music dictionary : Conr - Coz
 



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con rabbia(Italian) with rage, furiously, passionately, angrily
con raccoglimento(Italian) meditatively, collectedly
con ragionevolezza(Italian) with reason
con rapidità(Italian) with rapidity
con rassegnazione(Italian) resignedly, with a sense of resignation (i.e. resolved to endure)
[entry suggested by Kathleen Sterling]
con replica(Italian) with repetition, to be repeated
con ricchezza(Italian) prosperously (in a rich way)
con riferimento a(Italian) referring to, in reference to, with reference to, with regards to
con rigore(Italian) rigorously, strictly
con rigore di tempo(Italian) in strict time
con rilevanza(Italian) patently (manifestly)
con riluttanza(Italian) reluctantly
con rimpianto(Italian) regretfully
con riposo(Italian) calmly, reposefully, in a calm and tranquil manner
con riscaldamento centralizzato(Italian) centrally heated
con riserva(Italian) with a reservation
con riservatezza(Italian) reservedly
con risoluzione(Italian) with firmness, resolutely
con rispetto(Italian) piously (respectfully)
con riverenza(Italian) piously (reverently)
consacrer(French) to devote, to consecrate (religious), to establish
con sangue freddo(Italian) cold (cold-blooded)
con sarcasmo(Italian) piercingly (sarcastically)
con scarsa importanza(Italian) niggling (footling)
con scarse vedute(Italian) parochial (narrow minded)
consciemment(French) consciously
Conscience(French f.) conscience, consciousness
consciencieux (m.), consciencieuse (f.)(French) conscientious
conscient (m.), consciente (f.)(French) conscious
conscient de(French) aware of, conscious of
con sciolezza(Italian) with freedom, with ease, with agility
Conscrit(French m.) conscript
con sdegno(Italian) scornfully, angrily
Consecrationto make sacred, the separation of a thing or person for divine service of the Eucharist, the act whereby the bread and wine become the body and blood of Christ
of bishops, the conferrring of the character of the office by bishops to another
of altars and churches and sacred vessels, the setting apart of these things exclusively for the service of God
Consécration(French f.) consecration
consécutif (m.), consécutive (f.)(French) consecutive
consécutif à(French) following upon
Consecutive chordschords of the same kind succeeding one another without interruption
Consecutive fifths and octavesor 'parallel fifths and octaves', quintos consecutivos (Spanish), quinte di moto retto, ottave di moto retto (Italian), Quintenfolgen, Quintenparallelen, Oktavenfolgen, Oktavenparallelen (German), quintes consécutives, octaves consécutives (French)
also known as parallel fifths, involve the concurrence of successive intervals of a perfect fifth between two voices in parallel motion; e.g., a parallel movement from C to D in one voice, and G to A in a higher voice. Intervening octaves are irrelevant to this aspect of musical grammar; for example, parallel 12ths (i.e., as created by successive intervals of an octave plus a fifth) are equivalent to parallel fifths. Consecutive fifths are avoided in part because they cause a loss of individuality between parts. This lack of individuality is even more pronounced when parts move in parallel octaves or in unison. These are therefore also generally forbidden among independently moving parts. Hidden consecutives occur when two independent parts approach a single perfect fifth or an octave by similar motion instead of oblique or contrary motion. Conventional style dictates that such an interval, often called an exposed fifth or exposed octave, be avoided. But this is sometimes permitted under certain conditions, such as the following: the interval does not involve either the highest or the lowest part, the interval does not occur between both of those extreme parts, the interval is approached in one part by a semitone step, or the interval is approached in the higher part by step. The details differ considerably from period to period, and even among composers writing in the same period
Consecutive intervalalso called 'parallel intervals' or Intervallparallele (German f.), a progression of two or more chords where the harmonic interval between two parts remains fixed, for example, in octaves, in thirds, in fourths, and so on, some of which (particularly, unisons, fifths and octaves) are forbidden by the laws of harmony
[additional information by Michael Zapf]
consécutivement(French) consecutively
Consecutivesa series of similar intervals, chords, markings, etc., immediately following one another
the term is most commonly applied to a succession of intervals that are forbidden by the rules of harmony
Conseil(French m.) (piece of) advice, council (assembly), committee, meeting, consultant (person)
Conseil d'administration(French m.) board of directors
Conseil des ministres(French m.) Cabinet
Conseil d'état(French m.) a French judicial body that examines administrative regulations and acts as a court of appeal against them
Conseil municipal(French m.) town council
Conseiller (m.), Conseillère (f.)(French) adviser, counsellor
conseiller(French) to advise
Conseiller municipal(French m.) town councillor
con semplicità(Italian) with simplicity, overtly (plainly)
con sensibilità(Italian) with sensibility, with feeling, sensitively, perceptual (sensible)
con senso dell'umorismo(Italian) with (a sense of) humour (person)
Consensus(Latin) agreement (of opinion), a majority verdict
Consensus fidelium(German m., from Latin) (by the) agreement of the faithful
Consensus omnium(Italian) (by the) agreement of all
Consentement(French m.) consent
con sentimento(Italian) with sentiment, with feeling
consentir(French), to agree, to grant
consentir à(French) to agree to
Conséquence(French f.) consequence
Consequentin a fugue, the answer or point of imitation
the second of two similar musical statements
in a musical period with two balancing halves, where the first half is 'completed' by the second, the halves are termed antecedent and consequent, somewhat analogous to a rhymed couplet in poetry
conséquent (m.), conséquente (f.)(French) logical, sizeable
con serenatà(Italian) in a calm, tranquil style
con serietà(Italian) seriously
Conservateur (m.), Conservatrice (f.)(French) museum curator, conservator, conservative (politically)
conservateur (m.), conservatrice (f.)(French) conservative
Conservation(French f.) preservation, conservation (the act of conserving)
Conservatisme(French m.) conservatism
Conservatoire(English, French m.) Konservatorium (German n.), conservatorio (Italian m., Spanish m.), conservatory (US, Australia)
[additional information by Michael Zapf]
an advanced college for studying music, music academy (the term is also applied to a college for the study of elocution)
Conservatoire de Paris(French m.) a music college founded in 1795, based in Paris, France. It offers instruction in music and drama of the highest standards, drawing on the traditions of the 'French School'. In 1946 it was split into two Conservatoires, one for acting, theatre and drama, known as the Conservatoire National Supérieur d'Art Dramatique (CNSAD), and the other for music and dance, the Conservatoire National Supérieur de Musique et de Danse de Paris (CNSMDP). It is under the supervision of the Ministry of Culture and Communication
Conservatorio(Italian m., Spanish m.) conservatory
Conservatório(Portuguese) conservatoire, conservatory
Conservatorio de' mendicanti(Italian m.) see Ospedaletto
Conservatorium(German n., Dutch) conservatoire
Conservatory(U.S. English) conservatoire
Conserve(French f.) tinned or canned food
conserver(French) to preserve, to retain, to keep
con severità(Italian) severely, strictly
con sicurezza(Italian) with safety, positively (surely)
considerare con particolare affetto(Italian) to hang upon (to depend upon)
considérable(French) considerable
Considération(French f.) consideration, regard (respect)
considérer(French) to consider, to esteem (respect)
considérer comme(French) to consider to be
consigliarsi con(Italian) to confer with (lawyer)
Consigne(French f.) left luggage (office), detention (school), deposit (sum), orders
Consigne automatique(French f.) (left-luggage) lockers
consigner(French) to charge a deposit on, to record (write), to keep in (pupils), to confine (to barracks)
con significato(Italian) purposeful
Consiliencemeaning 'a jumping together', it is a term used to describe the bridging of gaps between those who study the sciences, the humanities and the arts
consilio(Latin) by counsel
Consilium(Latin) board (of a company)
con sincerità(Italian) sincerely (with sincerity)
Consistance n.f. consistency(French) solidity (figurative)
consistant (m.), consistante (f.)(French) solid, thick
consister à faire(French) to consist in doing
consister dans(French) to consist in
consister en(French) to consist of
con slancio(Italian) impetuously, with dash, with enthusiasm, con islancio
con soavità(Italian) with gentleness
con soddisfazione(Italian) with satisfaction
Consoeur(French f.) colleague, fellow member
Consola(Spanish f.) organ case, buffet d'orgue (French), console
Consolación(Spanish f.) consolation
consolante(Italian) consoling, soothing
consolar(Spanish) to console
consolatamente(Italian) quietly, comfortably, cheerfully
Consolation(English, French f.) consoling or being consoled
Consolea table or wide shelf supported by a bracket fixed to a wall, a side table with legs at the front only
the unit containing the various keyboards, pedals, control stops and other functional devices in a pipe, theatre or other similar kind of organ (but not the pipes) so called if it is separate from the rest of the case. If the console is integrated into of the case then the console is called a keydesk
(French f.) harmonic curve (pertaining to the shape of the bridge on a stringed keyboard instrument)
a free-standing cabinet containing electronic equipment
(English) or Kleinklavier (German n.), a vertical, or upright, piano 40" to 42" in height
(German f.) coined in the 1820s and used, in German, only for Frenchman Henri Pape's design of small upright piano
[information provided by Michael Zapf]
to provide comfort, to provide consolation (especially at times of grief or disappointment)
(Spanish) to comfort, to provide consolation
con solennità(Italian) with solemnity
consoler(French) to console
consolidar(Spanish) to consolidate
consolider(French) to strengthen, to consolidate (figurative)
Consolle(Italian f.) console
Consomé(Spanish m.) clear soup based on meat stock, a cold jelly produced by the prolonged boiling of meat
con somma espressione(Italian) with the utmost expression
Consommateur (m.), Consommatrice (f.)(French) consumer, customer (in a café, etc.)
Consommation(French) light refreshments (for example, a drink bought in a café)
Consommé(English, French m.) clear soup based on meat stock, a cold jelly produced by the prolonged boiling of meat
consommé(French) consummate
consommer(French) to consume, to use, to consume, to consummate (marriage), to drink
Consommation(French f.) consumption, consummation, drink
con sommo espressione(Italian) with intense feeling
Consonance(English, French f.) consonancia (Spanish), consonanza (Italian), Konsonanz (German)
the medieval Church inherited its Pythagoreanism from Boethius, subsuming Pythagoras' numerological obsessions and Trinitarian symbolism to judge consonance the sole preserve of the the ratios of the octave (2:1), fifth (3:2), octave plus fifth (3:1), fourth (4:3), and double octave (4:1). These were the only consonances recognized by Greek theory, and great metaphysical significance was attached to the fact that the set of numbers from 1 to 4 was the source of all harmony - on this basis, the 81/64 Pythagorean third was excluded as a dissonance
by the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance, thirds and sixths were also considered consonant
Franco of Cologne (active c. 1240-1280) in his Ars cantus mensurabilis (c.1280), defines three classes of concord
perfect concordsunison, octave
intermediate concordfifth, fourth
imperfect concordmajor and minor thirds
a papal decree (1324) attempted to ban the 'imperfect concords' on the grounds that they were sensuous, effeminate and worldly
Joe Monzo writes, "While historically many theorists have used (and many still do use) the terms 'consonance' and 'dissonance' to refer to absolute psycho-acoustic phenomena, most modern tuning theorists prefer to limit the use of those terms to refer to relative perceptions which are a result of musical context, reserving the concept of 'accordance' for the absolute psycho-acoustic phenomena; thus, the modern equivalents would be 'concordance' and 'discordance'."
[Joe Monzo's comment taken from http://tonalsoft.com/enc/consonance.htm]
a special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels - i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ; examples include linger, longer, and languor or rider, reader, raider, and ruder
Consonancia(Spanish f.) consonance
Consonant(Dutch) consonance
(English) concordant, harmonious, notes harmonising together (for example consonant tones or consonant chords)
(English) a speech sound that is not a vowel
Consonante(Spanish f.) consonant, consonance
consonante(Spanish) consonant
Consonant interval
although generally a consonant interval is one that does not require resolution, different definitions have been used by different commentators in relation to different compositional styles.:
in atonal musicall intervals (or interval classes) are considered equally consonant melodically and harmonically
in the middle agesonly the octave and perfect fifth were considered consonant harmonically
in sixteenth-century usageperfect fifths and octaves, and major and minor thirds and sixths were considered harmonically consonant, and all other intervals dissonant. In the common practice period, it makes more sense to speak of consonant and dissonant chords, and certain intervals previously thought to be dissonant (such as minor sevenths) became acceptable in certain contexts. However, sixteenth-century practice continued to be taught to beginning musicians throughout this period
Hermann von Helmholtz
(1821-1894)
defined a harmonically consonant interval as one in which the two pitches have an overtone in common (specifically excluding the seventh harmonic). This essentially defines all seconds and sevenths as dissonant, and perfect fourths and fifth, and major and minor thirds and sixths, as consonant
Pythagoras
(c.569-c.475 BC)
defined a hierarchy of consonance based on how small the numbers were which express the ratio
Paul Hindemith
(1895-1963)
Twentieth-century composer and theorist who developed a system that has a hierarchy with the same results as Pythagoras's, but defined by fiat rather than by interval ratios, to better accommodate equal temperament, all of whose intervals (except the octave) would be dissonant using acoustical methods
David Copesuggests the concept of interval strength, in which an interval's strength, consonance, or stability is determined by its approximation to a lower and stronger, or higher and weaker, position in the harmonic series
Consonanz(German f.) consonance
Consonanza(Italian f.) consonance
consonare(Italian) to tune in unison, or concord with another
Consonatie(Dutch) consonance
consoniren(German) to concord, to match one's sound with that of another, to be consonant (with regard to intervals)
[additional information by Michael Zapf]
Consonne(French f.) consonant
con sonorità(Italian) sonorously
Consorcio(Spanish m.) consortium
con sord.abbreviated form of con sordino (Italian: with dampers left in contact with the string) or con sordini (Italian: with mute or, on the piano, use the soft pedal)
con sordina(Italian) with damper, mit Dämpfer (German), étouffé (French), with the dampers left in contact with the strings by not depressing the damper pedal (which raises the dampers from the strings)
con sordino (s.), con sordini (pl.)(Italian m.) with mute, with mutes, muted, en sourdine (French)
the exact meaning of these terms depends on the instrument:
on the pianorelease the right pedal, use the soft pedal
on a stringed instrument such as the violinplace a mute on the bridge
on a brass instrumentinsert a leather covered pad, paste-board cone or wooden cylinder (called a mute) into the bell of the instrument
con sordino (s.), con sordini (pl.) are linguistically incorrect in Italian, although commonly found as markings in music. The correct Italian terms are con sordina (s.), con sordine (pl.)
Consort(English, German n.) an English word from the sixteenth century, synonymous with 'concent' and 'concert', which describes a group or small musical ensemble, and where when the instruments come from different families the consort is said to be 'broken', otherwise the consort is 'whole', as when a chest of viols is being used
(English) a husband or wife, especially the spouse of a monarch, also a companion or partner
(English) to keep company with, to hang out with
Consort anthema consort song, often accompanied by the organ, to a religious text
Consorte(Spanish m./f.) consort
Consortium (s.), Consortia (pl.)(English, French m.) a group of firms, partnerships or individuals who act in concert to some common purpose
Consort pitchsee ton de la chambre
Consort songEnglish song from the 16th- and 17th-centuries, that could be performed entirely vocally or with the top part sung and the lower parts performed by a consort of viols
con spazzola d'acciaio(Italian) with the wire-brush
con spazzola metallica(Italian) with the wire-brush
con spazzola metallica da jazz(Italian) with the wire-brush
con spazzolino(Italian) with the brush
con spazzolino strisciato(Italian) with a striped brush
Conspectus(Latin) synopsis, summary, a general survey
con speditezza(Italian) with quickness
con spiccato senso civico(Italian) civic-minded
conspicuo(Spanish) eminent, visible, conspicuous
Conspicuouseasily visible, easily or clearly visible, obvious to the eye or mind, blatant
Conspiración(Spanish f.) conspiracy
Conspirador(Spanish m.) conspirator
conspirar(Spanish) to conspire
Conspirateur (m.), Conspiratrice (f.)(French) conspirator
Conspiration(French f.) conspiracy
conspirer(French) to conspire
con spirito(Italian) with spirit, with energy
con sprezzo(Italian) with contempt
conspuer(French) to boo
constamment(French) constantly
Constance(French f.) constancy
con stanchezza(Italian) wearily
Constancia(Spanish f.) constancy
constant (m.), constante (f.)(French) constant
Constant Bit Rateor 'CBR', a type of encoding that maintains a fixed bit rate throughout a file, so that data is sent in a steady stream. But because more complex passages may be encoded with fewer than necessary bits, and relatively simple passages may be encoded with more bits than are necessary, CBR can potentially result in lower-quality sound
Constante(French f.) constant
constante(Spanish) constant
Constantin(German m.) Constantine
constar(Spanish) to be clear, to appear, to figure, to consist
Constat(French m.) (official) report
constatar(Spanish) to check, to confirm
Constatation(French f.) observation, statement of fact, verification
constater(French) to note, to certify
Constelación(Spanish f.) constellation
Constellation(French f.) constellation
constellé de(French) studded with
Consternación(Spanish f.) consternation
Consternation(French f.) dismay
consterner(French) to dismay
con stile(Italian) flair (chic), stylishly
Constipado(Spanish m.) cold (illness)
constiparse(Spanish) to catch a cold
constipé(French) constipated, stilted (figurative)
Constitución(Spanish f.) constitution, setting up
constitucional(Spanish) constitutional
constitué de(French) made up of
constituer(French) to make up, to constitute, to form (organise), to constitute (be)
constituir(Spanish) to constitute, to form, to set up, to establish
constituirse(Spanish) to set oneself up, to appear (to present oneself)
constitutif (m.), constitutive (f.)(French) constituent
Constitution(French f.) formation, composition, constitution (political, medical)
constitutionnel (m.), constitutionnelle (f.)(French) constitutional
constitutivo(Spanish) constituent
constituyente(Spanish) constituent
constr.abbrevation of 'construction' (syntactical arrangement of words)
con strazio(Italian) with anguish
constreñir(Spanish) to force, to oblige, to restrain
con strepito(Italian) in a spirited manner, noisily
Constricción(Spanish f.) constriction
Constringenthaving the quality of contracting, binding, or compressing
con stromenti(Italian) with the instruments, meaning that the orchestra and the voices are together
Construcción(Spanish f.) construction
Construcción de instrumentos musicales(Spanish f.) musical instrument making
Constructeur(French m.) manufacturer
constructif (m.), constructive (f.)(French) constructive
Construction(English, French f.) the act of turning musical ideas into larger scale musical works
syntactical arrangement of words
meaning
(French f.) building
Construction paperor sugar paper, a tougher type of coarse coloured paper typically available in large sheets. The texture is slightly rough, and the surface is unfinished. Due to the nature of the source material from which the paper is manufactured, small particles are visible on the paper's surface. The origin of the term sugar paper lies in its use for making bags to contain sugar. It is also related to the "blue paper" used by confectionery bakers from the 17th century England onwards, for example in the baking of Regency ratafia cakes (or macaroons)
Constructivismin music, compositions that show a high degree of structure
constructivo (m.), constructiva (f.)(Spanish) constructive
Constructor(Spanish m.) builder
construir(Spanish) to build, to construct (building, phrase, idea)
construire(French) to build, to construct (building, phrase, idea)
con strumenti(Italian) with the instruments, meaning that the orchestra and the voices are together
con stupore(Italian) with astonishment, in astonishment, in bewilderment, in amazement
con suavezza(Italian) with sweetness, with delicacy, with suavity
con suavità(Italian) with sweetness, with delicacy, with suavity
con successo(Italian) good effect, successfully
Consuelo(Spanish m.) consolation, comfort
Consuetudinal beuninflected use of the verb be to indicate habitual or frequent action. An example would be as follows: "What you be doing on Thursdays?" "I be working every afternoon." Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation
consuetudinario(Spanish) customary
Consul(English, French m.) diplomatic representative who ranks below an ambassador
Cónsul(Spanish m.) consul
Consulado(Spanish m.) consulate
Consulaire(French) consular
consular(English, Spanish) of or pertaining to a consul or consulate
Consulat(French m.) consulate
Consulatediplomatic building that serves as the residence or workplace of a consul (often there are several, located in the larger commercial centres)
Consulta(Spanish f.) consultation
Consultancya consultant or consulting firm
Consultant (s.), Consultants (pl.)(German m.) an expert who gives advice within a particular field (for example, in hospitals or medical consulting rooms) but the term is used more generally to describe anybody who provides expertise and can be an advisor or a deliverer of task
consultar(Spanish) to consult
consultar con la almohada(Spanish) to sleep on it (think it over)
consultar ... con la almohada(Spanish) to sleep on ... (think ... over)
consultarlo con la almohada(Spanish) to sleep on it
consultarsi con(Italian) to consult with
Consultation(English, French f.) meeting for the purpose of seeking advice, surgery
consulter(French) to consult, to hold surgery (doctor)
Consulting(English, German n.) the act of give professional advice or services, usually for a fee
Consultingfirma(German f.) consulting firm
Consultorio(Spanish m.) surgery
Consultorio sentimental(Spanish m.) problem page (in a magazine, newspaper, etc.)
consumar(Spanish) to complete, to commit (crime), to consummate (marriage)
consumer(French) to consume
Consumición(Spanish f.) consumption, drink, food
consumido(Spanish) skinny (person), wasted, shrivelled (fruit)
Consumidor(Spanish m.) consumer
consumir(Spanish) to consume
consumirse(Spanish) to waste away (person), to wear out (clothes), to dry up
Consumismo(Spanish m.) consumerism
Consumo(Spanish m.) consumption
con sumo agrado(Spanish) gladly
con superficie in vetro(Italian) glass-topped
con supporto(Italian) supportively
con sussidio del governo(Italian) on welfare
cont, cont.abbreviation of continuo (Italian), contano (Italian)
Contabilidad(Spanish f.) book-keeping, accountancy
Contable(Spanish m./f.) accountant
Contactlinsen(German pl.) contact lenses
Contact Improvisationa dance technique in which points of physical contact provide the starting point for movement improvisation and exploration, a form of dance improvisation
Contact management system or CMS, a system that allows organisations and individuals to record relationships and interactions with customers and suppliers as well as allowing the development of comprehensive individual profiles
Contacto(Spanish m.) contact
Contact printKontaktabzug (German m.), a photographic print made by exposing a photosensitive paper to negative film with both emulsions in direct contact to one another. No enlarger is needed as the negative rests against the paper under glass to keep it flat and contact even. The resulting print is the same size as the negative
[German term supplied by Michael Zapf]
Contadina (s.), Contadine (f. pl.)(Italian) a country dance, a peasant (female)
contadinesca(Italian) rustic, in a rural style
contado(Spanish) counted
Contador(Spanish m.) meter, accountant (in Latin America)
contados(Spanish) few
contagiar(Spanish) to infect (person), to pass on (information), to contaminate (figurative)
Contagio(Spanish m.) infection, contagion
Contagion(English, German f.) contagious disease, any disease easily transmitted by contact
contagioso(Spanish) infectious
Contagious heterophonyansteckende Heterophonie (German f.), a term coined by Steven Brown, to describe a possible evolutionary precursor of human music, a form of pitch blending (specifically, collective vocalizations of group-living or pair-bonded species for cooperative purposes) in which individuals generate similar but poorly synchronized musical lines; for example, the howling of wolves which each wolf makes a similar call but the resultant chorus is poorly blended in time
[German term supplied by Michael Zapf]
Container (s./pl.)(English, German m.) any object that can be used to hold things (especially a large metal boxlike object of standardised dimensions that can be loaded from one form of transport to another)
(German m.) skip
Containerbahnhof(German m.) container terminal
ContainerboardWellpapperohpapier (German n.), a form of paperboard specially manufactured for the production of corrugated fibreboard. The term encompasses both linerboard and corrugating medium, the two types of paper that make up corrugated board
[German term supplied by Michael Zapf]
Containerdienst(German m.) container service
Container-Dienst(German m.) container service
Containerfahrzeug(German n.) container lorry
Containerfrachter(German m.) containership
Containerhafen(German m.) container port
containerisieren(German) to containerise
containerisiert(German) containerised
containerisierte Fracht(German f.) containerised cargo, containerised freight
Containerisierung(German f.) containerisation
Containerterminal(German m.) container terminal
[gender as advised by Michael Zapf]
Containerumschlag(German m.) container handling
Containerverschiffung(German f.) container shipping
Container-Vollladung(German f.) full container load
Containerwagen(German m.) container wagon
Containerzug(German m.) container train
Contaminación(Spanish f.) contamination, pollution
contaminar(Spanish) to contaminate, to pollute
Contandino (s.), Contadini (m. pl.)(Italian) a peasant (male)
contano(Italian, literally 'they count') this expression indicates that certain parts have to remain silent while other parts are playing
con tanta amabilidad(Spanish) with kindness
con tantos problemas(Spanish) by all those problems, with all those problems
contar(Spanish) to relate, to tell, to narrate, to count, to consider, to reckon, to have, to include, to count in, to be provided with
contar bolas(Spanish) to tell fibs (lies)
con tarjeta?(Spanish) by card (payment)
contarse(Spanish) to be included, to be said
contarse entre(Spanish) to be included among
Contastorie(Sicilian/Italian) storytellers
con tatto(Italian) tactfully
Conte(French m., literally 'tale') a short story (a literary genre)
(French m., literally 'tale') in music, the title of an instrumental piece, for example Conte Fantastique (1999) by the Scottish composer Alistair Hinton
con te(Italian) with you
Conte de fées(French m.) fairy tale
Contemplación(Spanish f.) contemplation
contemplar(Spanish) to look at, to contemplate (figurative)
con tempo da perdere(Italian) with time to spare
Contemporain (m.), Contemporaine (f.)(French) contemporary (person)
contemporain (m.), contemporaine (f.)(French) contemporary
Contemporaneo (m.), Contemporanea (f.)(Italian) contempory
contemporaneo (m.), contemporanea (f.)(Italian) contempory
Contemporáneo(Spanish m.) contemporary
contemporáneo(Spanish) contemporary
Contemporarywriters, composers, etc. who write "at the present moment"
Contemporary Christian Musicor CCM, a somewhat outdated term originally used in the 1970s to describe a new form of pop/rock music that was lyrically based in the Christian faith. This music had its roots in 'Jesus Music', which sprung from the hippie Jesus Movement of the early 70s
Contemporary dancea modern style of dancing that frees the dancer from the formal conventions of classical ballet. Rather than a specific dance technique, contemporary dance is a collection of systems and methods developed from Modern and Postmodern dance. The development of contemporary dance was parallel but separate to the development of New dance in Britain. Distinctions can also be made between European and American Contemporary dance
Contemporary folk musicsee 'English folk music'
Contemporary jazzessentially a catch-all term for the various permutations of popular, mainstream jazz of the 1980s and 1990s. While those years were certainly not devoid of complex, cerebral jazz recordings, music referred to as 'contemporary jazz' does not usually share those sensibilities, nor is the term generally used to describe music centered around 'hard bop' or the avant-garde
instrumental contemporary jazz is usually informed by some combination of:
fusionoften slickly produced, with an emphasis on rock, blues and soul rhythms
pop-jazzwith its almost exclusive concentration on memorable melodies
smooth jazzwith its primary goal of creating pleasant, mellow textures
crossover jazz and contemporary funkwith their blend of polished production and R&B influences
not all contemporary jazz artists completely discard improvisation and challenging experimentation, but by and large, most instrumentalists emphasize shiny production, melody, and accessibility. In the realm of vocal jazz, these jazz singers may or may not possess an improvisational flair, but in most cases, their recordings attempt to evoke an aura of stylish sophistication, sometimes drawing upon pop and R&B in addition to jazz
Contemporary musica term applied generally to any music written within the last forty or fifty years
Contemporary Western square dancealso called 'Western square dance', 'Western square dance', or 'modern American square dance', has, as its basis, a form established during the 1930s and 1940s by Lloyd Shaw, who solicited definitions from callers across the country in order to preserve traditional American folk dance
Contenance(French f., German f.) countenance (appearance conveyed by a person's face, sanction, formal and explicit approval)
Contenance angloise, la(French) see 'English countenance'
Contendente(Italian m./f.) competitor
contender(Spanish) to compete
Contendiente(Spanish m./f.) competitor
contener(Spanish) to contain, to restrain
contenerse(Spanish) to restrain oneself
con tenerezza(Italian) with tenderness, delicately
Contenido(Spanish m.) contents
contenido(Spanish) contained
contentar(Spanish) to please
contentarse(Spanish) to be satisfied, to be please
contentarse de(Spanish) to be satisfied with, to be pleased with
contento(Spanish) happy, pleased (satisfied)
contenu (m.), contenue (f.)(French) self-contained, reserved, sober (in manner)
Conte philosophique(French m.) a short story whose purpose is to illustrate a philosophical or moral theme or thesis
con tepidita(Italian) with coldness and indifference
Contergankind (s.), Contergankinder (pl.)(German n.) thalidomide baby
Contest (s.), Contests (pl.), Conteste (German pl.)(English, German m.) a competition, especially one in which entrants perform separately and are then rated against one another
Contestación(Spanish f.) answer
Contestador automático(Spanish m.) answering machine
contesta, que estás medio atontado(Spanish) answer me, you're in a daze
contestar(Spanish) to answer, to answer back (to reply)
Contexto(Spanish m.) context
Contextual symbola unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an author's collected works
Contienda(Spanish f.) struggle
contigo(Spanish) with you
contiguo(Spanish) adjacent
con timidezza(Italian) in a timid manner
Continentone of the large landmasses of the earth, i.e. Europe, North America, South America, Africa, Asia, Australia, Antarctica
Continental(English, Spanish) of of pertaining to the continents
Continente(Spanish m.) continent
Continental, Thea tricky two-step made famous by Ginger Rogers and Fred Astaire in the film The Gay Divorcee (1934)
Continental carda larger than standard postcard measuring 4 x 6" (10 x 15 cm)
Continental fingeringa form of notation for fingerings on musical instruments where 1 represents the thumb, 2, 3, 4 and 5 the remaining fingers
Continental Tangoor 'International Tango', a more refined and technically demanding form of the Argentine Tango
Continenzain fifteenth-century dance, a short slightly sideward movement of the feet, which should last half a misura
Contingenceeventuality, a possible event or occurrence or result
Contingencia(Spanish f.) contingency
Contingenta gathering of persons representative of some larger group
possible but not certain to occur
Contingente(Spanish m.) contingent, quota
contingente(Spanish) contingent
Contingentlyin a contingent manner, without foresight
continguo(Italian) adjacent
Continkosee xalam
con tinto(Italian) with various shades of expression, expressively
Continuación(Spanish f.) continuation, continuance
Continuallycontinuamente (Spanish), sempre (Italian), andauerend (German), toujours (French)
frequently happening
'continuously' and 'continually' are often confused. 'Continuously' is used of something that happens frequently (for example, 'continually interrupted' meaning 'subject to frequent interruptions'), while 'continually' is used of something that happens without a pause (for example, 'continually raining' meaning 'raining without a pause')
continuando(Italian) continuing
ContinuantDauerlaut (German m.), a consonant sound that can be produced continuously as long as breath holds out, such as /s/ or /v/
[German term supplied by Michael Zapf]
continuar(Spanish) to continue, to resume
continuará(Spanish) 'to be continued'
continuare(Italian) to continue, to resume
continuare all'infinito con(Italian) to go on and on about
continuare con(Italian) to carry on with
continuato(Italian) continuing, held on, held down, sustained
Continuazione(Italian f.) continuation
Continued bassbasso continuo
continuel(French) perpetual
continuer sur sa lancée(French) to keep going
Continuidad(Spanish f.) continuity
Continuità(Italian f.) continuity
Continuo(English, German m., from the Italian) keyboard line in an orchestral work, short for basso continuo
the performer or performers, instrument or instruments, that provide the bass line in a musical work, for example, a keyboard, cello, bass viol, lute, bassoon, etc.
continuo(Spanish) continuous, continual
Continuo liedin the seventeenth century, a lied form that was simpler and often cruder than the courtly solo songs of other countries. Adam Krieger (1634-1666) was the greatest continuo lied composer; his Arien (1667), mostly solos with continuo and instrumental ritornellos, vary from pastoral love-songs to lascivious drinking-songs. After 1670 the continuo lied declined, but it had a resurgence towards the mid-eighteenth century with such composers as Georg Philipp Telemann (1681-1767) and Johann Valentin Görner (1649-1745)
Continuous breathingsynonymous with 'circular breathing'
Continuous imitationRenaissance polyphonic style where motives or subjects move between the lines or voices, often overlapping one another
Continuous tonea continuously held note (for example, what can be heard when first picking up a telephone receiver connected to the telephone system and before dialing)
in printing, a characteristic where a range of tones from black, through greys, to white have no discerning demarcations between each other. The term is usually used to denote the subtly blended tones produced by a printing process without the employment of halftone screens
Continuum (s.), Continua (pl.)(Latin) a field of continuous extension
con toda el alma(Spanish) with all my heart
con todo detalle(Spanish) in great detail
con tolleranza(Italian) patiently (in a tolerant way)
con tono nasale(Italian) nasally
Contorno(Portuguese m., Italian m., Spanish m.) outline, contour (geography)
Contornos(Spanish m.pl.) surrounding area
Contorsión(Spanish f.) contortion
contorto(Italian) twisted
Contour(French m.) an outline, a line marking points of equal elevation on a map
contr.abbrevation of 'contraction', 'contracted'
Contraor Kontra, Transylvanian (Romanian) or Hungarian three-stringed viola
[additional information provided by Michael Zapf]
see Kontra
contra(Latin, Italian, Spanish, literally 'against') in musical terminology, a prefix indicating that the pitch of an instrument is usually one octave lower, for example, bassoon and contrabassoon, bass recorder in F and contrabass recorder in F
Bass Harmonica (bass harp)
Bass Recorder
Quart Bass recorder
Quint Bass Recorder
Great Bass Recorder
Contrabass and larger Recorders
Octobass/Contrabass Flutes
Contrabass Clarinet in GG
Contrabasset Horn in FF
Contralto Clarinet in EEb
Contrabass Clarinet in BBb 
Octo-Contralto Clarinet in EEEb
Octo-Contrabass Clarinet in BBBb
Bass Chalumeau
Bass Saxophone in Bb
Contrabass Saxophone in Eb
Subcontrabass Saxophone (?)
Tubax 
Heckelphone 
Bass Oboe
Contrabass Oboe in FF
Contrabass Oboe in CC
Bass Shawms and lower
Quart-Fagott
Contrabassoon 
Bass Dulcian
Quart Bass Dulcian
Quint Bass Dulcian
Bass Sordune
Great Bass Sordune
Bass Rackett
Great Bass Rackett
Bass Crumhorn
Extended Bass Crumhorn
Great Bass Crumhorn
Extended Great Bass Crumhorn
Bass Kortholt
Great Bass Kortholt
Bass Sarrusophone in Bb
Contrabass Sarrusophone in EEb
Contrabass Sarrusophone in CC
Contrabass Sarrusophone in BBb
Bass Rothophone in Bb
Contrabassophone
Contrabass á Anche/Reed Contrabass
Slide Reed Subcontrabass
Bass Horn in CC
Contrabass Bugle
Bass Trumpet in Bb
Contrabass Trumpet in F
Contrabass Trombone
Ophicleide (bass and contrabass)
Bass Cornett
Serpent (inc. contrabass serpent)
Bass Saxhorn in Bb
Contrabass Saxhorn in EEb
Contrabass Saxhorn in BBb
Subcontrabass Saxhorn in EEEb
Subcontrabass Saxhorn in BBBb
Bass Flugelhorn in Bb
Subcontrabass Tuba in BBBb
String Bass
contra(English, German, Spanish, Portuguese, from Latin) against
Contraalmirante(Spanish m.) rear-admiral
contraatacar(Spanish) to counter-attack
Contraataque(Spanish m.) counter-attack
Contrabaixo(Portuguese) double bass
Contrabajo(Spanish m.) double bass, double-bass player
contrabalancear(Spanish) to counter-balance
Contrabandista(Spanish m./f.) smuggler
Contrabando(Spanish m.) contraband
Contrabas(Dutch) double bass
Contrabassdouble bass
in an organ, the rank of bass pipes which play one octave lower than the usual bass pipes, for example, in an orchestrion, band organ or pipe organ. In a fairground organ, the contra bass pipes provide powerful, deep, fundamental notes
Contrabass bugleusually shortened to contra, the lowest-pitched instrument in the drum and bugle corps hornline. It is essentially the drum corps' counterpart to the marching band's sousaphone: the lowest-pitched member of the hornline, and a replacement for the concert tuba on the marching field
Contrabass clefalternative name for the subbass clef
contrabass or subbass clef
one of the 'so-called' F clefs
Contrabass flutea transverse flute usually two octaves below the standard concert flute
Contrabassist(English, German m.) a double bass player
Contrabassiste(French m.) a double bass player
Contrabasso(Italian m.) double bass
(German) double bass
Contrabasso a pizzico(Italian m.) slap bass, Schlagbass (German), contrebasse jouée sans archet (French)
Contrabasso di viola(Italian m.) Agricola wrote of the contrabasso di viola as being the deepest voice available. He was referring to an instrument comparable with that made by Hanns Vogel in 1563 and now in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg. This ornately and beautifully decorated bass is fitted with gut frets like other viols and tuned G1-C-F-A-d-g
Contrabasson(French m.) or contrebasson (French m.), contrabassoon, double bassoon
Contrabassoonor double bassoon, contrafagotto (Italian m.), contrebasson (French m.), contrafagote (Spanish m.), Kontrafagott (German n.)
a bassoon one octave lower than the standard orchestral bassoon
Contrabassoniste(French m.) contrabassoonist
Contrabass serpentsee cornetto
Contrabass tromboneor double-bass trombone, trombón contrabajo (Spanish m.), trombone contrebasse (French m.) trombone contrabbasso (Italian m.), Kontrabassposaune (German f.)
the modern contrabass trombone is a slide trombone tuned to the fundamental of F1 with two valves, which are activated by the thumb of the left hand and make it possible to lower the instrument's pitch from F1 to Eb1 or Bb0 while playing. Opening both valves simultaneously puts the instrument in Ab0. The contrabass trombone is used principally for the great octave and the contraoctave
Contrabass tubathe contrabass tuba is currently made in two tunings: C and Bb. It is used primarily in opera orchestras and in brass and military bands. It is rarely asked for in symphony orchestras. Contrabass tubas are basically made in two different forms: the tuba form and the spiral form. Spiral tubas are also known as helicons
Contrabass violsee 'violone'
see 'double bass'
Contrabbassista(Italian m./f.) double bass player, bass player
Contrabbasso(Italian m.) double bass, bass, Kontrabass (German), contrebasse (French)
Contra body movementin dance and in terms of body rotation during a step, an action that is opposite to 'side lead' or 'same sidelead' ('side lead', or 'same side lead', is taking the same side of the body as the direction of the movement of the moving foot, where 'taking' means that if a step is taken squarely forward or backward, for example, by the left foot, then the left side slightly rotates to the right or to the left respectively, as if the side of the body 'leads' the step)
Contra body movement positionin dance, the dancer's upper body is rotated towards the leading foot
Contra bonos mores(Latin) contrary to acceptable behaviour
Contracanto(Spanish m.) counter-melody
con tracce(Italian) tracked
Contracción(Spanish f.) contraction
Contrachapado(Spanish m.) plywood
Contracted harmonysynonymous with 'close harmony'
contráctil(Spanish) contractile
Contractionin dance, a basic element the technique developed by Martha Graham, based around the inhalation and exhalation of the breath
the squeezing together of sounds or words, especially when one word blurs into another, during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing
Contract proofin printing, a coloured, hard copy representation of the printed image, made from the films, or digital data, which will be used to make the final printing plates. The word "contract" comes from the fact that, when signed by the client, a contract is formed, which states that the final printed job should be a close match to the contract proof
Contracultura(Spanish f.) counter-culture
Contradance(English) also 'Contra dance', 'Contra-dance', refers to several folk dance styles in which couples dance in two facing lines. The name derives from the name of a French dance very popular in the eighteenth century, the name of which is itself a French corruption of the English word 'country'
Contra Dance(German m.) contradance, contra-dance, contra dance
Contradanza(Italianb f., Spanish f.) popular eighteenth-century French dance form, in which couples dance in two facing lines, usually written in major keys in 2/4 or 6/8 time, taken from unsophisticated English country dances that were lively and performed in lines or in rounds; this European musical and dance form was the predecessor to the danza, danza Habanera and most significantly, the classic danzón style
Contradanza habanera(Spanish f.) the earliest contradanza habanera, La Pimienta, is an anonymous song published in an 1836 collection. The main innovation from the contradanza was rhythmic, as the habanera incorporated Spanish and African influences into its repertoire
Contraddanza(Italian f.) contradanza
Contra de flautado(Spanish f.) quintaton
Contradicción(Spanish f.) contradiction
contradictorio (m.), contradictoria (f.)(Spanish) contradictory
contradecir(Spanish) to contradict
Contradicción(Spanish f.) contradiction
contradictorio(Spanish) contradictory
contraer(Spanish) to contract, to tighten, to tighten up, to catch, to pick up
contraer matrimonio(Spanish) to marry
contraerse(Spanish) to contract, to limit oneself
Contrafact (s.), Contrafacts (pl.)(from the Latin, contrafactum) also called 'melodic contrafact', a new composition built on a harmonic framework that has been drawn from another work, commonly found in bebop jazz. The two most common songs or forms that provided the harmonic and formal material for 'contrafacts' were George Gershwin's I Got Rhythm and the 'twelve bar blues'
Contrafactum (s.), Contrafacta (pl.)(from the Latin contrafacere, literally 'to counterfeit') the practice of borrowing a song from one sphere (sacred or secular) and making it suitable for use in the other by the substitution of words is known as 'parody' or contrafactum. This is found, for example, in many of the songs of the troubadours, trouvères and Minnesinger. The term contrafactum originates in post-Classical Latin. The word is found as a rubric in the Reformation-era Pfullinger Liederhandschrift. Kurt Hennig, in his 1909 book on these songs, uses the term contrafactum to describe the recasting of a secular poem as a sacred one. Friedrich Gennrich, writing a decade later, expanded the word to mean "conscious use of any model," and from this point the meaning has broadened to a general category, of which 'parody', 'travesty', and the like are sub-categories. Friedrich von Hausen's Ich denke underwilen is regarded as a contrafactum of Guiot de Provins's Ma joie premeraine
[entry corrected by Michael Zapf]
Contrafagote(Spanish m.) double bassoon, contrabassoon, contrafagotto (Italian m.), Kontrafagott (German n.), contrebasson (French m.),
Contrafagotto(Italian m.) double bassoon, contrabassoon, Kontrafagott (German n.), contrebasson (French m.), contrafagote (Spanish m.)
on the various unusual sizes of Fagott : the Quintfagott is a fifth higher as the bassoon is, so an instrument "in c" with as the lowest note an F. The Quartfagott is, an instrument in b-flat going down to G, a fourth above the bassoon. Confusing can be that also a Quintbassfagott and a Quartbassfagott did exist, a fifth and a fourth lower than the regular bassoon. And then we had the Tenoroon or Octavfagott or Fagottino, one octave above the bassoon, and the Contrafagott one octave below
[information taken from the Contrabass-list 2 Jan 1998 Vol 1 No. 80]
a reed stop in an organ, of 16 ft. or 32 ft. scale
Contraffagotto(Italian m.) contrabassoon, double bassoon
Contrafuerte(Spanish m.) buttress
Contra-gambaan organ stop of 16 ft. scale, an open metal stop of reedy quality, one octave below the 8 ft. Gamba stop
contrahecho (m.), contrahecha (f.)(Spanish) fake, conterfeit (money), hunchbacked, deformed
Contraindicación(Spanish f.) contraindication
contrainte(French) basse contrainte
Contraltino(Italian m.) a high, light tenor voice
Contraltista(Italian m.) countertenor voice
Contralto (s.), Contralti (Italian pl.)(English, Italian m., Spanish m/.f., from the Italian contra alto, literally 'against the alto') the term contralto is applied to the highest voice of a male adult, or the lowest of a woman or boy. Similar voices may be called 'alto' or 'counter-tenor'. The contralto female voice usually has a range from one octave above to one octave below low E in the treble clef
the contralto voice may be subdivided according to the tessitura and timbre and its suitability for various operatic roles:
Germanydramatischer Alt and komischer Alt
Contr'alto(Italian m./f.) contralto
Contr'altoacoustically the viola is actually too small to produce a proper resonance in its lower range, and attempts were made to overcome this, including contr'altos, built by the French luthier Jean-Baptiste Vuillaume
Contralto-trombone(Italian) alto trombone
Contraluz(Spanish m.) view against the light
Contra mundum(Latin) against the world, in complete isolation
con tranquillezza(Italian) with tranquility, calmly
con tranquillità(Italian) with tranquility, calmly
Contra octavethe octave from C(1), up to but not including C(2)
Contrapartida(Spanish f.) compensation
Contrapasso(Italian, 'counter-suffering') a thematic principle involving situational irony in which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to the nature of a crime
contrapesar(Spanish) to counterbalance
contrapeso(Spanish m.) counterbalance
Contrapicado(Spanish m.) low-angle shot (cinema)
contraponer(Spanish) to oppose, to compare
contrapontisticamente(Portuguese) contrapuntally
Contrapontiste(French m./f.) a person adept at writing counterpoint
Contraponto(Portuguese) counterpoint
Contraportada(Spanish f.) the back page
Contraposaune(German f.) double-trombone
(German f.) a very powerful 16 ft. or 32 ft. reed-stop in an organ, which can be made of wood or metal
Contraposición(Spanish f.) to clash, to conflict, to contrast
Contrapposto(Italian) a pose in which the hips and shoulders are in different planes (most closely associated with Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni (1475-1564))
Contrappuntisa(Italian m./f.) a contrapuntist, a person able at writing counterpoint
Contrappunto(Italian m.) counterpoint
Contrappunto ad vivendum(Italian m., Latin) written counterpoint
Contrappunto alla mente(Italian m.) impromptu counterpoint
Contrappunto colorato(Italian m.) florid counterpoint
Contrappunto doppio(Italian m.) double counterpoint
Contrappunto doppio alla duodecima(Italian m.) double counterpoint in the twelfth
Contrappunto sopra il soggetto(Italian m.) counterpoint above the subject
Contrappunto sotto il soggetto(Italian m.) counterpoint below the subject
contraproducente(Spanish) counterproductive
Contrapunctus(Latin) counterpoint
term used in the Baroque period to denote a fugal movement as in The Art of the Fugue (Die Kunst der Fuge), BWV 1080 by Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
Contrapunctus ad vivendum(Latin) written counterpoint
Contrapunctus coloratus(Latin) 'coloured' counterpoint, a reference to counterpoint with its own rhythm rather than mirroring the rhythm of the cantus firmus
Contrapunctus diminutus(Latin) a style of composition in which the one of the parts has more than one note for each note in the cantus firmus
Contrapunctus floridus(Latin) 'florid' counterpoint, a reference to counterpoint with its own rhythm rather than mirroring the rhythm of the cantus firmus
Contrapunctus fractus(Latin) 'broken' counterpoint, a reference to counterpoint with its own rhythm rather than mirroring the rhythm of the cantus firmus
Contrapunkt(German m.) counterpoint
Contrapunt(Dutch) counterpoint
Contrapuntal(English, Italian; Latin: contrapunctum; German: kontrapunktisch; French: en contrepoint). From punctum, "point" - as a note was formerly called in music - and contra, "against"; originally, punctum contra punctum, or nota contra notam - "point against point", or "note against note"
[entry amended by Michael Zapf]
Contrapuntal descent'comma slippage', a commatic shift that results from the use of just intonation in certain melodic sequences, and which will cause a fall in pitch, (an effect called 'commatic depression' or 'frequency descent') should be distinguished from 'contrapuntal descent'. The latter will occur under certain circumstances even where equal-temperament is being used, if the rules of counterpoint require the taking of a conjuncta (substitution of a tone for a semitone or vice versa) so that by purely contrapuntal spiralling, the piece could end on an F one or more semitones lower than the F on which it started
contrapuntear(Spanish) to compete in a poetry improvisation contest, to compete, to contend
contrapuntique(French) contrapuntal
contrapuntisch(Dutch) contrapuntal
Contrapuntista person adept at writing counterpoint
Contrapuntista(Spanish m./f.) a person adept at writing counterpoint
Contrapuntiste(French m./f.) a person adept at writing counterpoint
contrapuntístico(Spanish) contrapuntal
Contrapunto(Spanish m.) counterpoint
(Spanish m., Latin America) a poetry improviation contest
Contrapunto cuádruple(Spanish m.) quadruple counterpoint
Contrapunto doble(Spanish m.) double counterpoint
Contrapunto triple(Spanish m.) triple counterpoint
contr'arco(Italian) bowing contrary to normal practice (implying incorrect bowing)
contrariar(Spanish) to oppose, to annoy
Contrariedad(Spanish f.) obstacle, annoyance (disgust)
contrarier(French) to thwart, to vex, to upset
contrario(Italian, Spanish) contrary, opposite (direction), unfavourable, opposed
Contrarreforma(Spanish f.) Counter-Reformation
contrarrestar(Spanish) to counteract
Contrary motionor opposite motion, moto contrario (Italian), moto rovescio (Italian), moto rovesciamento (Italian), Gegenbewegung (German), mouvement contraire (French), movimiento contrario (Spanish), tegenbeweging (Dutch)
where two voices move in the opposite direction, one ascending while the other is descending
Contrasentido(Spanish m.) contradiction
Contraseña(Spanish f.) secret mark, password
Contrasoggetto(Italian m.) countersubject, secondary subject or counter-theme in a fugue
con trasporto(Italian) ecstatically
Contrast
in composition, sequential differentiation to produce variety as a way of maintaining the listener's interest
tempislow or fast
timbresstrings or brass
dynamicsloud or soft
time signaturesduple or triple
harmonicdiatonic or chromatic
thematic materialmajor or minor, lyical or rhythmic
contrastar(Spanish) to check, to verify, to contrast
contrastare con(Italian) to contrast with
Contraste(Spanish m.) contrast, hallmark (on gold, silver, etc. goods)
Contrastive pairsee 'minimal pair'
Contra-sujeto(Spanish m.) counter-subject (as in a fugue)
Contrat(French m.) contract
contratar(Spanish) to sign a contract for, to engage (employee)
Contra tempo(Italian m.) against the time, syncopation
Contratenor(English, German m., from the Latin, literally 'against the tenor') a voice composed again the tenor line. During the fourteenth century, both the tenor and the contratenor were matched in style, both slower than the higher voice(s). In the mid-fifteenth century, the contratenor was divided into the contratenor altus and the contratenor bassus
(German m., Dutch m., Spanish m.) countertenor
Contratenor altus(Latin) early fifteenth-century Burgundian composers developed a sacred music style specifically for the Mass. In their polyphonic settings they added a part below the tenor line called the contratenor bassus and then a part above the tenor called contratenor altus. Within a short time masses were written in four parts which then became standard by the middle of the fifteenth century and remain so today
Contratenor bassus(Latin) early fifteenth-century Burgundian composers developed a sacred music style specifically for the Mass. In their polyphonic settings they added a part below the tenor line called the contratenor bassus and then a part above the tenor called contratenor altus. Within a short time masses were written in four parts which then became standard by the middle of the fifteenth century and remain so today
Contratiempo(Spanish m.) setback, accident
(Spanish m.) in music, counter rhythm, off-beat
in flamenco, syncopated or counter rhythms produced by stamps of the feet, often accompanied by palmas executed by the dancer or in conjunction with others
Contratista(Spanish m./f.) contractor
Contrato(Spanish m.) contract
Contrato de aquiler(Spanish m.) tenancy agreement
Contrato de arrendamiento(Spanish m.) tenancy agreement
Contratöne(German m. pl.) notes belonging to the contra octave
Contra trumpetslow trumpet pipes found in certain fairground organs that bridge the gap between the highest trombone and the lowest trumpet pipes
Contrattempo(Italian m.) against the beat, off the beat, backbeat, syncopation, after beat
Contratto(Italian m.) contract (legal document)
Contratto d'affitto(Italian m.) lease
Contravención(Spanish f.) contravention
contravenir a(Spanish) to contravene
Contraventana(Spanish f.) shutter
Contra-violino(Italian m.) invented by Valentino de Zorzi (1837-1916), a Florentine violin maker, a large instrument tuned an octave lower than the violin and played like a 'cello
Contraviolone(Italian m.) a double bass
contre(French) against
Contrebasse(French f.) or contre-bass, double bass, contrabbasso (Italian), Kontrabass (German)
Contrebasse à pistons(French m.) double-bass saxhorn, bass horn, bass tuba, bombardon, tuba bassa (Italian f.), Basstuba (German f.), tuba basse (French m.), tuba baja (Spanish f.)
Contrebasse jouée sans archet(French f.) slap bass, contrabbasso a pizzicato (Italian), Schlagbass (German)
Contrebassiste(French m./f.) double bass player, bass player
Contrebasson(French m.) double bassoon, contrabassoon, contrafagotto (Italian m.), Kontrafagott (German n.), contrafagote (Spanish m.)
Contrechant(French m.) counter melody
Contre-chant(French m.) counterpoint
Contre-coup(French m.) repercussion, an injury produced exactly opposite the position of a blow
Contredanse(French f.) a country dance, a social dance in which the dancers are placed vis-à-vis, for example the quadrille
Contredanse Française(French f.) see Française
Contre-éclisse(French f.) Futterleiste (German f.) Reifchen (German n.), controfascia (Italian f.), lining, softwood strip(s) used in string instrument making to strengthen the join between the ribs and the back and belly
Contrefilet(French) boned sirloin of beef
contre le tempo(French) against the beat
con tremore(Italian) with tremor, in a trembling manner
Contre-partie(French f.) inlay work where the ground is cut away in places to receive the inlaid veneers
(French f.) or contrepartie, in music, a second part written 'against' a pre-existing melody line, found in many medieval and renaissance works; for example, a technique commonly used by French composers in the 17th century to create duets
Contre-plaqué(French m.) plywood
Contrepoint(French m.) counterpoint
Contrepointiste(French m./f.) someone adept at writing counterpoint
Contre-sillet(French m.) on a piano, a metallic bar that is placed firmly across the ends of a piano string to resist the force of impact of the hammers as well as determining their active length. On certain pianos and particularly on grand pianos, it is replaced by the agrafes. In stringing a piano, each string passes under the contre-sillet and then over the sillet (French m.: nut)
Contre-sujet(French m.) the counter-subject or second subject in a fugue
Contretemps(French m.) an inopportune event, a tiresome or mortifying mischance
(French m.) or contre-temps (French), contratempo (Portuguese), against the beat, off the beat, backbeat, syncopation, after beat
(French m.) contratempo (Portuguese), in ballet, compound steps, named demi-contretemps and full contretemps, to be performed prior to the beat of the music
Contreténor(French m.) countertenor
Contribución(Spanish f.) contribution, tax
contribuer à la richesse du son (de l'orchestre)(French) adding to the fullness of the (orchestral) texture
contribuir(Spanish) to contribute
Contribuyente(Spanish m./f.) contributor, taxpayer
Contrincante(Spanish m.) rival, opponent
con triple puntillo(Spanish) triple dotted
con tristezza(Italian) sadly, with heaviness, with a heavy heart
contrito(Spanish) contrite
contro assegno(Italian) cash on delivery
Controfascia(Italian f.) Futterleiste (German f.) Reifchen (German n.), contre-éclisse (French f.), lining, softwood strip(s) used in string instrument making to strengthen the join between the ribs and the back and belly
Contrôle du souffle(French m.) breath control
Controlled fluencya style of speaking in which fluency is achieved by consciously monitoring and controlling the way in which speech is produced
Controlled vocabularyan indexing language; that is, a standardised - yet dynamic - set of terms and phrases authorised for use in an indexing system to describe a subject area or information domain. Ideally, the terms that are used to represent subjects, and the process whereby terms are assigned to particular documents, should be both controlled and executed by one individual. It can vary from a simple alphabetical list of terms to a complex annotated thesaurus
Controllera MIDI synthesizer with a piano keyboard. It can be used to control other synthesizers, called tone generators, which do not have a piano keyboard
Controller (m.), Controllerin (German f.)(English, German) a person who directs and restrains, someone who maintains and audits business accounts (also called an accountant)
Controlling(English, German n.) (financial) controlling (the maintenance and auditing business accounts)
Control texta specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested). These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation. Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions, including Hamlet and King Lear. In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur, a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition)
Controsoggetto(Italian m.) counter-subject
Controtenor(Italian m.) countertenor
Controversia(Spanish f.) controversy
in Cuba, an improvising game for two singing poets. The singers compete in inventing more and more verses and expressions
in Puerto Rico, at the heart of much Puerto Rican music is the idea of improvisation in both the music and the lyrics. A performance takes on an added dimension when the audience can anticipate the response of one performer to a difficult passage of music or clever lyrics created by another. This technique in Puerto Rico is called a controversia. A similar dialogue creates a heightened appreciation in the classical music of India, or in a jam session in jazz
Contumelyinsolent or insulting language or treatment
contundente(Spanish) blunt (weapon), convincing (argument)
con turbolenza(Italian) bumpy (flight), passionately (turbulently)
Contusio(German f., from Latin) contusion
Contusiona bruise, an injury that doesn't break the skin but results in some discoloration
con tutta forza(Italian) with as much strength as possible
con tutta la forza(Italian) with as much strength as possible, mit voller Kraft (German), mit größter Kraft (German), de toutes ses forces (French)
con tutta probabilità(Italian) in all likelihood, in all probability
con tutte le forze(Italian) might and main
con tutte le funzioni(Italian) fully functional
con tutte le spese pagate(Italian) all-expenses-paid
con tutti i comfort(Italian) mod cons
con tutto il cuore(Italian) with all my heart, with all your heart
con tutto il dovuto rispetto per(Italian) with all due respect to
con tutto il rispetto(Italian) with all respect
con tutto rispetto(Italian) with all respect
con ugualità(Latin) equally, similarly, evenly, smoothly
con umiltà(Italian) cap in hand
con umore(Latin) with humour
con una alzata di mano(Italian) by a show of hands
con una buona reputazione(Italian) member in good standing
con una corsa(Italian) with a rush
con una differenza(Italian) with a difference
con un afectuoso saludo(Spanish) with kind regards
con una mano(Italian) one-handed
con una punta di stizza(Italian) with a touch of vexation
con un brutto carattere(Italian) bad-tempered
con un calcio(Italian) with a kick
con un carattere difficile(Italian) harsh (with a difficult character)
con un dito(Italian) with one finger
con un'eccezione(Italian) with an exception
con unghie(Italian) with the finger-nails
con un ghigno(Italian) with a sneer
con un giro di parole(Italian) in a roundabout way
con un intervallo(Italian) with an interval
con un mes de antelación(Spanish) one month in advance
con un mes de anticipación(Spanish) a month in advance
Conunoa drum in the form of a cone, found in Western Colombia
con un occhio a(Italian) with an eye to
con un occhio per(Italian) with an eye for
con un occhio solo(Italian) one-eyed (with one eye)
con un occhio rivolto a(Italian) with a view to
con un occhio su(Italian) with a view to
con uno piccolo scarto(Italian) by a narrow margin
con un'opinione sbagliata(Italian) misguided
con uno scarto di(Italian) by a majority
con un piede nella fossa(Italian) far gone
con un poco più di moto(Italian) with a little more movement, somewhat faster
con un po' d'espansione(Italian) with a certain display of emotion
con un salario acorde(Spanish) with a salary to match
con un senso di meraviglia(Italian) awful (inspired by awe)
con un solo braccio(Italian) one-armed (with one arm)
con un solo volto(Italian) one-sided (with just one side)
con un'unica dimensione(Italian) one-dimensional (just one dimension)
con un voce un po' nasale(Italian) with a nasal sounding voice
con uova e pancetta(Italian) bacon-and-eggs
con vaghezza(Italian) with charm, with longing, with grace
con vantaggio(Italian) with advantage
con variazzioni(Italian) with variations
con veemenza(Italian) vehemently
con velocità(Italian, literally 'with velocity') rapidly, swiftly, with speed
convenable(French) conforming to the customs and proprieties of polite society
les convenances (French: the customs and proprieties of polite society)
con venature blu(Italian) blue-veined
Convenient speedcómodo (Spanish), comodo (Italian), Gemächlich (German), commode (French)
Convenienze(Italian, literally 'conveniences') the rules relating to the ranking of singers (primo, secondo, comprimario) in nineteenth-century Italian opera, and the number of scenes, arias etc. that they were entitled to expect
Conventan enclosed and regulated monastic institution
Conventiclea secret unauthorised meeting for religious worship
The Conventicle Act of 1664 was an Act of the Parliament of England (16 Charles II c. 4) that forbade religious assemblies of more than five people outside the auspices of the Church of England
Conventiona common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film
Convent musicin the final decades of the sixteenth century, Italian convents were becoming renowned for their prodigious music making. A very large percentage of upper and middle class girls, many of them musically trained, were placed in convents as a cheaper alternative to marriage. Thus several convents had large choirs of highly skilled singers, organists and instrumentalists. These nuns would have been invisible, but their music wafted over the concealing screens as if from Paradise. We are now realising that by judicious arranging, transposing and the use of organs and other foundation instruments to cover the lowest parts, these choirs also performed the full range of sixteenth-century polyphony. An extensive repertoire was even dedicated to famous nuns. By the early seventeenth-century composing nuns (for example, Lucrezia Vizzana and Margarita Cozzolani) began to emerge, writing in the most up to date styles and even publishing their own music
Conventualin the manner of a monastery
Conventualsmembers of the Franciscan order advocating change to the original rules on property
con verga(Italian) with the brush, with the switch
con verità(Italian) with truth, truthfully
con vermenza(Italian) vehemently, energetically, passionately
Conversación(Spanish f., literally 'conversation') In batá performance, the conversation and interaction that takes place between the iyá (the lead or mother drum) and the itótele (the middle drum)
Conversaciones de alto nivel(Spanish f.pl.) high-level talks
conversare(Italian) to converse
conversare con ...(Italian) to converse with ...
Conversazione (s.), Converazioni (pl.)(Italian) a social assembly for the purposes of conversation, an assembly organised by a learned body (partly to exhibit and partly to bring together those who might be interested in the exhibits)
Conversilay converts who had entered the monastic life as adults and were employed in manual labour; also known as lay brothers
Conversio(Latin) inversion (in counterpoint)
Converter bass systemon the accordion, a switch that allows an instrument to be readily converted from a Stradella system to a free-bass system
Convertsa group of composers who began as 'post-tonalists' and experimentalists and then moved toward more tonal idioms in the 1960s and 1970s. One of the first composers to leave the "post-tonal" world was George Rochberg, who began using collage and other borrowing techniques in his compositions of the mid-1960s. He began quoting his contemporaries and slowly moved to allusion of past composers and eras with his Third String Quartet. Another composer to use collage and allusion was David Del Tredici, who used various traditional and popular tunes to support the texts of Lewis Carroll. William Bolcom, John Harbison, Chick Corea, Keith Jarrett, and Anthony Davis began mixing art music and popular music through quotation, allusion, and homage to create a tonal idiom unlike those found in the music of Rochberg and Del Tredici
con vibrazione(Italian) with vibration
con vigore(Italian) with vigour, with force, with strength, with zip
con violenza(Italian) with vehemence, with force, boisterously
con visiera(Italian) peaked (a peaked cap)
con vivacità(Italian) with liveliness, with vivacity, with fire, with sprightliness
con vivezza(Italian) with liveliness, with vivacity, with fire, with sprightliness
con voce(Italian) with voice
con voce cupa(Italian) with a veiled, intense tone
con voce di paura(Italian) in a fearful voice
con voce di pianto(Italian) in a whisper
con voce fioca(Italian) in a faint voice
con voce naturale(Italian) in a natural voice, in a normal voice
con voce rauca(Italian) with a hoarse or rough voice
con voce selvaggia(Italian) in a frantic voice
con voce soffocata(Italian) in a suppressed voice
con voce stridula(Italian) piercingly (with a shrill voice)
con voce strozzata(Italian) in a choked voice
con volubilità(Italian) with volubility, with freedom and fluency of performance
Convolutiona twisting, coiling, or winding together
in electronic music, convolution is the imposition of a spectral or rhythmic structure on a sound
con vostra buona pace(Italian) by your leave
con voz anhelante(Spanish) in a voice full of longing
con zelo(Italian) with zeal, with eagerness, with ardour
Conzertstück(German n., literally 'concert piece') a concerted musical work, for example, Conzertstück for Four Horns and orchestra by Robert Schumann (1810-1856), Conzertstück für Pianoforte mit orchester Op. 31a by Ferruccio Busoni (1866-1924)
Cookie (s.), Cookies (pl.)(English, German m./n.) biscuit (any of various small flat sweet cakes), a short line of text that a web site writes to your computer's hard drive when you access that web site
Cookie monster vocalsee 'death grunt'
Cookies setzen(German) to set cookies
Cookinseln(German pl.) Cook Islands
Cook Islandsa self-governing parliamentary democracy in free association with New Zealand
Cook outin cooking, the process of cooking the flour in a roux
Cook Straita narrow strait separating the North Island and South Island in New Zealand
Cookstraße(German f.) Cook Strait
Cool(English, German) as a colloquial expression, synonymous with 'laid-back', 'hip', 'excellent'
Cool jazza substyle of bebop that developed in the 1950s, characterized by a restrained, unemotional performance with lush harmonies, moderate volume levels and tempos, and a new lyricism
Coolness(English, German f.) as a colloquial expression, the property of being 'laid-back', 'hip', 'excellent'
Coolsein(German n.) coolness (colloquial)
coolste(German) coolest (colloquial)
Cookie-bite hearing lossPeople with cookie-bite losses hear low and high frequency sounds well, but have a loss in the mid-frequencies
co 1imoabbreviated form of canto primo
Copaiba(Spanish) or copaiva, a stimulant oleoresin obtained from several pinnate-leaved South American leguminous trees (genus Copaifera - copaifera langsdorfii). The thick, transparent exudate varies in color from light gold to dark brown, depending on the ratio of resin to essential oil. Copaiba is used in making varnishes and lacquers
  • Copaiba from which this information has been taken
Copalany of several brittle aromatic yellow to red resins of recent or fossil origin, obtained from various tropical trees and used in certain varnishes to provide gloss and hardness
Copalharz(German n.) copal
Copeitem of processional vestments; semi-circular outer cloak
Coperchio(Italian m.) roller, lid, fall
Coperta con foro(Italian f.) poncho (blanket with a hole)
copertisee coperto
coperto (s.), coperti (pl.)(Italian, literally 'covered') muffling of drums with a cloth, for example, in music for a funeral
(Italian) in the case of the snare drum, coperto is assumed to indicate that the composer or arranger wishes the the drum used without snares. However, in some cases, the composer may actually want the drum muffled too, with a cloth
coperto con palme(Italian) palm-thatched
Copia(Spanish f., Italian f.) copy
Copialbuch (s.), Copialbücher(German n.) copybook, letterbook (sets of letters bound together in a single volume), c(h)artulary (a register, or record, as of a monastery or church) [entry amended by Michael Zapf]
copiar(Spanish) to copy
copiare(Italian) to copy
Copie(French f.) copy, (scholarly) paper
copier de la musique(French) to copy music
copier sur(French) to copy from, to crib from
copieux (m.), copieuse (f.)(French) copious
Copilot(English, German m.) the second pilot in an aircraft
Copine(French f.) pal (familar), girlfriend (young female friend)
Coping sawa light handsaw with a slender blade stretched across a U-shaped frame, used for cutting designs in wood
Copione(Italian m.) script
Copist(German m.) copyist
Copista(Italian m./f., Spanish m./f.) copyist
Copiste(French m./f.) copyist
Copita(Spanish f.) wine-glass
in English, specifically a tulip-shaped sherry-glass
Copla (s.), Coplas (pl.)(Spanish f., literally 'song') light sentimental Spanish songs set to popular poems
(Spanish f.) stanza, verse
Coplas de lo divino(Spanish f.pl.) Christmas songs in the Canary Islands
Copolymer(English, German n.) a polymer derived from two (or more) monomeric species (i.e. two differently structured chemical units), as opposed to a homopolymer where only one monomer is used
Copophonea musical instrument consisting of a series of glass tumblers connected with a sounding board. The sounds are produced by moving wet fingers around the edge of the glasses. It was invented by Chevalier Coelho who first demonstrated it at parties in London in 1875
Coppel(German) coupler (on the organ)
Coppel-flöte(German, literally 'coupling flute') an organ stop of the clarabella, or stopped diapason species, intended to be used chiefly in combination with some other stop
Copperplateor English round hand, the name of a style of calligraphic writing, using a sharp pointed nib instead of the flat nib used in most calligraphic writing. Its name comes from the sharp lines of the writing style resembling the etches of engraved copper. Copperplate script was especially prevalent in the eighteenth century
Copperplate engraving(Latin cuprum from Latin aes cyprium, literally 'ore from the island of Cyprus') a method of printing using a copper plate into which a design has been cut by a sharp instrument such as a burin or graver; an engraving produced in this way. Invented in south west Germany during the 1430s, the process is the second oldest graphic art after woodcut. In German art it was developed in particular by Schongauer and Dürer, and in Italian art by Pollaiuolo and Mantegna
Coprathe dried meat of the coconut from which oil is extracted
Copri-ancia(Italian m.) capsula (Italian f.), windcap (musical instrument), Windkapsel (German f.), bocal (French m.), capsule (French f.), cápsula (Spanish f.)
coprifoco(Italian) a piece with bell-like effects
coprifuoco(Italian) a piece with bell-like effects
Coprinzipat(German n.) the situation that still exists today in Andorra, which has two Princes (the Bishop of Urgel and the President of France), but since they only hold the rank of Prince, not King, it is referred to as a co-principality
coprire(Italian) to dampen, to muffle, to bank (to pack a fire tightly for slow burning)
coprire con la cenere(Italian) to bank (to pack a fire tightly for slow burning)
coprire con strato protettivo i fiori in terra(Italian) to mulch
coprire parole oscene con dei(Italian) to bip, to beep out (in broadcasting, to cover an obscenity with a beep)
Coproduction(French f.) coproduction, joint production
Copropriété(French f.) co-ownership, joint ownership
Coprozessor(German m.) coprocessor
Co-Prozessor(German m.) arithmetic processing unit
Coptic chantcanto coptico (Italian, Spanish), koptische Gesang (German m.), koptischer Gesang (German m.), chant copte (French) [entry amended by Michael Zapf]
Coptic music is the music sung and played in the Coptic Orthodox Church (Church of Egypt). It consists mainly of chanted hymns in rhythm with instruments such as cymbals (hand and large size) and the triangle
Copulaa style of organum, associated with Notre Dame, in which the upper voice is measured (that is, uses one of the rhythmic modes) and the lower voice is unmeasured
(Latin) a coupler, as, for example, in an organ
a verb, such as a form of 'be' or 'seem', that identifies the predicate of a sentence with the subject
Copule(French) coupler, as, for example, in an organ
Copya manuscript notated by someone other than the composer
a general term applied to printed music
Copylefta play on the word copyright and describes the practice of using copyright law to remove restrictions on distributing copies and modified versions of a work for others and requiring that the same freedoms be preserved in modified versions. Copyleft is a form of licensing and may be used to modify copyrights for works such as computer software, documents, music, and art. In general, copyright law allows an author to prohibit others from reproducing, adapting, or distributing copies of the author's work. In contrast, an author may, through a copyleft licensing scheme, give every person who receives a copy of a work permission to reproduce, adapt or distribute the work as long as any resulting copies or adaptations are also bound by the same copyleft licensing scheme. A widely used and originating copyleft license is the GNU General Public License. Similar licenses are available through Creative Commons - called Share-alike
  • Copy left from which this extract has been taken
Copyistor scribe, someone (other than the composer) who notates a "copy"
Copyright(English, German n.) often indicated on music using the symbol © and indicating the exclusive rights granted by law to the creator of an original literary, artistic, or other intellectual work, including songs and sound recordings
in Feist Publications. Inc. v. Rural Telephone SerLice Co., 499 U.S. 340, 349 (1991), Justice Sandra Day O'Connor wrote: "The primary objective of copyright is not to reward the labor of authors, but '[t]o promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts.' To this end, copyright assures authors the right to their original expression, but encourages others to build freely upon the ideas and information conveyed by a work. This result is neither unfair nor unfortunate. It is the means by which copyright advances the progress of science and art."
see 'music rights'
Copyright collectivealso known as a copyright collecting agency or collecting society, a body created by private agreements or by copyright law that collects royalty payments from various individuals and groups for copyright holders. They may have the authority to license works and collect royalties as part of a statutory scheme or by entering into an agreement with the copyright owner to represent the owners interests when dealing with licensees and potential licensees
Copyright-Zeichen(German n.) copyright sign (©)
Copyshop(German m.) copy shop
Copy shopa shop that specialises in all forms of document reproduction, including digital colour copies, poster size colour prints, business cards, brochures, etc.
Copy-Shop(German m.) copy shop
Coq au Vin(English, French n., German m./n.) a classic French stew of chicken pieces, bacon or lardons (salt pork), cooked with wine, mushrooms, and optionally garlic
coquet(French) coquettish
Coquette(French f.) a woman who habitually trifles with the affections of men (see also allumeuse)
Coquillage(French) a carved or inlaid ornament in the form of a shell
Coquille(French f.) scroll
(French f.) misprint
Cor(French m.) horn (generic), corno (Italian m., Spanish m.), Horn (German n.), Waldhorn (German n.), cuerno (Spanish m.)
(French m.) corn (on the foot)
Cor.abbreviated form of corno, cornet, coram (Latin: in the presence of)
Corasee kora
Coral(Spanish f.) a hymn tune, plainchant, choir
coral(Spanish) choral
Corale(Italian m.) hymn tune, plainchant, church music, anthem-book, chorale
corale(Italian) choral
coram(Latin) in the presence of
coram populo(Latin) in public, in full view
Cor anglais (s.), Cors anglais (pl.)(English, French m.) English horn, a transposing instrument that sounds a fifth lower than the wirrten note
a free-reed 8 ft. stop in an organ
Corant(English) corrento
Corantosee corrento
a Italian country dance
Cor à pistons(French m.) valved horn
Cor basset(French m.) Basset horn
Corbela carved projecting block, often supporting the springer of a vault
Corbel arch(architecture) an arch constructed of masonry courses that are corbelled until they meet
Corbel tablea range of projecting blocks, often carved, running below the eaves of a building
Corbel vaultin architecture, a vault formed by the piling of stone blocks in horizontal courses, cantilevered inward until the two walls meet in an arch
Corchea
quaver or eighth note(Spanish f.) quaver, eighth note
Corchete(Spanish m., literally 'hook') flag (part of a note symbol)
(Spanish m.) or llave (Spanish f.), brace, accolade (French f.)
(Spanish m.) square bracket, that is [ or ]
Corchete derecho(Spanish m.) opening square bracket, right-hand square bracket [
Corchete izquierdo(Spanish m.) opening square bracket, left-hand square bracket [
Corcho(Spanish m.) cork
Cor courbé(French m., literally 'curved horn') a name formerly given to the cor de bassette (French: basset horn)
Cord(English, German m.) corduroy, measure of wood
Corda (s.), Cordas (pl.)(Spanish f., Portugese f.) string, strings (collective term), corda (Italian f.s.), Saite (German f.s.), corde (French f.s.)
Corda (s.), Corde (pl.)(Italian f.) string, strings (collective term), corda (Spanish f.s., Portuguese f.s.), Saite (German f.s.), corde (French f.s.)
if a composer wishes a note played on a particular string, he or she might write 4. corde or IV corde (which will mean 'play on the 4th string') The convention for numbering strings is that the highest string is 1 (or I) and the lowest 4 (or IV)
see una corda, due corde
Corda d'acciaio(Italian f.) steel string, corda de aço (Portuguese f.), Stahlsaite (German f.), corde d'acier (French f.)
Cor da cacc.abbreviated form of corno da caccia
Corda de aço(Portuguese f.) steel string, corda d'acciao (Italian f.), Stahlsaite (German f.), corde d'acier (French f.)
Corda del sol(Italian f.) G string, bass string, quarta corda (Italian f.), G-Saite (German f.), quatrième corde (French f.)
Corda de náilon(Portuguese f.) nylon string, corda di nylon (Italian f.), Nylonsaite (German f.), corde de nylon (French f.)
Corda di bordone(Italian f.) drone string, Bordunsaite (German f.) corde hors manche (French f.)
Corda di budello(Italian f.) gut string, Darmsaite (German f.), corde de boyau (French f.)
Corda di metallo(Italian f.) metal string, Metallsaite (German f.), corde métallique (French f.)
Corda di nylon(Italian f.) nylon string, corda de náilon (Portuguese f.), Nylonsaite (German f.), corde de nylon (French f.)
Corda di recita(Italian f.) reciting note, reciting tone
[definition provided by Priscilla Worsley]
corda di recita is a feature of many folk traditions including that of pisatùra or pisèra, the threashing songs of Sicily
Corda di risonanza(Italian f.) aliquot string, Aliquotsaite (German f.), corde de résonance (French f.)
Corda di seta(Italian f.) silk string, Seidensaite (German f.), corde de soie (French f.)
Corda d'ottone(Italian f.) brass string, Messingsaite (German f.), corde de laiton (French f.)
Cordage(French m.) stringing
Cordage aliquot(French m.) aliquot stringing
Cordal(Spanish m.) tailpiece
Cordialità con i vicini(Italian f.) neighbourliness
Corda melodica(Italian f.) treble string, Melodiesaite (German f.), corde mélodique (French f.)
Cordanzug(German m.) corduroy suit
Cordas(Portuguese f. pl.) strings
Cordas de aço(Portuguese f. pl.) steel strings
Cordas de náilon(Portuguese f. pl.) nylon strings
Cordas duplas(Portuguese f. pl.) double-strung
Corda simpatica(Italian f.) sympathetic string, Resonanzsaite (German f.), corde sympathetique (French f.)
Corda solta(Portuguese f.) open string, corda vuota (Italian f.), leere Saite (German f.), corde à jour (French f.), corde à vide (French f.), losse snaar (Dutch)
Cordatura(Italian) the scale, or series of scales, to which the open strings of an instrument are tuned
Corda vuota(Italian f.) open string (on the violin, etc.), leere Saite (German f.), corde à jour (French f.), corde à vide (French f.), corda solta (Portuguese f.), losse Snaar (Dutch)
Corde(French f.) string, corda (Italian f.s., Spanish f.s., Portuguese f.s.), Saite (German f.s.), snaar (Dutch)
Corde à boyau(French f.) (cat)gut string, corda di budello (Italian f.), Darmsaite (German f.)
Corde, à lasee à la corde
Corde à jour(French f.) or corde à vide (French f.), open string, leere Saite (German f.), corda vuota (Italian f.), corda solta (Portuguese f.), losse snaar (Dutch)
Corde à piano(French f.) piano-wire
Corde à vide(French f.) or corde à jour (French f.), open string, leere Saite (German f.), corda vuota (Italian f.), corda solta (Portuguese f.), losse snaar (Dutch)
Cor de basset(French m.) basset horn, basset-horn
Corde d'acier(French f.) steel string, corda d'acciao (Italian f.), Stahlsaite (German f.)
Corde de boyau(French f.) gut string
Cor de chasse(French m.) hunting horn, trompeta de caza (Spanish f.), corno da caccia (Italian m.), Jagdhorn (German n.), Signalhorn (German n.), bugle (French m.)
Corde de boyau(French f.) gut string, corda di budello (Italian), Darmsaite (German f.)
Corde défectueuse(French f.) false string
Corde de la(French f.) A-string, A Saite (German f.)
Corde de laiton(French f.) brass string, corda d'ottone (Italian f.), Messingsaite (German f.)
Corde de mi(French f.) E-string, E Saite (German f.)
Corde de ré(French f.) D string, D Saite (German f.)
Corde de résonance(French f.) aliquot string, corda di risonanza (Italian f.), Aliquotsaite (German f.)
Corde de sol(French f.) G-string, G Saite (German f.)
Corde du tympan(French f.) chorda tympani (Latin), a branch of the facial nerve (the seventh cranial nerve) that serves the taste buds in the front of the tongue. The chorda tympani appears to exert a particularly strong inhibitory influence on other taste nerves, as well as on pain fibres in the tongue.
cordeé(French) a number of objects linked together by a cord or rope (for example, climbers)
Corde fausse(French f.) false or dissonant string
Corde filée(French f.) covered or overwound string (on a piano this would be a string with a steel core and an overwinding of brass)
Corde hors manche(French f.) drone string, corda di bordone (Italian f.), Bordunsaite (French f.)
Corde incrociate(Italian f.) cross-strung, overstrung scale
Corde mélodique(French f.) treble string, corda melodica (Italian f.), Melodiesaite (German f.)
Corde métallique(French f.) metal string, corda di metallo (Italian f.), Metallsaite (German f.)
Cor de nuit(French m.) watchman's horn, an organ stop
Cordeophonthe trade name used on a particular type of automatic zither
Cor de postillion(French m.) posthorn, post-boy's horn, corno di postiglione (Italian m.), Posthorn (German n.)
Corderie(French f.) a rope-factory, the ropemaking industry
Cordero asado(Spanish m.) roast lamb
Cordes, les(French f. pl.) or instruments à cordes, string instruments
Cor des Alpes(French m.) Alpenhorn (English, German n.), trompa de los Alpes (Spanish f.), Alphorn (English, German n.), corno delle Alpi (Italian m.)
Cordes à vide(French f. pl.) open strings
Cor des Cavhes(French m.) cor des alpes
Cordes croisées(French f. pl.) cross-strung, overstrung
Cordes de Naples(French) strings imported from Naples for violin, harp, etc.
Cor de signal(French m.) a bugle
Cordes frottées(French m. pl.) bowed (string) instruments
Cordes vocales(French f. pl.) vocal cords
Corde sympathique(French f.) sympathetic string, corda simpatico (Italian f.), Resonanzsaite (French f.)
Cor de vache(French m.) cowhorn, cowherd's horn, corno di toro (Italian m.), Stierhorn (German n.), cuerno de vaca (Spanish m.)
Corde vocali(Italian f. pl.) vocal cords
Cor d'harmonie(French m.) French horn
Cordhose(German f.) cord trousers, corduroy trousers, (a pair of) cords (colloquial)
cordialement(French) regards (as at the end of a letter)
Cordier(French m.) Saitenhalter (German m.), cordiera (Italian f.), cordal (Spanish m.), tailpiece, a piece of metal or wood at the lower end of a stringed instrument to which the strings are attached
(French m.) ropemaker
Cordiera(Italian f.) Saitenhalter (German m.), cordier (French m.), cordal (Spanish m.), tailpiece, a piece of metal or wood at the lower end of a stringed instrument to which the strings are attached
CordilleraGebirgszug (German m.), an extensive chain of mountains or mountain ranges, especially the principal mountain system of a continent (for example, the Andes of South America)
Córdoba(English, German m.) also Cordoba or Córdoba Oro, the basic unit of money in Nicaragua, equal to 100 centavos [amended by Michael Zapf]
Córdoba(Spanish) Córdoba (German n.), Cordue (French), traditionally named 'Cordova' in English, a province of southern Spain, in the north-central part of the autonomous community of Andalusia. It is bordered by the provinces of Málaga, Sevilla, Badajoz, Ciudad Real, Jaén, and Granada [amended by Michael Zapf]
with a population of possibly 500,000 people, 1,600 mosques (including the great Mosque of Córdoba, considered by some architectural historians to be the most spectacular Islamic building in the world), 900 public baths, 80,455 shops, and a library with 400,000 volumes (the Swiss abbey of St. Gall at the same time had but 600 books) was so great a cultural and intellectual centre that the Saxon nun Roswitha of Gandersheim (c.935-c.1000 AD) described the city (at that time) as "the ornament of the world." Córdobans invented the process of manufacturing crystal and pioneered the making of paper (huge paper mills) using a technique learned from the Chinese. They brought the Indian game of chess to western Europe, and they made significant advances in chemistry, medicine and surgery, mathematics, and philosophy
Cordofono (s.), Cordofoni (pl.)(Italian m.) chordophone
Cordofono con tastiera a leve(Italian m.) chordophone with keyboard
Cordofono senza tastiera a leve(Italian m.) chordophone without keyboard
Cor d'olifant(French m.) see 'oliphant'
Cordon(French m.) in cooking, a thin line or thread of sauce; generally, a sash
Cordon-bleu (English s., French s.), Cordons-bleus (French pl.)(French m.) first-class chef
(English) adjective applied to first-class cooking or to the product of cordon-bleu cooking
(German n.) first class dish, the product of cordon-bleu cooking; master-chef diploma
the adjectival equivalents in German are delikat, exquisit or vorzüglich (amended by Michael Zapf)
Cordon de sonnette(French m.) bell-pull
Cordon médullaire(French m.) spinal cord
Cordonner(French) to twist (hair, etc.)
Cordonnerie(French f.) shoe-repairer's shop, cobbler's shop, shoe-repairing, shoemending, cobbling
Cordonnet(French m.) braid, cord, buttonhole twist
Cordon ombilical(French m.) umbilical cord
Cordon rouge(English, French m.) a second-class distinction (for example, a second-class chef)
Cordon sanitaire(English, German m., French m.) a line of guards placed around a district in order to contain a disease (in people or animals), quarantine line
Cor d'orchestre(French m.) a coiled brass natural horn that comes with a set of corps de réchange to enable it to play in a range of keys
Cordrock(German m.) cord skirt, corduroy skirt
Cordue(French) Córdoba
Corduroya narrow ribbed fabric of rayon velvet cut pile, popular in the 19th century for hunting attire, breeches and coats
-corea suffix usually implying a music genre derived from the term hardcore and which denotes a style more extreme than the mainstream
Corea(Spanish) a dance accompanied by song
Coregrafiasynonymous with coreografia, choreography, the art of creating a ballet, in particular the details of the movements of the dancers
coregráfico (m.), coregráfica (f.)(Spanish) choreographic
Cor en fa(French m.) horn in F
Coreografia(Portuguese f.) coregrafia
Coreografía(Spanish f.) coregrafia
Coreógrafo (m.), Coreógrafa (f.)(Spanish, Portuguese) choreographer
Corelli clasha series of 2-3 suspensions, named after the composer Arcangelo Corelli (1653-1713), in whose music such strings of suspensions are found. Corelli was not the only composer who used these passages; in fact, they are common in Italian Baroque music around 1700 and shortly thereafter, including works by Corelli and Antonio Lucio Vivaldi (1678-1741), and Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750), who was influenced by the Italian instrumental composers
Coreografia(Italian f., Spanish f.) choreography, art of ballet of of public spectacles
Coreografo (m.), Coreografa (f.)(Italian, Spanish) choreographer
coreografico (m.), coreografica (f.)(Spanish, Italian) choreographic
Coreógrafo(Spanish m./f.) choreographer
Coreologo(Italian m./f.) choreologist
Coreólogo(Spanish m./f.) choreologist
Corfa basket of net, chicken wire or similar materials, used to contain live fish or crustaceans (such as crayfish) underwater, at docks or in fishing boats
Cor français(French m.) French horn
Corgi(English, German m.) either of two Welsh breeds of long-bodied short-legged dogs with erect ears and a fox-like head
Coriandoli(Italian m. pl.) confetti (singular)
corica(Italian) choral
coricare(Italian) to put to bed
coricarsi(Italian) to go to bed
corico(Italian) choral
Corifeo(Italian) corypheus, leader of a dramatic chorus, leader of the dances in a ballet
Corimagistro(Italian) the head of a choir
Coriphaeussynonymous with corifeo
Cori spezzati(Italian m. pl., literally 'separated choirs', in German Apsidenchöre) also called 'Venetian polychoral style', a performance style, associated particularly with late Renaissance Venice, that employed a number of small choirs of voices and/or instruments placed in different parts of a large church or cathedral
(Italian) a commonly encountered term for the separated choirs themselves
Corista(Italian f.) tuning fork
(Italian m./f., Spanish m./f.) chorister, choral singer, chorus girl (in a theatrical show)
Corista Veneto(Italian f.) the pitch used by the Venetian organ maker Pietro Nachini. Although a pitch a semitone lower was used in Venetian opera in the early part of the century, it was corista Veneto that was to remain the principal pitch in Venice throughout the century, and which was adopted as the standard instrumental pitch, firstly in Vienna, and then all over Europe by the end of the 18th century
Coristas infantiles(Spanish) choristers, child-singers
Corium(English, German n.) dermis (the deep vascular inner layer of the skin ), leather armour
Cormorne(Italian, from cor morne (French m.)) stilles Horn (German n.), a soft-toned horn
a name given to a reed stop in English organs, of 8 ft. scale, and with a soft tone
Corna(Italian m. pl.) plural of corno
Cornacchia(Italian f.) crow (bird)
Cornamusa(Italian f.) piva (Italian f.), bagpipe, Dudelsack (German m.), Sackpfeife (German m.), cornamuse (French f.)
cornamusare(Italian) to play on a bagpipe
Cornamuse(German f.) although the cornamuse was clearly described by Michael Praetorius, it remains a mystery because none has survived to the present time and because there is some confusion with instrument names from this period. Different names which were used for similar instruments and similar names used for different instruments. The name cornamuse from the Latin cornamusa commonly meant bagpipe as in the French cornemuse. The use of the name dolzaina, from the Latin dulcis (sweet), is thought to be the same or a similar instrument to the cornamuse, and yet the name is often intermingled with the dulzan or dulzian of the curtal families. These two names were sometimes used in the same sentence. Praetorius say that they are very soft, straight crumhorns, cylindrical bored instruments with a windcap, having no keys. They came in several sizes, each having a range of a ninth similar to that of other reed-cap instruments of the period [amended by Michael Zapf]
sizelowest note
sopranoc'
altog', f'
tenorc
bassF
great BassC
cornare(Latin, Italian) to sound a horn or cornet
Cornas de cabra(Spanish, literally 'goat horn') ancient Galician instrument used by shepherds
Cornatore(Italian) one who plays on or blows a horn
Cor naturel(French m.) natural horn
Cornea(English, German f., from Latin) the transparent outer covering of the eye, the lens of the eye
Corne-inglês(Portuguese, literally 'English horn') cor anglais, English horn
Cornel Cherry(German Kornelkirsche, Dutch Gele Kornoelje, European Species: Cornus mas) a very hard wood, similar to box, that was used for carving, turnings and tool handles
Cornemuse(German) see cornamusa
(French f.) specifically, a mouth-blown bagpipe with chanter and small drone in one stock, and a separate large drone, from the Bourbonnais region of France
(French f.) more generally, any type of mouth-blown bagpipe, piva (Italian f.), Dudelsack (German m.), Sackpfeife (German m.)
Cornemuse aragonaise(French f.) gaita aragonesa, gaita de boto
Cornemuse asturienne(French f.) gaita asturiana
Cornemuse bretonne(French f.) gaita bretona (Spanish), biniou (kozh) (Breton)
Cornemuse écossaise(French f.) gaita escocesa (Spanish), the Great Scottish bagpipe
Cornemuse galicienne(French f.) gaita gallega
Cornemuse irlandaise(French f.) Uilleann pipe
Cornemuse nantaise(French f.) see veuze
Corner, CornersEcke (German f. s.), Ecken (German pl.), coin (French s.), punta (Italian f. s.), punte (Italian f. pl.), on a stringed instrument (for example, a violin), the place where blocks (called corner blocks) are glued (above and below the bouts) on better quality instruments for strength
corner(French) cornare
Cornet(French m.) post horn
Cornet(English, French) cornetín (Spanish), cornetta (Italian), Kornett (German)
(English, French m.) or cornet-à-pistons, a transposing, treble wind instrument made of brass, of comparatively recent origin. It was formerly called a 'cornopean'. The cornet was invented by adding valves to the post horn in 1814. The valves allowed for melodic playing throughout the register of the cornet. Trumpets were slower to adopt the new valve technology, so for the next 100 years or more, composers often wrote separate parts for trumpet and cornet. The trumpet would play fanfare-like passages, while the cornet played more melodic passages. The modern trumpet has valves that allow it to play the same notes and fingerings as the cornet. Like the trumpet, it is played with a cupped mouthpiece, and possesses a quality of tone which comes between those of the trumpet and the bugle, the size of its tube being intermediate to those used for these instruments. Three slides, or valves, are employed which lengthen the tube to produce intermediate tones. The cornet is pitched in B-flat, and has a range from f sharp to c''' or above depending on the skill of the player. The cornet was called for primarily in the orchestras of French and Italian grand opera in the nineteenth century (Bizet's Carmen) and is still usual in orchestras in Latin countries. Nowadays cornet parts are played by trumpets or cornets
Cornet 
there are many organ stops known as cornet, including combination of stops at 8 ft., 4 ft., 2 2/3 ft., 2 ft. and 1 3/5 ft.
 
Corneta(Spanish f.) cornetto, a player of the cornetto
(Spanish f.) bugle, bugler, clairon (French), corniste (French)
or cornetto, a name applied to a reed stop in an organ of 16 ft. scale
Cornet à bouquin(French m.) cornetto, bugle horn, cornet
Corneta china(Spanish f.) Chinese bugle, another name for the trompeta china (literally Chinese trumpet) used in Cuban comparsas for carnival and derived from the traditional Chinese suona. It was the first brass instrument to be added to the Sexteto ensembles, creating the Septeto and was brought to China by Chinese immigrants
Corneta de pistones(Spanish f.) valve cornet, cornet à pistons (French) (usually fitted with three valves, so enabling the production of a complete chromatic scale)
Cornet à deux pistons(French m.) a French-style cornopean, a form of keyed-trumpet with two valves
Corneta inglesa(Spanish f.) English horn (US), cor anglais (French m., English), corno inglese (Italian m.), Englischhorn (German n.)
Cornet à pistons(French m.) valve cornet, corneta de pistones (Spanish) (usually fitted with three valves, so enabling the production of a complete chromatic scale)
Cornet dreifach(German) a cornet, with three ranks, in German organs
Cornetín(Spanish m.) cornet (English, French m.), Kornett (German n.)
(Spanish m.) cornet player
Cornetín de llaves(Spanish m.) keyed cornet, bugle
Cornetín de pistones(Spanish m.) value cornet
Cornetiste(French m./f.) horn player
Cornettcornetto
Cornetta(Italian f.) small horn
(Italian f.) Kornett (German n.), cornet (English, French m.), cornetín (Spanish m.)
(Italian f.) (telephone) receiver
Cornetta a pistoni(Italian f.) valve cornet, Piston (German m.), Ventilkornett (German n.), cornet à pistons (French m.), cornetín de pistones (Spanish)
Cornettenthonsee Cornett-Ton
Cornettino(Italian) small cornet, an octave trumpet
Cornettiste(French m./f.) a horn player, a cornetto player
Cornettocrescent-shaped roll
(Italian m.) corneta
(Italian m.) the cornetto is known to have existed in the tenth century but it was in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries that it was at its most influential. Made of wood or ivory, a member of the brass family, with finger holes like a recorder, but blown like a trumpet, it was used to play high, often ornate parts in polychoral music. When used in consort, it was generally combined with tromboni. The cornetto fell into obscurity during the early part of the eighteenth century
nametyperange & description
cornettino or soprano cornett in d'cornetto curvofourth higher than the treble cornetto
cornettino or soprano cornett in c'cornetto curvoa slightly larger version of the cornettino in d'
treble cornett in acornetto dirittothe straight treble was relatively rare
treble cornett in acornetto curvoproduced a clear, sometimes piercing sound. Its range was g-a'' but parts might go as high as d''' - note: although the lowest true note is a, g can be obtained by slackening the embouchure
treble cornett in acornetto mutostraight, turned from a solid piece of hardwood, similar in appearance to the straight cornetto but very different internally. The bore is more conical and the mouthpiece is not removable. It does not have a sharp end to the bore in the cup which is why the sound is much softer
alto cornett in gcornetto mutomade by Christopher Monk
alto cornett in fcornetto curvoa third below and a similar shape to the treble cornetto, although slightly larger
tenor cornett, lysarden or cornetto basso in dcornetto curvonamed for its lizard-like S shape, it had a range a fifth lower than the treble and was usually equipped with a key for the lowest finger hole
tenor cornett in ccornetto curvoa larger tenor cornett with three keys
Cornetto acustico(Italian m.) ear-trumpet
Cornetto mute(Italian m.) a soft-toned member of the cornetto family
Cornetto muto(Italian m.) a soft-toned member of the cornetto family
Cornet-Tonsee Cornett-Ton
Cornetto sordo(Italian m.) mute cornett
Cornetto storto(Italian m., literally 'crooked horn') cornetto
Cornetto, tenora rare larger member of the cornetto family also called the 'lizard' or lysarden due to its lizard-like S shape, with a range a fifth lower than the treble
Cornetto torto(Italian m., literally 'crooked horn') cornetto
Cornett-Thon(German m.) called Cammer-Thon by Praetorius and Chorton, in eighteenth-century Northern Germany (then approximately a'=465Hz)
the 17th-century Cornettenthon and the 18th-century Cornet-Ton were at the same level
the pitch (a'=c.480-470 Hz.) normally employed for chamber-music in seventeenth-century Germany
Corni(Italian m.) horns
Cornicen (s.), Cornicines (pl.)(Latin) a junior officer in the Roman Army whose job was to signal salutes to officers and sound orders to the legions. The cornicines played the cornu (making him an aeneator). Cornicines always marched at the head of the centuries, with the tesserary and the signifer. The cornicines were also used as assistants to a centurion. The cornicen was a duplicary, that is, he was a soldier who received twice the basic pay of the standard legionary
cornicare(Latin) cornare
Cornice(Italian f.) frame
Corniche(French) cornice
a coastal road running along a ledge cut into the side of a cliff or steep hillside
Cornisch(German n.) Cornish
cornisch(German) Cornish
Cornista(Italian m./f.) horn player
Corniste(French m./f.) horn player
Cornphíopaí(Gaelic) hornpipes
Corno(Italian m., Spanish m.) horn (generic term), French horn, Horn (German n., generic term), Waldhorn (German n., generic term), cor (French m., generic term), cuerno (Spanish m.)
Corno alto(Italian m.) a high horn
Corno a macchina(Italian m.) valve horn
Corno a mano(Italian m.) the natural French horn
Corno a pistoni(Italian m.) valve horn
Corno basso(Italian m.) a low horn
Corno cromatico(Italian m.) chromatic valve horn, corno ventile
Corno da caccia(Italian m.) hunting horn, trompeta de caza (Spanish f.), Jagdhorn (German n.), Signalhorn (German n.), cor de chasse (French m.), bugle (French m.)
Corno da nebbia(Italian m.) foghorn
Corno da tirarsi(Italian m.) what distinguishes this instrument from other corni is the qualification da tirarsi which means 'slide' - a straight piece of tubing (unlike the crooks which were curved extensions that were added to the horn to change pitch and modify the quality of sound). The slide (or extension) was added to (placed between the mouthpiece and the rest of the horn, or sometimes the mouthpiece was directly attached to a different length of straight tube) to change the pitch so that tones/notes, other than the 'natural' horn tones/notes, could be played. Without the 'slide' the number of notes that could be played cleanly and accurately was much smaller. As the word 'slide' indicates, it was possible to 'slide' the extension into a position which would facilitate the production of notes not otherwise attainable. There is some similarity here to manner in which the slide trombone functions, the difference being that the slide trombone can achieve different sounding lengths very easily. With the corno da tirarsi (and similarly with the tromba da tirarsi), a mouthpiece had to be removed to add the extension, or else a whole new section (longer or shorter) with mouthpiece attached had to replace the one being used
Corno de caza(Spanish m.) French horn
Corno delle Alpi(Italian m.) Alphorn (English, German n.), trompa de los Alpes (Spanish f.), Alpenhorn (English, German n.), cor des Alpes (French m.)
Corno di bassetto(Italian m., Spanish m.) Bassetthorn (German n.), cor de basset (French m.), a basset horn, a large member of the clarinet family, whose notes sound a fifth lower than written
an organ reed stop, of 8 ft. scale, producing a delicate clarinet-like sound
the nom de plume of George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) writing as a music critic
Corno di caccia(Italian m.) the hunting or French horn
Corno di postiglione(Italian m.) posthorn, post-boy's horn, Posthorn (German n.), cor de postillion (French m.)
Corno di toro(Italian m.) cowhorn, Stierhorn (German n.), cor de vache (French m.), cuerno de vaca (Spanish m.)
Corno dolcea soft organ pipe, occurring both in manuals and pedals
Corno-flutean organ reed stop, of 8 ft. scale, producing a soft warm quality of tone
Corno francés(Spanish m.) French horn
Corno inglés(Spanish m., literally 'English horn') cor anglais, English horn
Corno inglese(Italian m., literally 'English horn') cor anglais, English horn
Cornon(French) a cornet stop on the organ
(French) in 1844 Vaclav Frantisek Czerveny (1819-1896) from Hradec Králové (Königgratz) brought a tuba-like instrument with a horn mouthpiece onto the market. The cornon, as it was called, became very popular in Austrian, German and Swiss military bands in which it often replaced the horn. There is evidence to suggest that this instrument was known to Wagner
Corno natural(Spanish m.) natural horn
Cornopeana name sometimes given to the cornet à pistons
firm sonorous trumpet-like organ stop of 8 ft. scale, usually found upon the swell-manual
a keyed-trumpet with either two or three valves operated by pistons or levers
Cornophonesa family of brass instruments manufactured by Besson
Corno piccolo(Italian m.) a small horn in Bb, specified by Luigi Cherubini in his opera Alessandro nell'Indie
Corno primo(Italian m.) the first horn
Corno secondo(Italian m.) the second horn
Corno segnale(Italian m.) bugle
Corno segnale con chiavi(Italian m.) keyed bugle
Corno ventile(Italian m.) valve horn
Cornuan instrument consisting of a long brass tube twisted into a 'G' shape, used in Roman political ceremonies
Cornucopia(Latin) a horn of plenty (a symbol of plenty)
Cornuto(Italian m.) cuckold (familiar), bastard (as an insult)
cornuto(Italian) horned
Cornwall-Insel(German f.) Cornwall Island
Cornwall Islanda small island in the high arctic region of the Canadian territory of Nunavut
Cornwallis-Insel(German f.) Cornwallis Island
Cornwallis IslandCornwallis Island (Nunavut), Canada
Cornwallis Island (Torres Strait Islands), Australia
Cornwallis Island (South Shetland Islands), South Shetland Islands
Cornya term in common usage meaning sentimental, obvious or old-fashioned
Coro(Italian m.) course (of strings), córo (Spanish m.), Saitenchor (German m.), jeu (French m.), choeur (French m.)
(Italian m., Spanish m., Portuguese m.) choir, chorus, choeur (French)
Córo(Spanish m.) course (of strings), coro (Italian m.), Saitenchor (German m.), jeu (French m.), choeur (French m.)
(Spanish m.) choir, chorus
note: the 'chorus' of a song is estribillo (Spanish m.)
Coro A Bocca Chiusa(Italian m.) the Humming Chorus from the opera Madame Butterfly by Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924)
Coro della chiesacoro di chiesa
Coro della radio(Italian m.) radio choir, radio chorus
Coro di chiesa(Italian m.) church choir
Coro di fanciulli(Italian m.) boy's choir
Coro d'opera(Italian m.) opera chorus
Coro favorito(Italian m.) the select chorus, as opposed to the whole chorus
Coro femminile(Italian m.) women's choir, women's chorus
Coro-guíaalternative name for córo-pregón
Coro-inspiraciónalternative name for córo-pregón
Coro maschile(Italian m.) men's chours, men's chorus, male chorus
Coro misto(Italian m.) mixed chorus, mixed choir
Coro mixto(Spanish m.) mixed chorus, mixed choir
Cor omnitonique(French m.) a horn invented by Adolphe Sax on which by means of valves all the tones and semitones of a scale can be produced
Corona(Italian f.) crown, wreath (of flowers), rosary
(Latin) the luminous halo surrounding a celestial body, that is visible during a total eclipse
fermata or corona(Italian f.) a musical symbol placed over a note or rest to be extended beyond its normal duration
Coronachan Irish or Scottish Highland funeral hymn
Coronal planealso known as the frontal plane, any vertical plane that divides the body into ventral (belly, anterior) and dorsal (back, posterior) sections
coronare(Italian) to crown
coronare Ebene(German f.) coronal plane
Coroner(English, German m.) or public examiner, a public official who investigates by inquest any death not due to natural causes
Coronisa decorative tail-piece, often no more than a flourished paragraphus mark containing curly lines below and above the paragraphus, usually at the end of a section of text or of a book
Coro parlato(Italian m.) choral speaking, when a choir, rather than a solist, delivers a vocal line as sprechgesang, midway between song and speech
Coro pieno(Italian m.) full chorus, full choir
a marking indicating that after a passage sung only by individual members of the choir, or other soloists, the whole choir should now sing
Córo-pregón(Spanish m., córo means 'chorus') the call-and-response between the lead vocal, the pregón or guía, which is generally improvised, and the chorus, the córo, which is generally arranged or a fixed part. It is a principal structural element of son, salsa, merengue, son montuno, rumba, cha-cha-chá, timba, and many more Latin American genres
Coro spezzato(Italian m.) a 'broken-up chorus', where the singers are distributed in small groups around a church
Corpetto(Italian m.) bodice
Coryphée(French m./f., from coryphaeus (Latin: leader)) a ballet dancer who ranks above a member of the corps de ballet and below a soloist and who performs in small ensembles
Corpo(Italian m.) body, corps (body of people), the body of an instrument
Corpo insegnante(Italian m.) teaching staff (collectively)
Corporal Acts of Mercya series of charitable acts which aided the giver to salvation; feeding the hungry, providing drink for the thirsty, clothing the naked, visiting the sick, visiting prisoners, taking in the traveller and burying the dead
corporale(Italian) corporal
Corporate culturethe set of values, beliefs, and relationships between individuals and functions that guide the decisions of the company in order to achieve its objectives. It results in behaviour that has been learned within a group or transferred between individuals over time
Corporatura(Italian f.) build
Corporazione(Italian f.) corporation
corporeo(Italian) bodily
Corps(French m.) the body of an instrument
(French m.) a company of performers
(French m.) tube, staple
Corps à corps(French) hand to hand
Corps de Ballet(German n.) corps de ballet
Corps de ballet(French m.) the dancers in a ballet-company who do not appear as soloists
Corps d'élite(French m.) a body of picked men, a society of the elect
Corps de réchange(French m.) a crook (used on a brass instrument to alter the pitch)
(French m.) the extra or alternative sections of early flutes, which allowed them to perform at a number of different pitches
Corps de résonance(French m.) resonant body
Corps de voix(French m.) quality or volume of the voice
Corpsein the theatre, when an actor, breaking out of character, laughs on stage
Corpse candlea thick candle formerly used at a lich wake, or the customary watching with a corpse on the night before its interment
Corps électoral(French m.) electorate
Corps enseignant(French m.) teaching profession
Corps supérieur(French m.) top joint
Corpulence(English, French f.) stoutness
corpulent (m.), corpulente (f.)(French) stout
corpulento(Italian) stout
Corpusa complete collection of writings of a certain type or by a certain individual author or related group of authors, or about a certain subject
(Latin, for 'body') the term used by musicologists when they refer to the entire collection of music in a particular style, or from a particular geographical region, from one historical period, or using any other reasonable classification
Korpus (German m.), cassa (armonica) (Italian f.), coffre (French m.), the body of a musical instrument
Corpus callosuma structure in the brain connecting the right and left hemisphere, allowing interhemispheric communication
Corpus Christi(Latin, literally 'the body of Christ') the feast of The Blessed Sacrament, celebrated on the Thursday after Trinity Sunday
a play formerly performed on the feast of The Blessed Sacrament (first celebrated officially in 1311)
Corpus Christi playa religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Eve, Noah's flood, the crucifixion, and so on
Corpus Delicti(German n. from Latin) corpus delicti
Corpus delicti (s.), Corpora delicti (pl.)(English, from Latin) the body of evidence that constitute the offence, the objective proof that a crime has been committed (sometimes mistakenly thought to refer to the body of a homicide victim)
Corpus vile (s.), Corpus vilia (pl.)(Latin) a worthless object, something used in an experiment or project that is thought most likely to be unsuccessful
Corralan enclosure for horses or cattle
Corrección de pruebas(Spanish f.) proof-reading
correctement(French) properly, correctly, decently
Correcteur (m.), Correctrice (f.)(French) proof-reader, examiner
Correcteur d'orthographe(French m.) spelling checker
Correctingin cooking, to adjust the seasoning, consistency or colour
Correction(English, French f.) correcting or being corrected, thing substituted for what is wrong. punishment (archaic in English)
Correctitudeconsciously correct behaviour
Correctivecorrective measure or thing
serving to correct or counteract something harmful
Correctorium(Latin) a tuning cone, used in tuning an organ
corredare(Italian) to equip
Corredera(Spanish f.) slide (on a musical instrument)
Corredino(Italian m.) layette
Corredo(Italian m.) trousseau
correggere(Italian) to correct, to lace (a drink)
corregido(Spanish) corrected
correl.abbrevation of 'correlative' (corresponding to each other and used together, as with 'neither' and 'nor' or 'either' and 'or')
Correlativecorresponding to each other and used together, as with 'neither' and 'nor' or 'either' and 'or'
correndo(Italian) running
Corrente(Italan f.) current, draught (of air)
also corrento, an Italian dance of rapid tempo in simple triple time
corrente(Italian) running, current
corrente d'aria(Italian) draught (a movement of air)
Correntoalso coranto or corant, an Italian dance of rapid tempo in simple triple time
Corrépétiteur(French m.) the person who teaches singers their parts, and acquaints ballet dancers with the accompanying music
Correpetitor(German m.) the person who teaches singers their parts, and acquaints ballet dancers with the accompanying music
correre(Italian) to run, to hurry, to race (sport), to circulate (a note)
correre dietro a(Italian) to run after
correre un pericolo(Italian) to be in danger
Correspondance(French f.) correspondence
Correspondant (m.), Correspondante (f.)(French) correspondent
correspondre(French) to correspond, to communicate
corretto(Italian) correct
corretto con(Italian) laced with (coffee)
Correttore di tonalità(Italian m.) tone control
Correzione(Italian f.) correction
Correzione di bozze(Italian f.) proof-reading
Corridain dance, a run
Corrida (de torros)(Spanish f.) a bull-fight, bull-fighting
Corridinhoa form of Portuguese dance, namely in the Algarve. It is danced with the pairs always embraced, forming a circle, girls inside and the boys outside the circle. By rotating the circle the pairs evolve side by side. At a certain time, when the music as a stronger beat, their feet hit the floor more intesely, stopping the rotation, to resume afterwards. Further away in the dance, the pairs embraced waltz by spinning in the same place. Next the circle starts rotating again always for the right side.
  • Corridinho from which this information has been taken
Corridista(Spanish m./f.) a performer of corridos who might also sell copies of new or important corridos as broadsides, inexpensive printed pamphlets
Corrido (s.), Corridos (pl.)derived from the Spanish romance, a Mexican ballad tradition that tells the story of current or past events or heroic figures, sometimes called 'singing newspapers'
in Brazil, one or two verse songs sung by a soloist and answered by a chorus, the shortest among the three most common types of songs in the capoeira roda of both traditions, capoeira Angola and capoeira regional
Corridoio(Italian m.) corridor
Corridore(Italian m.) racer, runner (on foot)
Corriente continua(Spanish f.) direct current
Corriera(Italian f.) coach
Corriere(Italian m.) courier, mail (post)
Corrigendo (m.), Corrigenda (f.)(Italian) juvenile offender
Corrigendum (m.), Corrigenda (f.)(Latin) something to be corrected, a list of corrections to be made in a printed book
corregir pruebas(Spanish) to proofread
corrió escaleras arriba(Spanish) he ran upstairs
Corripetitore(Italian m.) the person who teaches singers their parts, and acquaints ballet dancers with the accompanying music
Corrispondente(Italian m./f.) correspondant
corrispondente(Italian) corresponding
Corrispondenza(Italian f.) correspondence
corrispondere(Italian) to correspond
corrispondere a(Italian) to communicate (for example, by letter), to return
corrispondere con ...(Italian) to correspond with ...
Corroboree(Australian) an Australian aboriginal dance, either festive or warlike
corroborare(Italian) to strengthen, to corroborate (figurative)
corrodere(Italian) to corrode
corrompere(Italian) to corrupt, to bribe (with money)
Corrosione(Italian f.) corrosion
corrosivo(Italian) corrosive
Corrotto(Italian m.) vicious or depraved person
corrotto(Italian) corrupt, depraved, foul, contaminated
corrucciarsi(Italian) to be vexed
corrucciato(Italian) upset
Corrugaphonesee 'Lasso d'amore'
corrugare(Italian) to wrinkle
corrugare la fronte(Italian) to knit one's brows
corrupto optimi pessima(Latin) noteable talents misapplied lead to extreme wickedness
corruscare(Italian) or coruscare, to flash, to sparkle, to scintillate
corrusco(Italian) or corusco, shining, sparkling
Corruzione(Italian f.) corruption, bribery (with money)
Corsa(Italian f.) running, dash (move quickly), race (sport), journey
Corsage(French m.) blouse, bodice
(English) the bodice of a dress although, in the 19th century, corsage was a common term for a woman's bodice or jacket, or a bridal corset which is less tightly fitted than a true corset
(English) originally, a bouquet of flowers, flower bud, or a bow, worn on the corsage between the breasts, hence its use as the name for a cluster of flowers worn on the breast, waist or wrist
Corsetor ginally called 'stays' (although this term is not obsolete), an undergarment, close fitting to impose silhouette with defined waist and or full bosom; traditionally in two pieces, boned and laced up back and front
Corsetière(French f.) a fitter of women's corsets
Corsia(Italian f.) gangway, ward (in a hospital)
Cor simple(French m.) natural horn
Corsivo(Italian m.) italics (plural)
Corso(Italian m.) course, main street, circulation (communication)
cospargere con(Italian) to spread with
costringere con la forza(Italian) to dragoon
cortamente(Italian) short
cortarle las alas a ...(Spanish) to clip ...'s wings
Corte(Italian f.) courtyard, court (legal, royal)
Corteccia(Italian f.) bark (of a tree), rind (cheese), crust (of bread)
Cortége(French m., literally 'procession') archaic spelling of cortège
Cortège(French m., literally 'procession') the title given to a piece of music suitable for accompanying a procession or that might be illustrative of one
Cortes(Spanish f. pl.) the two chambers of the legislative assembly of Spain or Portugal
Cortex (s.), Cortices (pl.)(Latin) bark, husk, the outer grey matter of the brain
Corticosteroid (s.), Corticosteroide (German pl.), Corticoseriods (English pl.)(English, German n.) a steroid hormone, produced by the adrenal cortex or synthesised, administered as drugs to reduce swelling and decrease the body's immune response
Cortigiana di lume(Italian f. pl.) courtesans designated as being of a lower-class, although still considered better than an average prostitute
Cortigiana onesta(Italian f. pl.) so-called 'honest' courtesans, usually well-educated and worldly (sometimes even more so than the average upper-class woman), and often held simultaneous careers as performers or artists, who were chosen typically on the basis of their "breeding" - social and conversational skills, intelligence, common sense, and companionship - as well as their physical attributes
Cortile (s.), Cortili (pl.)(Italian) a courtyard (usually one surrounded by buildings)
corto, corta, corti, corte(Italian) short
Cortholtsee Kortholt
Corvée(German f., French f.) forced labour, drudgery, any laborious task
originally, as part of feudal law, an obligation to perform certain services, as the repair of roads, for the lord or sovereign
Cor viennois(French m.) Viennese horn
Corxera
quaver or eighth note(Catalan f.) quaver, eighth note
Coryphaeus(Greek) or corifeo, the leader of the dramatic chorus
Coryphée(French m.) the leader of, or chief of the groups of male dancers in a ballet
Coryza(German f., from Latin, from the Greek) an inflammation of the mucous membrane lining the nose, usually associated with nasal discharge
cosacco (m.), cosacca (f.)(Italian) in the Cossack style
Cosaque(French) or Danse Cosaque, Cossack dance in simple duple time
[corrected by John Comber]
Cosecans(German m.) cosecant (cosec)
Cosecanta function whose value is the ratio of the hypotenuse to the opposite side of a right-angled triangle
Cosinea function whose value is the ratio of the adjacent side to the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle
Cosinus(German m.) cosine
Cosinus hyperbolicus(German m.) hyperbolic cosine (cosh)
Cosmic ironyor situational irony, particularly situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life
Cosmic noiseradio-frequency radiation originating outside Earth's atmosphere
Cosmos(Greek) the ordered universe (the disordered universe is chaos)
co.so.(Italian) an abbreviation of come sopra meaning 'as above'
Costa Rica(English, German n.) officially the Republic of Costa Rica, a major coffee producing country in Central America
Costa-Ricaner (s.), Costa-Ricanerin (f.), Costa-Ricaner (pl.)(German) Costa Rican
costa-ricanisch(German) Costa Rican
custodire con cura(Italian) to appreciate (take care)
costretto(Italian) constrained, forced, obliged
costumé(French) dressed up
Costumier(Italian m.) a maker or purveyor of costumes, especially those for the theatre
Cotangens(German m.) cotangent
Cotangens hyperbolicus(German m.) hyperbolic cotangent
Cotangenta function whose value is the ratio of the adjacent to the opposite side of a right-angled triangle
Cote(French f.) a rib or chop
Coteau (s.), Coteaux (pl.)(French) a sloping hill-side
Côte d'Azur(English, German f, French f.) French Riviera
Cotehardiea term used extensively for both feminine gowns and masculine tunics from 1300 until 1430. It is generally applied to fitting garments, buttoned part- or full-length, and having long or half sleeves
Cotelette(French f.) cutlet (meat)
coter(French) to quote
Coterie(French) a select or exclusive group of people, whose selection may be based on intellect or social position
Cothoza Mfana(Zulu) or Isicathamiya, the names refer to a style of dance, softly stepped in a kind of tiptoe, as if not to be heard. This had its roots in the necessity of the performers - originally migrant hostel dwellers - to rehearse their act without disturbing the white camp guards during the night. The music was developed, practised and perfected by men who had left their homes and families to work in the diamond and gold mines of the big cities
Cothurni(Greek) the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage
Cotill.abbreviated form of Cotillon
Cotillionor debutante ball, a formal gathering with a focus on social etiquette and ballroom dance, geared to encourage the young to acquire social skills of high society
(French, literally 'petticoat') an eighteenth- and nineteenth-century formal dance, similar to a contradance or quadrille, often the final dance of the evening and consisting of a variety of complex steps that would be performed by a lead couple which the other couples imitated, the music would have included a waltz, polka, mazurka or galop
Cotillon(French) a favour or souvenir given away at a ball or dance, the name of a popular dance
Cotisation(French f.) contribution, subscription
Cotta(Latin) a short surplice worn like a cassock
Cottage Cheese(German m.) cottage cheese
Cottage cheesea soft cheese made from skimmed milk
Cottage organsee 'reed organ'
Cottage orné(French m.) in 18th-century England, this type of villa or country 'summer house' built in a faux-rustic style appeared at the time of the early development of country estates
Cottage pianoa small style of upright piano
Cottage Pie(German m.) cottage pie
Cottage piea dish of minced meat topped with mashed potatoes
Cottian AlpsAlpes Cottiennes (French), Alpi Cozie (Italian), a mountain range in the south-western part of the Alps
Cottische Alpen(German pl.) Cottian Alps
Cotton Cluba famous night club in New York City that operated during Prohibition. While the club featured many of the greatest African American entertainers of the era, such as Duke Ellington, Count Basie, Bessie Smith, Cab Calloway, The Nicholas Brothers, Ella Fitzgerald, Louis Armstrong, Nat King Cole, Billie Holiday, and Ethel Waters, it generally denied admission to blacks. During its heyday, it served as a chic meeting spot in the heart of Harlem, featuring regular "Celebrity Nights" on Sundays, at which celebrities such as Jimmy Durante, George Gershwin, Al Jolson, Mae West, Irving Berlin, Eddie Cantor, Moss Hart, New York mayor Jimmy Walker and other luminaries would appear
Cotton-Eyed Joea popular Country & Western dance
Cotton Library, Theone of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts
Cottonöl(German n.) cottonseed oil, oil of cotton, cotton oil
Cotton papermade from 100% cotton fibres, cotton paper is superior in both strength and durability to wood pulp-based paper, which may contain high concentrations of acids. It may also be known as cotton rag or ragged paper
Cou(French m.) neck
Couac(French) the 'quack' or 'squeak' of the clarinet, oboe and bassoon, caused by a bad reed or reeds, poor embouchure, or defective keywork
Couch(English, German f.) an upholstered seat for more than one person, sofa, settee, davenport
Couched harpa name formerly applied to the spinet
Couchée(French f.) originally a reception held at the time of the King's going to bed, now any evening reception
coucher par écrit(French) to set down (in writing)
Couchette(French f.) a sleeping-berth, usually on a train
Couchgarnitur(German f.) suite, living room suite, sectional, lounge suite, three-piece suite
Couchkartoffel(German f.) couch potato (colloquial)
Couchkissen(German n.) couch cushion
Couchpotato (s.), Couchpotatoes (pl.)(German f.) couch potato (colloquial)
Couch potatoan idler who spends much time on a couch (usually watching television)
Couch-Potato (s.), Couch-Potatoes (pl.)(German f.) couch potato (colloquial)
Couchtisch(German m.) coffee table, cocktail table
Coucou(French m., literally 'cuckoo') cuckoo pipe
Coude(French m.) elbow
Coude à coude(French, literally 'elbow to elbow') side by side
Cou de pied (s.), Cous de pied (pl.)(French m.) instep
(French m., literally 'neck of the foot') in dance, a position of the working foot on or around the ankle of the supporting leg
Couesnophonealso known as the goofus or queenophone, a free-reed musical instrument resembling a saxophone. Its reeds vibrate when the desired keys are activated and the player blows through a tube. French manufacturer Couesnon was awarded the patent no. 569294 in 1924 for an instrument that was described as a saxophone jouet (French: toy saxophone). However, the couesnophone is a polyphonic instrument, while the saxophone is monophonic
couiner(French) to squeak
Couladesee tirade
a French baroque ornament, referred to as 'slide' in English, in which two or more slurred and adjacent ornamental notes connect two principal notes
coulamment(French) flowingly, smoothly
coulant(French) accommodating, easy to get on with
Coulé(French m.) slur, legato
(French m.) a 'slide'
(French m.) an ornament consisting of two or three ascending or, more commonly, descending notes, forming a double or triple appoggiatura
coulé (m.), coulée (f.)(French) slurred
"Is said figuratively of speech or style that is facile, aisé, that has nothing constrained about it, that is natural." - Furetière (1727)
"In music is said when the voice or instruments move from one note to another by making a sort of link [liaison, which is also the word for "slur"] between the notes." - Dictionnaire de l'Académie Françoise (1762)
"When, instead of marking each note, one plays two or more notes with the same articulation, while prolonging the wind supply or the bowing. Too many coulés in a piece make its goût [character/taste] effeminate." - Trévoux (1771)
  • Ranums' Panat Times from which the comments by Dictionnaire de l'Académie Françoise, Trévoux and Furetière have been taken
couler(French) flow
"This word is used in its strict sense for water and liquids. It means to flow doucement and according to its natural inclination, to spread out doucement. ... This word is applied to speech or prose or verse and means to have nothing harsh or forced about it, to be aisé and natural." - Richelet (1681)
"In dancing terminology it means to move the leg doucement, légèrement and level with the ground. Dancing consists of knowing how to couler, couper, and make a pirouette." - Furetière (1690)
coulé sur une tierce(French) a variant of the 'slide' found in French baroque keyboard music, in which three conjunct notes are played over a held note, the first in unison with it and the last, which is longer than the other two, lying a third above or a third below it
Couleur(French f.) shade, tint, hue
jeder Couleur (German: of every shade, of all stripes, from all walks of life ), jeglicher Couleur (German: of all shades)
[corrected by Michael Zapf]
Couleur de rose(French) pink, rose-coloured, optimistic (as in the English expression, 'rose-tinted spectacles')
Couleur de temps(French) as the wind blows (a figurative reference to circumstances at any given moment)
Coulis(French m.) a sauce, generally of strained, pureed fruit or vegetable
Coulisse(French f.) slide (hence trompette à coulisse meaning 'slide trombone'), pompa mobile a coulisse (Italian f.), pompa a tiro (Italian f.), Zug (German m.), vara (Spanish f.)
slide casing
(French f.) a piece of scenery at the side of a stage designed to mask the wings, the wings of the stage (also any feature is a painitng serving a similar purpose)
coulisser(French) to slide
Coulisses(French f.) wings (of a theatre), backstage
Couloira deep gorge or gully formation found on the side of a mountain
Councila formal meeting of bishops and representatives of churches convened for the purpose of regulating doctrine or discipline
Council of Trenta council of the Roman Catholic Church that convened in Trent, Italy from 1543 to 1565 and dealt with matters pertaining to the Counter-Reformation, including the reform of liturgical music
Countan accent or beat of a bar
Countdown(English, German m./n.) counting backward from an arbitrary number to indicate the time remaining before some event (such as launching a space vehicle)
Count-down(German m./n.) countdown
Counter(in music) a prefix used to describe something designed to contrast with a principal part or melody
Counter (s.), Counter (German pl.), Counters (English pl.)(English, German m.) table consisting of a horizontal surface over which business is transacted, game equipment used for keeping a count or reserving a space in various card or board games, a person who counts things, a piece of furniture that stands at the side of a dining room (usually having shelves and drawers), a calculator that keeps a record of the number of times something happens
Counter-answercontre-réponse (French), contrarisposta (Italian), Kontrabeantwortung (German), contra-respuesta (Spanish)
(English) a feature of some fugues, a element that is related to the counter-subject, as the answer is related to the subject
Counterblow hammera forging hammer in which the ram and anvil are driven toward each other by compressed air or steam
Counterculturein sociology, counterculture is a term used to describe a cultural group whose values and norms are at odds with those of the social mainstream, a cultural equivalent of a political opposition. In casual practice, the term came to prominence in the general press as it was used to refer to the youth rebellion that swept North America and Western Europe in the 1960s and early 1970s. Earlier countercultural milieus in nineteenth-century Europe included the traditions of Bohemianism and of the Dandy
Counter-expositionin many fugues, on the completion of the exposition, a re-entry of the subject and answer in the original keys, but in a different order, takes place in some or all of the voices, and this is termed 'counter-exposition'
Countermelodya melody designed to fit against a more important line, called the principal melody
a division of pipes in a band organ which usually play countermelodies, sustained chords, low melodies and other non-principal parts
Counterpointcontrapunto (Spanish), contrappunto (Italian), contrepoint (French), Kontrapunkt (German m.)
the technique of setting a melody or melodies in conjunction with another. Counterpoint melodies are composed according to set rules
counterpoint, as defined in Gradus ad Parnassum (1725) by Johann Joseph Fux (1660-1741), consists of five species:
1.note against note a semibreve (whole note) against a semibreve (whole note)
2.two notes against one notetwo minims (half notes) against a semibreve (whole note)
3.four notes against one notefour crochets (quarter notes) against a semibreve (whole note)
4.syncopated counterpointa second minim (half note) of one bar tied to the first minim (half note) of the following bar set against a semibreve (whole note) entering on the first part of each bar
5.florid counterpointa mixture of the three preceding species
"Everything goes by degrees in nature, and nothing by leaps, and this rule regarding changes is part of my law of continuity. But the beauty of nature, which requires distinct perceptions, demands the appearance of leaps, and so to speak musical cadences in phenomena, and takes pleasure in mixing the species" Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz (1646-1716) Nouveaux essais sur l'entendement humain (1765)
Counterpoint dueta duet where one voice sings a song and then another sings a different melody (usually to the same basic chord pattern), after which they sing both melodies together in counterpoint
Countersubjectcontra-sujeto (Spanish), contrasoggetto (Italian), Kontrasubjekt (German), Gegenstimme (German), Gegensatz (German), contre-sujet (French)
the theme which serves as a counterpoint against the principal subject in a double fugue, also spoken of as a second subject, and the whole as 'a fugue upon two subjects'
the theme which accompanies the answer in a fugue, provided that it is heard against the theme at each appearance
Countertenor(English, German m.) contratenor (Spanish), controtenore (Italian), contre-tenor (French), Kontratenor (German)
male alto, with a tessitura similar to that of a mezzo-soprano, often but not always a falsetto voice
Counter-tenor clefor countertenor clef, alternative names for the alto clef
Counterthemecountersubject
Count ina count at the start of a piece of music to show when to start and how fast to play
Countinga technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of writing by counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and so on
Counting offsetting the tempo and meter by counting out aloud
Country(English, German f.) in German, short for Countrymusic (German f.), country music (genre)
Country and Western musicsee 'country music'
Country bluesalso 'folk blues', 'rural blues', or 'downhome blues', refers to all the acoustic, guitar-driven forms of the blues
Country boogiea simple rhythm guitar or accompaniment boogie pattern
Country dancea village dance form originating in early seventeenth-century England, taken to France where it became the contre-dance and German where it became the Kontretanz
dances compiled by John Playford in 1650
Country Dance Book, TheCecil Sharp published The Country Dance Book in 1909. This described 18 dances he had collected during his travels in search of folk-songs and Morris and Sword dances. In 1911 he published The Country Dance Book, Part II. This was his interpretation of dances published by John Playford in the seventeenth century. With George Butterworth, he produced parts III and IV in 1912 and 1916 (with a second edition of part IV in 1918); these contained further dances from Playford's collection. In 1918 he and Maud Karpeles wrote part V, describing the Running Set, and finally in 1922 he wrote part VI with further Playford dances. Cecil Sharp died in 1926 and Maud Karpeles supervised publishing revised editions of The Country Dance Book, parts I-IV, making substantial changes to Part I (and adding two dances). In 1975 EP Publishing produced a reprint from the revised editions of parts I and II, the earlier ones of parts III and IV, plus parts V and VI; they also included an undated set of corrections Novello & Co had issued at some stage. In 1985 Harry Styles reissued the EP editions, with those corrections applied
Country gospelsee 'White gospel'
Country music
(English, Countrymusik (German f.)) also called 'country and western music' or 'country-western', a rural American genre, rooted in British ballads and folk songs originally played on the fiddle in Britain and which were adapted to the banjo and guitar, which have respectively African and Spanish origins. Country music is now popular around the world, variously known in the past as folk music, old-time music, hillbilly, C&W (Country and Western) and honky tonk, but which has included other genres:
honky tonk countryfrom the 1930s strongly influenced by the blues and jug bands
rockabillyfrom the 1950s, adding elements of rock and roll
Western swingfrom the 1950s, adding influences from swing and bluegrass
Nashville sounda highly polished heavily produced form of country music that became called 'countrypolitan'
Bakersfield sounda reaction to the Nashville sound, harder-edged and gritty
outlaw countryemerging during the 1970s, a heavily rock-influenced style
modern bluegrass musictraditional, though progressive
Countrymusic(German f.) country music
Country Music(German f.) country music
Country-Music(German f.) country music
Countrypolitana more pop-based form of the Nashville sound, which was aimed straight at mainstream markets, and sold well throughout the later 1960s and 1970s
Country punksee 'folk punk', 'alternative country'
Country-rapthe fusion of country music with hip hop music. Perhaps to avoid the unfortunate abbreviation 'c-rap', the style is known by several other names, such as "hick hop," "hill hop," "hip hopry," and "country hip hop"
Country rocka style of popular music in which the sound and typical subject matter of country music are combined with the rhythm and instrumentation of rock music. It was foreshadowed in the 1950s and 1960s by singers such as the Everly Brothers, Roy Orbison, and Robbie Gentry. In the late 1960s a number of folk-rock performers, notably Bob Dylan and Joan Baez, began to turn away from the protest songs of the urban folk-music revival and incorporate references to the traditional concerns of country music (i.e., the simple life, the charm of the South, nostalgia for the rural past, etc.) into their lyrics. Such themes, and the country-style melodies to which they were set, were developed in different ways by the Eagles, the Byrds, Crosby, Stills, and Nash, and Linda Ronstadt
Countrysänger (m.), Countrysängerin (f.)(German) country (music) vocalist
Country-westernsee 'country music'
Country-western dancealso called 'Country and Western dance', encompasses many dance forms or styles, which are typically danced to country-western music, and which are stylistically associated with American country and/or western traditions
Country Western Musik(German f.) country and western music
Country-western two-stepthe two-step originated in the United states in the 1800s by people who arrived from Europe. It was an offspring of the minuet. In the old Western days when women were not allowed to dance with men, men danced together and that is the reason for the hand on the shoulder holding a can of beer and the other hand to the side
Countyoriginally the area ruled by a Count or Countess, today, in the UK, a region created by territorial division for the purpose of local government or, in the US, the largest administrative district within a state
County (s.), Countys (pl.)(German n.) county (s.), counties (pl.)
Coup (s.), Coups (pl.)(German m., French m.) cut, stroke, beat
(English, German m., French m.) an unexpected success (figurative), a sudden and decisive change of government illegally or by force (short for coup d'etat (French m.))
coup d'archet(French m.) the management of the bow, the art of bowing, bow stroke, bowing, colpo d'arco (Italian m.), arcata (Italian f.), Bogenführung (German f.), Bogenstrich (German m.), Strichart (German f.)
Coup de cloche(French m.) strike of a bell
Coup de cymbales amorti(French m.) soft long cymbal blow
Coup de foudre(French m.) love at first sight, an instant and overwhelming passion
Coup de glotte(French m., 'stroke of the glottis') or 'glottal attack, a singing method, now considered rather exaggerated, that utilises the two membranes above the natural vocal chords
Coup de grâce(French m.) the final stoke (that designed to put someboy out of their misery)
Coup de langue(French m.) tonguing
Coup de langue simple(French m.) single tonguing
Coup de Main(German m.) coup de main (French m.)
Coup de main(English, from French m.) sudden action, particularly an attack, undertaken to surprise an enemy
Coup de maître(French m.) a master-stroke
Coup de marteau(French m.) hammer-blow
Coup de piston(French m.) a helping hand, 'string-pulling'
Coup de sonnette(French m.) ring (a bell)
Coup d'essai(French m.) an experimental work, a first attempt
Coup de tambour(French m.) drumbeat
Coup d'État(German m.) coup d'état (French m.)
Coup d'état(French m.) a violent political action leading to the overthrow of a government
Coup de théàtre(German m., French m.) dramatic event, a sudden sensational action
Coup d'oeil(French m.) glance, a glimpse, the effect of a scene at first glance
Coupe(French) a pudding served in a goblet-shaped glass, an individual serving bowl
Coupé(French m., literally 'to cut off') in dancing, like the chassé but the displaced foot is raised into the air
German n., (French m.) a compartment at the end of a railway carriage, with seats on one side only
(German n., French m.) a motor-car with only two doors and tilt-up front seats
coupé (m.), coupée (f.)(French) to cut short, tronco
(French) "A style coupé is terse and laconic speech. [When the subject being treated requires fire and mouvement, oratorical periods that are coupé [broken up] are appropriate, because they have a je ne sais quoi that is very vif and male, which is perhaps one of the greatest ornaments of speech.]" - Furetière (1690). Phrases within square brackets were added in 1702
Coupédach(German n.) hardtop
Coupé de grâce(French) in Italian tronco per grazia, "this notifies both instrumentalists and vocalists that they should not drag or lengthen certain sounds, but cut them off, that is, continue them only as long as needed to make them heard, so that there is a silence between each one, etc. This manner of cutting off sounds often creates a very fine effect, especially when expressing pain, when expressing sighs, sobs, etc. When expressing astonishment, in magical and frightening ceremonies, etc." - Brossard (1703)
Coupé de ville(French) an open coupé with a hood that can be raised so as to cover either the back seats or the front seats as well
Coupé jeté en tournant(French m.) in dance, a compound step consisting of a coupé dessous making a three-quarter turn and a grand jeté en avant to complete the turn. The step is usually done in a series either en manège or en diagonale
couper en travers(French) to cut across
couper le sujet(French) to abbreviate the subject or theme
Coupes de cymbales(French m. pl.) cymbal crashes
Coup frôlé(French m.) striped beat, striped stroke
Coupleda term applied when two or more registers on an organ, harpsichord or the like sound when the keys on only one manual are being operated
on some automatic music players, and to overcome the limitation on the number of independent notes that can be controlled via the music roll, the bass notes on a player piano, for example, might be mechanically coupled so that when the higher is activated via the roll, it and the key for the note one octave lower are both brought into action giving more tonal strength to its lowest notes
Couple dancesa group of dances, for example, mazurka, valcer, polka, schotisch, siebenschritt, raspa, stajeris, furlana, palaisglais, often with strong Central European influences, in which couples move through the dance area in an anti-clockwise direction, while an individual couple rotates in a clockwise direction. These dances sometimes have a dance-leader or caller. If he does not lead off as the first dancer, he stands in the centre of the dance area without a partner and calls out the commands that the couples follow in their dancing
Couple de sonneursBreton dance music
Coupleror copula, a coupler on an organ allows one division to be connected to another. This allows the stops of two divisions to be controlled by one manual or the pedals. For example, the Swell to Great coupler allows the Great manual to use stops from the Swell. There are also couplers which act within a division to play the stops at a different octave (called octave couplers). For example, SW 4' is a coupler which will play the stops in the swell up an octave and at regular pitch at the same time. Larger organs may use 'unison off' couplers, which prevent the stops pulled in a particular division from sounding at their normal pitch. These can be used in combination with octave couplers to create innovative aural effects, and can also be used to rearrange the order of the manuals to make specific pieces easier to play
couplers also feature on larger harpsichords enabling two or more sets of strings to be activated simultaneously by a single keyboard
on some orchestrions and band organs multiplexing devices (called couplers or switches) associate the tracker bar holes with an alternative group of instruments thereby increasing the instrument's capabilities
Coupletduplet (that is, a pair of notes, or a note and a rest, having the time usually given to three)
a two-note slur
an episode in an early French rondeau
in rondo-form, the subsiduary or subordinate section, that is played between the repeated principal theme or refrain
in poetry, two lines, the second line immediately following the first, of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to form a complete unit
(French m.) verse
(Dutch) verse, stave, stanza
(Dutch) couplet
(French m.) topical or light song, for example, in vaudeville or in a comic opera
(German n.) a music hall song (comic or satirical) (often with a refrain)
(Dutch) topical or light song
Couplet-zanger(Dutch) music-hall singer
Coupling flutea name given to a stop in an organ which may be coupled to, or use in conjunction with, any other register
Coup mat(French m.) muffled stroke, muffled beat (of a drum)
Coupon (s.), Coupons (pl.)(English, German m.) or voucher, a negotiable certificate that can be detached and redeemed as needed
Coups d'archet(French m. pl.) in violin playing, strokes of the bow, ways and methods of bowing
Coup simple(French m.) a single beat, a single stroke
Coupure(French f.) omitted section, a 'cut'
Courage(English, German f.) or 'heart' or 'bravery', a quality of spirit that enables a person to face danger or pain without showing fear
couragiert(German) courageously, courageous
Courante(English, German f., from the French) a French dance that mixes simple triple and compound duple time, in its courtly form, slow but deriving from the Italian corrente which was a faster, hopping and running, courtship dance. In a suite, the courante often followed the allemande
Courbe inférieure(French f.) sagoma inferiore (Italian f.), volta inferiore (Italian f.), lower bout, Unterbügel (German m.)
Courbe supérieure(French f.) sagoma superiore (Italian f.), volta superiore (Italian f.), upper bout, Oberbügel (German m.)
Courbette(French) or pin-straightener, a tool used to bend or align the cylinder pins on a barrel so that they catch the tip of the tooth that they are to play
Courcellinasee flûte à Pavillon
Cour de cassation(French) appeal court
Coureur(French m.) a man whose affections are easily transferred from one woman to another, a man who chases women
Coureur des bois(French m.) a wandering hunter
an individual who engaged in the fur trade without permission from the French authorities. The coureurs des bois operated during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries in eastern North America. The term literally means "runner of the woods". Later, a limited number of permits were issued to coureurs des bois who became known as voyageurs
Courroie(French f.) strap
Courrone(French) a pause
Cours(French m.) class, course
Cours collectif(French m.) group lesson
Cours du soir(French m.) evening class
Coursea pair or more of strings tuned to the same note or the same note an octave apart
Cours magistral(French m.) (university) lecture
Courtalsynonymous with curtal
Courtaudsynonymous with curtal
Courtautsynonymous with curtal
Court bouillon(French) a well flavoured cooking liquor for fish
Court dance'historical dance' or 'early dance' is a collective term covering a wide variety of dance types from the past. Many popular or folk dances were taken up as 'court dances', which, in the case of the wilder dances, meant a slowing of the tempo and a more conservative choreography, for example, the sarabande
Courtesanin mid-sixteenth-century usage, a courtesan was a high-class prostitute or mistress, especially one associated with rich, powerful, or upper-class men who provided luxuries and status in exchange for her services. In Renaissance Europe, courtesans played an important role in upper-class society, sometimes taking the place of wives at social functions
  • Courtesan from which this extract has been taken
Courtesy accidentalsee 'accidental'
Courtesy clefa clef placed before the last barline (which may be a single or double barline) on a staff if the clef begins immediately on the following staff
Courtesy key signaturea key signature placed after the last barline (which may be a single or double barline) on a staff if the new key signature begins on the following staff
Courtesy time signaturea time signature placed after the last barline (which may be a single or double barline) on a staff if the new time signature begins on the following staff
Courtesy Turnin contradance, a basic figure which is generally done when the ladies are crossing the set to the gentlemen. The gentlemen allows the lady to turn around while moving, continuing to move forward. The gentlemen moves backward during the figure
Courting flutea simple North-American duct flute
Courtisan(French m.) courtier
Court Jewa term, typically applied to the Early Modern period, for historical Jewish bankers who handled the finances of, or lent money to, European royalty and nobility
  • Court Jew from which this extract has been taken
Courtly love(Medieval French, fin amour, amour courtois) the songs of the troubadours were built on the product of chivalric ideals: the notion of courtly love. Through Machaut and later master composers, the inspiration of the amour courtois gave birth to the chanson. Sharon Scholl, in Music and the Culture of Man (New York: Holt, 1970), provides valuable insight: "Love, often in the guise of subjective mysticism, was an underlying element in the religious thought of the Middle Ages. Philosophers such as Bonaventura and Duns Scotus stressed the power of love over intellect and glorified the intuitive apprehension of God. Dante was conducted through Hades by Virgil in the guise of human reason; only Beatrice in the role of Divine Love could guide him into heavenly realms. However, the love elements of the lyric poets idealised the emotional relationship between an individual man and woman. The Grail quest was translated into a quest for a lady's favour. Heroism in a religious or political cause became self-cultivation in the code of chivalry. The lyric movement emphasised the conflicts growing within medieval society. Countering the monastic ideology of woman as an evil influence was the image of divine womanhood conceived by the French Provençal poets. The relationship of the knight and his adored lady became for many the only true measure of honour, justice and morality."
the concept also permeated German and Italian literature. The German equivalent of fin amour is Minne (hence Minnesänger), and the Italian poets of the dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter
Courtoisie(German f., French f.) comity
Court of Lovein medieval convention, a court of love is an assemblage of women presided over by a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on "trial" by the ladies for their crimes against love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on
Court poetry, Galician-PortugueseGalician-Portuguese court poetry, though inspired by its older counterpart in France, developed in different ways. It is true that the cantiga d'amor, in which a man sings to his beloved, tends to closely imitate Provençal and French models, sometimes with ho-hum results, but the more spontaneous cantiga d'amigo derives from a primitive song tradition on the Peninsula. Here the trovador assumes the role of a woman, usually of humble origin, pining after her lover, who is off at sea or otherwise absent. The themes tend to be repetitive, but the skilful use of parallelism can produce verses that grip by their rhythms and that were no doubt the more haunting when sung. The satirical cantiga d'escarnho, on the other hand, tends to be more virulent, and obscene, than that which the troubadours across the Pyrenees composed
Court shoea medium heeled, often pointed shoe, popular in black
Court sizepostcards ranging between 2 1/4 x 3 1/4" and 3 1/2 x 4 1/2" that began being manufactured in Great Britain in 1894
couru(French, literally 'running') in dance, a term used, for example, in pas de bourrée couru to describe running pas de bourrée steps
Couscous(from the Arabic) an African dish made by steaming spherical granules of semolina wheat, coated with finely ground wheat flour, over a bowl of boiling broth
Cousin (m.), Cousine (German f.), Cousinen (German pl.), Cousins (pl.)(English, German) cousin, coz (colloquial: cousin)
Cousin ersten Grades (m.), Cousine ersten Grades (f.)(German) first cousin
Cousin zweiten Grades (m.), Cousine zweiten Grades (f.)(German) second cousin
Coussin(French m.) shoulder rest, shoulder pad, spalliera (Italian f.), Schulterstütze (German f.)
Coussinet(French m.) cushion
Coûte que coûte(French) no matter what the cost or penalty (figurative)
Couture(German f., French f.) dress-making, fashion in women's clothing
Couturier(German m., French m.) fashion designer
Couturière(French m.) dressmaker
Couvent(French m.) convent, monastery
Couvercle(French m.) lid
Couvert(French m.) a place setting at a table
(German n.) envelope
couvert (m.), couverte (f.)(French) covered, muffled
Couverture(French) a form of cooking chocolate, a covering
couvrir(French) to cover
Coventry Carola Christmas carol dating from the 16th Century, originally performed in Coventry as part of a mystery play called The Pageant of the Shearmen and Tailors. The play depicts the Christmas story from the Gospel of Matthew. This carol presents the Massacre of the Innocents in which Herod orders all male infants in Bethlehem killed. The lyrics of this haunting carol represent a mother's lament for her doomed child. It is the only carol that has survived from this play
Cover(English, German m.) also called 'cover version', a recording of a song already a hit by another artist, often its composer
in the theatre, to improvise dialogue (i.e. ad lib) or movement about the stage (i.e. blocking), while remaining in character, following a mistake or accident on stage
(German n.) sleeve (of a gramophone record)
Covered fifthssee 'hidden fifths'
Covered octavessee 'hidden octaves'
Covered stringa type of string which has a layer of soft wire (usually silver or copper, sometimes aluminium) wrapped over a harder core usually of metal wire, silk or gut
Covered tonethe tone-quality produced when a singer's voice is pitched in the soft palate, the timbre is veiled and gentle, but the transitional notes have a greater intensity and beauty
Covergirl(German n.) cover girl
Cover girlan attractive young woman whose picture is featured on a magazine cover
covern(German) to cover (song)
Cover stocksee 'card stock'
Coverversion(German f.) cover version
Cover version(English, Coverversion (German f.)) in popular music a cover version is a new rendition (performance or recording) of a previously recorded song. Popular musicians may play covers as a tribute to the original performer or group, to win audiences who like to hear a familiar song, or to increase their chance of success by using a proven hit or to gain credibility by its comparison with the original song. Covering material is an important method in learning various styles of music. Bands may also perform covers for the simple pleasure of playing a familiar song. A cover band plays cover versions exclusively
Coverversion(German f.) cover version
Co-Vorsitzender(German m.) co-chair
Cowbellcloche de vache (French), Almglocken (German), Kuhglocken (German), Heerdenglocken (German), campanaccio (Italian), cencerro (Spanish)
a thin walled iron bell mounted on a frame, with its clapper removed, used as an orchestral percussion instrument, often to mimic the dry sound of bells worn by animals; in Latin-America, the cowbell is descended from the guataca, and includes the timbale-mounted bells (mambo, cha-cha, charanga), campana, agogo and comparsa bells. The patterns performed on these bells, when used either alone or simultaneously, make up most of the metallic percussive rhythms of Afro-Cuban popular music
in performance, the bell is gripped at the closed end between the thumb and the smaller fingers, with the index and middle fingers pointing down towards the mouth of the bell. By placing these fingers on the mouth or removing them, a closed or open sound is obtained. In Latin-American music, the hand cowbell is usually quite large, and often simply plays single strokes on the beat
Cowboy (m.), Cowgirl (f.), Cowboys (m.pl.), Cowgirls (f.pl.)(English, German) a hired hand who tends cattle and performs other duties on horseback
Cowboyhut(German m.) cowboy hat
Cowboyjargon(German m.) cowboy jargon
Cowboystiefel(German pl.) cowboy boots
Cowboy-Überhosen(German pl.) chaps
Cowla soft draping of fabric, cut so that the fabric can hang in soft folds, often found on necklines, backs and even trousers
a loose gown with hanging sleeves and a hood, worn by Benedictine and other monks
hood-shaped covering of a chimney or ventilating shaft
Cow-lickprojecting lock of hair
Cowlingremovable cover of a vehicle or aircraft engine
Co-workerperson who works with another
Cow-patflat round piece of cow-dung
Cow-pat schoolor 'cow-pat music', a derogatory term, coined by the English composer Elizabeth Lutyens (1906-1983), used to describe the early twentieth-century school of English composers who were inspired by English folk songs, of which several of them were important collectors, including Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872-1958), Gustav Holst (1874-1934), John Ireland (1879-1962) and Arnold Bax (1883-1953)
Cowpunksee 'alternative country'
Co-writeto write with another person (to joint authors, etc.)
Coxcomban ostentatiously conceited man, a superficial pretender to knowledge or accomplishments
Coxswainperson who steers, especially a rowing-boat
Coyaffectedly modest or shy especially in a playful or provocative way
Cozento cheat, to defraud, to beguile, to act deceitfully
Cozycover to keep a teapot, etc. hot
comfortable and warm, snug

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