music dictionary : Fm - Fo 

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FM(English, German f.) abbreviation of 'frequency modulation'
F major
key of F majorthe key of 'F major'
the scale of F major
the scale of 'F major'
F minor
key of F minorthe key of 'F minor'
key of F minor(German n.) the key of 'F minor'
FM-Synthese(German f.) FM-synthesis
FM synthesisabbreviation of 'frequency modulation synthesis', a form of audio synthesis where the timbre of a simple waveform is changed by frequency modulating it with a modulating frequency that is also in the audio range, resulting in a more complex waveform and a different-sounding tone
FMusA, F.Mus.A.abbreviation of 'Fellowship in Music Australia'
F-Musik(German f.) abbrevation of funktionale Musik (German f.), functional music (music written to serve some particularly function or purpose, for example military band music (to sustain marching soldiers, etc.), church music (to accompany acts of worship), film music (to enhance a film's narrative))
F clef(Danish) a clef sign that shows the position of F on the staff, for example, the bass clef
F.O.abbreviation of 'full organ'
fo. (s), fos. (pl.)abbreviation of folio (as in, fo. 11 meaning 'folio 11')
Focal dystoniaa neurological condition affecting a muscle or group of muscles in a part of the body causing an undesirable muscular contraction or twisting. For example, in focal hand dystonia, the fingers either curl into the palm or extend outward without control
Focal hand dystoniaalso known as or related to writer's cramp neurosis (disorder), writers' paralysis, scriveners palsy, paralysis notariorum, writers paralysis, organic writers cramp, etc. However, focal hand dystonia is strikingly more common in musicians than any other group of professionals, including dentists, surgeons, and writers. This disorder is often referred to in medical literature as occupational cramps (for example, "violinist's cramp" and "pianist's cramp")
Fock(German f.) foresail, jib
Fockhals(German m.) tack
Fockmast (s.), Fockmasten (pl.)(German m.) foremast
Fockrahe(German f.) foreyard
Fockschot(German f.) jib sheet, jibsheet
Focksegel (s.), Focksegel (pl.)(German n.) foresail, headsail
Fockstag(German m.) forestay
foco(Italian) or fuoco, fire ardour, vehemence
focosamente(Italian) fiery, passionately, ardently, vehemently
focosissimo(Italian) very ardently, very passionately
focoso(Italian) fiery, passionate, animated, vehement
Focusedin singing, a tone that is acoustically efficient
född(Swedish) born [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
föderal(German) federal
Föderalismus(German m.) federalism
Föderalist (m.), Föderalistin (f.), Föderalisten (pl.)(German) federalist
föderalistisch(German) federalist
Föderalregierung(German f.) federal government
Föderalstaat(German m.) federal state
Föderation(German f.) federation, confederation
föderativ(German) federally, federative, federal
föderieren(German) to federate
föderierte Staaten(German pl.) federated states
Föderierte Staaten von Mikronesien(German pl.) Federated States of Micronesia
fodt(Danish, Norwegian) born
Foehnsee Föhn
Foghorn(English, German n.) a horn for sounding warning signals in fog or darkness, used especially on ships, buoys, and coastal installations
a booming, insistent voice
Foglietto(Italian) a name given to the first violin part that contains all the obbligato passages of the other parts. It is used by the player who assists at the rehearsals of ballets, sometimes by conductors instead of scores, and also by the orchestral leader (concert master)
Fohlen (s./pl.)(German n.) foal, filly
fohlend(German) foaling
fohlenhaft(German) coltish
Fohlenhaftigkeit(German f.) coltishness
fohlt(German) foals
fohlte(German) foaled
Föhn(German m.) blower, hair-drier, blow-drier, hairdryer
or foehn, a warm dry wind that blows down the northern slopes of the Alps
Föhn(German m.) or Föhnwind, the warm dry wind that blows down the valleys of the leeward side of a mountain range (especially the north side of the Alps)
(German m.) heat gun (for shrinking heat shrink film (German : Bügelfolie)
föhnen(German) to blow-dry
Föhnfrisur(German f.) blow-dry hairstyle
Föhnwelle(German f.) blow-dry (hairdressing)
Föhnwind(German m.) foehn wind
Föhre (s.), Föhren (pl.)(German f.) pine (tree)
Föhrenzapfen(German m.) pine cone
Foi(French f.) faith
Foible(French) a failing, a weakness, an idiosyncracy
Foie(French m.) liver
Foie gras(German f., French m.) a paté made of the liver of a fattened goose
Foila character that serves by contrast to highlight or emphasize opposing traits in another character
metal rolled into a very thin shee
light blunt fencing sword
Foin(French m.) hay
Foire(French f.) fair
Fois(French f.) time, as in première fois (French: the first time), une fois (French: once), deuxieme fois (French: the second time), deux fois (French: twice)
à la fois (French: at the same time)
une fois pour toutes (French: once and for all)
une fois de plus (French: once more)
Foison(French f.) abundance
à foison (French: in abundance
foisonner(French) to abound
foisonner de(French) to abound in
... fois par an(French) ... times per year
fokal(German) focally, focal
Fokalabstand(German m.) focal distance
Fokaldistanz(German f.) focal length
fokale Dystonie(German f.) focal dystonia
Fokalinfektion(German f.) focal infection
Fokker organa microtonal organ: an organ with the full scale of 31 tones per octave. He secured enough financial aid for its construction, and the organ - of his own design - was installed in Teyler's Museum in 1950. It is now usually called the "Fokker organ". It has a main console with two 31-tone manuals and a pedal keyboard, and an additional console with 12-tone keyboards on which portions of the 31-tone scale can be played
Fokus (s.), Foki (pl.), Focusse (pl.)(German m.) focus (s.), foci (pl.)
Fokusabstand(German m.) focal distance
Fokusebene(German f.) focal plane
Fokusgruppe(German f.) focus group
Fokusing(German n.) focusing
fokussierbar(German) focusable
fokussieren(German) to focus
fokussierend(German) focusing
fokussiert(German) focused
Fokussierung(German f.) concentration, focusing, focus (concentration)
Fokussierungseinrichtung(German f.) focusing device
Fokustiefe(German f.) focal depth, depth of focus
folâtre(French) playful, wild, frolicsome
folâtrer(French) to frolic
Folderoltrivia or nonsense, a showy but useless item, a gewgaw (the word is derived from one of those nonsense words that figured in traditional rhymes and songs)
Foldouta postcard printed on paper at least twice the length of standard size, and then folded into panels so it can be mailed as a regular sized postcard. Two and three panels were most common, but some cards had as many as eight
följd(Swedish) series [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
Folge (s.), Folgen (pl.)(German f.) consequence, sequel, sequelae (pl.), sequitur, suite, sequence, result, succession, series, aftermath, chain, continuance, continuity, effect, impact, implication, linkage, outcome, success, train (sequence), episode, outgrowth (figurative), ramification, result (outcome)
Folgeangebot(German n.) follow-up offer
Folgeantrag(German m.) subsequent application
Folgeauftrag (s.), Folgeaufträge (pl.)(German m.) follow-up order, follow-up job, subsequent order
Folgebefragung(German f.) follow-up survey
Folgebereitschaft(German f.) compliance
Folgebesuch(German m.) follow-up visit (doctor, clinic, etc.)
Folgebeziehung(German f.) entailment
Folge der Aktivitäten(German f.) sequence of activities
Folge der Ereignisse(German f.) order of events, sequence of events
Folge der Jahreszeiten(German f.) sequence of seasons
Folge der Vernachlässigung(German f.) consequence of neglect
Folgeerscheinung (s.), Folgeerscheinungen (pl.)(German f.) aftereffect, after-effect, consequence, sequel, sequela
Folgefehler(German m.) aftereffect
Folgefrage(German f.) follow-up question
Folgefragebogen(German m.) follow-up questionnaire
Folgegeneration (s.), Folgegenerationen (pl.)(German f.) following generation, succeeding generation
Folgegeschäft(German n.) follow-up deal, follow-up business, follow-up transaction
Folge hiervon ist(German) consequence of which is
Folgejahr (s.), Folgejahre (pl.)(German n.) subsequent year, following year
Folgekonferenz(German f.) follow-up conference
Folgekontrolle(German f.) sequence check
Folgekosten(German pl.) follow-up costs, consequential charges, consequential costs
Folgelast(German f.) subsequent cost
Folgelieferung(German f.) subsequent shipment, subsequent delivery
Folge mangelnder Gesundheit(German f.) consequence of ill-health
Folgemonat(German m.) succeeding month, following month, subsequent month
folgen(German) to succeed, to ensue, to follow, succeeding, to comply with, to trail, to be obedient
Folgenabschätzung(German f.) impact assessment
Folgenanalyse(German f.) analysis of consequences
folgen aus(German) to result from
Folgen aus Verlusten(German pl.) consequences arising out of loss
Folgenbeseitigungsanspruch(German m.) claim to remedial action
folgend(German) consequent, ensuing, following, proximate, successional, incidental, proximately, sequentially, next, pursuant, sequent (archaic), subsequent, succeeding, successive, following
folgend auf(German) consequent on
Folgen des Krieges(German pl.) aftermath of the war
folgende Angaben machen(German) to provide the following details
folgendermaßen(German) as follows, thusly (colloquial: thus), in the following way
folgender Tag(German m.) morrow
folgendes(German) the following
folgende Waren(German pl.) following goods
Folgen, die sich ergeben aus(German f.) consequences arising out of
Folgen für ...(German pl.) implications for ...
folgen können(German) to be able to follow
folgen lassen(German) to superimpose on
folgenlos(German) without consequences, ineffective
folgenreich(German) weighty, momentous, serious
folgenschwer(German) weighty, far-reaching, momentous, of serious consequence, of serious consequences, pregnant with consequences
folgenschweres Ereignis(German n.) momentous event
folgenschwer sein(German) to have grave consequences
Folgen tragen(German) to abide by
Folgenutzung(German f.) after-use, afteruse
Folgen von ...(German pl.) implications of ...
Folgeprämie(German f.) renewal premium
Folgepunkte(German pl.) following points
Folger(German m.) follower
folgerecht(German) logically consistent
folgerichtig(German) consistent, congruously, logical, sequentially, consecutive, consequent, consequential, consequently, consequentially
folgerichtiger Denker(German m.) logical thinker
folgerichtiges Denken(German n.) sound reasoning, logical thinking
Folgerichtigkeit (s.), Folgerichtigkeiten (pl.)(German f.) consistence, congruity, consistency, sequence, consequentiality
folgern(German) to conclude (from), to deduce, to infer, to argue, to conclude, to educe
folgern aus(German) to be a consequence of, to deduce from
folgernd(German) deducing, inferential, inferring, concluding, inferentially, deductive, conclusive, illative (inferential)
folgert(German) infers
folgerte(German) inferred
Folgerung (s.), Folgerungen (pl.)(German f.) deduction, implication, inference, conclusion, ratiocination, argumentation, consequence, reasoning
Folge schlechter Ernten(German f.) succession of bad harvests
Folgesaison(German f.) following season
Folgesatz(German m.) consecutive clause
Folgesatz (s.), Folgesätze (pl.)(German m.) corollary
Folgeschaden (s.), Folgeschäden (pl.)(German m.) consequential damage, consequential loss, secondary damage, complication
Folgeschadenversicherung(German f.) consequential loss insurance
Folgeseite (s.), Folgeseiten (pl.)(German f.) continuation page, following page
Folgespalte(German f.) continuation column, follow-on column
Folgestudie(German f.) follow-up study
Folgetonhorn(German n.) siren (police, fire brigade, etc.)
Folgeveranstaltung(German f.) follow-up, followup
Folgeverspätungen(German pl.) knock-on delays
Folge von Ereignissen(German f.) chain of events, succession of events, sequence of events
Folgewerkzeug(German n.) follow-on tool
folgewidrig(German) inconsistent, inconsequent
Folgewidrigkeit(German f.) inconsequence, inconsistency
Folgezeile(German f.) continuation line
Folgezeit(German f.) period following, period that followed
Folgezustand(German m.) sequela
folglich(German) then, thus (consequently, as a result), consequently, accordingly, as a result, hence, by implication
folgsam(German) obedient, flexible, obediently, observant, tractable, tame, well-behaved
folgsamer(German) more obedient
Folgsamkeit(German f.) obedience
folgsamste(German) most obedient
folgt(German) follows
Folha(Portuguese) folio, sheet
Folia(Spanish) there is an early Folia, dating back to the sixteenth century, which can have different shapes and a later Folia with a rather rigid form (1672) used by more than hundred composers including J.S. Bach, Beethoven and Rachmaninoff. The later Folia is a ground bass or passacaglia with a bass line that repeats over and over again - at least this is how the classical theory-books describe it. In fact it is much more flexible. It is better to think of it as a chord progression over 8 (ending in the tonic, I) or 16 bars (with the 8th bar ending with a dominant 7th). One might say that it is 'classical jazz'. The theme has a fixed melody (the 'Lully-Corelli-Vivaldi-Rachmaninoff-opening') and all variations in the melody and bass lines are guided by the chord progression. The piece ends with a reprise of the opening theme, just as in jazz. The Folia was popular during the era of the Baroque (1672-1750) but it reached its absolute peak in the last decades (from the 1970s till today) although the variations are more elaborate and the rigid form of the Baroque might today be considered as little more than a school exercise
[entry supplied by Paul Gabler]
Folias (pronounce as Fo-lEEahs) is the plural form of Folia and sometimes used to indicate that more than one variation is included (Gaspar Sanz). Follia (double l) is the Italian equivalent (Arcangelo Corelli) and in France the theme is often indicated as Folies d'Espagne (Marin Marais)
[further comment from Paul Gabler]
Foliaa folk-song associated with the Canary Islands, slow and lyrical in character and usually accompanied by a guitar or the timple, a small guitar specific to the Canary Islands
Foliant(German m.) tome
Foliatehammer into thin flat foils, decorate with leaves, ornamented with foliage or foils, number the pages of a book or manuscript (pagination), having or resembling a leaf or having a specified kind or number of leaves, grow leaves, (in geology) having thin leaflike layers or strata
Foliation(in botany) the process of forming leaves, (in geology) the arrangement of leaflike layers in a rock, (in architecture) leaf-like architectural ornament, the production of foil by cutting or beating metal into thin leaves, the work of coating glass with metal foil
see 'pagination'
Folibaa typical praise song from Mali
Folie (s.), Folien (German pl.)(French f.) madness, foolish thing, folly
(German f.) slide, transparency (for an overhead projector), foil, leaf, film, plastics
Folie de doute(French f.) a compulsion to reassure oneself repeatedly that certain tasks have in fact been done
Folie de grandeur(French f.) megalomania, an illusion of greatness, the mistaken belief that one is important
Folienaufdruck(German m.) foil imprint
Folienbatterie(German f.) film battery
folienbeschichtet(German) foil-coated
Folienbeutel(German m.) plastic bag
Folienkartoffeln(German pl.) potatoes en papillote
Folienkaschiermaschine(German f.) film-laminating machine
Folienkaschierung(German f.) film lamination
Folienlaminiermaschine(German f.) film-laminating machine
Folienlaminierung(German f.) film lamination
Folienschalter(German m.) membrane switch
Folienschere(German f.) foil scissors
Folienschutz(German m.) cloche (for plants)
Folienspiegel(German m.) foil mirror
Folientastatur(German f.) membrane keyboard
Folientunnel(German m.) cloche (polythene)
Folienverpackung(German f.) foil wrapping
Foliermaschine(German f.) stretch wrapping machine
Folierung(German f.) foliation
Folies d'Espagnes(French f. pl.) folias
Folio, Folios (English pl.), Folien (German pl.)(Latin, English, German n.) a leaf of a manuscript or book. Folios are numbered with 'r' (recto) for the front or right-hand page, and 'v' (verso) for the back or left-hand page. Under folation, each leaf or folio bears a single number, with the identifiers 'r' and 'v' indicating the two sides. Under pagination, as for example in modern printed books, etc., each side of a leaf is given its own number
(German n.) legal-size paper
in publishing terminology, folios are made up of large sheets folded once to form two leaves (four sides that can have text on) which means that the pages are quite big, 27-40cm long by 20-28cm high. The folio format was usually reserved for works with heavyweight intellectual content, such as philosophy and theology. Shakespeare's Folio, Mr William Shakespeare's Comedies, Histories And Tragedies. Published According To The True Originall Copies, published in 1623, seven years after the author's death, was the first to contain exclusively plays
Folivorie(German f.) folivory (eating leaves)
Folk(German m.) folk music
Folk ballad
dating from the twelfth century, the anonymous folk ballad (or popular ballad), was designed to be sung. Among its various forms there are five major classes in the English and Scottish tradition:
historicalfor example, Otterburn and The Bonny Earl o' Moray
romanticfor example, Barbara Allan and The Douglas Tragedy
supernaturalfor example, The Wife of Usher's Well
nauticalfor example, Henry Martin
heroicfor example, the Robin Hood cycle
Folk arta classification that encompasses art produced from an indigenous culture or by peasants or other laboring tradespeople. In contrast to fine art, folk art is primarily utilitarian and decorative rather than purely aesthetic
  • Folk art from which this extract has been taken
Folk bluesor 'country blues', the earliest 'blues', first sung by men at leisure
Folkcorea modern musical genre. The term can either refer to a musical group that is influenced by both folk and hardcore music genres, or, more specifically, to a group that plays punk rock and hardcore with acoustic instruments and a lo-fi sensibility
  • Folkcore from which the extract above has been taken
Folk culturealso called 'traditional culture', culture and knowledge passed on over time informally (by word of mouth, imitation, and observation). With the advent of radio and the record industry in the 1920s, it is almost impossible for folk cultures to be devoid of any influence/interaction with other cultures, except in rural areas that have no contact with mass media; such communities no longer exist in America, and this there is virtually no music in contemporary America that is created and passed on exclusively within a folk group. It is a testament to its strength that people opt for their folk culture and choose to pass it on when bombarded with other choices from mainstream culture on TV, radio, and the Internet. Also known as traditional culture and used as another term for folklife
Folk dancestylized, rhythmic movement, which is learned within folk groups and transmitted in a traditional manner. Some of these stylized movements may not be considered dance by the cultural insiders and can be considered folk movement by documentors
the US-based Folk Dance Association states on their web site: by folk dance, we mean ballroom dance, Balkan dance, Cajun dance, clog dance, contra dance, English country dance, international dance, Irish dance, Israeli dance, Morris dance, Scottish country dance, Southern Mountain big circle dance, swing dance, sword dance, tap dance, turning dance, traditional square dance, vintage dance, western square dance, Zydeco dance and all other forms of traditional and ethnic dance
Folk elementsthe introduction of folk melodies, rhythms or characteristic harmonic progressions into orchestral or chamber music
Folk etymologyan incorrect but popular explanation for the origins of a word. For instance, popular folk etymology states that the word posh is an acronym for "Port Outbound, Starboard Homebound" - the part of a luxury liner with the best view on either journey on a particular sealiner. In actual fact, the term posh predates the formation of the company supposed to have invented the term
Folk flageoletsee flageolet
Folk genrecategories or types of traditions, ways of saying or doing that are recognizable within a culture as distinct from other ways.The general categories are oral traditions, music, dance, material culture, beliefs, customs, and body communications
Folk groupa group of people who share some identity and cultural expressions, a community
Folklore(English, French m., German f.) traditions, not necessarily old, that are passed on informally by word of mouth, observation, and imitation over time and through space, and which although anonymous and having certain unchanging motifs or patterns, varies as it is transmitted through the generations, or from place to place
Folklorebluse(German f.) folkloric blouse
Folklorehemd(German n.) folkloric shirt
Folklorekleid(German n.) folkloric dress
Folklorerock(German m.) folkloric skirt
Folkloretänze(German n, pl., literally 'folklore dances') the term, used in Austria, for folk dances in general
Folklórica(Spanish f.) flamenco singer
Folkloric motifsrecurring patterns of imagery or narrative that appear in folklore and folktales. Common folkloric motifs include the wise old man mentoring the young warrior, the handsome prince rescuing the damsel in distress, the "bed trick," and the "trickster tricked." Others include "beheading games," "the exchange of winnings," and the loathly lady who transforms into a beautiful maiden (all common in Celtic folklore). These folkloric motifs appear in fabliaux, in fairy tales, and in mythology
folklórico (m.), folklórica (f.)(Spanish) folkloric, popular, traditional, quaint
folklorisch(German) ethnic
Folklorisma term was first used in the early 1960s by German scholars, who were primarily interested in the use of folklore by the tourism industry, the term covers professional art based on folklore, TV commercials with fairy tale characters, and even academic studies of folklore
see 'fakelore'
Folklorismus(German m.) folklorism
folklorique(French) folkloric, folklórico (Spanish), picturesque (familiar)
Folklorist(English, German m.) a scholar of folklore
Folklorista(Spanish m./f.) folklorist
folkloristisch(German) folkloric, ethnic
Folkmusik(German f.) folk music
Folk-Musik(German f.) folk music
Folk musicsongs and dances transmitted orally through several generations before being recorded or notated. Folk music is somewhat synonymous with traditional music. Both terms are used semi-interchangeably amongst the general population; however, some musical communities that actively play living folkloric musics have adopted the term traditional music as a means of distinguishing their music from the popular music called "folk music", especially the post-1960s "singer-songwriter" genre
Ralph Vaughan Williams, Cecil Sharp, Béla Bartók and Zoltan Kodaly were all noted folk song and dance collectors
see 'form'
Folk noira term similar in meaning to 'neofolk'
Folk punkor country punk, a genre of music that combines elements of folk and punk rock music
  • Folk punk from which this extract has been taken
Folk revivalas folk traditions decline, there is often a conscious effort to resuscitate them. Such efforts are often exerted by bridge figures. Folk revivals also involve collaboration between traditional folk musicians and other participants (often of urban background) who come to the tradition as adults
Folk-rock(English Folkrock (German m.)) the concept of folk-rock is simple: take the winsome acoustic arrangements of folk and play them with a big rock and roll backbeat. The style began as an ancillary to the '60s folk revival, with The Byrds, Buffalo Springfield, The Mamas and the Papas, and The Lovin' Spoonful among the most noteworthy practitioners. The style continued to carry weight into the '60s, as evidenced by the success of people like Jackson Browne and The Eagles. Folk-flavored rock music has waxed and waned in popularity over the years since
Folksänger(German m.) folk singer
Folksong(German m.) folk song
Folk song(English, Folksong (German m.)) traditional music to traditional words, usually in a simple, unaffected ballad form
Folktalea story passed along from one generation to the next by word-of-mouth rather than by a written text
Folkteki(Bulgaria) folk discos, which originally specialised in chalga, a style that some fans consider reached its peak around 1998-1999, but now include more western-oriented music
foll.abbreviation of 'followed'
Follaje(Spanish m.) folliage, leaves, verbiage, verbosity
follement(French) madly
Folletín(Spanish m.) newspaper serial, melodrama (figurative)
folletinesco (m.), folletinesca (f.)(Spanish) melodramatic
Folletinista(Spanish m./f.) serial writer
Folleto(Spanish m.) pamphlet, brochure, leaflet, instruction leaflet, (tourist) brochure
Follia(Italian) folias
Follikel(German m.) follicle
follikelartig(German) follicular
Follisca(Spanish, Latin America) fight, brawl
Followsee 'lead and follow'
Followera consequent
see 'lead and follow'
Followingseguente (Italian), folgend (German), suivant (French)
Following pedalingsee 'legato pedaling'
Follow-up(German n.) followup
Folter(German f.) torture, torment, rack (instrument of torture)
Folterandrohung(German f.) threat of torture
Folterbank (s.), Folterbänke (pl.)(German f.) rack (instrument of torture)
Folterer (m.), Foltererin (f.)(German) torturer
Foltergerät(German n.) instrument of torture
Folterinstrument (s.), Folterinstrumente (pl.)(German n.) instrument of torture, torture equipment (pl.)
Folterkammer (s.), Folterkammern (pl.)(German f.) torture chamber
Folterkeller(German m.) torture chamber (under the ground)
Folterknecht (s.), Folterknechte (pl.)(German m.) torturer
Foltermethode(German f.) method of torture
Foltermord (s.), Foltermorde (pl.)(German m.) torture murder
foltern(German) to torture, to use torture, to torment
folternd(German) torturing
Folteropfer (s./pl.)(German n.) torture victim
Folterqual (s.), Folterqualen (pl.)(German f.) agony of torture, agony of torment (figurative)
foltert(German) tortures
folterte(German) tortured
Folterung(German f.) tortuousness, torture
Folterwerkzeug(German n.) instrument of torture
fomenter(French) to foment
Fon(German n.) Phon
Fön(German m.) blow dryer, hair dryer
foncé(French) dark
foncer(French) to darken
(French) to dash along (familiar)
in cooking, to line the base of a stew pan with slices of ham or bacon
foncer sur(French) to charge at (familiar)
foncier (m.), foncière (f.)(French) fundamental
foncièrement(French) fundamentally
Fonction(French f.) function, position (employment)
Fonctions(French f. pl.) obligations, duties
Fonctionnaire(French m./f.) a (minor) civil servant, a (petty) official
fonctionnel (m.), fonctionnelle (f.)(French) functional
Fonctionnement(French m.) working
fonctionner(French) to work
Fonction publique(French f.) civil service
Fonction tonale(French f.) tonal function
Fond(French m.) Boden (German m.), fondo (Italian m., Spanish m.), the back (of a string instrument)
(French m.) bottom, back (of a room), basis (essence), content (ingredient), background (plan), fundamental nature
(English, French m.) capital as security for some venture (although it more usual, in French, to employ the plural fonds
in cooking, stock or bouillon
(German m.) back of a car (back seat), stock, back seat
Fondamental(French m.) fundamental, tonic, tonique (French)
fondamental (m.), fondamentale (f.)(French) fundamental, root
fondamentale(Italian) fundamental, root
Fondamento(Italian m.) fundamental (the root or generator of a chord)
(Italian m.) fundamental part, fundamental bass
Fondant(English from French, literally 'melting') a flavoured sugar paste, a soft kind of icing
(German m.) fudge, fondant
(German m. - Austria n.) sugarpaste, sugar paste, gum paste
Fond de teint(French m.) foundation colour (in make-up)
Fond d'orgue(French m.) a registration comprising the jeux doux (closed or open flutes with or without principals) augmented with all the flue pipes. It was used to imply seriousness, gravity and accompany en taille récits (récits using the alto range) together with a flûte pedal
Fondfläche(German f.) background
Fond musical(French m.) background music, incidental music
Fondo(Italian m., Spanish m.) Boden (German m.), fond (French m.), the back (of a string instrument)
Fondo de órgano(Spanish m.) fonds d'orgue
Fondo d'oro(Italian m.) the guilded background used to set of figures in medieval illumination
Fonds(French m. pl.) groundworks, foundations
(French m. pl.) capital as a security for some venture (in French, generally as the plural)
(German m.) endowment fund, fund, trust (fund)
Fonds d'orgue(French m. pl.) the aggregate of the foundation stops of the organ, namely, the open and stopped flue stops of 32 ft., 16 ft., 8 ft. and 4 ft.
Fondsitz(German m.) back seat, rear seat
Fondspassagier(German m.) back-seat passenger
Fondsvermögen(German n.) assets of the fund, fund assets
Fondsverwalter(German m.) trust (fund) manager
Fondsverwaltung(German f.) fund management, fund administration
Fondue(English, German n., from French f.) in cooking, from Switzerland, a preparation of melted cheese, and also the equipment for making this
fondu (m.), fondue (pl.)(French, literally 'sinking down') in dance, a term used to describe a lowering of the body made by bending the knee of the supporting leg. Saint-Léon wrote, "Fondu is on one leg what a plié is on two." In some instances the term fondu is also used to describe the ending of a step when the working leg is placed on the ground with a soft and gradual movement
Fondue-Essen(German n.) fondue dinner, fondue supper
Fonduegabel(German f.) fondue fork
Fondue mit Brühe(German n.) hot pot
Fone de ouvido(Portuguese) headphone
Fonem(German n.) phoneme
fonemisch(German) phonemic
fönen(German) to blow-dry
Fonética(Spanish f.) phonetics
fonético (m.), fonética (f.)(Spanish) phonetic
Fonetik(German f.) phonetics
Fonetiker(German m.) phonetician
fonetisch(German) phonetic, phonetical, phonetically
Fönfrisur(German f.) blow-dry hairstyle
fónico (m.), fónica (f.)(Spanish) phonic
fonisch(German) phonic
Fonn mall(Gaelic) a slow air
Fonocaptor(Spanish m.) pick-up
Fonocromíain 1951, the Cuban-born composer Enrique Ubieta introduced "Fonocromía", a system of musical notation that, using distinct colours, replaces the dynamic terms in music. For example, a note in clear green, replaces the term pp; in cyan, p; in purple, mf; in orange, f; and in red, ff. This extension to standard musical notation, in which each note is coloured according to the dynamic term appropriate to it, results in each note being a representation of its pitch, time value and appropriate local dynamic level
Fonograf(German m.) phonograph
Fonografía(Spanish) phonology (linguistics)
Fonografie(German f.) fonography, phonography
fonografisch(German) fonographic, fonographically, phonographic, phonographically
Fonógrafo(Spanish m.) phonograph, gramophone, record-player
Fonograma(Spanish f.) phonograph, gramophone, record-player
Fonogramm(German n.) fonogram, phonogram
Fonographie(German f.) fonography, phonography
fonographisch(German) fonographic, fonographically, phonographic, phonographically
Fonología(Spanish f.) phonology
Fonólogo(Spanish m.) phonologist
fonológico (m.), fonológica (f.)(Spanish) phonological
Fonoteca(Spanish f.) record library
Fontreceptacle for baptismal water, usually made of stone but sometimes of metal
(English, German n.) a specific size and style of type within a type family
Fontana(Spanish f.) fountain, spring
Fontäne (s.), Fontänen (pl.)(German f.) fountain, spout
Fontanelle(English, German f.) a cover usually made of wood placed over keywork on wind-instruments to protect the mechanism
Fontange(English, German f.) the name of a hairstyle popular in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries in France. The name originates from the Marquise de Fontange, who was for a time the mistress of King Louis XIV of France
Fontegara, Opera Intitulata (1535)published in Venice, written by Silvestro Ganassi (born c.1492), a treatise on the art of playing the recorder and of free ornamentation
Fontgröße(German f.) font size
Fontomfromsee 'Adowa drums'
fontomfrom or bomaa is the most complex of all musical types of the Akan of Ghana. It is a series of warrior dances that are performed in religious, ceremonial and social contexts at the courts of chiefs
Foodstylist (m.), Foodstylistin (f.)(German) food stylist
Fooloriginally a jester-at-court who would entertain the king and nobles, the court jester was often a dwarf or a mentally incompetent individual. His role was to amuse others with his physical or mental incapacity
Foot(pitch) often abbreviated to ft., a term used to describe the pitch (but, in general, not the length) of an organ pipe, i.e. 2 ft., 4 ft., 8 ft., etc. - the term arising from the natural length of the lowest note on the normal organ (C, two leger lines below the bass clef) which is about 8 feet long. A pipe is raised an octave by halving its length, so that a rank of pipes playing an octave above the 8 ft. register when a certain key is pressed is called the 4 ft. register, while if the register an octave below sounds, again for the same key pressed, it will be the 16 ft. register. Intermediate length mixture stops also feature on the organ to produce, when in combination with standard stops, unusual tone colours
that part of an organ pipe's length that lies below the mouth
the bottom joint of a wind instrument
(meter) a unit of two or three syllables in classic Latin and Greek verse. A verse consisted of anywhere between two and six feet, dimeter, trimeter, tetrameter, pentameter and hexameter
disyllables (two syllables)
pyrrhus or dibracha metrical foot of two short syllables
iamba metrical foot composed of a short syllable followed by a long one, or of an unaccented syllable followed by an accented; as, an iambic foot
trochee or choreea metrical foot of two syllables, the first long and the second short, as in the Latin word ante, or the first accented and the second unaccented, as in the English word motion; a choreus
spondeea poetic foot of two long syllables
trisyllables (three syllables)
amphimacer or creticlong-short-long
tetrasyllables (four syllables)
tetrabrach or proceleusmaticshort-short-short-short
quartus paeonshort-short-short-long
tertius paeonshort-short-long-short
minor ionic or double iambshort-short-long-long
secundus paeonshort-long-short-short
first epitriteshort-long-long-long
primus paeonlong-short-short-short
second epitritelong-short-long-long
major ioniclong-long-short-short
third epitritelong-long-short-long
fourth epitritelong-long-long-short
Footingthe method of using the heels and toes when playing the organ pedals
Footleta low sock for women covering either the whole foot below the ankle or only the toes, worn for protection or warmth
Footlightsa row of floor-level lights at the front of a stage
Footnotea note of text placed at the bottom of a page in a book or document. The note comments on and may cite a reference for part of the main body of text. A footnote is normally flagged by a superscript number following that portion of the text the note is in reference to
  • Footnote from which this extract has been taken
Footworkin a wider sense, the term footwork describes dance technique aspects related to feet: foot position and foot action
in a narrow sense, for example, when describing ballroom dance figures, the term refers to the behaviour of the foot when it meets the floor, so, for example, which part of the foot is in contact with the floor: ball, heel, flat, toe, high toe, inside/outside edge, and so on
Foppen(German n.) kidding
foppen(German) to tease, to hoax, to lark, to quiz
foppend(German) hoaxing, teasing
foppt(German) teases
foppte(German) hoaxed, teased
for.abbreviated form of forte
for a single voicea una voz (Spanish), a una voce (Italian), für eine Stimme (German), einstimmig (German), à une voix (French)
forbedret(Norwegian) improved
Forbidden PlanetLouis and Bebe Barron founded a personal studio in New York City in 1948. They started by developing circuits to generate sounds, then worked with John Cage and David Tudor in assembling sounds for the 'Project for Music for Magnetic Tape', then wrote electronic films scores for 'Bells of Atlantis' in 1953 and 'Forbidden Planet' in 1956. 'Forbidden Planet' is known as the first film with an entirely electronic score
forcé(French) or en forçant (French), forced, forcing, sforzando (Italian), sforzato (Italian), stark hervergehoben (German)
Force cupdevice normally used to unclog toilets, consisting of a long handle with a rubber cup on the end
Force majeure(French f.) irresistible force, overwhelming power
Forcemeatin cooking, a stuffing
Force, withsee 'with force'
Forche(German f.) Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris)
Forchetta(Italian f.) cross-fingering, fork fingering
forcieren(German) to force, to accelerate, to push
forcierend(German) forcing, stark betonend (German), forzando (Italian), en contraignant (French)
forciert(German) strained, forced
forcierte Kühlung(German f.) improved cooling
forcierte Ventilation(German f.) hyperventilation therapy
Forcing the tonesforzando (Italian), forzato (Italian), verstärkt (German)
Förde(German f.) long narrow inlet, firth (Scottish)
Förderabgaben(German pl.) royalties
Förderanlage(German f.) conveyor, conveyor mechanism
Förderantrag(German m.) grant application
Förderband(German n.) conveyor belt, belt conveyer
förderbar(German) conveyable, recoverable
Förderbeihilfe(German f.) enterprise allowance
Förderer (m.), Förderin (f.), Förderer (pl.)(German) patron, sponsor, promoter, furtherer, catalyser, conveyor,
förderfähig(German) eligible (for grants)
Förderfähigkeit(German f.) elegibility (for public funding, etc.)
Fördergebiet(German n.) development area
Fördergefäß(German n.) skip
Fördergelder(German pl.) incentives, support money
Fördergerät(German n.) conveyor
Förderhaspel(German f.) windlass
Förderinstrument(German n.) means of promotion
Förderklasse(German f.) remedial class
Förderkorb(German m.) cage, corf
Förderkreis für...(German m.) society for the promotion of...
Förderkurs(German m.) remedial course
Förderländer(German pl.) producing countries (oil, minerals, etc.)
förderlich(German) advantageous, beneficial, conducive, wholesome, instrumental (to)
förderlich sein(German) to subserve
förderlich sein zu(German) to conduce to
förderlichste(German) most conducive
Fördermaßnahmen zugunsten benachteiligter Gruppen(German pl.) affirmative action
Fördermenge (s.), Fördermengen (pl.)(German f.) discharge, output
Fördermittel (s./pl.)(German n.) conveyor, subsidy, development funds (pl.)
fordern(German) to arrogate, to postulate, to claim, to require, to ask, to demand, to exact, to call for
fördern(German) to patronize, to convey, to forward, to lift, to further, to support, to advance, to expedite, to encourage, to assist, to benefit, to deliver, to boost, to bring forward, to facilitate, to foster, to help, to help on, to promote, to sponsor, to stimulate, to patronise, to quarry, to nurture (talent, etc.), to cultivate (foster), to hoist, to produce, to haul
fordernd(German) arrogating, postulating, claiming, demanding, demandingly, expectant (look, etc.), challenging, imperious
fördernd(German) furthering, promoting, promotional, patronising, lifting
fördernde Kritik(German f.) constructive criticism
fördernde Mitgliedschaft(German f.) associate membership
förderndes Mitglied(German n.) associate
Förderprämie(German f.) enterprise allowance
Förderpreis(German m.) advancement award
Förderprogramm(German n.) development plan, promotional programme, support programme, sponsorship scheme, funding programme
Förderrichtlinie(German f.) funding guideline
Förderschacht(German m.) winding shaft, hoisting shaft
Förderschnecke(German f.) screw-conveyor, auger, spiral conveyor
Förderseil(German n.) hoist cable, hoisting cable
Förderstufe(German f.) orientation stage
Förderstunde(German f.) remedial lesson
fördert(German) promotes, patronises
forderte(German) postulated, patronised
forderte zurück(German) reclaimed
Fördertechnik(German f.) materials-handling technology, extraction technology
Forderung (s.), Forderungen (pl.)(German f.) demand, account, amount receivable, claim, outstanding money, requirement
Förderung (s.), Förderungen (pl.)(German f.) promotion, delivery, furtherance, advancement, assistance, boost, encouragement, facilitation, furthering, stimulation, transport, support, funding, mining, sponsorship (financial), extraction (production), fostering (caring)
Forderung abtreten(German) to assign a claim
Forderung anerkennen(German) to allow a claim
Förderung der Konjunktur(German f.) stimulation of the economy
Förderung der schönen Künste(German f.) promotion of the arts
Förderung des Außenhandels(German f.) promotion of foreign trade
Förderung des Handels(German f.) trade promotion
Förderung des nachhaltigen Tourismus(German f.) promoting sustainable tourism
Förderung ehrenamtlicher Tätigkeit(German f.) promotion of volunteerism
Forderung gegen ...(German f.) claim against ...
förderungswürdig(German) worthy of support, worthy of promotion, worthy of sponsorship, eligible (for assistance)
Förderung von Arbeitsplätzen(German f.) promotion of job creation
Förderung von Einzelpersonen(German f.) support of individuals
Förderung von Handel und Gewerbe(German f.) assistance to trade and industry
Forderung von Lohnerhöhungen(German f.) demand for higher wages
förderwürdig(German) worthy of a grant, grant-worthy
Forecastle songssee 'sea chanteys'
Föredragsbeteckning(Swedish) expression mark
Foredragsbetegnelse(Danish) expression mark
Forefall(English, German m.) in seventeenth-century England, an ascending appoggiatura as opposed to a backfall or a descending appoggiatura
Foreign accent syndromea rare medical condition involving speech production that usually occurs as a side effect of severe brain injury, such as a stroke or a head injury, though two cases have been reported of individuals as a development problem. To the untrained ear, those with the syndrome sound as though they speak their native languages with a foreign accent; for example, an American native speaker of English might sound as though they speak with a south-eastern English accent, or a native British speaker might speak with a New York American accent. However, researchers at Oxford University have found that certain, specific parts of the brain were injured in some foreign-accent syndrome cases, indicating that certain parts of the brain control various linguistic functions, and damage could result in altered pitch or mispronounced syllables, causing the speech patterns to have a different sounding accent. More recently, there is mounting evidence that the cerebellum may be crucially involved in some cases of foreign accent syndrome
  • from which this extract has been taken
Foreign chordsthose that do not belong to the current key
Foreign keyssee 'remote keys'
Foreign notesthose that do not belong to the current key
Foreign tones(US) those that do not belong to the current key
Forelle (s.), Forellen (pl.)(German f.) trout (common use)
Forelle blau(German f.) trout au bleu, poached trout
Forelle geräuchert(German f.) smoked trout
Forelle Müllerin(German f.) trout meunière
forellenähnlich(German) trout-like
Forellenbach(German m.) trout brook
Forellenkaviar(German m.) trout caviar
Forellenquintett(German n.) Trout Quintet (Piano Quintet in A major by Franz Schubert)
Foren(German pl.) forums, fora
Forening(Danish) society, association
Forensik(German f.) forensic science, forensics
Forensiker (m.), Forensikerin (f.)(German) forensic scientist
forensisch(German) forensic, forensically, medicolegal
forensische Leichenuntersuchung(German f.) coroner's inquest
forensische Psychiatrie(German f.) forensic psychiatry
forensische Psychotherapie(German f.) forensic psychotherapy
forensischer Psychiater(German m.) forensic psychiatrist
forensische Zahnheilkunde(German f.) forensic dentistry
Forepartany underskirt-usually highly decorated-which was revealed through the inverted-V opening in the front of a skirt
Foreshadowingsuggesting, hinting, indicating, or showing what will occur later in a narrative
forestaende(Danish) forthcoming
Forestagethat part of the stage "in front" or closest to the viewing audience
Forester's horna natural cow or ox horn
Forewordintroductory remarks at the beginning of a book, often not by the author
Författarrätt(Swedish) copyright [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
Forfatterret(Danish, Norwegian) copyright
for four voicesor for four parts, a quattro voci (Italian), für vier Stimmen (German), vierstimmig (German), à quatre voix (French), a cuatro voces (Spanish)
F.Org.abbreviated form of 'full organ'
Förhandlingar(Swedish) proceedings [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
Forhandlinger(Danish, Norwegian) proceedings
Fori(Italian m.) bore
Forint(English, German m.) unit of currency in Hungary
foris(Latin) abroad
Forke(German f.) pitchfork
Forked fingering'forked note' or 'cross-fingering': on a wind instrument, when a note is fingered so that there is an open hole with closed holes below, and the note is not a harmonic. On the treble/alto recorder, the B flats are 'forked' but, although the fingering has similar features, while low E flat is 'forked', high E flat is not (according to my way of thinking!). You need to play them to appreciate the different tone qualities (mode of vibration) associated with the fingerings. Notes where a forked-fingering is used are called 'forked-notes'
[taken from Saunders Recorders website]
Forked notesee 'forked fingering'
forkortet(Norwegian) abridged
Forlag(Danish, Norwegian) press, publishing house
Förlag (Swedish) press, publishing house [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
förlagd(Swedish) published [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
forlagt(Danish, Norwegian) published
Forlana(Italian f., Spanish f.) a popular old north-east-Italian courtship dance, originally from Campieli, Italy in 6/8, 6/4 or 3/4 time, and later a lively dance particularly popular in eighteenth-century opéra-ballets
"Two of these ladies danced the Forlana, and the Elector was much amused in making me dance it also. I have already said that the Forlana is a Venetian dance, and one of the most energetic kind imaginable. It is danced by a lady and gentleman opposite to one another, and as the two ladies relieved one another they were almost the death of me. One has to be strong to dance twelve turns, and after the thirteenth I felt I could do no more, and begged for mercy." Giacomo Casanova (1725-1798) The memoirs of Jacques Casanova de Seingalt
Forlane(French) forlana
Forlano(Italian) forlana
Forle(German f. - Southern Germany) pine
Formin poetry, the "shape" or organizational mode of a particular poem. In most poems (like sonnets), the form consists of a set number of lines, a set rhyme scheme, and a set meter for each line. In concrete poetry, the form of a poem may reflect the theme, topic, or idea of the words in the actual shape of the text on a piece of paper. In the free verse or open-form poetry common to the modernist and postmodernist movements, the rigid constraints of form are often discarded in order to achieve a variety of effects
(English, German f.) the term 'musical form' is used in two related ways: (1) a generic type of composition such as the symphony or concerto; (2) the structure of a particular piece, how its parts are put together to make the whole; this too can be generic, such as binary form or sonata form. Musical form (the whole or structure) is contrasted with content (the parts) or with surface (the detail), but there is no clear line between the two. In most cases, the form of a piece should produce a balance between statement and restatement, unity and variety, contrast and connection. There is some overlap between musical form and musical genre. The latter term is more likely to be used when referring to particular styles of music (such as classical music or rock music) as determined by things such as harmonic language, typical rhythms, types of musical instrument used and geographical origin. The phrase 'musical form' is typically used when talking about a particular type or structure within those genres. For example, the twelve bar blues is a specific form often found in the genres of blues and rock and roll music
aleatory musicsee 'mobile form' (below)
A-formA-form emphasizes continuity and prolongation, flowing, unbroken, from beginning to end, in which the music has a recognizable consistency
a cappellaa form of music that is usually vocal or sung without instrumental accompaniment, or a piece intended to be performed in this way. A cappella is Italian for 'of the chapel', a term that notes the restrictions on the use of instruments in medieval churches
allemandeor allemanda, almain or alman, (from French, literally 'German') a type of dance popular in Baroque music, and a standard element of a suite, generally the first or second movement. In which case the first one is a sort of prelude, whatever its name (prelude, toccata, preambulum, ouverture, etc.)
Ambrosian chantSt. Ambrose (c340-397), bishop of Milan, is believed to have been the first to introduced the 'antiphonant' method of chanting (also called 'antiphonal chanting'), in which one side of the choir alternately responds to the other
arch forma palindromic form, as, for example, three contrasting sections arranged ABCBA
ariaa form that is generally longer, non-strophic and with an accent of musical design and expression, than that corresponding to the air, song or Lied
balladea fourteenth- and fifteenth-century verse form consisting of three (sometimes five) stanzas, each with the same metre, rhyme scheme and last line, with a shorter concluding stanza (an envoi). (The ballade should not be confused with the ballad)
balletthe name given to a specific dance form and technique. Dance works choreographed using this technique are called ballets and may include: dance, mime, acting and music (orchestral and sung). Ballets can be performed alone or as part of an opera. Ballet is best known for its virtuoso techniques such as pointe work, grand pas de deux and high leg extensions. Many ballet techniques bear a striking similarity to fencing positions and footwork, perhaps due to their development during the same periods of history, but more probably, because both arts had similar requirements in terms of balance and movement
Bar formthe modern term 'Bar form' derives from a medieval verse form, the 'Bar', consisting of three stanzas, each having the form AAB. The musical term thus refers to the melody of a single stanza, the A sections (called Stollen) having the same melody, and the B section (Abgesang) having a different melody
non-deterministic generative musicmusic that cannot be repeated, for example, ordinary wind chimes
binary formmost strictly, a piece in binary form will be in two halves (AB or AA'), equal in length. The first half will start in a certain key (or on a certain tonic), and end in a different key. The second half of the piece begins in the key that the first half ended in, and ends in the original key of the piece. The second half may also be repeated. If the key at the start was a major one, the key at the end of the first part will generally be the dominant of it (a fifth above), so that a piece beginning in C major will end the first half in G major. If the starting key is minor, the music will generally move to its relative major key, so if a piece starts in C minor, it will end the first half in E flat major. The first half is often repeated. The gavotte, for example, is typically in binary form
canonin music, the strictest of all contrapuntal forms. It consists in the imitation or repetition of a given melody or theme in its exact melodic progression and in the same rhythmical form by one or more voices, not simultaneously, but one after another, at a half, whole, or two, measure distance, on any of its intervals
cantatafrom the middle of the seventeenth to late into the eighteenth century, a favourite form of Italian chamber music for one or two solo voices, with accompaniment of harpsichord and perhaps a few other solo instruments. It consisted at first of a declamatory narrative or scene in recitative, held together by a primitive aria repeated at intervals. Fine examples may be found in the church music of Carissimi; and the English vocal solos of Henry Purcell (such as Mad Tom and Mad Bess) show the utmost that can be made of this archaic form. With the rise of the da capo aria the cantata became a group of two or three arias joined by recitative. George Frideric Handel's numerous Italian duets and trios are examples on a rather large scale. His Latin motet Silete Venti, for soprano solo, shows the use of this form in church music
cantus firmusin music, a cantus firmus is a pre-existing melody forming the basis of a polyphonic composition, often set apart by being played in long notes
canzonaa sixteenth- and seventeenth-centuries instrumental genre in the manner of a French polyphonic chanson, characterized by a sequence of short contrasting sections
chain formbinary form extended with more sections, for example ABCD, and particularly when including repeated sections, AABBCCDD
chansonthe word chanson refers to a polyphonic French song of the late Middle Ages and Renaissance. Early chansons tended to be in one of the formes fixes, ballade, rondeau or virelai, though some composers later set popular poetry in a variety of forms
choraleoriginally a hymn of the Lutheran church sung by the entire congregation. In casual modern usage, the term also includes classical settings of such hymns and works of a similar character. Chorales tend to have simple and singable tunes, because they were originally intended to be sung by the congregation rather than a professional choir. They generally have rhyming words and are in a strophic form (with the same melody being used for different verses). Some chorale melodies were written by Martin Luther himself. Within a verse, most chorales follow the AAB pattern of melody that is known as the German Bar form
chorale preludea piece generally for organ designed to be played before a chorale. A chorale prelude includes the melody of the chorale, and adds other contrapuntal lines
choroa choro composition usually starts in a minor key, followed by a major key bridge, then a minor key finish (similar to a tango): AABBC. It is also common to repeat the first part, in accelerated tempo, to finish, thus AABBCA
concerto formin classical music, the word concerto is a label for a piece in which a small musical group and a large musical group are given distinct roles, with the smaller group to the fore. The most common kind of concerto pairs a solo instrument with a full orchestra. The term also implies the form of a piece as most concerti follow sonata form, typically found with three movements
cyclic forma technique of musical construction, involving multiple parts or movements, in which a theme, melody, or thematic material occurs in more than one movement as a unifying device. Sometimes a theme may occur at the beginning and end (for example, in the Brahms Symphony No. 3); other times a theme occurs in a different guise in every part (Berlioz, Symphonie Fantastique)
da capoa da capo aria is in ternary form, meaning it is in three sections. The first section is a complete musical entity, ending in the tonic key, and could in principle be sung alone. The second section contrasts with the first in its musical texture, mood, and sometimes also tempo. The third section was usually not written out by the composer, who rather simply specified the direction da capo (Italian for "from the beginning"), which meant that the first section should be repeated in full
dancewhile the combination of dance and music is very ancient (for example Ancient Greek vases sometimes show dancers accompanied by musicians) the earliest Western dance music that we can still play with a degree of certainty are the surviving medieval dances such as caroles and the Estampie. The earliest of these surviving dances are almost as old as Western staff-based music notation. In the Baroque period, the major dance styles were noble court dances. Examples of dances include the French courante, sarabande, minuet and gigue. Collections of dances were often collected together as dance suites. In the Classical music era, the minuet was frequently used as a third movement in four-movement non-vocal works such as sonatas, string quartets, and symphonies, although in this context it would not accompany any dancing. The waltz also arose later in the Classical era, as the minuet evolved into the scherzo (literally, "joke"; a faster-paced minuet)
danzóna Cuban song style and dance form derived from the contradanza (brought to Cuba by Haitian immigrants), danza, danza Habanera and interpreted by the charanga orchestras and instrumentation. Miguel Failde has been credited with composing the first danzón, La Altura del Simpson in 1879. Originally an ABAC form (A, paseo (introduction); B, parte de (la) flauta (flute melody); A, repeat of the paseo; C, parte del violín (string trio). Later a D section (the nuevo ritmo) was added, creating an ABACD form. This nuevo ritmo section integrated elements of the Cuban son and generated the mambo as well as the development of the montuno section of arrangements, and later the cha-cha-cha
developmental formwhere the musical works are built, as a rule, from smaller bits of material - motifs - combined and worked out in different ways, usually balancing between a symmetrical or arch-like supporting structure of the whole, and a progressive development from beginning to end, for example, sonata form
dueta musical composition or piece for two performers, most often used for a vocal or piano duet. For other instruments, the word duo is often used. Two pianists performing together on the same piano is referred to as piano duet or piano four hands. Two pianists performing together on separate pianos is referred to as piano duo
episodicalan example of ternary or ABA form, episodical form consists of three parts: statement of the principal theme, an episode (a theme or subject matter of secondary importance to the principal theme), and finally a repeat of the principal theme
estampieas a musical form, it consists of a series of verses, often of different lengths, and two refrains, sometimes called "open" and "closed", which alternate. The various verses can be of different lengths, and are often only faintly related in theme to the preceding and following verses. There can be any number of verses, though there must be at least three
etude(from the French word étude meaning 'study') is a short musical composition designed to provide practice in a particular technical skill in the performance of a solo instrument
fantasiaalso English fantasy, fancy, German fantasie, French fantaisie, a musical composition with its roots in the art of improvisation. Because of this, it seldom approximates the textbook rules of any strict musical form
first-movement formsee 'sonata-form' (below)
folk musicfolk music has been used as source material for composers of many eras. Composers of the Viennese classic period were influence by and used folk music in their compositions; for example, Haydn's use of Bohemian folk tunes or Beethoven's Symphony No. 6 which uses a Yugoslavian dance melody as a primary theme. Other composers who used folk material include Chopin, Smetana, Dvorák, and Mussorgsky. In Carmen, Bizet borrowed genuine Spanish folksongs, local rhythms, and tunes composed by Spanish composers Sebastián Yradier and Manuel Garcia. The pieces of Spanish origin in Carmen include the famous Habañera; Carmen's aria Séguidille, séguidille, séguidilla, and Choeur des gamins in Act I; Carmen's aria Chanson bohème, and Toreador Song in Act II; and both of the preludes to Act III and IV. The most interesting borrowing is Carmen's leitmotif, the 'Fate' theme, which is used repeatedly throughout the opera in two patterns, one for Carmen, and the other for Don José. This theme is derived from an Andalusian saeta (flamenco music). In the twentieth century, composers began to collect or study folk music in an attempt to integrate that music into their style. Three possibilities exist for the use of folk materials in Western art music. A composer can simply compose an accompaniment for an existing folk melody, a newly composed melody can take on folk characteristics, or folk music can be integrated into the style of a composer to such an extent that neither folk melodies or imitations of folk melodies are used, but the composer's works are imbued with the style of peasant music
formes fixes(French f. pl., literally 'fixed forms') three standardised musical or poetic forms used in French secular music from the 13th- to the mid 15th-centuries
the three, each distinguished by its overall musical structure, are:
AbbaA, where a capital letter designates a repetition of both text and music and lower case designates new text
balladeaabX, where a capital letter designates a refrain text and lower case designates new text
ABaAabAB, where a capital letter designates a refrain text and lower case designates new text
free formcertain pieces of music, for example, the early sixteenth-century ricercar, the fantasia and the prélude non mesuré, which are improvisatory in style, are said to be written in a 'free form'. Free fugues, which break many of the formal rules of fugue writing, and free counterpoint, which relaxes the strict rules of counterpoint, are not. However, just as many have argued that 'abstract ballet' is impossible 'because dancers are human, so no ballet can be entirely abstract', an analogous argument might be advanced about 'free-form music'; because music is the organisation of sound, and organisation implies form, so 'free form' music is an oxymoron
French overtureas distinct from the sinfonia, the French overture (or ouverture) had always been one-movement preluding pieces, usually in a ABA form, where the A sections had a slow tempo with a stately (double) dotted rhythm, while the B middle section was comparatively fluent and fast. By the time this type of overture was adapted from the early eighteenth century on by German composers like Bach and Handel, it could be as well the preluding movement of a (dance) suite, in which case overture was sometimes used as a synonym for the entire suite (e.g. Bach's French Overture, BWV 831)
fuguein music, a fugue is a type of piece written in counterpoint for several independent musical voices. A fugue begins with its subject (a brief musical theme) stated by one of the voices playing alone. A second voice then enters and plays the subject, while the first voice continues on with a contrapuntal accompaniment. Then the remaining voices similarly enter one by one. The remainder of the fugue further develops the material using all of the voices. The word 'fugue' comes from the Latin fuga (flight) and fugere (to flee). Variants include fughetta (a small fugue) and fugato (a work or section of a work resembling a fugue but not necessarily adhering to the rules of one)
galliardmusical compositions in the galliard form appear to have been written and performed long after the dance fell out of popular use. In musical compositions, the galliard often filled the role of an after-dance written in 6, which followed and mimicked another piece (sometimes a pavane) written in 4. The distinctive 6/8 rhythm can still be heard today in songs such as God Save the Queen
Gregorian chantalso known as 'plainchant' or 'plainsong', it is a form of monophonic, unaccompanied singing, based on Eastern models of Byzantine chant, which was developed in the Catholic church, mainly during the period 800-1000. It takes its name from Pope St. Gregory the Great, who was believed to have brought it to the West
ground bassin music, a ground bass is a bass part or bassline that repeats continually, as an ostinato, while over it the melody and possibly harmony change. It was developed and used frequently in the Baroque era. A well known classical example is the ground bass employed in Pachelbel's Canon
group formthe successor to 'pointillism', and exemplified by his piece Gruppen, Stockhausen replaced the original idea of isolated points with clusters or "groups" of parameters and events. Zeitmasse and Carre are pieces in this "group form"
gigueor giga, a lively baroque dance in a compound metre such as 6/4, 3/8 or 12/16. As a musical form gigues frequently occurs as a movement in larger works such as concertos and sonatas, and it was the most common final movement in the baroque suite
heterophonyone of various musical textures, heterophony is a kind of complex monophony - there is only one melody, but multiple voices each of which play the melody differently, either in a different rhythm or tempo, with different embellishments and figures, or idiomatically different. The term was invented to differentiate this from European polyphonic music of separate melodies; however, it can also be seen as a type of polyphony. The term 'heterophony' was coined by Plato and is used in many areas of the world, for example, Morton (1978) suggests, at least for Thai music, an alternative term 'polyphonic stratification'
impromptua free-form musical composition with the character of an improvisation, usually for a solo instrument, such as piano
isorhythmisorhythm (iso or same) consists of an order of durations or rhythms, talea ("cutting", plural taleae), which is repeated within a tenor melody whose pitch content or series, color (repetition), varied in the number of members from the talea. The term was coined in 1900 by Friedrich Ludwig to describe this practice in fourteenth- and fifteenth-century polyphonic motets but is also used in motets of the middle ages, the music of India, and by modern composers such as Alban Berg, Olivier Messiaen, and John Cage. It may be used in all voices or only a few voices. In motets, it began in the tenor voice but was then extended to higher ones
Italian overturesee 'sinfona' (below)
Lied (s.), Lieder (pl.)(German, literally "song") among English speakers, however, it is used primarily as a term for European classical music song, also known as "art song". Typically, Lieder are arranged for a single singer and piano. Sometimes Lieder are gathered in a Liederkreis or 'song cycle' - a series of songs tied by a single narrative or theme. The composers Franz Schubert and Robert Schumann are most closely associated with this genre of classical music
madrigala setting for 4-6 voices of a secular text, often in Italian. The madrigal has its origins in the frottola, and was also influenced by the motet and the French chanson of the Renaissance. It is related mostly by name alone to the Italian trecento-madrigal of the late 13th- and 14th-centuries; those madrigals were settings for 2 or 3 voices without accompaniment, or with instruments possibly doubling the vocal lines. The madrigal was the most important secular form of music of its time. It bloomed especially in the second half of the sixteenth century, losing its importance by the third decade of the seventeenth century, when it vanished through the rise of newer secular forms as the opera and merged with the cantata and the dialogue
madrigale spirituale (s.), madrigali spirituali (pl.)(Italian) a madrigal, or madrigal-like piece of music, with a sacred rather than a secular text. Most examples of the form date from the late Renaissance and early Baroque eras, and principally come from Italy and Germany. Madrigali spirituali were almost always intended for an audience of cultivated, often aristocratic amateurs. They were performed at private houses, academies, and courts of noblemen in Italy and adjacent countries, but almost certainly were not used liturgically. The madrigale spirituale was an a cappella form, though instrumental accompaniment was used on occasion, especially after 1600
massa form of musical composition, a choral composition that sets the fixed portions of the Eucharistic liturgy (principally that of the Roman Catholic Church, and also the Anglican Church) to music. Masses can be a cappella, for the human voice alone, or they can be accompanied by instrumental obbligatos up to and including a full orchestra. Sometimes the music in the Mass format was never really intended to be used as part of a real Mass. The mass as a musical form flourished during the Renaissance, where it served as the principal large-scale form of composition for most composers. Many important masses were composed by Josquin des Prez. At the end of the sixteenth century, a cappella choral counterpoint reached an apogee in masses by the English William Byrd, the Castilian Tomas Luis de Victoria and the Roman Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, whose Mass for Pope Marcellus is credited with saving polyphony from the censure of the Council of Trent. By the time of Palestrina, however, the mass had already been replaced by other forms, principally the motet and the madrigale spirituale, as the most significant outlet for expression in the realm of sacred music; composers such as Lassus wrote relatively few masses, preferring the greater latitude for expression offered by the other forms
minuetor menuet, a social dance of French origin for two people, usually in 3/4 time. The word was adapted, under the influence of the Italian minuetto, from the French menuet, meaning small, pretty, delicate, a diminutive of menu (from the Latin minutus; menuetto is a word that occurs only on musical scores. The word refers probably to the short steps, pas menus, taken in 'the dance'). Initially, before its adoption in context outside of social dance, the minuet was usually in binary form, with two sections of usually eight bars each, but the second section eventually expanded, resulting in a kind of ternary form. On a larger scale, two such minuets were often combined, so that the first minuet was followed by a second one, and finally by a repetition of the first. The second (or middle) minuet usually provided some form of contrast, by means of different key and orchestration. The minuet and trio eventually became a standard movement in the four-movement classical symphony, with Johann Stamitz the first to employ it in this way with regularity. A livelier form of the minuet later developed into the scherzo (which was generally also coupled with a trio). This term came into existence approximately from Beethoven onwards, but the form itself can be traced back to Haydn
mobile formthe term 'mobile form' is used for 'aleatory music' (Latin, alea meaning 'dice') a compositional technique, most closely associated with the American composer John Cage (1912-1992), where, through the use of dice, random-number generators, books such as the I Ching, etc. (called 'chance operations'), the choice of pitch, rhythmic value and order of events is left to chance, the music so produced being called 'aleatoric' or 'chance' music
moment formderived from 'group form' and as exemplified by Stockhausen's piece Momente, the 'groups' of 'points' are further organized, by dividing them up into 'moments'. The fundamental characteristic of 'moment form' is that a piece consists of a bunch of brief 'moments' which are larger than individual 'points' or 'groups', for example, each 'moment' has an identity as a gestalt piece-let in itself. But, necessarily, all the 'moments' in a piece in 'moment form' can all be randomly interchanged and re-assembled, to be performed in any order
motetthe name comes either from movere (Latin: to move) or a Latinized version of mot (Old French: word, verbal utterance). The Mediaeval Latin for motet is motectum. If from the Latin, the name describes the movement of the different voices against one another. According to Margaret Bent (1997), "'a piece of music in several parts with words' is as precise a definition of the motet as will serve from the 13th- to the late sixteenth century and beyond. This is actually very close to one of the earliest descriptions we have, that of the late thirteenth-century theorist Johannes de Grocheio"
open formsee 'mobile form' (above)
operaan art form which originated in Europe, which involves dramatic stage performance set to music. Comparable art forms from various parts of the world are usually prefaced with an adjective indicating the region; for example, Chinese opera and Beijing opera. The drama is presented using the primary elements of theatre such as scenery, costumes, and acting. Although, the words of the opera, or libretto, are sung rather than spoken. The singers are accompanied by a musical ensemble ranging from a small instrumental ensemble to a full symphonic orchestra
oratorioa large musical composition for orchestra, vocal soloists and chorus, that differs from an opera in that it does not have scenery, costumes, or acting. Oratorio closely mirrored opera in all ages in musical style and form, except that choruses were more prominent in oratorio than in opera. The peak period for composition of oratorios was the 17th- and 18th-centuries
organuma technique of singing developed in the Middle Ages, an early form of polyphonic music. In its earliest stages, organum involved two musical voices: a Gregorian chant melody, and the same melody transposed by a consonant interval, usually a perfect fifth or fourth. In these cases often the composition began and ended on a unison, maintaining the transposition only between the start and finish. Organum was originally improvised; while one singer performed a notated melody (the vox principalis), another singer-singing 'by ear', provided the unnotated second melody (the vox organalis). Over time, composers began to write added parts that were more than just simple transpositions, and thus true polyphony was born
overture-suitethe 'classical' suite consisted of allemande, courante, sarabande and gigue, in that order, and developed, in France, during the seventeenth century. Although never totally fixed in form, the later addition of an overture produced the 'overture-suite' that was extremely popular with German composers of the eighteenth century
partitauntil the seventeenth century, a term synonymous with 'a set of variations'
from the sixteenth century onwards, a term synonymous with 'suite'
pointillism(German, Punktuell was originally coined by WDR studio director Herbert Eimert, in a 1953 lecture), otherwise known as 'total serialism' or 'integral serialism'. In this form (practiced in those early 1950s by Stockhausen & others at WDR, plus by Pierre Boulez in Structures 1a), each and every smallest parameter of the music is to be as independent as possible, from every other one. Their goal as they all described it in a number of articles, for example, in Die Reihe, was to try and break every rule of the various prevaling musical forms, trying, therefore, to deny any possibility of theme, development, melody, repetition, etc. Basically the unstated but obviously recurring motivation is that they associated the horrors of World War II, which had just ended. John Cage showed them up by achieving the same result via 'chance operations' instead of all the painstaking micro-serialist calculations they were using
preludea short piece of music, usually in no particular internal form, which may serve as an introduction, for example, a preludio coming before a succession of dance movements. Since Chopin, the term often denotated a short piano piece, not necessarily an introduction, for example, one might play 24 successive preludes. In Baroque music, the prelude was often paired with the fugue
requiemor requiem mass, also known formally (in Latin) as the Missa pro defunctis or Missa defunctorum, is a liturgical service of the Roman Catholic Church and its Eastern Rite. Its theme is a prayer for the salvation of the souls of the departed, and it is used both at services immediately preceding a burial, and on occasions of more general remembrance. It is sometimes observed by other denominations of Christianity such as the Anglican Communion and Eastern Orthodoxy. Requiem is also the title of various musical compositions used in such liturgical services or as concert pieces as settings of the portions of that mass which have been traditionally sung in the Roman Catholic liturgy
rhapsodya one-movement work that is episodic yet integrated, free-flowing in structure, featuring a range of highly contrasted moods, color and tonality. An air of spontaneous inspiration and a sense of improvisation make it freer in form than a set of variations
ritornelloa short return or repetition; a concluding symphony to an air, often consisting of the burden of the song. Alternatively, a short intermediate symphony, or instrumental passage, in the course of a vocal piece, an interlude. In Baroque music, ritornello was the word for a recurring passage for orchestra in the first or final movement of a solo concerto. There was a passage for a solo instrument, usually the violin, between each ritornello. The most prolific Baroque composer in solo concertos was Antonio Vivaldi. When the Classical era started, the ritornello form was altered to resemble 'sonata form', and the piano replaced the violin as the most frequently used solo instrument
rondo formrondo, and its French equivalent rondeau, is a word that has been used in music in a number of ways, most often in reference to a musical form, but also in reference to a character-type that is distinct from the form. In rondo form, a principal theme (sometimes called the 'refrain') alternates with one or more contrasting themes, variously called 'digressions', 'couplets', 'episodes', or 'subordinate themes'. The overall form can be represented as ABACADA.... The number of themes can vary from piece to piece, and the recurring element is sometimes embellished or shortened in order to provide for variation
sarabandeor sarabanda, a slow dance in triple meter with the distinctive feature that beats 2 and 3 of the measure are often tied, giving a distinctive rhythm of crotchet (quarter note) and minim (half note) in alternation. The minims (half notes) are said to have corresponded with dragging steps in the dance. Later, it became a traditional movement of the Baroque suite
scherzodeveloped from the minuet, the scherzo came to replace it as the third (or sometimes second) movement in symphonies, string quartets, sonatas and similar works. It traditionally retains the 3/4 time signature and ternary form of the minuet, but is considerably quicker. It is often, but not always, of a light-hearted nature. A few examples of scherzi exist which are not in the normal 3/4 time, such as in Beethoven's Piano Sonata No. 18. The scherzo is in ABA form, known as ternary form. The B theme is a trio, a lighter passage for fewer instruments
sectional formwhere a piece is built by combining small clear-cut units, for example, strophic form, binary form, chain form, ternary form, arch form, rondo form and song form
sinfoniain the very late Renaissance and early Baroque, a 'sinfonia' was an alternate name for a canzona, fantasia or ricercar. These were almost always instrumental forms, all rooted however in a polyphonic tradition. Later in the Baroque period it was more likely to be a type of sonata, especially a trio sonata or one for larger ensemble. Still later in the Baroque era, the word was used to designate an instrumental prelude or overture. A specific form of such kind of preluding piece, in the early eighteenth century, was the three-movement sinfonia which became the standard type of overture to an Italian opera. Most of the time these pieces were in D major (for maximizing open-string resonance on string instruments), opening and ending with a fast movement, with a slow movement in the middle. Examples of this type of Italian sinfonia are the numerous three-movement opera overtures by Alessandro Scarlatti, all archetypical Italian overtures
sonata form
sonata-allegro form
first movement form
sonata form refers to both the standard layout of an entire musical composition and more specifically to the standardized form of the first movement. The latter is also referred to as 'sonata-allegro form'. Sonata form is both a way of organizing the composing of a work and a way of analyzing an existing work. While described and named in the early nineteenth century, the models for the form were works of the classical period, most specifically Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven, and the form is rooted in the schematics described in the late eighteenth century. The standard description of the sonata form is rooted in the common practice period of harmony, though more modern descriptions of theorists such as Heinrich Schenker and Charles Rosen argue that there is a single tonal background which defines all sonata movements. This is not to be confused with the term 'sonata', which applies both to a genre of works, and to works which exemplify sonata form
sonata rondo formsonata rondo form was a form of musical organization often used during the Classical music era. As the name implies, it is a blend of sonata form and rondo form. Sonata rondo form is almost exclusively used in the finales of multi-movement works. It is considered a somewhat relaxed and discursive form. Thus, it is unsuited to an opening movement (typically the musically tightest and most intellectually rigorous movement in a Classical work), and too long for a slow movement (where the slow tempo would make the full sonata-rondo formula impossible to realize in a movement of reasonable length)
song cyclea group of songs performed in an order establishing a musical continuity related to some underlying idea
song forma term used to describe a simple ABA or ternary structure as employed in many slow movements, although it is best avoided as many songs do not have this structure. In popular music, most song forms are in the binary or ternary forms AABB and ABA respectively or, the standard jazz formula, AABA
stochastic processesin music stochastic elements are randomly generated elements created by strict mathematical processes. Stochastic processes can be used in music either to compose a fixed piece, or produced in performance. Stochastic music was pioneered by Iannis Xenakis, who used probability, game theory, group theory, set theory, and Boolean algebra, and frequently used computers to produce his scores. Earlier, John Cage and others had composed aleatoric or indeterminate music, which is created by chance processes but does not have the strict mathematical basis (Cage's Music of Changes, for example, uses a system of charts based on the I-Ching)
strophic form(Greek, from strephein 'to turn', 'to twist') or 'chorus form', commonly associated with folksong and art-songs based on folk-song, a sectional and/or additive way of structuring a piece of music based on the repetition of one formal section or block played repeatedly. It is the musical analogue of 'repeated stanzas' in poetry or lyrics: where the text repeats the same rhyme scheme from one stanza to the next, the accompanying music for each stanza is either the same or very similar from one stanza to the next. It may be considered AAA... or AA'A".... If different music is used for different stanzas, it is said to be through-composed
strophic variationsor 'theme and variations' form, where a musical melody (the theme) is followed by many altered versions of it (the variations). The variations are all altered forms of the theme; the theme is always present, in some form however disguised, in each of the variations. The theme may be either original or previously written by another composer
suitea term that first appears in the middle of the sixteenth century although the form's origins lie in the late fourteenth century, an organized set of instrumental or orchestral pieces normally performed at a single sitting. In the Baroque era, the pieces are all in the same key, and generally modelled after dance music. In the eighteenth century, the suite could bear the title ordre, sonata da camera, partita or Partie, overture or ouverture. Estienne du Tertre published suyttes de bransles in 1557, giving us the first use of the term, although the usual form of the time was as pairs of dances. The first recognizable suite is Peuerl's Newe Padouan, Intrada, Dantz, and Galliarda of 1611, in which the four dances of the title appear repeatedly in ten suites. The Banchetto musicale by Johann Schein (1617) contains 20 sequences of five different dances. The 'classical' suite consisted of allemande, courante, sarabande, and gigue, in that order, and developed during the seventeenth century in France, the gigue appearing later than the others. However, it was never totally fixed in form
symphonic poemor tone poem, a piece of orchestral music, in one movement, in which some extra-musical programme provides a narrative or illustrative element. This programme could come from a poem, a novel, a painting or some other source. Music based on extra-musical sources is often known as program music, while music which has no other associations is known as absolute music. A series of tone poems may be combined in a suite, in the romantic rather than the baroque sense
an extended composition usually for orchestra and usually comprising several movements each having its own particular structure or form:
first movementquick, in a binary form or later sonata form
second movementslow
third movementminuet and trio (that later developed into the scherzo and trio), in ternary form
fourth movementquick, sometimes also in sonata form or a sonata-rondo
ternary formternary form is a way of organising a piece of music. It is usually found in classical music. Ternary form is a three part structure. The first and third parts are identical, or very nearly identical, while the second part is sharply contrasting. For this reason, ternary form is often represented as ABA. The contrasting second section is often known as a trio
through-composedor durchkomponiert, music which is relatively continuous, non-sectional, and/or non-repetitive. A song is said to be through-composed if it has different music for each stanza of the lyrics, as opposed to 'strophic form', in which each stanza is set to the same music
trecento-madrigalan Italian musical form of the fourteenth century (c.1300-1370). It was a composition for two (and rarely three) voices, typically on a pastoral subject. In its earliest development it was simple construction: Francesco da Barberino in 1300 called it a "raw and chaotic singalong". In its later stages of development the uppermost voice was often highly elaborate, with the lower voice, the tenor, much less so. The form at this time was probably a development of connoisseurs, and sung by small groups of cognoscenti; there is no evidence of its widespread popularity, unlike the later kind of madrigal. By the end of the fourteenth century, it had fallen out of favor, with other forms (for example the ballata, the virelai, the rondeau) taking precedence, some of which were even more highly refined and ornamented. The centre of musical activity apparently moved at this time from northern Italy to France, particularly Avignon. The text of the madrigal is divided into three sections: two strophes called terzetti set to the same music and a concluding section called the ritornello usually in a different meter
trioa term used to refer to the middle, contrasting section of a piece in ternary form. This usage gives rise to the 'minuet and trio' (or, later, the 'scherzo and trio') which appears, often as the third movement, in a symphony, sonata or similar work
variation form
variational form
or 'theme and variation', is a musical form of several types. For example, a cantus firmus or 'constant bass' which is repeated may be modified or accompanied in a different manner in successive parts. Passacaglias and chaconnes are forms where a basso ostinato or 'constant bass' is heard through the entire piece. A further type of variation incorporates a 'fixed' harmonic structure, often derived from an ancient source, for example, folia or romanesca. Fantasia variations have repeated elements but incorporate additional material freely
see 'variation-form'
verse-chorus forma musical form common in popular music and predominant in rock since the 1960s. In contrast to AABA form, which is focused on the verse (contrasted and prepared by the bridge), in verse-chorus form the chorus is highlighted contrasting melodically, rhythmically and harmonically with greater dynamics and added instrumentation
waltzsee waltz for more information
the meter, key and character of a piece of music
a consideration in aesthetic judgment as much in music as in the other arts, for example, literature, painting, etc.
type, spacing bars, or picture blocks, for letterpress printing, locked in a cast iron chase, and ready for printing
(German f.) conformation, mode, pattern, figure, cast (container, shape, appearance), strain (style, etc.), shape, form, mould
Forma(Italian f., Spanish f.) form (for example, the design, plan or structure of a musical work)
Forma abreviada(Spanish f.) abbreviated form
Forma allegro de sonata(Spanish f.) sonata-allegro form
Formabfall(German f.) dip in form
Formabilität(German f.) formability
Forma binaria(Spanish f.) binary form
Formabweichung (s.), Formabweichungen (pl.)(German f.) geometrical error, shape deviation, form error
Forma cíclica(Spanish f.) cyclic form
Formación (s.) Formaciones (pl.)(Spanish f.) group (for example, one of the two or more groups in polychoral music)
Forma de actuar(Spanish f.) behaviour
Forma de lied(Spanish f.) song form
Forma de rondó(Spanish f.) rondo form
Forma de sonata(Spanish f.) sonata form
Formalbeing in accord with established forms and conventions and requirements (as for example, formal dress, formal language, formal introduction, etc.)
formal(German) formal, formally
formal falsch(German) invalid
formale Logik(German f.) symbolic logic, formal logic, mathematical logic
formales Lehren(German n.) formal teaching
formal gültig(German) formally valid
formalisieren(German) to formalise, to denote
formalisierend(German) formalising
formalisiert(German) formalised
Formalisierung(German f.) formalisation
Formalism(in music) the tendency to elevate form above expression, as in neo-classical music
Formalismus(German m.) formalism
Formalist (s.), Formalisten (pl.)(German m.) formalist
formalistisch(German) formalistic, formalistically
Formalität (s.), Formalitäten (pl.)(German f.) formality, paperwork (pl.)
formallogisch(German) of formal logic
Formalparameter(German m.) dummy argument
Formalprüfung(German f.) examination as to formal requirements
formal und inhaltlich(German) in form and content
Forma musical(Spanish f.) musical form
Form annehmen(German) to assume shape, to jell
Formanstieg(German m.) upturn in form
Formant (s.) Formanten (German pl.)(English, German m.) a resonant (or spectral) peak in a frequency spectrum which is a characteristic of the timbre or quality of a sound. For example, the variable formants produced by the human vocal tract are what give vowels their characteristic sound
Formare rapporti con(Italian m.) bonding (establishing relationship)
Forma sonata(Spanish f.) sonata form
Format (s.), Formate (German pl.)(English, German n., French m.) shape, dimensions, calibre, class, quality, stature (personality, etc.), size (for example, of a book)
(English, French m.) style, procedure
Formatangabe(German f.) format specification
Formatbefehl(German m.) format instruction
Formatbild(German n.) picture format
Format de poche(French m.) pocket-sized, as in 'pocket-score'
Format eines Blattes Papier(German n.) size of a sheet of paper
Formateinstellung(German f.) format setting
Forma ternaria(Spanish f.) ternary form
Formatfehler(German m.) format error
formatfrei(German) nonformatted, non-formatted
formatierbereit(German) ready for formatting
Formatieren(German n.) formatting
formatieren(German) to format
formatierend(German) formatting
formatiert(German) formatted
formatierte Datei(German f.) formatted file
formatierte Daten(German pl.) formatted data
formatierte neu(German) reformatted
formatiert neu(German) reformats
Formatierung(German f.) formatting
Formatierungsfehler(German m.) formatting error
Formation (s.), Formationen (German pl.)an arrangement of people or things acting as a unit, the act or process of forming something, the manner or style with which something is arranged
(French f.) group, band
(English) or dance formation, a team of dance couples
(English) the formation of a dance team, is the specification of positions of dancers or dance couples on the floor relative to each other and directions the dancers face or move with respect to others
(German f.) formation, flight, period (in the geologic timescale)
Formation dancea choreographed dance of a team of couples, for example, ballroom formation dance
Formation fliegen(German) to flying in formation
Formationsflug(German m.) formation flying, formation flight
Formationskunde(German f.) stratigraphy
Formationstanzen(German n.) formation dancing
Formato(Italian m., Spanish m.) format
Formatsteuerung(German f.) format control
Formatsteuerzeichen(German n.) layout character
Forma tripartita(Spanish f.) ternary form, ABA form
formatunabhängig(German) regardless of format
Formatvorlage(German f.) style sheet
Formazione della voce(Italian f.) voice training
formbar(German) shapeable, mouldable, plastic (flexible, malleable), malleable (also figurative)
Formbarkeit(German f.) malleability, plasticity, ductility, forgeability
formbar sein(German) to be wax in somebody's hands
formbeständig(German) consistent in form
formbeständig sein(German) to hold its shape, to retain its shape
Form-BH(German m.) form bra
Formblatt(German n.) form, blank
Formbügel-BH(German m.) wire bra, wired bra, underwired bra, underwire bra
Formbund(German m.) contour waistband
Form criticisma hybrid of historical and literary criticism, as applied especially to the Bible, in an attempt to trace the provenance and assess the historicity of particular passages by a close analysis of their structural forms
Forme binaire(French f.) binary form
Forme de sonata(French f.) sonata form
Forme du mode mineur ancien(French f.) ancient minor scale, natural minor scale
Form eines Dokuments(German f.) form of a document
Form eines Huts(German f.) shape of a hat
Form eines Schiffs(German f.) shape of a ship
Formel (s.), Formeln (pl.)(German f.) formula, formulae (pl.), established wording
Formelauswertung(German f.) formula evaluation
Formelbuch(German n.) formulary
formelhaft(German) formulaic, formulaically, in cliches, formulistic, stereotyped (style, speech)
Formelhaftigkeit(German f.) stereotyped character, stereotyped nature
formelhaft klingen(German) to sound cliched
formell(German) formally, formal, starchy (colloquial), prim (starchy, formal)
formelle Kleidung(German f.) formal wear
formeller(German) more formal
formeller Fehlschluss(German m.) formal fallacy
formelles Recht(German n.) procedural law
formell gekleidet(German) formally dressed
formellste(German) most formal
Formelsammlung (s.), Formelsammlungen (pl.)(German f.) formulary
Formelzeichen(German n.) symbol, formula symbols
Formen (s./pl.)(German n.) moulding, moulding (process), mould, shape (mould)
formen(German) to mould (out of), to forge, to sculpt, to form, to shape, to configure, to model, to put into shape, to fashion (mould, form), to knead, to throw (pottery)
Formenbau(German m.) mould construction, mould making, mould and die production, die making
formend(German) formative, forming, sculpting, sculpturing, shaping, formatively, modelling
Formen der Anrede(German pl.) forms of address
Formendesign(German n.) die design
Formenfülle(German f.) wealth of forms
Formenkarte(German f.) shape chart (diamond cutting)
Formenkreis(German m.) spectrum disorder (psychology)
Formenlehre(German f.) morphology, study of form
Formensprache(German f.) design vocabulary
Formentrennmittel(German n.) (mould) release agent, mould lubricant, releasing agent
formentsprechend(German) according to form
Formenvielfalt(German f.) variety of forms
formen zu(German) to mould into, to knead into
Forme question-reponse(French f.) call and response pattern
Former (s./pl.)(German m.) shaper, moulder
Formerfordernis(German n.) formal requirement
formeret(Danish) enlarged
Formes fixes(French f. pl., literally 'fixed forms') three standardised musical or poetic forms used in French secular music from the 13th- to the mid 15th-centuries
the three, each distinguished by its overall musical structure, are:
AbbaA, where a capital letter designates a repetition of both text and music and lower case designates new text
balladeaabX, where a capital letter designates a refrain text and lower case designates new text
ABaAabAB, where a capital letter designates a refrain text and lower case designates new text
Formes libres(French f. pl.) free forms, incoherent forms derived from fantasy and the unconscious, characteristic of the Dada movement
Form factorthe physical size of a device as measured by outside dimensions
Formfaktor(German m.) form factor
Formfehler(German m.) form error, syntactic error, error in form
Formfehler(German m.) formal defect, formal error
Form geben(German) to incarnate (make real)
formgebend(German) formative
formgeblasen(German) mould-blown (glass)
formgeblasenes Glas(German n.) blow-moulded glass
Formgebung(German f.) shaping, styling, contouring
Formgedächtniselement(German n.) shape memory element
Formgedächtnislegierung(German f.) shape memory alloy
Formgenauigkeit(German f.) contouring accuracy, dimensional accuracy, shape accuracy, moulding accuracy
formgerecht(German) duly, in the proper form
Formgeschichte(German f.) form criticism
formgeschichtlich(German) form-critical
Formgesenk(German n.) swage
Formgestaltung(German f.) styling, formation
formgültig(German) formally valid
formidabel(German) formidable
formieren(German) to deploy, to form (troop)
formierend(German) deploying
formiert(German) deployed
Formierung(German f.) formation
-förmig(German) -shaped (suffix)
formindsket Interval(Danish) diminished interval
förminskat Intervall(Swedish) diminished interval
forminvariant(German) form-invariant
Formizid(German n.) formicide (substance that kills ants)
Formkarte(German f.) form card
Formkasten(German m.) flask
Formkrise(German f.) dip in form, lack of form
Formkurve(German f.) form curve
Formlehre(German f.) profile gauge
förmlich(German) punctilious, punctiliously, ceremonial, ceremonious, formal, official, prim, nearly, literally (emphatic), positively, plainly
förmlich anreden(German) to address formally
förmliche Aufforderung(German f.) requisition
förmliche Entschuldigung(German f.) formal apology
förmlicher Empfang(German m.) formal reception
förmlich erklären(German) to declare
förmlicher Vertrag(German m.) formal agreement, formal contract
förmlicher Vertragsabschluss(German m.) formal contract
förmlicherweise(German) formally
förmliches Benehmen(German n.) formal behaviour
Förmlichkeit (s.), Förmlichkeiten (pl.)(German f.) formality, punctiliousness, formalisation, reserve (conduct)
förmlich umgehen(German) to deal with in the official manner
förmlich zustimmen(German) to agree formally
formlos(German) informal, amorphous, formless, informally, shapeless, shapelessly, formlessly, amorphously
formloser(German) more formless
formloser Vertrag(German m.) informal agreement
formloseste(German) most formless
formloses Versprechen(German n.) assumpsit
formlose Vereinbarung(German f.) informal agreement
formlose Zollanmeldung(German f.) informal entry
formlose Zusammenkunft(German f.) informal meeting, informal get-together
Formlosigkeit(German f.) amorphousness, formlessness, informality, absence of formal requirements, shapelessness
Formmangel(German m.) lack of form, formal defect
Formmasse(German f.) moulding compound, moulding batch
Formosastraße(German f.) Taiwan Strait, Formosa Strait
Formplatte(German f.) die plate
Formpressen(German n.) compression moulding
Formreibahle(German f.) stepped reamer
Formsache (s.), Formsachen (pl.)(German f.) technicality, formality, matter of form, question of form
Formschalensitz(German m.) moulded seat
Formschluss(German m.) tight fit
formschlüssig(German) positively
Formschnittgärtnerei(German f.) topiary (shaped hedge, bush, etc.)
formschön(German) shapely, elegant
formschöner(German) shapelier
Formschönheit(German f.) shapeliness
formstabil(German) dimensionally stable
Formstabilität(German f.) dimensional stability
formstabil sein(German) to keep shape
Formstahl(German m.) sectional steel, profile steel
Formstück(German m.) moulded body
(German n.) shaped piece
formt(German) sculpts
formte(German) sculpted
Formteil (s.), Formteile (pl.)(German n.) moulding (moulded component), moulded component
Formtief(German n.) loss of form (shape)
Formula (s.), Formulae (pl.)in mathematics, a means of expressing the relationship between different variables
Formula compositiona serially-derived technique encountered in the music of Karlheinz Stockhausen, involving the rotation and expansion of a single melody-formula (usually stated at the outset)
Formula con cui ci si rivolge a ...(Italian f.) form of address
Formule d'appel(French f.) salutation, salutatio (Latin), formula di saluto (Italian f.), Begrüßungsformel (German f.), the formula appropriate to its recipient chosen to open a letter (in English, 'Dear Sir', 'Dear Mrs Smith', 'Dear William', 'Dear Bill', etc.), or a conversation
Fórmula de compasso(Portuguese f.) time signature
Formula di saluto(Italian f.) salutation, salutatio (Latin), formule d'appel (French f.), Begrüßungsformel (German f.), the formula appropriate to its recipient chosen to open a letter or a conversation
Formular (s.), Formulare (pl.)(German n.) (printed) form, schedule
Formularanfang(German m.) top of form
Formularende(German n.) end of form
Formularentwurf(German m.) spacing
Formularfeld(German n.) form checkbox
Formularführung(German f.) form guide, paper guide
Formulargenerator(German m.) form generator
formulargerecht(German) according to form
formularisieren(German) to formularise
Formularisierung(German f.) formularisation
Formularsteuerung(German f.) form control
Formularvorschub(German m.) form feed, form feeding
Formularya book or other collection of stated and fixed forms, such as prayers
a book containing a compilation of pharmaceutical products with their formulas and methods of preparation/td>
Formule finale(French f.) the formula appropriate to its recipient chosen to close a letter (in English, 'Yours sincerely', 'Yours faithfully', 'Love from', etc.), or a converation
Formule mélodique(French f.) run, pattern, lick
Formules de politesse(French formulae used at the beginning (salutation, salutatio (Latin), formule d'appel (French), formula di saluto (Italian f.), Begrüßungsformel (German f.)) and conclusion (formule finale (French f.), conclusio (Latin)) of a letter, for which, in French, there are established rules that reflect the rank of, position of or relationship with the person to whom the letter is addressed (for further information see the link below). This characteristic French formality is generally missing when writing in English where rules governing the choice of 'Yours faithfully' or 'Yours sincerely' are on the whole much less rigid
formulieren(German) to formulate, to word, to phrase, to draft, to shape, to frame
formulierend(German) formulating, wording, verbalising
Formulierer(German m.) formulator
formuliert(German) formulated, verbalises, verbalised, couched (put in words)
formuliert anders(German) rewords
formulierte(German) verbalised
formulierte anders(German) reworded
formulierte neu(German) restated
formuliert neu(German) restates
Formulierung (s.), Formulierungen (pl.)(German f.) formulation, wording, verbalisation, phrasing
Formulierungsspielraum(German m.) wording
form- und fristgerecht(German) within the period stipulated, in due form and time
Form und Inhalt(German) the form and the substance
Form- und Lagetoleranzen(German pl.) geometric tolerances
Formung(German f.) formation, shaping, moulding
Formungsruhe(German f.) morphological stability
formverändernd(German) shape-changing
Formveränderung(German f.) change in the form
formvollendet(German) perfect in form
Formvorschrift (s.), Formvorschriften (pl.)(German f.) formality, formal requirements (pl.)
Formwechsel(German m.) change in form
Formwerdung(German f.) shaping
Formwerkzeug(German n.) mould, moulding tool
Formwidrigkeit(German f.) informality
fornire con eccesso(Italian) to oversupply (to supply with an excess)
Fornyrthislagan Old Norse Eddic metrical form (in alliterative verse) with four-line stanzas in which a caesura splits each line. Each half-line has two accented syllables and either two or three unstressed syllables. Most of the Eddas are written in this structure
Foro(Italian m.) finger-hole, tone-hole, Griffloch (German n.), Fingerloch (German n.), trou (French m.), agujero (Spanish m.)
Foro armonico(Italian m.) or "f" (Italian f.), trou d'F (French m.) or ouïe (French f.) F-hole, soundhole (on a string-instrument), F-Loch (German n.) or Schallloch (German n.), f or sound hole(s) of instruments of the violin family, etc.
foroget(Danish) enlarged
foroket(Norwegian) enlarged
Forord(Danish, Norwegian) preface
Förord(Swedish) preface [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
forr(Norwegian) forty
Forrest-Heyther Partbooks, The(Oxford, Bodleian Library MSS. Mus. Sch. e. 376-81) a major source of large-scale Masses. In 1530 they belonged to a petty-canon of Cardinal College, Oxford, William Forrest, for an inscription in MS. 378 reads: William Forrest hunc librum jurae possidet cum quinque alijs eidem pertinentibus, 1530. Taverner, first choirmaster at the new College from 1526 to 1530, had almost certainly supervised their compilation - or, to be precise, the compilation of the first layer of eleven Masses. His six-part Gloria tibi Trinitas heads the collection, very impressively, since nine of the ten Masses following are for five voices, and fittingly, because it is built upon an antiphon of the Trinity, to whom the College was dedicated. The other Masses of the first layer include four by Fayrfax, and John Merbecke's Per arma justitiae
Forróa form of dance music that is extremely popular in the Manaus region of Brazil, usually involving an accordion. Its use of syncopated rhythms suggests a similarity to samba, and in some ways, forró is analogous to mariachi in Mexico, or cumbia music in Columbia. Forró is played by a trio consisting of a drum and a triangle and led by an accordion
Forró pé-de-serratraditional forró, played with only three instruments, accordion, zabumba and a metal triangle
forsatt(Norwegian) continued
forsch(German) brisk, perky, crisp, outspoken, self-assertive, forceful
forschen(German) to research, to hunt, to search, to carry on research, to carry out research, to delve
forschend(German) inquiringly, pioneering, questing, researching, searchingly
forschender Geist(German m.) speculative mind
forschendes Auge(German n.) enquiring eye
forschen nach(German) to search for, to search after
forscher(German) more self-assertive
Forscher (m.), Forscherin (f.), Forscher (pl.)(German) researcher, explorer, inquirer, searcher, (research) scientist
forscher Schritt(German m.) brisk pace
Forschergruppe(German f.) research team, research group, research unit
Forscherteam(German n.) team of researchers
forsches Auftreten(German n.) dashing manner
Forschheit(German f.) dash, self-assertiveness, forcefulness, boldness, brashness
forscht(German) quests
forschte(German) pioneered
Forschung (s.), Forschungen (pl.)(German f.) research, search, studies (research)
Forschung betreiben(German) to conduct research
Forschungen über ...(German pl.) research on ...
Forschungen zu ...(German pl.) research on ...
Forschungs-(German) exploratory, explorative (prefix)
Forschungsabteilung(German f.) research department
Forschungsabteilung(German f.) research department
Forschungsaktivitäten(German pl.) research activities
Forschungsanlage(German f.) research facility
Forschungsansatz(German m.) research approach
Forschungsanstalt(German f.) institute for scientific research, research institute, research establishment, research facility
Forschungsarbeit(German f.) research work
Forschungsaufgabe(German f.) research exercise, research assignment
Forschungsauftrag(German m.) research contract, research assignment
Forschungsaufwand(German m.) research effort
Forschungsausgaben(German pl.) research spending
Forschungsbemühungen(German pl.) research activities
Forschungsbereich(German m.) field of research, field of study, research area
Forschungsbericht(German m.) research report, research paper
Forschungsdirektor(German m.) research director
Forschungsdiskussion(German f.) scholarly discussion, scholarly debate
Forschungsdrang(German m.) urge to research
Forschungseinrichtung (s.), Forschungseinrichtungen (pl.)(German f.) research establishment, research institution, research facility
Forschungsergebnis (s.), Forschungsergebnisse (pl.)(German n.) research result, research finding
Forschungsexpedition(German f.) research expedition
Forschungsfeld(German n.) field of research, research field
Forschungsfinanzierung(German f.) research funding
Forschungsförderung(German f.) research promotion, research funding
Forschungsförderungsmittel(German n.) research and development funding
Forschungsfrage(German f.) research question
Forschungsfreisemester(German n.) research leave (of one semester), research sabbatical (of one semester)
Forschungsgebiet(German n.) field of research
Forschungsgegenstand(German m.) research topic, topic of research
Forschungsgelder(German pl.) research funds
Forschungsgemeinschaft(German f.) research team, study group, research community
Forschungsgruppe(German f.) research team, research unit, research group
Forschungsinstitut(German n.) institute for scientific research, research institute, research institution
Forschungsintensität(German f.) intensity of research
Forschungsjahr(German n.) sabbatical year
Forschungskonzept(German n.) research concept
Forschungskosten(German pl.) research costs
Forschungslabor(German n.) research laboratory, research lab (colloquial)
Forschungslaboratorium(German n.) research laboratory
Forschungsleistung(German f.) research achievement
Forschungsleistungen anbieten(German) to provide research services
Forschungslücke(German f.) research gap
Forschungsmethode(German f.) research method
Forschungspersonal(German n.) research personnel, research staff
Forschungsplan(German m.) research plan
Forschungsprogramm(German n.) research programme
Forschungsprojekt(German n.) research project
Forschungsreise(German f.) expedition, exploring journey, research trip, mission (journey)
Forschungsreisender(German m.) explorer
Forschungsrichtung(German f.) field of research
Forschungsrückstand(German m.) research gap
Forschungsschiff(German n.) research vessel, (marine) research craft, research ship
Forschungsschwerpunkt (s.), Forschungsschwerpunkte (pl.)(German m.) main research, research focus
Forschungssemester(German n.) sabbatical term
Forschungsseminar(German n.) research seminar
Forschungsstand(German m.) state of research
Forschungsstandort(German m.) research location
Forschungsstation(German f.) scientific base, research station
Forschungsstätte(German f.) laboratory, research institute
Forschungsstelle(German f.) research centre, research site
Forschungsstipendiat(German m.) research fellow, honorary fellow
Forschungsstipendium(German n.) research grant, research fellowship
Forschungstätigkeit(German f.) research activity, research work
Forschungsteam(German n.) research team
Forschungsthema(German n.) topic of research, research theme
Forschungsunternehmen(German n.) research firm
Forschungsverfahren(German n.) research technique
Forschungsvorhaben(German n.) research project
Forschungsvorstand(German m.) chief scientific officer
Forschungszentrum(German n.) research centre
Forschungszweck(German m.) purpose of the research
Forschung und Entwicklung(German f.) research and development, research & development
Forschung und Lehre(German f.) research and teaching
Forschung und technische Entwicklung(German f.) research and technological development
for several voicesdi piu voci (Italian), mehrstimmig (German), à plusieurs voix (French), a varias voces (Spanish)
Forsiring(Danish) ornament
Forsiringer(Danish) grace notes
Forskning(Norwegian, Swedish) research
forslag(Danish) appoggiatura
förslag(Swedish) appoggiatura
Forsog(Danish) essay, research
Forsok(Norwegian) essay
Fors seulementthe rondeau Fors seulement inspired imitation by composers of numerous secular chansons in much the way that L'Homme armé inspired Mass settings. Thirty-five surviving works, based on Fors seulement, are known. Although the rondeau itself was written before 1470, twenty-six of the Fors seulement parodies are based on Ockeghem's three-part setting, which appeared five years later. Ockeghem's superius is the part most often borrowed by other composers, but it is often placed in a different voice using a transposed mode
Forst (s.), Forste (pl.)(German m.) forest
första(Swedish) first [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
Forstamt(German n.) forestry commission office
Forstbestand(German m.) forest stand
Forstbetrieb(German m.) forestry
forste(Danish, Norwegian) first
Förster (m.), Försterin (f.)(German) forester, ranger, forest ranger, woodman, woodsman
Försterei(German f.) forest warden's office
Forsterhaltung(German f.) conservancy
Forsterzeugnisse(German pl.) forestry products, forest products
forstet auf(German) reforests
Forstfläche(German f.) area of forest, wooded area
Forstfrau(German f.) forester (female)
forstgeschichtlich(German) forest history
Forsthaus(German n.) forester's lodge
Forstmann (s.), Forstmänner (pl.)(German m.) forester
Forstnerbohrer(German m.) Forstner bit
Forstökologie(German f.) forest ecology
forstorret(Norwegian) enlarged
forstørret Interval(Danish) augmented interval
Forstrevier (s.), Forstreviere (pl.)(German n.) forest district
Forstschaden(German m.) damage to the forest, forest damage
forstschädlich(German) causing damage to forests
Forststraße(German f.) forest road
Forstverwaltung(German f.) forestry commission, forest administration
Forstwart (m.), Forstwartin (f.)(German - Austria, Switzerland) forest manager
Forstweg(German m.) forest road
Forstwesen(German n.) forestry
Forstwirt (m.), Forstwirtin (f.)(German) skilled forest worker, forest manager
Forstwirtschaft(German f.) forestry
forstwirtschaftlich(German) silvicultural, forestry
Forstwissenschaft(German f.) forestry, forest science
Forstwissenschafter(German m. - Austria, Switzerland) forestry scientist
Forstwissenschaftler(German m.) forestry scientist
Fort (s.), Forts (pl.)(English, German n.) a fortified place or position stationed with troops, a permanent army post
fort (m.), forte (pl.)(French) strong (sound, colour, etc.), loud, robust, kräftig (German), stark (German), laut (German), forte (Italian)
Lully used the marking fort to mean forte or loud
(German) off, along, gone (also figurative: dead), forwards, continually, away (for example, silence a stop on the organ)
Fort!(German) Begone!
fort!(German) avaunt
Fortaelling(Danish) short story
Fortale(Danish) preface
fortan(German) from now on, henceforth, from then on, from this time on
fortbegleiten(German) to see off, to see away
Fortbestand(German m.) continuity, continued existence, continuance
Fortbestehen(German n.) continuity
fortbestehen(German) to continue to be, to persist, to subsist, to linger, to linger on (condition, situation)
(German, old form) to continue to exist, to survive, to live on
fort bestehen(German) to continue to exist, to survive, to live on
fortbestehend(German) still existing
Fortbestehenlassen(German n.) perpetuation
fortbestehen lassen(German) to perpetuate
fortbewegen(German) to move on, to move along
fortbewegend(German) moving on
Fortbewegung(German f.) locomotion, movement
Fortbewegungsart(German f.) type of locomotion, type of movement
Fortbewegungsfähigkeit(German f.) locomotion
Fortbewegungsmittel(German n.) means of transportation
Fortbewegungsweise(German f.) mode of locomotion, method of locomotion
Fortbildung(German f.) further education, continued training, advanced training, continuing education
Fortbildungsanstalt(German f.) further education school, continuation school
Fortbildungsschule(German f.) adult education school, continuation school
Fortbildungsurlaub(German m.) educational leave, study leave
Fortbildungsveranstaltung(German f.) advanced training course
Fortbildungszentrum(German n.) skill centre
fortbringen(German) to take away
Fortdauer(German f.) persistence, continuation, continuance, continuity
fortdauern(German) to subsist, to continue, to last, to persist, to endure
fortdauernd(German) continuous, permanent, persistent
fortdauerndes Bestehen(German n.) continued existence
fortdauernd schönes Wetter(German n.) persisting fine weather
Forte(German n., Italian) a strong or loud passage
forte(Italian) loud, strong, full of energy, kräftig (German), stark (German), laut (German), fort (French)
(English from Latin) the thing in which an individual or a group (of people) excels
abbreviated f., strong, powerful
"This [Italian] word is written into scores to show that one must "force" the sound with vehemence, but without going sharp; that one must sing in full voice, draw a great deal of sound from an instrument; or else it is used to cancel the effect of the word doux employed previously. ... The Italians also have a superlative, fortissimo, which is not really needed in French music, for we usually sing very loudly [très-fort]." - Rousseau (1768)
Forte fortissimoa triple forte, fff.
Forte generalethe full organ combination stop
forteilen(German) to hurry away, to hasten away, to hasten off
Fortelling(Norwegian) story
fortement(French) strongly, powerfully, loudly, vehemently, vigorously, with force
fortemente(Italian) vehemently, vigorously, strongly, powerfully, loudly
fortentwickeln(German) to cultivate
Fortentwicklung(German f.) advancement, further development
Fortepedal(German n.) sustaining pedal
Fortepiano(Italian) the art of shading (increasing and decreasing the sound)
(Italian) to commence a note loudly and becoming very soft immediately after, marked fp.; the reverse is pianoforte, which is abbreviated pf.
(English, German n., Italian) early form of pianoforte, with a lighter action, thinner sound and generally a smaller range
Forte-piano"the art of softening and strengthening the sounds in an imitative melody, as one does in the words that the melody is supposed to imitate. It is not only when one speaks heatedly that one does not always express oneself in a monotone, for one does not always speak with the same degree of force. Music, when imitating the variety of accents and tones, should therefore also imitate the degrees of intensity or restraint of the words and sometimes speak doux and sometimes fort, sometimes at half volume, and this in general is what is meant by the word forte-piano." - Rousseau (1768)
forte possibile(Italian) as loud as possible
Forte stopon a harmonium, a slide opened by a draw stop or knee-lever to produce a forte effect
forte tenuto(Italian) forte throughout
forte tête, une(French f.) a hot-head, a rebel
Fortezza(Italian f.) force, power, vigour
fortfahren(German) to proceed, to continue, to go ahead, to keep up, to resume, to carry on, to keep going, to pursue, to run on, to go on (continue)
fortfahren mit(German) to carry on with, to continue with
fortfahren wie begonnen(German) to continue as one has begun
fortfahren ... zu tun(German) to continue doing ..., to continue to do ...
fortfahrend(German) continuing
Fortfall(German m.) cessation, discontinuance
fortfallen(German) to be removed (obstacle, misgiving), to be omitted (words), to no longer apply (conditions), to be lost (advantage), to cease to exist, to be abolished, to cease to apply, to be discontinued (for example, taxes), to be stopped
(German) omitted, no longer apply, cease
fortfliegen(German) to fly off, to fly away
fortführen(German) to continue
Fortführung(German f.) resumption, continuation
Fortgang(German m.) progress, process
Fortgang der Normalisierung(German m.) process of normalisation
fortgebracht(German) carried away (taken away)
fortgefahren(German) proceeded
fortgegangen(German) gone away
fortgehen(German) to go away, to walk away, to toddle off, to depart, to be off
fortgehend(German) going away
fortgelassen(German) let away
fortgelebt(German) lived on
fortgeleiteter Schmerz(German m.) heterotopic pain, referred pain
fortgelten(German) to remain in force, to continue to apply
fortgepflanzt(German) reproduced
fortgerissen(German) carried away, washed away
fortgeschafft(German) taken away
fortgeschritten(German) preceded (moved ahead), processed, progressed, advanced (in skills, age), sophisticated
Fortgeschrittenenbuch(German n.) book for advanced students
Fortgeschrittenen-Projekt im Grundstudium(German n.) advanced undergraduate project
Fortgeschrittener (m.), Fortgeschrittene (f.)(German) advanced person, advanced student
fortgeschrittener Sprachzerfall(German m.) advanced scattered speech
fortgeschrittener Student(German m.) advanced student
fortgeschrittenes Alter(German n.) advanced age
fortgeschrittenes Arbeiten(German n.) advanced procedures
fortgeschrittenes Stadium(German n.) advanced stage
fortgeschrittene Studenten(German pl.) advanced students, mature students
fortgeschrittene Stufe(German f.) advanced stage
fortgeschrittene Technik(German f.) advanced technology
fortgeschrittene Technologie(German f.) advanced technology
fortgeschrittenste(German) most advanced
fortgesetzt(German) continually, continued, continuously, constant, continual, cont'd (continued)
fortgesetzte Arbeitslosigkeit(German f.) continued unemployment
fortgesetzte Aufmerksamkeit(German f.) constant attention
fortgesetzter Anstieg(German m.) continued rise
fortgesetzte Zeile(German f.) continued line
fortgestoßen(German) pushed away
fortgezogen(German) transmigrated
forthasten(German) to hasten away
forthetzen(German) to dash off
for three voicesor for three parts, a tre voci (Italian), für drei Stimmen (German), dreistimmig (German), à trois voix (French), a trés voces (Spanish)
forti(Norwegian) forty
fortísimo(Spanish) ff, fortissimo
Fortissimo(English, German n.) a very loud passage or sound
fortissimo(Italian) louder than forte but not as loud as fortississimo, abbreviated ff., sehr laut (German), très fort (French)
fortississimo(Italian) louder than fortissimo but not as loud as fortissississimoincreasing degrees of loudness, abbreviated fff.
fortissississimo(Italian) louder than fortississimo, abbreviated ffff.
Fortkommen(German n.) progress
fortlassend(German) letting away
fortlaufen(German) to abscond, to run away
fortlaufend(German) continuous, consecutively, progressional, consecutive, continuously, ongoing, progressive, running, successive, steadily, on a rolling basis, continually
fortlaufende Beschäftigung(German f.) continuing employment
fortlaufende Linie(German f.) continuous line
fortlaufende Nummer (s.), fortlaufende Nummern (pl.)(German f.) consecutive number, serial number
fortlaufende Nummerierung(German f.) consecutive numbering
fortlaufende Überschrift(German f.) running header
fortlaufende Zahlen(German pl.) consecutive numbers, continuous numbers
fortlaufender Zeitraum(German m.) continuous period
fortlaufendes Sammelwerk(German n.) serial
fortlaufend notiert(German) listed consecutively
fortlaufend nummerieren(German) to number consecutively
fortlaufend nummeriert(German) serially numbered, consecutively numbered
Fortleben(German n.) continued existence
fortleben(German) to live on
fortlebend(German) living on
Fortleitung(German f.) transmission (for example, electric energy)
Fortluft(German f.) exhaust air, outgoing air
fortpflanzend(German) reproducing, propagative
Fortpflanzung (s.), Fortpflanzungen (pl.)(German f.) breeding, propagation, procreation, reproduction
Fortpflanzungs-(German) generative (prefix)v
Fortpflanzungserfolg(German m.) reproductive success
Fortpflanzungsfehler(German m.) propagated error
Fortpflanzungsform(German f.) method of reproduction
Fortpflanzungsgeschwindigkeit(German f.) propagation speed
Fortpflanzungsinstinkt(German m.) reproductive instinct
Fortpflanzungsmerkmale(German pl.) propagation characteristics
Fortpflanzungstrieb(German m.) reproductive drive, reproductive instinct
Fortpflanzungszeit(German f.) breeding season
fortreißen(German) to tear away
fortsat(Danish) continued
fortsättning följer(Swedish) to be continued [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
Fortsatz(German m.) process, extension
fortschaffen(German) to take away, to remove
fortschaffend(German) taking away
fortscheuchen(German) to shoo (away), to frighten away, to scare off, to chase away
fortschicken(German) to order away, to send forth, to send off
fortschieben(German) to shuffle away
Fortschreiben(German n.) updating
fortschreiben(German) to update
Fortschreibung(German f.) forward projection, up-dating, update, biblical redaction
Fortschreiten(German n.) progression, process
fortschreiten(German) to progress, to proceed, to advance
fortschreitend(German) advancing, onward, onwardly, preceding, proceeding, progressing, continually, progressive
fortschreitende Bewegung(German f.) progressive movement
Fortschreiten der Erkrankung(German n.) progression of disease
Fortschreiten der Krankheit(German n.) progression of disease
fortschreitende Schwangerschaft(German f.) advancing pregnancy
fortschreitender Klimawandel(German m.) progressing climate change
fortschreitender Materialverlust(German m.) progressive loss of material
fortschreitende Welle(German f.) travelling wave
Fortschreitung (s.), Fortschreitungen (pl.)(German f.) progression
Fortschritt (s.), Fortschritte (pl.)(German m.) progress, headway, advancement, advance, improvement, process, progression, stride
Fortschritt der Entwicklung(German m.) progress of development
Fortschritt der Verhandlungen(German m.) progress of negotiations
Fortschritt der Vorbereitungen(German m.) progress of preparations
Fortschritt der Zivilisierung(German m.) progress of civilization
Fortschritte eines Baus(German pl.) progress of a building
Fortschritte eines Patienten(German pl.) progress of a patient
Fortschritte eines Projekts(German pl.) progress of a project
Fortschritte eines Schülers(German pl.) progress of a pupil
Fortschritte in der Medizin(German pl.) advances in medicine
Fortschritte in der modernen Wissenschaft(German pl.) advances in modern science
Fortschritte machen(German) to progress, to achieve progress, to advance, to make advances (make progress), to make progress, to proceed, to come on, to come along, to forge ahead (make progress)
fortschrittlich(German) progressive, progressively, forward, advanced (in development), go-ahead, avant-garde, forward-looking (technology)
fortschrittliche Fertigungsmethoden(German pl.) advanced methods of manufacturing, advanced manufacturing methods
fortschrittliche Ideen(German pl.) advanced ideas. progressive ideas
fortschrittliche Verfahrenstechnik(German f.) advanced technology
fortschrittliche Zivilisation(German f.) progressive civilization
fortschrittlich gestaltet(German) streamlined
Fortschrittlichkeit(German f.) progressiveness
Fortschritt machen(German) to progress
Fortschrittsbalken(German m.) bar to progress
Fortschrittsbericht(German m.) progress report
Fortschrittsbewegung(German f.) progressive movement
fortschrittsfeindlich(German) anti-progressive
Fortschrittsglaube(German m.) belief in progress
fortschrittsgläubig sein(German) to put one's faith in progress
Fortschrittsgläubigkeit(German f.) belief in progress, faith in progress
Fortschrittskontrolle(German f.) progress check, progress review
Fortschrittszahl(German f.) cumulative quantity
Fortschrittszeitverfahren(German n.) continuous reading method
fortschwemmen(German) to sweep away (by tide, flood, etc.)
fortsenden(German) to forward, to waft
fortsetzbar(German) continuable
fortsetzen(German) to resume, to continue, to proceed, to pursue, to carry forward
fortsetzend(German) proceeding
Fortsetzung (s.), Fortsetzungen (pl.)(German f.) continuation, instalment, follow-up, proceeding, sequel, resumption
(German f.) in music, a continuation, further development
Fortsetzung bilden(German) to continue
Fortsetzung der Geschichte(German f.) continuation of the story
Fortsetzung der Linie(German f.) continuation of the line
Fortsetzung der Strecke(German f.) continuation of the line
Fortsetzung des Textes(German f.) continuation of text
Fortsetzung einer Geschichte(German f.) sequel of a story
Fortsetzung einer Tätigkeit(German f.) continuation of an action
Fortsetzung eines Films(German f.) sequel of a film
Fortsetzung eines Romans(German f.) sequel of a novel
Fortsetzung eines Verfahrens(German f.) sequel of a process
Fortsetzung folgt(German) to be continued
Fortsetzungs-(German) serialised (prefix)
Fortsetzungsadresse(German f.) continuation address
Fortsetzungsausschuss(German m.) continuation committee
Fortsetzungsblatt(German n.) continuation sheet
Fortsetzungsfolge(German f.) instalment
Fortsetzungsgeschichte(German f.) serial (story)
Fortsetzungsroman(German m.) serialised novel, serial
Fortsetzungsroutine(German f.) continuation routine
Fortsetzungsveröffentlichung(German f.) serial
Fortsetzung von Seite ...(German) continued from page ...
fortsingen(German) to proceed with song, to continue singing
Fortspinnung(German f.) a term coined by Wilhelm Fischer, to described the "spinning forth" of a smaller musical idea or motif in order to create a larger musical passage or work
fortspülen(German) to wash away
fortstoßend(German) pushing away
fortstürzen(German) to rush off, to rush away
forttragen(German) to bear away
forttreiben(German) to go on with, to keep on with, to carry on with
Fortuna(English, German f., Latin) (in Roman mythology) the goddess of fortune and good luck, the counterpart of the Greek goddess Tyche
Fortuna desperataone of the most popular chansons of the late 15th- and early 16th-centuries, survives in more than thirty sources and in thirty-one distinct settings. Although it has been attributed to Antoine Busnois (c.1430-1492), its strophic form and Italian text separate it from most of Busnois's other chansons, making this attribution doubtful. Of the twenty-four surviving cantus firmus settings of the chanson, two rather unusual practices occur with some frequency. The tenor is transposed from its original Lydian mode to Phrygian in five pieces, and the borrowed material from the chanson is combined with another pre-existent melody and/or text in thirteen pieces. Both of these practices may be explained by the application of symbolism related to the goddess Fortuna. Although Lydian is the mode most frequently associated with Fortuna, the transposition of the mode may reflect the image of Fortuna turning her wheel. In the pieces in which the Fortuna cantus firmus is combined with pre-existing material, there are strong correlations between the myth of Fortuna and the added (or implied) texts, and these added texts give further meaning to the new work. These new meanings, as well as the overall popularity of Fortuna desperata, provide examples of trends in late fifteenth-century humanist thought
Fortune(English, German f.) luck
Fortüne(German f.) fortune (luck)
fortwährend(German) continual, perpetual, perpetually, continually, without interruption, constant, constantly, never-ending
fortwährende Imitation(German f.) continuous imitation
fortwährendes Schlagen(German n.) constant banging
fortwährendes Schreien(German n.) continual crying
fortwährend wachsend(German) continually growing
fortwirken(German) to continue to have an effect
for two voicesa due voci (Italian), für zwei Stimmen (German), zweistimmig (German), à deux voix (French), a dos voces (Spanish)
fortziehen(German) to move away, to transmigrate, to migrate
fortziehend(German) transmigrating
Forum (s.), Fora (pl.)(English, German n., Latin) a market-place, a place of assembly (in a Roman town), an assembly for the discussion of important matters, panel, forum, discussion board, (message) board (internet), forum discussion
forum conveniens(Latin, literally 'at a convenient place') in law, a Court having jurisdiction in a particular case
Forum Romanum(German n.) Roman Forum
Forumsmitglieder(German pl.) forum members
Forumsthread(German m.) thread (in an online forum)
Forward biasin electronics, a voltage placed across a junction in the forward direction. When a junction is forward biased to a sufficiently high voltage, current will flow
Forward bowon a viol, the stronger bow stroke, where the bow travels from point to frog
forz.abbreviated form of forzato or forzando
Forza(Italian f.) force, vigour, loudness, power
forzando(Italian) also forzato, sforzando or sforzato, forcing, forced, to lay a stress on a note or chord
forcierend (German), stark betonend (German), en contraignant (French)
forzar la voce(Italian) to force the voice
forzato(Italian) forced, strongly accented, stark betont (German), contraint (French), très accentué (French)
fos.abbreviation of folios (as in, fos. 11-14 meaning 'folios 11 to 14')
Foso de la orquesta(Spanish m.) orchestra pit
Fossa(English, German f.) a small cavity or depression, as in a bone
Fossa dell'orchestra(Italian f.) also golfo mistico or buca dell'orchestra, orchestra pit
Fosse d'orchestre(French f.) orchestra pit
Fossickto ferret out, to rummage, to prospect or search for gold (especially by reworking washings or waste piles)
Fossil-(German) fossiliferous (prefix)
Fossil (s.), Fossilien (German pl.)(English, German n.) a remnant or trace of an organism of a past geologic age, such as a skeleton or leaf imprint, embedded and preserved in the earth's crust
someone whose style is out of fashion (colloquial, humourous)
fossile Brennstoffe(German pl.) fossil fuels
fossile Energieträger(German pl.) fossil fuels
fossiler Brennstoff(German m.) fossil fuel
Fossilfund(German m.) fossil find
Fossilienfund(German m.) fossil find
fossilienhaltig(German) fossiliferous
Fossilierung(German f.) fossilisation
Fossilisation(English, German f.) the process of fossilizing a plant or animal that existed in some earlier age, the process of being turned to stone
Fossilisationslehre(German f.) taphonomy
fossilisieren(German) to fossilise
Fossillagerstätten lagerstätten(German pl.) sites of fossil preservation
fötal(German) fetal, foetal
fötid(German) fetid, foetid
Foto (s.), Fotos (pl.)(German n. - Switerland also f., Spanish f.) picture, pic (colloquial), photograph, photo
Fotoabzug(German m.) print
Fotoagentur(German f.) photographic agency
Fotoalbum (s.), Fotoalben (pl.)(German n.) photo album, photograph album
Fotoamateur(German m.) amateur photographer
Fotoapparat (s.), Fotoapparate (pl.)(German m.) camera
Fotoapparat(German m.) camera
Fotoarchiv(German n.) photo archives, photographic archives
Fotoatelier(German n.) photographer's studio, photographer's salon
Fotoaufklärung(German f.) photo reconnaissance
Foto-Aufklärung(German f.) photo reconnaissance
Fotoaufnahme (s.), Fotoaufnahmen (pl.)(German f.) photograph, photoshoot
Fotoausstellung(German f.) photo exhibition
Fotoband(German m.) volume of photographs (book)
Fotoblitz(German m.) photo flash
Fotobuch (s.), Fotobücher (pl.)(German n.) photobook
fotochemisch(German) photochemical
fotochrom(German) photochromic
fotochrome Linse (s.), fotochrome Linsen (pl.)(German f.) photochromic lens
Fotocopia(Spanish f.) photocopy
Fotocopiadora(Spanish f.) photocopier
fotocopiar(Spanish) to photocopy
Fotodiode(German f.) photo diode, photodiode
Fotodokumentation(German f.) photo documentation, photographic documentation
Fotodruck(German m.) photographic print
fotoelektrisch(German) photoelectrically, photoelectric
fotoelektrische Abtastung(German f.) photoelectric scanning
fotoelektrische Zelle(German f.) photocell
fotoempfindlich(German) photosensitive
fotoempfindlicher Baustein(German m.) photosensitive device
Fotofilter(German m.) photographic screen
Fotofinish(German n.) photo finish (athletics, horse racing)
fotogen(German) photogenic, photogenically
fotogener(German) more photogenic
fotogenste(German) most photogenic
Fotogeschäft(German n.) photographic shop
Fotograben(German m.) photographer's pit
Fotograf (m.), Fotografin (f.), Fotografen (pl.), Fotografinnen ( photographer
Fotografen aus dem Wege gehen(German) to avoid photographers
Fotografia(Spanish f., Italian f.) photography, photograph
Fotografia con flash(Italian f.) flash photography
fotografiar(Spanish) to photograph
fotográfico(Spanish) photographic
Fotografie (s.), Fotografien (pl.)(German f.) picture, photography, photograph, photo, still
Fotografie mit Blitzlicht(German f.) flash photography
Fotografieren(German n.) photographing
fotografieren(German) to take a photograph, to photograph, to take a picture, to take a photo
fotografierend(German) taking a photo, photographing
fotografiert(German) photographed
fotografierwütig(German) snap-happy
Fotografieverbot(German n.) ban on photography
fotografisch(German) photographic, photo-optical, photographically
fotografische Aufklärung(German f.) photographic reconnaissance, photo reconnaissance
fotografische Aufnahme(German f.) photograph
fotografischer Abzug(German m.) copy
fotografischer Effekt(German m.) photographic effect
fotografischer Entfernungsmesser(German m.) camera range-finder
fotografisches Gedächtnis(German n.) eidetic memory, photographic memory
Fotógrafo(Spanish m.) photographer
Fotogramm (s.), Fotogramme (pl.)(German n.) photogram
Fotogrammetrie(German f.) photogrammetry
Fotogravüre(German f.) heliogravure
Foto-Handy(German n.) (mobile) camera phone
Fotohandy(German n.) (mobile) camera phone
Fotojäger (s./pl.)(German m.) paparazzo (s.), paparazzi (pl.)
Fotojournalismus(German m.) photo journalism, photojournalism
Fotojournalist (m.), Fotojournalistin (f.)(German) photo journalist, photojournalist
fotojournalistisch(German) photo-journalistic, photojournalistic
Fotokamera(German f.) still camera, photo camera
Fotokopie(German f.) copy, photocopy, photo-copy, photostatic copy, xerox
fotokopieren(German) to photostat, to xerox, to photocopy
fotokopierend(German) photocopying
Fotokopierer(German m.) photocopier, copy machine
Fotokopiergerät(German n.) photocopier, photocopying machine
Fotokopierpapier(German n.) photocopying paper
fotokopiert(German) photocopied
Fotokunst(German f.) photographic art, photo art
Fotokünstler (m.), Fotokünstlerin (f.)(German) photo artist, photographic artist
Fotokurs(German m.) photography course
Fotolabor(German n.) photo laboratory
Fotolaborant (m.), Fotolaborantin (f.)(German) photo lab technician
Fotolack(German m.) photoresist
fotolackbeschichtet(German) resist-coated
Fotolackverfahren(German n.) photoresist process
fotoleitend(German) photoconductive
Fotoleitfähigkeit(German f.) photoconductivity
Fotoleitungseffekt(German m.) photoconductive effect
Fotolichtsatz(German m.) phototypesetting
Fotolithografie(German f.) photolithography
Fotolithographie(German f.) photo lithography
Fotomagazin(German n.) photographic magazine
Fotomanipulation(German f.) photo manipulation
Fotomaske(German f.) photomask
Fotomaskierung(German f.) photomasking
fotomechanisch(German) photomechanical
Fotometer(German n.) photometer
Fotometrie(German f.) photometry
fotometrisch(German) photometric
Foto mit Rücklicht(German n.) backlighted photograph
Fotomodell(German n.) photographic model, photo model
Fotomontage(German f.) photo composition, photomontage, montage
Fotomotiv(German n.) (photo) subject, photo motif, (photo) scene
Fotomultiplier(German m.) photomultiplier
Fotoobjektiv(German n.) camera lens
fotooptisch(German) photo-optical
Fotopapier(German n.) photo paper, photographic paper
fotophob(German) photophobic
Fotophobie(German f.) photophobia
Fotopirsch(German f.) photohunt (colloquial), photo hunt (colloquial)
Fotorahmen(German m.) photo frame
Fotorealismus(German m.) photorealism
fotorealistisch(German) photo-realistic
Fotoreportage(German f.) photo reportage, photo essay, photostory, photo story
fotorezeptiv(German) photoreceptive
Fotorezeptor (s.), Fotorezeptoren (pl.)(German m.) photoreceptor
Fotorezeptorzelle (s.), Fotorezeptorzellen (pl.)(German f.) photoreceptor cell
Fotosafari(German f.) photo safari
Fotosammlung(German f.) photo collection, photograph collection
Fotosatz(German m.) filmsetting
Fotosatzanlage(German f.) phototypesetting equipment
fotoscheu(German) camera-shy
Fotoserie(German f.) photo spread
Fotosession(German f.) photo session
fotosetzen(German) to photocompose
Fotoshoot(German m.) photoshoot (colloquial)
Fotoshooting(German n.) photo shooting, photoshoot (colloquial), photo shoot
Fotostudio(German n.) photographic studio
Fototafel(German f.) photo board
Fototermin(German m.) photo session, photo call, (photo) shoot, photocall, photo opportunity
Fototherapie(German f.) phototherapy
Fotothyristor(German m.) photothyristor
Fototipiaa term found on Italian postcards indicating printing by the collotype process
Fototransduktion(German f.) phototransduction
Fotoverstärker(German m.) photo amplifier
Fotovoltaik(German f.) photovoltaics
Fotovoltaikelement(German n.) photovoltaic module
Fotovoltaiktechnologie(German f.) photovoltaic technology
Fotowiderstand(German m.) photoconductive cell
Fotozelle(German f.) photo cell, photocell, phototube
Fötus (s.), Fötusse (p.), Föten (pl.)(German m.) foetus, fetus
Fötusmord(German m.) feticide, foeticide (non-technical)
FotutuConch shells used as horns by the indigenous tribes in pre-colonial Cuba
Fotze (s.), Fotzen (pl.)(German f. - Austria, Southern Germany) kisser (colloquial: mouth), slap round the face
Fotzhobel(German m. - Austria, Southern Germany) mouthorgan
Fou (m.)/Fol (m.), Folle (f.)(French) madman (m.), jester (f.), madwoman (f.)
fou (m.)/fol (m.), folle (f.)(French) mad, wild , tremendous (familiar)
fou de (m.)/fol de (m.), folle de (f.)(French) crazy about
Foudre(French f.) lightning, thunderbolt (mythology)
Foudroyantdazzling, stunning
of a disease that comes on suddenly and severely
foudroyant (m.), foudroyante (f.)(French) lightning (speed, etc.), violent (death), instant (death), thundering (success), stunning (result)
foudroyer(French) to strike, to strike down, to strike with lightning
Fouet(French m.) whip, slap stick
Fouette(ballet) a whipping movement of the leg, often used to create momentum for a jump or turn
fouetté(French) whipped (extended playing of a string instrument by plucking rather than bowing), archeggiamento (Italian), gepeitscht (German)
Fouetté(French, literally 'whipped') in dance, a term applied to a whipping movement. The movement may be a short whipped movement of the raised foot as it passes rapidly in front of or behind the supporting foot or the sharp whipping around of the body from one direction to another. There is a great variety of fouettés: petit fouetté, which may be devant, à la seconde or derrière and executed à terre, sur la demi-pointe or sauté; and grand fouetté, which may be sauté, relevé and en tournant
  • Fouetté from which this information has been taken
Fouetté en tournant, grand (Russian School)(French, literally 'large fouetté, turning') in dance, this fouetté may be done on demi-pointe, on point or with a jump. It is usually done en dedans and may be finished in attitude croisée, attitude effacée or any of the arabesques
Fouetté rond de jambe en tournant
(French, literally 'whipped circle of the leg, turning') in dance, this is the popular turn in which the dancer executes a series of turns on the supporting leg while being propelled by a whipping movement of the working leg. The whipping leg should be at hip level, with the foot closing in to the knee of the supporting leg. Fouettés are usually done in a series. They may be executed en dehors or en dedans
en dehors
Russian school
fondu on the L leg,at the same time opening the R leg to the second position en l'air. Relevé on the L point or demi-pointe, executing a tour en dehors and whipping the R foot in back of, then quickly in front of, the L knee. Fondu on the L leg, opening the R leg to the second position en l'air
en dehors
Cecchetti method
fourth position R foot back. Execute a pirouette en dehors on the L leg. Fondu on the L leg, at the same time extending the R leg to quatrième position devant en l'air (croisé devant). Relevé on the L point or demi-pointe, sweeping the R leg to the second position en l'air, and execute a tour en dehors, bringing the R foot to side and front of L knee. Fondu on the L foot, extending the R leg forward again. Three-quarters of the turn should be made with the R foot in position on the supporting knee. This fouetté may also be executed from a preparation starting with a pas de bourrée en dedans and finishing with a coupé dessous, opening the working leg to a quatrième devant croisé
en dedans
Russian School
fouetté en dedans is done in the same manner as en dehors. After a pirouette en dedans the extension is made to the second position en l'air; next the foot is brought in front of, then in back of, the supporting knee
en dedans
Cecchetti method
after a pirouette en dedans the working leg is extended to the fourth position derrière en l'air; then with a demi-rond de jambe en l'air en dedans the foot is brought to the front of the supporting knee
Fou furieux(French m.) raving mad
fougueux (m.), fougueuse (f.)(French) impetuous
fouiller dans (les poches)(French) to look through (the pockets)
Foul(German n.) foul (in sport)
Foulard(French) a head-scarf or neckerchief of silk or of a mixture of silk and cotton
Foulelfmeter(German m.) penalty resulting from a foul (football)
foulen(German) to foul, to commit a foul (in sport)
Foul papersrough drafts of a manuscript that have not been corrected and are not to be sent to the printers. They are typically full of blotted out passages and scribbled revisions
Foundationalismany theory in epistemology (typically, theories of justification, but also of knowledge) that holds that beliefs are justified (known, etc.) based on what are called basic beliefs (also commonly called foundational beliefs)
Foundation stopsthe diapasons and other 8 ft. flue-stops on English organs, or the principals on continental instruments
Foundling Hospitalbased in London, England, the hopsital was founded in 1739 by the philanthropic sea captain Thomas Coram. It was a children's home established for the "education and maintenance of exposed and deserted young children." The word "hospital" was used in a more general sense than it is today, simply indicating the institution's "hospitality" to those less fortunate. The musical service, which was originally sung by the blind children only, was made fashionable by the generosity of George Frideric Handel, who frequently had the Messiah performed there, and who bequeathed to the hospital a fair copy (full score) of his greatest oratorio. Handel's involvement had begun on 1 May 1750 when he directed a performance of the Messiah to mark the presentation of the organ to the chapel
Found soundsthe found sounds movement is an important offshoot of experimental music that involves artists appropriating prerecorded sounds discovered elsewhere and stitching them together to create their own peculiar sound collages. This practice differs from field recordings in that rather than going out "in the field" to capture sounds, the artist recycles sounds already captured by someone else. Dusty record bins full of esoteric, forgotten albums are popular locales for searching for found sounds, though artists take them from just about anywhere. Some artists, most notably Negativland and others in the "plunderphonics" movement, create compositions exclusively from found sounds, but more often artists use found sounds to counter and complement their own original music
  • Found Sounds - mp3s - from which the extract above has been taken
Fourquattro (Italian), Vier (German), quatre (French)
Fourage(German f., dated) forage
Four-beatin jazz, to play all beats of a four-beat bass rhythm with equal emphasis
Four centred archform of arch used in the Perpendicular phase of Gothic, flattened at the top
Fourche(French f.) fork, pitchfork
Fourchette(French f.) fork, margin (in commerce)
on the harp, a disc fitted with two prongs or forks. Invented by Sebastien Erard; used by Erard and most later pedal harp makers from about 1784 to the present time. When a pedal is pressed down the disc turns, and the two prongs press against either side of the string, thereby raising the string pitch one semi-tone. In contrast to earlier mechanism action, this process did not pull the string out of alignment or adversely affect their tone quality
Fourchette tonique(French f.) tuning fork
fourchu(French) forked
Four-colour processcolour printing by means of the three subtractive primary colours (yellows, magenta, cyan) and black superimposed; the colours of the original having been separated by a photographic or electronic process
Four Elements, Thesee 'elements, the four'
Fourfold meaningalose known as fourfold interpretation, this word refers to the medieval idea that every passage in the Bible can be interpreted according to at least one of four possible levels of meaning. The text can be read as a literally or historically true account of events, an allegorical text revealing spiritual or typological truths, a tropological lesson that makes a moral point, and an anagogical text predicting eschatological events in the last days or revealing truths about the afterlife
Four-foot pitchthe pitch of a choir of strings which is tuned an octave higher than those of a piano
a stop of organ pipes at four-foot pitch would sound one octave above standard, eight-foot pitch
Fourgon(French) the luggage van of a train, a baggage-wagon
Fourgon cellulaire(French) prison van
Four hands, fora quattro mani (Italian), Vierhändig (German), à quatre mains (French)
Four-hand piano musicchamber music genre for two performers playing usually at one piano, one playing the treble parts and the other playing the bass. This arrangment was particularly popular as it allowed the home or salon performances of orchestral arrangements
the term 'for four hands' is sometimes used for two players playing on two pianos, although this is not considered the appropriate term, which is 'for piano duet'
Four humours, thein ancient Greece, Hippocrates postulated that four bodily humours or liquids existed in the body corresponding to the four elements existing in matter. These four liquids determined a human's health and psychology. An imbalance among the humours - blood, phlegm, black bile (or tears), and yellow bile (or choler) - resulted in pain and disease, and good health resulted through a balance of the four humours
hence, sanguine (from French sang for blood: meaning cheerfully optimistic), phlegmatic (from phlegm: meaning unemotional and stolidly calm), choleric (from choler: meaning bad-tempered or irritable) and atrabilious (from Latin for 'black bile': meaning gloomy or morose, bad-tempered or irritable)
Fourieranalyse(German f.) Fourier analysis
Fourier-Analyse(German f.) Fourier analysis
Fourier analysisnamed after Joseph Fourier's introduction of the Fourier series, is the decomposition of a function in terms of sinusoidal functions (called basis functions) of different frequencies that can be recombined to obtain the original function. The recombination process is called Fourier synthesis (in which case, Fourier analysis refers specifically to the decomposition process). The original concept of Fourier analysis has been extended over time to apply to more and more abstract and general situations, and the general field is often known as 'harmonic analysis'
Fourier coefficientsee 'Fourier series'
Fourier-Koeffizient(German m.) Fourier coefficient
Fourier-Raum(German m.) Fourier space
Fourierreihe(German f.) Fourier series
Fourier seriesthe sum of a series of trigonometric expressions, often used in the analysis of periodic functions
Fourier spacein electronics, control systems engineering, and statistics frequency domain is a term used to describe the analysis of mathematical functions or signals with respect to frequency, rather than time
Fourier synthesisthe construction of a periodic signal on the basis of Fourier coefficients which give the amplitude and phase angle of each component sine wave harmonic. These coefficients are obtained through Fourier analysis. The synthesis technique is also called 'additive synthesis'
Fourier transforman operation that transforms one complex-valued function of a real variable into another. In such applications as signal processing, the domain of the original function is typically time and is accordingly called the time domain
Fourier-Transformation(German f.) Fourier transform
Fouriertransformierte(German f.) Fourier transform
Fou rire(French m.) hysterical laughter, uncontrollable giggling
Four-leaf Cloverone of the two-couple figures danced in a circle of four people traditionally associated with square dancing
Four-Letter-Word(German n.) four-letter word (euphemism for one of a number of particularly rude four-lettered words)
Four measure restsee 'long rest'
Fourniture(French f.) a mixture stop on the organ
Fourswhen jazz ensemble players exchange leads every four bars, whether during a verse or a chorus, they are said to be 'trading fours'
Four Saints in Three Actsan opera by American composer Virgil Thomson with a libretto by Gertrude Stein. Written in 1927-8, it contains about twenty saints, and is in at least four acts. It was ground breaking for form, content, and its all-black cast, with singers directed by black choral director Eva Jessye and supported by her choir
Four Seasons(the original title in Italian is Le quattro stagioni, Op. 8) composed by Antonio Vivaldi, the Four Seasons were published in Amsterdam in 1725. There are four violin concerti each named after a season of the year. Each includes a sonnet, written by Vivaldi, that describes the intent of the music, which makes them unique among Vivaldi's canon. The four concerti are part of a larger collection of twelve called Il cimento dell'armonia e del'invention, or The Contest of Harmony and Invention, Opus 8. The title indicates an ongoing battle between harmony, form, and rationality and the opposing forces of invention, fantasy, and creativity. This may be intended to show how Vivaldi used the rigid concerto form (three movements, fast-slow-fast, each with specific guidelines) to display his imagination and inventiveness. Programmatic music such as this was very uncommon in the baroque era (and the classical era, for that matter) and it is probably a part of the whole idea of invention and creativity that Vivaldi ascribes a story (or outline, really) to his music. The idea of contrasts was one of his foremost objectives, so to join musical notes with written words makes them part of the overall concept. During the time of this composition, about 1717-1720, Vivaldi had taken a post with Landgrave Philipp of Hesse-Darmstadt and found himself in Mantua. The Four Seasons are obviously much influenced by the Lombardy countryside of this region, as are many other pastoral works he created during this period, such as Alla Rustica, Il gardellino (The Goldfinch), and La Caccia (The Hunt). The Four Seasons was written for Count Graf Wenzel von Morzin of Bohemia, to whom Vivaldi sent many concerti
Fourteenthan interval formed of an octave plus a seventh
Fourthquarta (Italian), Quarte (German), quarte (French), cuarta (Spanish), cuarto grado (Spanish)
interval of four diatonic scale notes, counting the first and last note, for example, the interval from 'C' to 'F'
the 'perfect fourth', an interval of 5 semitones (or half-steps) is called the diatessaron
Fourth flutea descant/soprano sized recorder in "B flat", a transverse flute sounding a fourth above a concert flute
Four-three chordthe chord that is the second inversion of a seventh chord
Fourth wallthe term 'fourth wall' applies to the imaginary invisible wall at the front of the stage in a proscenium theatre, through which the audience sees the action in the world of the play. The term "breaking the fourth wall" is used in film, theatre, television, video-games and literary works; it refers to a character directly addressing an audience, or actively acknowledging (through breaking character or through dialogue) that the characters and action are not real. This has the effect of reminding an audience that what they are viewing is fiction and as such can have a jarring effect. Various artists have used this jarring effect to make a point, as it forces an audience to see the fiction in a new light and to watch it less passively. Bertolt Brecht was known for deliberately breaking the fourth wall to encourage his audience to think more critically about what they were watching
Four to the flooror four-on-the-floor, a type of dance music characterized by a steady, uniformly accented beat in 4/4 time, popularized in 1960s, and disco music of 1970s. It is also known in 'country music'
Four-two chordthird inversion of the seventh chord
four voices, forsee 'for four voices'
Four-walla theatre rental contract where the producer assumes responsibility for all of the expenses of a show and gets all of the revenue, a term used especially in Las Vegas
Fovea-(German) foveolar (prefix)
Fovea(German f.) or fovea centralis, area consisting of a small depression in the retina containing cones and where vision is most acute
Foveauxstraße(German f.) Foveaux Strait
Foveola(English, German f.) the foveola is located within a region called the macula, a yellowish, cone photo receptor filled portion of the human retina
foveolar(German) foveolar
Foxingbrown spot-like stains found on paper. They can be caused by the oxidation of iron particles (ferric oxide) in the paper's chemical residue left over from manufacturing, but foxing is most often caused by the action of enzymes from mould that has attached itself to accommodating impurities, and encouraged to grow by a damp and warm environment. It is now believed that some of these brown stains are also a form of cellulose oxidation damage caused by repeated loss or uptake of moisture in environments with fluctuating humidity levels
Foxtail chainan intricately woven chain made up of three rows of links. The top and bottom row are oval-shaped links lying on each other at a 45 degree angle, but not linked together
Foxterrier(German m.) fox terrier (dog)
Foxtrotor 'Fox trot' and named for its inventor Harry Fox (born Arthur Carringford in 1882), an American ballroom dance, which originated in about 1913, a cross between 'ragtime' and a 'march', which can be slow or quick. The dance steps themselves were highly varied and borrowed from other dances. Popular variants included the quickstep (originally a fast military march), slow blues, Peabody and Roseland foxtrot. To some extent even dances such as the Lindy and the Hustle are derived from the Foxtrot. In the context of International Standard category of ballroom dances, for some time Foxtrot was called Slow Foxtrot, or Slowfox. These names are still in use, to distinguish from other types of Foxtrot
  • Foxtrot from which some of this information has been taken
  • Foxtrot from which some of this information has been taken
Foxtrott(German m.) foxtrot
Fox wedge tenonor foxtail wedge, fox wedge or fox tenon, a joint in which a small wedge is used to secure the split end of a tenon in a mortise, the split end of a bolt in a hole, or the like, by spreading the end as the wedge is driven in
Foyer(English, French m., German n., Spanish m.) entrance-hall, lobby or lounge in a hotel, theatre, etc.
Foyer und Zuschauerraum(German) front of (the) house