry', poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words
concrétiser(French) to give concrete form to
Concubinage(French m.) cohabitation
con cuciture(Italian) seamy
con cui si sta lavorando(Italian) working (in temporary use)
con cura(Italian) or con accuratezza (Italian), with care, mit Sorgfalt (German), avec soin (French)
Concurrence(French f.) competition
concurrencer(French) to compete with
Concurrent (m.), Concurrente (f.)(French) competitor, candidate (for a scholarship, etc.
concurrent (m.), concurrente (f.)(French) competing
Concurso(Spanish m.) concours (French), competition, contest
Concussion blockssee hyoshigi
cond(s).abbreviation of 'conductor(s)', 'conducted by'
Condamnation(French f.) condemnation, sentence (judicial)
condamné(French) without hope, doomed
condamner(French) to condemn, to sentence (judicial), to block up (opening, etc.)
con danni cerebrali(Italian) brain-damaged
con decisione(Italian) peremptorily (with decision)
con decorrenza immediata(Italian) effective immediately, with immediate effect
con delicatezza(Italian) delicately, with delicacy and lightness, with finesse
con delirio(Italian) excitedly, raving, frantically, frenziedly, deliriously
Condensed score'short score'
Condensation(English, French f.) condensing or being condensed (for example, water that forms on a cold surface), abridgement
con desagrado(Spanish) unwillingly
con desiderio(Italian) with desire, with an expression of ardent longing, longingly, yearningly
con destino a(Spanish) going to, bound for
con destrezza(Italian) deftly (in a deft manner)
con determinazione(Italian) powerfully (with determination), persistently (with determination)
con devozione(Italian) with devotional fervour, with devotion
con difficoltà(Italian) with difficulty, ponderously (difficultly), hard (with difficulty)
con dignità(Italian) with dignity
con diligenza(Italian) carefully, accurately
Condiment(English, French m. from the Latin condio, 'pickle') highly flavoured seasonings for or accompaniments to food
con disaggio(Italian) at a discount
con disapprovazione(Italian) pejorative (expressing disapproval)
con discernimento(Italian) with a grain of salt
con disegni(Italian) patterned (having patterns)
Condisciple(French m.) classmate, schoolfellow
con discrezione(Italian, literally 'with discretion') cautiously, discreetly, particularly the relationship between an accompanist and a solo part (i.e. that the former should not overpower the latter)
con disinvoltura(Italian) with grace, flowingly
con disperazione(Italian) with despair, with desperation, with a violent expression
con dispetto(Italian) spitefully
con disprezzo(Italian) with contempt, in contempt
con disprezzo esagerato(Italian) with exaggerated contempt
Condition(French f.) condition
Conditions(French f. pl.) terms (of a prize, etc.)
conditionnel (m.), conditionnelle (f.)(French) conditional
Conditionnel(French m.) conditional (grammar)
Conditionnement(French m.) conditioning, packaging (wrapping)
conditionner(French) condition, package (wrap)
Conditio sine qua non(Latin, 'condition without which not') an essential condition or requirement
con divertimento(Italian) with zest
con divozione(Italian) with religious feeling, in a devotional and solemn manner
con doble puntillo(Spanish) double dotted
con dolce maniera(Italian) in a delicate style
con dolcezza(Italian) with softness, with sweetness
Condoléances(French f. pl.) condolences
con dolore(Italian) mournfully, with grief, with pathos
Condominium(Latin) joint rule or sovereignty
con doppia interlinea(Italian) double spaced (typography)
Condottiere (s.), Condottieri (pl.)(Italian m.) the leader of a troop of mercenaries
conduce un coche ajeno(Spanish) he drives someone else's car
Conducimento(Italian) a melody consisting of a regular succession of conjunct degrees
conducir al altar(Spanish) to marry
Conductto direct a performance of a composition, to beat time with the hand(s) or with a baton
Conducten(German) on an organ, tubes or channels that convey air from the wind-chest to the pipes not mounted on the chest itself
Conducteur(French m.) performance part for a particular instrument of an ensemble work to which cues have been added for the other instruments to permit the performer of the part also to conduct the performance
Conducteur (m.), Conductrice (f.)(French) driver
Conducting patternsthe pattern of hand, or stick movements, a conductor uses to convey the beat to the group of musicians he or she is conducting
Conductiona term in jazz for a blend of conducting and improvisation that allows a bandleader to craft large-scale spontaneous compositions on-stage, using hand signals to cue different musicians or musical strategies. Though jazz big-band leaders have always used gestural movement to control their flocks, conduction is a more flexible and sophisticated system, and it was devised by bandleader Greg Tate's long-time friend, composer and cornetist Butch Morris
Conductive hearing lossa failure in the efficient conduction of sound waves through the outer ear, tympanic membrane (eardrum) or middle ears (ossicles). This type of hearing loss may occur in conjunction with sensorineural hearing loss or alone
Conductordirector (Spanish m.), directora (Spanish f.), direttore d'orchestra (Italian m.), direttrice d'orchestra (Italian f.), Kapellmeister (German, older term), Leiter (German m.), Leiterin (German f.), chef d'orchestre (French)
a person who directs (an orchestra or chorus), setting the tempo and establishing the interpretation of the composition being performed
first mentioned in the 1327 Statute of Westminster, an appointment held by a few selected Warrant Officers Class 1 in the Royal Logistic Corps and is the most senior appointment that can be held by a warrant officer in the British Army
Conductor gallopthe high-amplitude, low-frequency oscillation of overhead power lines due to the wind. The swings in the wires occur most commonly in the vertical plane, although horizontal or rotational motion is also possible. The natural frequency mode tends to be around 1 Hz, leading the often graceful periodic motion to also be known as conductor dancing
Conductus (s./pl.)(English, German m., from the Latin conducere, 'to escort') in its monophonic form, as the versus, probably originally associated with the movement of the celebrant from station to station within a church
in its polyphonic form, a twelfth-century church composition where extra parts were added to an existing non-plainsong melody, called the canto fermo, with which these parts are homorhythmic. This form was superseded by the motet
by the end of the twelfth century, the term conductus was applied to any nonliturgical Latin song with metrical text, whether on a sacred or a secular subject, with a melody that was newly composed rather than borrowed or adapted from pre-existing material
defining the term conductus in a manner that works for the entire genre has been elusive. However, this task becomes more manageable by breaking down the conducti into smaller sections and carefully examining the application of their borrowed sections. Two major types of text setting appearing in conducti are musica cum littera and musica sine littera. In the former, most of the text is declaimed, and the music is explainable in terms of the rhythmic modes. Construction of parts in the latter is determined by strictly musical concerns, and only sometimes is the music modal rhythmically. Conducti draw their sources primarily from organum and motets. Notation of musica sine littera sections is measured and presented modally and includes a large number of ligatures as in Ego reus confiteor which consists of three parts, and draws its lowest two parts from three sources from earlier in the thirteenth century. Polyphony flows seamlessly until the musica cum littera section. At this point, notation becomes fully rhythmic and utilizes the first rhythmic mode. This rhythmic change is the main difference between the new work and its borrowed source. Other differences include a high number of elisions and extensions into longa perfectas
Conductus monofónico(Spanish m.) monophonic conductus
Conductus-moteta thirteenth-century form in which the two upper voices are isorhythmic and sing the same text, while the tenor moves independently and is a plainchant excerpt
Conductus polifónico(Spanish m.) polyphonic conductus
con due bacchette(Italian) with two sticks
con due facce(Italian) two-faced
con due mani(Italian) two-handed
con due manici(Italian) two-handled
con due monete(Italian) with two coins
con due piatti(Italian) with two cymbals
conduire(French) to lead, to drive (vehicle), to conduct (affair)
conduire à(French) to take to (accompany)
Conduit(French m.) conductus (musical form), duct (anatomy)
Conduite(French f.) conduct, driving (vehicle), main (gas, etc.)
conduite à droite(French) right-hand drive
conduite à gauche(French) left-hand drive
con duolo(Italian) with an expression of grief, mournfully, dolefully
Conduplicatiothe repetition of a word in various places throughout a paragraph
con durezza(Italian) with harshness
Conduttore(Italian m.) alternatively parte di conduttore, performance part for a particular instrument of an ensemble work to which cues have been added for the other instruments to permit the performer of the part also to conduct the performance
Cône(French m.) cone
con effetto(Italian) with effect
con effetto positivo(Italian) to good effect
con efficienza(Italian) or efficacemente (Italian), efficiently
con effusione(Italian) with warmth, effusively
Cone gambaSpitzgamba (German f.), an organ stop of the gamba species, with conical pipes
[clarified by Michael Zapf]
con el alba(Spanish) at the crack of dawn
con el ánimo por el suelo(Spanish) in very low spirits, feeling very down-hearted
con eleganza(Italian) in an elegant, refined style
con elevazione(Italian) in a lofty manner, in a grand style
con el motor apagado(Spanish) with the engine off
con el respeto debido(Spanish) with due respect
con emozione(Italian) with emotion, emotionally
con empatia(Italian) pityingly (empathically)
con energia(Italian) energetically, with energy
this marking indicates that the music should be strongly accented and phrased distinctly
con enfasi(Italian) with emphasis, in no uncertain terms
con entrambe le mani(Italian) with both hands
con entusiasmo(Italian) with enthusiasm, with verve
con esagerazione(Italian) binge
con esaltazione(Italian) with exultation
con escepticismo(Spanish) with scepticism
con esp.abbreviated form of con espression, con expressivo
con espansione(Italian) with intense feeling
con esperienza(Italian) able (experienced), proficiently (masterful)
con espressione(Italian) with expression
con espressione di patimento(Italian) with a plaintive or mournful expression
con espressione dolorosa(Italian) with a mournful expression
con espressivo(Italian) expressively
con este descubrimiento se abren nuevos horizontes(Spanish) this discovery opens up new horizons
con estro poetico(Italian) with poetic rage and fury, with poetic rage
con evidenza(Italian) plainly (evidently), patently (obviously)
Confabcolloquial term (abbreviation of 'confabulation') for a chat, convention or professional gathering
confabulare(Italian) to confabulate
Confabulateconverse, chat
Confabulationtalk, chat, conversation
confacente(Italian) suitable
confarsi(Italian) to suit
con facilità(Italian) with facility, lightly, easily, in readiness, with ease, con agevolezza Italian), mit Leichtigkeit (German), avec aisance (French)
con fama(Italian) notoriously (famously)
con fantasia(Italian) fancifully, not strictly in time, in an improvisatory manner
con fare scettico(Italian) doubtfully
con fare dubbioso(Italian) doubtfully
con fatica(Italian) with effort
Confection(French f.) making
(in medieval cookery) the sugar paste in which whole spices were dipped; confectioned spices were used as garnishes and eaten at the end of feasts, to aid digestion
Confection, la(French f.) the clothing industry
confectionner(French) to make
con fede(Italian) with faith
Confédération(French f.) confederation
Confer(Latin) normally abbreviated to cf, compare (associated with a cross-reference)
Conferatur(Latin) compare
Conferencea general session or face-to-face group that relies on participation and is often used to publicise developments in a particular field of endeavour or discipline
Conférence(French f.) conference, lecture
Conférence au sommet(French f.) summit conference
Conferencia(Spanish f.) conference, lecture
Conférencier (m.), Conférencière (French f.)(German m., French) lecturer, one who delivers an address, master of ceremonies, compère, MC
Conferenza(Italian f.) lecture, conference (congress)
Conferenziante(Spanish m./f.) lecturer
Conferenziere (m.), Conderienziera (f.)(Italian) lecturer
conférer(French) to give, to confer (honour, etc.)
conferire(Italian) to give, to confer
Conferma(Italian f.) confirmation
confermare(Italian) to confirm
con fermezza(Italian) with firmness, decisively, peremptorily, firmly, hard
con ferocità(Italian) in a fierce, vehement style
con fervore(Italian) piously, with a fervent and passionate feeling
Confesseur(French m.) confessor
Confessio Augustana(German f.) Augsburg Confession
Confessio Belgica(German f.) Belgic Confession
Confessio fidei(Latin) a confession of faith, a public declaration of allegiance
Confession(French f.) confession, (religious) denomination
the rite of confession of sins to a priest in order to obtain absolution; obtaining absolution through confession and penance was considered a sacrament
Confessionnal(French m.) confessional
confessionnel (m.), confessionnelle (f.)(French) denominational
con festività(Italian) in a festive manner
Confetti(Italian pl., French s.) small sweetmeats thrown at weddings, or carnival (small paper motifs have since replaced sweetmeats)
Confettis(French m. pl.) confetti
Confiance(French f.) trust
confiant (m.), confiante (f.)(French) confident (assure), trusting
confiant dans(French) confident in
confiant en(French) confident in
Confidante(English corruption of the French confidente) a woman entrusted with confidences, an intimate woman friend
a clover-shaped triple chair that was set in the centre of a parlour or a hotel lobby. Three people could sit in the chair and lean toward the centre to talk. Each would be facing in a different direction. This strangely shaped settee was known as a confidante in the 1750s, when it first appeared. The English called it a 'roundabout conversation chair', while, in the twentieth century, it was a form of a tête-á-tête
Confident (m.), Confidente (f.)(French) confidant, confidante
Confidence(French f.) confidence
Confident(German m.) confidante
[entry by Michael Zapf]
Confidenta(Spanish f.) soubrette (French), confidante, informer (f.), Confident (German m.)
[German entry by Michael Zapf]
Confidento(Spanish f.) confidant, informer (m.)
confidentiel (m.), confidentielle (f.)(French) confidential
con fiducia(Italian) with hope, with confidence, positively, unquestioningly
confier à ... (French) to entrust ... with, to confide to ...
con fierezza(Italian) with fire, fiercely
Configuración(Spanish f.) configuration
Configuration(English, French f.) arrangement in a particular manner
Confinalsee final
confinante con(Italian) bordering on
confinare con(Italian) to abut (architecture), to border (to share a border), to border on
Confinednot free to move about, captive, being in captivity
Confinement(English, German n.) the act of restraining of a person's liberty by confining them, restriction, the state of being confined, concluding state of pregnancy (from the onset of contractions to the birth of a child)
confiner(French) to confine
confiner à(French) to border on
Confiningrestricting the scope or freedom of action, close, crowded, "close quarters"
Confins(French m. pl.) confines
con fiochezza(Italian) hoarsely, with hoarseness, a manner of singing or speaking occasionally required in buffo parts
Confirmation(English, French f.) information that confirms or verifies, ratification, the sacrament which follows baptism in the Christian life cycle and which requires the recipient to affirm their faith in the presence of a bishop
Confirmation biasa reference to a tendency to seek evidence that will confirm our own opinion, or ignore or devalue that which does not
confirmer(French) to confirm
Confiscation(English, French f.) to remove something from someone's possession as a penalty
Confiserie(French f., German f. - Austria, Switzerland) a shop selling pastries and sweetmeats
Confiseries(French f. pl.) confectionery
Confiseur (m.), Confiseuse (French f.)(French, German m. - Switzerland) confectioner, a maker of pastires and sweetmeats
confisquer(French) to confiscate
Confit(German n., French m.) a piece of meat preserved in its own fat
confit (m.), confite (f.)(French) candied
Confit d'oie(French m.) goose liver conserve
Confiteor(from Confiteor Deo omnipotenti (Latin: I confess to almighty God)) a form of confession used at the beginning of the Mass, any confessional or avowal
Confiture(French f.) jam
Conflationin its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from more than one substantive edition
con flessibilita(Italian) with flexibility, with freedom
Conflictthe opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and a larger problem such as forces of nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behaviour, and so on)
Conflit(French m.) conflict
confondere con(Italian) to mix it up with
confondersi con(Italian) to get confused with
confondersi su(Italian) to get confused with
confondre(French) to confuse, to mix up, to confound
confondu(French) overwhelmed, confounded
conforme à(French) in accordance with
conformément à(French) in accordance with
conformer(French) to adapt
Conformisme(French m.) conformism
Conformiste(French m./f.) conformist
conformiste(French) conformist
Conformité(French f.) conformity
Confort(French m.) comfort
confortable(French) comfortable
Confort moderne(French m.) every modern convenience
con forza(Italian) with force, vigorously, forcefully, vehemently, strikingly (rigorously)
con forza repressa(Italian) with restraint
con franchezza(Italian) with frankness, overtly
con freddezza(Italian) with coldness, coldly
con frequenza(Italian) periodic (frequently), oftentimes (frequently)
Confrère(French m.) fellow-member (of a learned society, etc.)
Confrérie(French f.) brotherhood, a group of associates
Confrérie de St. Julien(French f.) brotherhood of St. Julien, an ancient French association, or society, for ballad singers and itinerant fiddlers
con fretta(Italian) hurriedly, with haste
confrontare con(Italian) to compare with
confrontarsi con(Italian) to compete with
Confrontation(English, French f.) the facing up to something, something that presents itself (for example, a difficulty), dealing with someone face to face
confronter(French) to confront, to compare (texts, sources, etc.)
Confucian Classicsfive ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching (The Book of Changes), the Shu Ching (The Book of History), the Shih Ching, (The Book of Odes), the Record of Rites (Li Chi), and the Spring and Autumn Annals
Confucianisma Chinese ethical and philosophical system developed from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius (551–479 BC). It focuses on human morality and right action. Confucianism is a complex system of moral, social, political, philosophical, and quasi-religious thought that has had tremendous influence on the culture and history of East Asia. It might be considered a state religion of some East Asian countries, because of governmental promotion of Confucian values
con fuoco(Italian) with fire, spirited, with passion, in a fiery manner (that is, with a lot of emotion)
con furia(Italian) with fury, with impetuosity, with rage, with vehemence
con furore(Italian) furiously, vehemently, passionately
confus (m.), confuse (f.)(French) confused, embarrassed
Confusion(English, French f.) confusing or being confused
(French f.) embarrassment
Confusione(Italian) confusion, want of clearness, want of order
Conga(Italian m., English, German f., French m.) the musical instrumentation and style that accompanies the Comparsa, it is also a style developed and performed by ensembles separate from the Carnaval Comparsas. Sometimes the style is referred to by regional interpretation, as in Conga Habanera (from Havana) or Conga Santiaguera (from Santiago). The dance is Afro-Cuban, but popular now in many Spanish speaking countries, characterized by hard beats in 2/4 time. The conga is performed in a formation known as the conga chain, and the steps are simple - one, two, three, and kick at which time the partners move away from each other
Conga(Panama) a folk dance similar to the tamborito, popular among the black communities of the northern coast in Costa Arriba, and that uses upright drums and wild, lascivious movements and lyrics
Conga de comparsasee conga
Conga (drum)(Italian m., English, German f., French m.) the conga drum is a single-headed drum, derived from the Congolese makuta drum, which is struck with the player’s hands. The present-day African conga drums are now quite different from the Latin-American conga drums, as they have remained virtually unchanged, while the the Latin-American conga drums are single headed, often with a shell that bulges in the middle, and are played with the hands in a variety of ways to produce quite a large array of differing sounds. Conga drums were important in Latin American dance band music of the 1930s. They are made in four different sizes; the largest is called the tumba or tumbadora, and second largest, the conga, the second smallest the quinto and the smallest the niño. Some players use a set made up of all four sizes although in authentic Latin-American music each drum is played by a single performer
con gambe lunghe(Italian) leggy, with long legs
con garbo(Italian) con amabilità (Italian), tenderly, with sweetness, gracefully, graciously, with elegance, with grace and gentleness, mit Liebenswürdigkeit (German), avec amabilité (French)
Congaredaa rhythm that combines the Cuban Carnaval parade rhythm, the conga, with the Brazilian Ze Pereira marching rhythm. The main instruments are the timbau, a conically-shaped drum played like a conga drum, and the surdos
Congasplural form of 'conga drum'
Congatrommel(German f.) conga drum
[corrected by Michael Zapf]
Congé(French m.) holiday, time off (from work), leave, notice (of ending one's employment), permission to depart, dismissal (from service), poem of farewell
(German m.) holiday (archaic meaning), poem of farewell
[entry clarified by Michael Zapf]
Congé definitif(French m.) final leaving taking, final dismissal (often associated with a dying person)
Congé d'élire(French m.) permission given to a Dean and Chapter to elect a bishop or archbishop, any formal permission to elect a nominated candidate
Congé de maladie(French m.) sick-leave
Congé de maternité(French m.) maternity leave
congédier(French) to dismiss
Congee(English, German n.) a Chinese rice gruel eaten for breakfast
congeler(French) to freeze
Congelés, les(French) frozen food
Congélateur(French m.) freezer
Congénère(French m./f.) fellow creature
congénital(French) congenital
con gente así yo no me meto(Spanish) I don't mix with people like that
con gentilezza(Italian) prettily, tenderly, with grace and elegance
Congère(French f.) snow-drift
Congeries(Latin) a collection of objects heaped together in disorder
Congestion(French f.) congestion
Congestion cérébrale(French f.) stroke, cerebral haemorrhage
congestionner(French) to congest, to flush (colouring of the face)
con ghiaccio(Italian) on the rocks (drinks)
con gioco(Italian) playfully, merrily, in a playful style
con gioia(Italian) joyfully, joyously, gaily, merrily
con gioja(Italian) joyfully, joyously, gaily, merrily
con giovialià(Italian) jovially, cheerfully
congiunto(Italian) conjunct motion
con giuoco(Italian) playfully, merrily
con giustezza(Italian) with precision
con giustezza dell'intonazione(Italian) with just, correct intonation
con giusto(Italian) tastefully, in a fitting manner
con gli(Italian) with the
con gli occhi aperti(Italian) with your eyes open
con gli occhi arrossati(Italian) red-eyed
con gli occhi bassi(Italian) downcast
con gli occhi rossi(Italian) red-eyed
con gli occhi spalancati(Italian) wide-eyed
CongoPanamanian dance music
Congolese hip hop (DRC)
Congomaan African name for the marímbula
Congo musicthe name given to soukous in English-speaking West Africa
con grande agitazione(Italian) greatly agitated
con grande attenzione(Italian) with great care
con grande espressione(Italian) with plenty of expression
con grande preoccupazione(Italian) frantically
con grande sconforto(Italian) with great despondency
con grande sentimento, affannosamente agitata(Italian) anxiously but with great feeling
con grandezza(Italian) with dignity, with grandeur
con grandi occhi(Italian) big-eyed
con grandi orecchie(Italian) big-eared
congratularsi(Italian) to congratulate
congratularsi con se stessi(Italian) congratulate yourself
con gravità(Italian) with dignity, with seriousness, with gravity
con grazia(Italian) with grace, daintily, elegantly, at a moderate tempo, in a graceful and elegant style
con grazia infantile(Italian) with childlike grace
Congrega(Italian f.) assembly, gathering (often for questionable ends), gang, set
congregare(Italian) to assemble
Congrégation(French f.) congregation
Congregazione(Italian f.) assembly, congregation, religious fraternity, institution
Congrès(French m.) congress
Congresso(Italian m.) congress, conference
congruamente(Italian) conveniently, suitably, consistently
congruente con(Italian) congruent with
Congruenza(Italian f.) agreement, congruence, consistency
congruo(Italian) congruous, suitable, adequate, convenient
conguagliare(Italian) to equalize, to balance, to finish off (a work of art)
Conguaglio(Italian m.) balancing, levelling, equalizing, finishing off
Congueríasin Cuba, Sunday festivals sponsored by sugar estate owners to which were invited slaves from neighboring centrales to participate. Besides yuka drumming, which can still be found in some parts of rural Cuba, they featured song contests between competing soloists, called gallos, as well as makuta dances and maní, a now obsolete combat dance roughly similar to Brazilian capoeira
Congueroa conga player
con gusto(Italian) with taste and expression, in good taste, with gusto
Conicalcone-shaped (a conical tube is one tapering gradually)
Conical borea term describing a tube that has a gentle taper along its entire length, for example the cornet, the tuba, the recorder and the French horn
Conical mouthpiecethe deeper, conical form of the mouthpiece for brass instruments
con i ciottoli(Italian) pebbly
conico(Italian) conical
cónico(Spanish) conical
con i diti(Italian) with the fingers
Conifère(French m.) conifer
con il dovuto rispetto(Italian) with due respect
con il fiato sospeso(Italian) with bated breath
con il fondo in vetro(Italian) glass-bottomed
con il manico(Italian) with the handle
con il manico della mazza(Italian) with the handle of the beater
con il migliore(Italian) with the best
con il pretesto di(Italian) under the cloak of, under the pretext of
con il senno del poi(Italian) in hindsight
con il sole(Italian) with the sun
con il treno(Italian) by train
con il tuo permesso(Italian) with your permission
con il vento(Italian) with the wind
con impegno totale(Italian) wholeheartedly
con impeto(Italian) impetuously, vehemently
con impeto doloroso(Italian) with pathetic force and energy
con impetuosità(Italian) impetuously, vehemently
con impunità(Italian) with impunity
con indecenza(Italian) nastily (vicious way)
con indifferenza(Italian) with indifference (particularly with an assumed air of indifference), unthinking
con indignazione(Italian) indignantly
con influenza(Italian) powerfully (influentially)
con ingenuità(Italian) with naiveté
con iniziativa imprenditoriale(Italian) entrepreneurial
con innocenza(Italian) in a simple, artless, innocent style
con inquietudine(Italian) nervously (worriedly)
con inserimento di fogli(Italian) sheet-fed
con insistenza(Italian) urgently, persistently (insistently)
con intelligenza(Italian) brightly
con intenso sentimento(Italian) with intense feeling
con intenzione(Italian) with stress, with emphasis
con interruzioni(Italian) disrupted (roads)
con intimissimo sentimento(Italian) with much feeling, with great expression
con intimo sentimento(Italian) with feeling, with expression
con intrepidezza(Italian) with boldness, with daring
con invidia(Italian) covetously (with jealousy)
con i piedi in dentro(Italian) pigeon-toed (with feet inward)
con i piedi per terra(Italian) down to earth
conique(French) conic, conical
con ira(Italian) with an expression of anger, passionately
conische Trom(Dutch) conical drum
con isdegno(Italian) with indignation, with disdain
con islancio(Italian) impetuously, with dash, avec élan, con slancio
con i tacchi alti(Italian) high-heel
conj.abbrevation of 'conjuction' (word used to connect clauses or sentences or words in the same clause, for example, in English, 'and', 'but', 'if')
Conjecture(English, French f.) guess
(English) synonymous with speculation, a hypothesis that has been formed by speculating or conjecturing (usually with little hard evidence)
conjecturer(French) to conjecture
Conjointsynonymous with 'conjunct'
Conjoint (m.), Conjointe (f.)(French) spouse
conjoint (m.), conjointe (f.)(French) joint
conjunct, as in mouvement conjoint (French: conjunct motion)
Conjoint degreesor 'conjunct degrees', two notes which follow each other immediately in the order of the scale
conjointement(French) jointly
Conjoint tetrachordstwo tetrachords or fourths, where the same note is the highest of one and the lowest of the other
Conjonction(French f.) conjunction
Conjonctivite(French f.) conjunctivitis
Conjoncture(French f.) circumstances, economic climate
Conjugaison (French f.) conjugation
conjugal(French) pertaining to marriage or the relationship between spouses
Conjugate(in tuning theory) the conjugate of a triad is the triad in which the dominant complement of the mediant replaces the mediant. More simply, the conjugate of the major triad, 1/1 5/4 3/2, is the minor triad, 1/1 6/5 3/2, where 6/5 is the 3/2's complement of 5/4
[taken from]
Conjugationthe inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense
conjuguer(French) to conjugate (grammar), to combine (efforts)
Conjunctscales, modes and harmoniai containing 'conjunct' tetrachords are also described as 'conjunct'
the nearest degree in the scale, whether the scale is chromatic or diatonic, to a given degree
Conjunct degreethe note next above or below a given note
Conjunct double appoggiaturacoulé, 'slide' or Schleifer, called, by seventeenth-century English string players, the 'elevation' or 'whole fall' (when ascending) or 'double backfall' (when descending). Starting on the written note to which the sign is applied, the player plays three successive conjunct notes, the last being the written note, the former pair quickly rising up to or quickly falling towards the written note
Conjunct intervalalso 'conjoint interval' or 'step', a melodic interval between two notes that are immediate neighbours in a diatonic scale
linear (melodic) intervals may be described as steps or skips in a diatonic context. Steps are linear intervals between consecutive scale degrees while skips are not, although if one of the notes is chromatically altered so that the resulting interval is three semitones or more (e.g. C to D sharp), that may also be considered a skip. However, the reverse is not true: a diminished third, an interval comprising two semitones, is still considered a skip
Conjunctionword used to connect clauses or sentences or words in the same clause, for example, in English, 'and', 'but', 'if'
[corrected by Michael Zapf]
Conjunct motionor 'conjunct movement', movimiento conjunto (Spanish), moto congiunto (Italian), mouvement conjoint (French), schrittweise Bewegung (German), stufenweise Bewegung (German), stapsgewijze beweging (Dutch)
movement by step or by conjunct degree, in other words, when a theme moves by no more than a tone or semitone from one note to the next
Conjunct movementsee 'conjunct motion'
Conjunct tetrachords(in tuning theory) two tetrachords that share one of their proximal extremal tones are considered to be linked by conjunction or to be 'conjunct'. By contrast, where the proximal extremal tones are one degree apart the tetrachords are said to be 'disjunct'
Conjunto(Spanish m.) combo, band, ensemble, pop group
(Spanish m.) a term synonymous with sonora in Puerto Rico and Cuba for medium-sized band. Originally conjunto was an accordion-based Texas-Mexican style and ensemble that developed in the 1940s. It evolved from the Septeto instrumentation and was another interpretation of son styles. Originally consisting of the tres, contrabass, bongos, brass and vocalists, who played clave, maracas and guiro, later the guitar, piano, piano-accordion and congas were added
Conjunto de cámara(Spanish m.) chamber orchestra, chamber group
Conjunto de viento(Spanish m.) windband
Conjunto-style polkasee norteño
Conjuration(from Latin conjure, conjurare, to swear together) incantation, a ritual recitation of words or sounds believed to have a magical effect
the calling up of a spirit or devil
magic trick, an illusory feat, considered magical by naive observers
(French f.) conspiracy
Conjuré (m.), Conjurée (f.)(French) conspirator
conjurer(French) to avert, to entreat (implore)
con justo(Italian) with exactness
con la bandera a media asta(Spanish) with the flag at half-mast
con la boca abierta(Spanish) dumbfounded
con l'accordo che(Italian) with the understanding that
con l'accusa di(Italian) in the charge of
con la agravante de que estaba borracho(Spanish) what makes it even worse is that he was drunk
con la calidad que lo acredita(Spanish) with the quality for which it's renowned
con la comprensione(Italian) with the understanding
con la coscienza pulita(Italian) with a clear conscience
con l'aereo(Italian) by airplane
con la forza(Italian) by force
con la forza delle armi(Italian) by force of arms
con l'aggiunta di(Italian) with the addition of
con l'aiuto di(Italian) with the help of
con la mano(Italian) with the hand
con la mazza(Italian) with the head (of the beater)
con la moral bastante alta(Spanish) in pretty high spirits
con lancio(Italian) with vigour, vigorously
con languore(Italian) languidly, languishingly
con la palma della mano(Italian) with the flat of the hand
con la presente(Italian) herewith
con la punta del arco(Spanish) colla punta d'arco (Italian), alla punta d'arco (Italian), at the point or tip of the bow, an der Bogenspitze (German f.), an der Spitze (German), avec la pointe de l'archet (French), à la pointe (French), de la pointe (French)
con la punta delle dita(Italian) with the finger-tips
con larghezza(Italian, literally 'with breadth') broadly
con la scollatura(Italian) necked (with a collar)
con la speranza che(Italian) in the hope that
con la stipula(Italian) with the stipulation
con la testa che gira(Italian) giddy (dizzy)
con la testa della mazza della grancassa(Italian) with the head of the bass-drum beater
con la testa sulle spalle(Italian) level headed
con la testa tra le nuvole(Italian) in a daze
con la toga(Italian) black-robed
con la tua famiglia(Italian) with your family
con l'ausilio di(Italian) with the assistance of, through the agency of
con l'autobus(Italian) by bus
con lealtà(Italian) overtly (loyally)
con le buone o con le cattive(Italian) by hook or by crook
con le corde(Italian) snares on
con le gambe arcuate(Italian) bow-legged
con leggerezza(Italian) with lightness, airily, with delicacy
con leggierezza(Italian) with lightness, airily, with delicacy
con le mani e i piedi legati(Italian) bound hand and foot
con le mani nel sacco(Italian) red-handed
con le mani pulite(Italian) with clean hands
con lenezza(Italian) gently, in a quiet manner, faintly, midly, sweetly
con lentezza(Italian) slowly, lingeringly
con lentigini(Italian) freckled
con le orecchie rosse(Italian) red-eared
con le orecchiette(Italian) dog-eared
con le pratiche di invocazione dei defunti(Italian) necromantic (devoted to the invocation of the dead)
con le pratiche divinatorie(Italian) necromantic (devoted to divination)
con le proprie mani(Italian) own hands
con le punte(Italian) pronged (tined)
con le pustole(Italian) pimply (with pimples)
con le spalle a terra(Italian) flat on his back
con le spalle al muro(Italian) over a barrel, in a corner
con le unghie e con i denti(Italian) tooth and nail (idiomatic)
con licenza(Italian) with a certain degree of freedom, patented (with a patent)
con l'impressione che(Italian) under the impression that
con llorar no adelantas nada(Spanish) crying won't get you anywhere
con lo sguardo offuscato(Italian) bleary-eyed
con lo stesso punto di vista(Italian) along (with the same viewpoint)
con luce a gas(Italian) gas-lit
con lucentezza(Italian) bright (brilliantly)
con luminosità(Italian) bright (brightly)
con maestà(Italian) with majesty, with dignity, with grandeur
con maestade(Italian) with majesty, with dignity, with grandeur
con maggiore anzianità di servizio(Italian) senior (rank, job)
con maggiori vendite(Italian) best-selling
con malanconia(Italian) melancholy, dejected
con malenconia(Italian) melancholy, dejected
con malignità(Italian) nastily, puckishly (naughtily), perversely (in a perverse way)
con malinconia(Italian) melancholy, dejected
con manipolazione(Italian) manipulative
con mano destra(Italian) with the right hand
con mano dritta(Italian) with the right hand
con mano sinistra(Italian) with the left hand
con margini irregolari(Italian) ragged
con media hora de anticipación(Spanish) half an hour early
con meditazione(Italian) playfully (with thoughtfulness)
con método(Spanish) methodically
con mil amores(Spanish) with (the greatest of) pleasure
con minaccia(Italian) ominously (in an ominous way)
con misericordia(Italian) pityingly (mercifully)
con mistero(Italian) with mystery, in a mysterious manner
con moderazione(Italian) with moderation, in moderation (applied to either speed or emotional power), sparingly
con modi non raffinati(Italian) gross (bad-mannered)
con molta libertà(Italian) very freely
con molte persone(Italian) populous (with many people)
con molt'espressione(Italian) very expressively
con molto carattere(Italian) with a lot of character and emphasis
con molto entusiasmo(Italian) zestfully
con molto espressione(Italian) very expressively
con molto fogliame(Italian) leafy (with many leaves)
con molto passione(Italian) very passionately, with a lot of feeling
con molto sentimento(Italian) with a lot of feeling and expression
con molto sforzo(Italian) with much effort
con montatura di corno(Italian) horn-rimmed
con morbidezza(Italian) with softness, with smoothness, with a delicate tenderness
con moto(Italian) with motion, with movement, keeping up a lively movement, not dragging
con moto circolare(Italian) around (with circular motion)
con movimento(Italian) with movement
con mucha animación(Spanish) very lively (place)
con mucha anticipación(Spanish) well in advance
Connaissance(French f.) knowledge, acquaintanceship
Connaissances(French) knowledge (science)
Connaisseur (m.), Connaisseuse (French f.), Connaisseurin (German f.), Connaisseurs (pl.)(German, French) connoisseur
connaître(French) to know, to have
connaître à fond(French) to know throroughly
connecter(French) to connect
Connecting notea note that is held between adjacent chords
Connection(English, German f. - although the standard term in German is Verbindung (German f.)) a relation between things or events (as in the case of one causing the other or sharing features with it), the act of bringing two things into contact (especially for communication)
[additional information by Michael Zapf]
(English, German f. - although the standard term in German is Verbindung (German f.)) essential to all partner dancing, for example, in 'Lindy Hop', 'Balboa', 'East Coast Swing', 'West Coast Swing', 'Salsa', 'Contra dance', and other styles of partner dance, connection is the primary means of communication between the dancers who leads (the lead) and the dancer who follows (the follow). Other forms of communication, such as visual cues, are often considered to spoil the dance, unless used in specific circumstances, for example, in figures danced without any physical connection
Connections(usually plural although can also be singular) people who are influential and with whom you are connected in some way (as by family or friendship)
Connections haben(German) to have connections (colloquial)
Verbindungen haben is the standard expression
[information provided by Michael Zapf]
con negligenza(Italian) with negligence, neglectfully, in a careless manner, without restraint
Connerie(French f.) rubbish (remark) (slang)
connesso con(Italian) also insito in (Italian), collegato a (Italian), incidental to
Connexion(French f.) connection
Connivence(French f.) connivance
con nobilità(Italian) nobly, in a lofty and dignified style
con noi(Italian) with us
Connoisseur(French) one skilled in their appreciation of music, etc., someone who is a critical judge in matters of taste (in the fine arts)
con nonchalance(Italian) casually (nonchalantly)
con noncuranza(Italian) negligently (regardless manner), carelessly (without care)
Connotation(English, French f.) meaning, significance, implication in addition to the literal or principal meaning
the extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in a dictionary. For instance, the terms civil war, revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of revolution or rebellion. Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to scientific or theoretical changes, and it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion, for many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about "rebellious teenagers" rather than "revolutionary teenagers")
con notorietà(Italian) notoriously (in a notorious way)
connu(French) well-known
con nuestros augurios para(Spanish) with our best wishes for
con oggettività(Italian) objectively (with objectiveness)
con ogni mezzo(Italian) by any means
con onore(Italian) with honour
con opinioni simili(Italian) of like mind
con orgoglio(Italian) with pride, proudly (with pride)
conosciuto anche con il nome di(Italian) also known as
conosciuto con il nome di(Italian) known by the name of
con o senza di te(Italian) with or without you
con osservanza(Italian) observing scrupulously what is necessary for a proper performance
con ostilità(Italian) negatively (a condition of refusal)
con ottava (s.), con ottavi (pl.)(Italian) or con 8va, a marking found in keyboard music, if the notes are to be played with the right hand play the notes with those an octave above, if the notes are in the left hand play the notes with those an octave below
con ottava bassa(Italian) or con 8va bassa, a marking found in keyboard music, play the notes with those an octave below
con ottimi risultati(Italian) fruitful (with good results)
con otto numeri(Italian) octal (with eight numbers)
con padronanza(Italian) profitably (with mastery)
con parentela di sangue(Italian) related by blood
con pareti alte(Italian) high-sided
con parole chiare(Italian) in plain words
con parole semplici(Italian) in plain English, in plain terms
con passione(Italian, literally 'with passion') play with emotion, play with feeling
con passo lento(Italian) at a slow pace
con passo veloce(Italian) briskly (walk)
con paura(Italian) timidly
con paura e timore(Italian) with fear and trembling
con pazienza(Italian) patiently (in a patient manner)
con pedanteria(Italian) in an even, unemotional manner
con perfidia(Italian) puckishly (devilishly)
con perizia(Italian) with skill
con permesso(Italian) or con autorizzazione (Italian), with permission
con perseveranza(Italian) persistently (with persistence), patiently (forbearingly)
con personalità famose(Italian) all-star
con persone(Italian) peopled (with people)
con perspicacia(Italian) perceptively (keenly)
con pezzi(Italian) chunky
con piacere(Italian) with pleasure, gladly
con piacevolezza(Italian) with a pleasing and graceful expression
con piatti(Italian) with cymbals
con piccanteria(Italian) piquantly, in a sprightly manner
con piena funzionalità(Italian) or con tutte le funzioni (Italian), fully functional
con pieno successo(Italian) with flying colours
con placidezza(Italian) placidly, smoothly, in a tranquil manner
con poca sicurezza(Italian) perilously (unsafely)
con poche conseguenze(Italian) of little consequence
con poche possibilità(Italian) off-chance
con poco lavoro(Italian) painless (with little work)
con poco seno(Italian) flat-chested
con poco si può fare molto(Italian) a little can go a long way
con pollice(Italian) with the thumb
con polso di ferro(Italian) with an iron hand
con pompa(Italian) loftily, in a majestic and dignified style
con potenza(Italian) powerfully (potently)
con precipitazione(Italian) precipitately, in a hurried manner
con precisione(Italian) with precision, in an exact manner, to a tee (colloquial)
con preconcetti(Italian) prejudicial (with preconceptions)
con prestezza(Italian) with rapidity
con presunzione(Italian) proudly (presumptuously)
con problemi di pelle(Italian) pimply (with skin faults)
con profitto(Italian) at a profit
con prontezza(Italian) quickly, with alacrity, in readiness
con prontezza di spirito(Italian) quick-witted
con propulsione ad aria(Italian) air-driven (machinery)
con prospettive ristrette(Italian) parochial (with narrow views), blinkered
con prudenza(Italian) with caution
con puntillo(Spanish) dotted (as in negra con puntillo, 'dotted crotchet', 'dotted quarter-note')
con puntos y comas(Spanish) in great detail
con qualche licenza(Italian) somewhat freely
con quali mezzi(Italian) how (by what means)
¿con qué médico se atiende?(Spanish - Latin America) which doctor usually sees you?
Conquérant (m.), Conquérante (f.)(French) conqueror
conquérir(French) to conquer
con questo(Italian) hereby, with this
Conquête(French f.) conquest
Conquistador (s.), Conquistadores (pl.)(Spanish m.) a person who took part, in the sixteenth century, in the Spanish conquest of Mexico and Peru