music dictionary : P - Pd 

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P(English, Italian f.) the letter P
after Mark Pincherle (1888-1974), the cataloguer of music by Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741)
after Diana Poulton (1903-1994), the cataloguer of music by John Dowland (1563-1626))
after Potito Pedarra (b. 1945), the cataloguer of music by Ottorino Respighi (1879-1936)
or Perger, after Lothar Herbert Perger, the cataloguer of the music of Johann Michael Haydn (1737-1806) and Johann Adolf Hasse (1699-1783)
after Milan Postolka (1932-1993), the cataloguer of the music of Leopold Jan Antonin Kozeluh (1747-1818)
after Giorgio Pestelli (b. 1938), the cataloguer of music by Domenico Scarlatti (1685-1757)
p.abbreviation of piano (Italian: soft), pédalier (French m.: the pedalboard of an organ), Positiv (German n.: the choir organ), 'page', pars (Latin)
P.abbreviation of 'pianoforte'
abbreviation of 'pedal'
abbreviation of pointe (French f.: toe)
PAabbreviation of 'public address', as in PA-system
p.a.abbreviation of per annum (Latin: annually), 'personal appearance'
P & Aprints and advertising, the often-substantial expense that goes on a film's financial ledger after production is complete
Paar(German n.) pair, couple, binary, duet, dyad, brace (pair)
Paar Handschuhe, ein(German) a pair of gloves
Paar Leute, ein(German) a sprinkling of people
Paar Strümpfe, ein(German) a pair of stockings
paarweise(German) in pairs, in twos
Pabellón(Spanish m.) bell (of a brass instrument, for example, of a French horn), padiglione (Italian m.), Aufsatz (German m.), Schalltrichter (German n.), Schallbecher (German m.), pavillon (French m.)
(Spanish m.) bell tent, building, flag
Pabellón en forma de pera(Spanish m.) pear-shaped bell (for example, as on a cor anglais), padiglione piriforme (Italian m.), Liebesfuß (German m.), pavillon piriforme (French m.)
Pabilo(Spanish m.) wick
Pabulum(Latin) food, nutriment, food for thought
pacare(Italian) to quieten
pacatamente(Italian) calmly, placidly, quietly, peacefully
Pacatazza(Italian f.) quiet, quietness, calm, calmness, peacefulness
pacato(Italian) quiet, calm, peaceful, placid
pacato(Italian) calm, placid, quiet
Pacca (s.), Pacche (pl.)(Italian f.) slap
Pacchetto(Italian m.) packet, small packet
Pacchia(Italian f.) bed of roses (familiar: situation), good living, hearty meal
Pacchiano (m.), Pacchiana (f.)(Italian) countryman (m.), countrywoman (f.)
pacchiano (m.), pacchiana (f.)(Italian) rustic, countrified
Pacchierone (m.), Pacchierona (f.)(Italian) stout fellow (m.), plump girl (f.)
Pacchina(Italian f.) blow on the back of the head
Pacciame(Italian m.) litter of leaves, sticks, etc.
Pacco (s.), Pacchi (pl.)(Italian m.) parcel, bundle, package
Paccottiglia(Italian f.) barter goods, trash, parcel carelessly made up
Pace(Italian f.) peace, pax (Latin)
pace(Latin) by leave of ... (followed by the name of a person)
Pachangaa popular Cuban rhythm style of the 1950s, drawn from a song composed in 1959 by Eduardo Davidson, that was usually played by charanga bands where flute and violins took the place of brass
Pachiderma(Italian m.) pachyderm, a thick-skinned person
Paciere(Italian m.) peacemaker
pacificare(Italian) to reconcile, to pacify, to appease
Pacificatore (m.), Pacificatrice (f.)(Italian) peacemaker
pacificatore (m.), pacificatrice (f.)(Italian) pacifying
pacifico(Italian) pacific, peaceful, peaceable, peace-loving
Pacifico, il(Italian m.) or ''Ocean Pacifico (Italian m.), the Pacific (Ocean)
Pacificone (m.), Pacificona (f.)(Italian) placid, easu-going person
Pacifista(Italian m./f.) pacifist
Pacifismo(Italian m.) pacifism
Pacioccone (m.), Pacioccona (f.)(Italian) placid, easu-going person
Packed housesee 'full house'
Packed outfull, crowded
PACSabbreviation of Pacte civil de solidarité (French m.: legal alternative to marriage in France, with a provision for same-sex couples)
Pactagreement, contract (colloquial)
Pacte(French m.) pact
pactiser avec(French m.) be in league with, to be in cahoots with (colloquial), to be in agreement with
Pädagogik(German f.) pedagogy
Padded out(about a book, etc.) lengthen or fill out with unnecessary material
Paddock(English, French m.) a fenced area, usually near a stable, used chiefly for grazing horses
(English, French m.) an enclosure at a racetrack where the horses are assembled, saddled
Padella(Italian f.) frying-pan, bed-pan, warming-pan
Padellata(Italian f.) panful, blow with a frying pan
Padiglione(Italian m.) the bell (of a wind instrument), Aufsatz (German m.), Schallbecher (German m.), Schallstück (German n.), pavillon (French m.), pabellón (Spanish m.)
(Italian m.) pavilion (large and often sumptuous tent), tent, canopy, hangings for a church festival, outer ear (anatomy), section of an exhibtion building
Padiglione piriforme(Italian m.) pear-shaped bell (for example, as on a cor anglais), Liebesfuß (German m.), pavillon piriforme (French m.), pabellón en forma de pera (Spanish m.)
Padiglioni in alto(Italian m. pl.) bells up (horn playing technique)
Padova(Italian f.) Padua (Italian city)
Padovana(Italian) pavan
Padovane(German) pavan
Padovano(Italian m.) Paduan (a person born or associated with Padua)
padovano(Italian) Paduan
Padrastro(Spanish m.) stepfather
Padre (s.), Padri (Italian pl.)(Spanish m.) father
(Italian m.) father, parent, sire, friar, priest, forefathers (plural format)
(English) military or naval chaplain (often used to address an Anglican clergyman)
padreggiare(Italian) to resemble one's father, to take after one's father
Padrigno(Italian m.) or patrigno (Italian m.), step-father
Padrino(Italian m.) god-father, second (in a duel)
Padreterno(Italian m.) God Almighty
Padrone(Italian m.) a patron, an (Italian) employer of labour, the proprietor of an inn or a restaurant
Pad sawalso called a keyhole saw, alligator saw, jab saw or compass saw, a long, narrow saw used for cutting small, often awkward features in various building materials. There are typically two varieties of this type of saw: the fixed blade type and retractable blade type
Paduana(Italian) pavan
Paduane(German) pavan
Paean(Greek) a song or hymn (of praise, triumph or rejoicing) with a specific rhythm which is believed to endue it with absolving or healing powers
(Greek) a song in honour of some god, particularly Apollo
Paella(Spanish f., literally 'pan') a dish consisting of chicken, bacon, pork and various shellfish cooked together with saffron rice (named for the large flat-bottomed shallow pan in which it is cooked)
a metrical foot consisting of one long and three short syllables. There are four varieties:
long - short - short - short
short - long - short - short
short - short - long - short
short - short - short - long
Pagaie(French f.) paddle
pagayer(French) to paddle
Pagaille(French f.) mess, shambles
Pagan virtues, foursee 'cardinal virtues'
pagar(Spanish) to pay, to pay off, to repay (recompense), to pay for (goods, crimes)
pagar ... con ...(Spanish) to pay for ... with ...
pagar ... por ...(Spanish) to pay ... for ...
pagar por adelantado(Spanish) to pay in advance
Page(English, French f.) leaf of a book, periodical, etc., each side of the leaf of a book, periodical, etc.
Pageantbrilliant spectacle, elaborate parade, play illustrating historical events, tableau on a stage or moving vehicle, a public form of the masque
Paghjella(Corsica) secular polyphonic song, that combine three registers of voice: a segonda, which begins, gives the pitch and carries the main melody; u bassu, which follows, accompanies it and supports it; finally a terza, the highest placed, which enriches and gives the song
Pagina(Italian f.) page
Página(Spanish f.) page
Paginateassign numbers to the pages of a book, etc.
Paginationthe numbering of the leaves of a book, etc. Under pagination, the back and front of each leaf bear different numbers
in musical and other historical manuscripts, the leaves are called folios (which refers to both the front and back of the leaf), the process of numbering is called foliation, and that folio 1 refers to both sides of the leaf. For this reason, manuscripts are often referred to as a collection of folios
Pago adelantado(Spanish m.) payment in advance
Pago al contado(Spanish m.) payment in cash
Pago anticipado(Spanish m.) payment in advance
Pago a plazos(Spanish m.) payment in instalments
Pagoda(from the Portuguese pagode) an oriental temple, especially that in the form of a many-storied tower
Pagode(French f.), pagoda
(Brazil) the original (or at least one of the oldest) meanings of pagode was "a party or get together" where music was often played
today however the meaning of pagode will depend on who is using the term:
small group samba (3-12 players) usually with voice, guitar, cavaquinho, pandeiro, and tamborim
a simple, homemade sounding samba that emerged in the late-70s and early 80s
a "smooth" romantic samba style that blossomed in Rio around the same time
the current wave of popular, samba-influenced groups sometimes refered to as suingue
Pago en especie(Spanish m.) payment in kind
Pago inicial(Spanish m.) down payment
Pago inicial de ...(Spanish m.) down payment of ...
páguese al portador(Spanish) pay the bearer
PahletaPortuguese double reed instrument has five holes and the end section is bell shaped
PahuTahitian double-headed bass drum made out of hollowed out coconut trunks, covered by either shark skin or calf skin
Pahu rupa'l rimaTahitian single membrane drum
Paiban(China) also called tanban, a clapper performed with one hand. The thick side is made of two wooden plates fit together, and the thin side is made of one. They are loosely tied together by a piece of string. This string is draped over the thumb of the left hand, and the thin side is held by the remaining four fingers. By rotating the wrist, the lower end of the thick side is hit against by the thin side
Paidushkoalso baiduska, pajdusko, pajduska or payduska, a Thracian dance, usually performed with strong aggressive movements by men
Paie(French f.) pay
Paiement(French m.) payment
Païen (m.), Païenne (f.)(French) pagan
païen (m.), païenne (f.)(French) pagan
Paigu(Chinese) a set of small tuned drums, deriving from the medium-sized and small-sized tanggu (hall drum), arranged on a frame in order of size (and pitch). The paigu is used in the chuida yue (ensemble for wind and percussion). Skilled performers, using two beaters, can produce fast, variable rhythms and timbres on these drums
namedrumstunable drumheadshow tuned
wuyin paigufivetentension-tunable on both ends, can be turned over to change the pitch by up to a fifth
liuyin paigusixsixtension-tunable only at one end
Pai-hsiaoor paixiao, Chinese pan-flute, is one of the most ancient of Chinese musical instruments
Paila (s.), Pailas (pl.)a term for a smaller version of the Cuban timbales, named after a vessel of iron or copper used in the sugar cane factories of Cuba
paila is a term used to describe the sides or shells of the timbales so that, 'to play paila' means to play the sides or play cáscara
Paillasse(French f.) straw mattress, draining-board (in a laboratory)
Paillasson(French m.) doormat
Paille(French f.) straw, flaw (defect)
Paillette(French f.) or paillon, a piece of coloured foil used to give brilliance to a painting in enamel
a glittering ornament on a woman's dress, a sequin (on a dress, etc.), a spangle, a flake (of soap powder)
Paillettes d'or(French gold-dust
Pain(French m.) bread, loaf (of bread), bar (of soap)
Painatus(Finnish) engraving
Pain d'épice(French m.) gingerbread
Pain grillé(French m.) toast
Painterperson who paints, artist or decorator
rope attached to the bow of a boat for tying it to a quay. etc.
Painterlycharacteristic of a painter or paintings, artistic, (of a painting) lacking clearly defined outlines
Paintingprocess or art of using paint, painted picture
Paint shoppart of a factory where cars, etc. are sprayed or painted
Paintworkpainted, especially wooden, surface or area in a building, etc.
Paintyof or covered in paint (painty smell)
Pair(French m.) peer (person)
pair (m.), paire (f.)(French) even (number)
Paire(French f.) pair
Paired noteson the piano, parallel pairs of notes played with one hand
País(Spanish m.) country, region
el País Vasco (Spanish: the Basque Country)
los Países Bajos (Spanish: the Low Countries)
un país amigo (Spanish: a friendly country)
paisable(French) peaceful
Paisagem sonora(Portuguese) soundscape
Paisaje(Spanish m.) countryside
Paisano(Spanish m.) compatriot
paisano(Spanish) of the same country
Países Bajos, los(Spanish) The Low Countries (historical usage), Netherlands (present usage)
[entry clarified by Esther Dubielzig]
in Dutch, the country is called Nederland and sometimes, erroneously in English, Holland, a reference to two of the country's twelve provinces
País natal(Spanish m.) native land
paître(French) to graze
Paix(French f.) peace, peace treaty
Pái xiaosee pai-hsiao
Paja(Spanish f.) straw, nonsense (figurative)
Pajamas(from Urdu) suit of loose trousers and jackets worn for sleeping in, loose trousers worn by both sexes in Asian countries
Pajarera(Spanish f.) aviary
Pájaro(Spanish m.) bird
Pájaro carpintero(Spanish m.) woodpecker
Paje(Spanish m.) page
Pakawajsee pakhawraj
Pakeha(Maori) European settler
Pakhawraja cylindrical percussion drum instrument, the right side having a treble face and the left side the bass. This instrument is for solo playing and also accompanies dhrupad singers, orissi dancers and kathak
Pakistan(English, French m.) Muslim country formed from the Northeastern part of what was British ruled India
Pakistanais (m.), Pakistanaise (f.)(French) Pakistani
pakistanais (m.), pakistanaise (f.)(French) Pakistani
Pakistani electronic musica form of pop music in Pakistan, taking inspiration from hip hop, bhangra and R & B. Although many different genres of music have been created by Pakistani artists, electronic music is a genre that has failed to gain popularity with the masses
Palfriend, mate, comrade (colloquial)
Palabra(Spanish f.) word, speech
Palabras preliminares(Spanish f. pl.) foreword
Palabrota(Spanish f.) swear-word
Palace(French m.) luxury hotel
a large and stately mansion
official residence of an exalted person (as a sovereign)
(from the Latin palatium) the domestic building for Roman emperors, at the scale of a small city
Palacio(Spanish m.) palace, mansion (grand house)
Paladar(Spanish m.) palate
paladino (m.), paladina (f.)(Spanish) clear, public
Palaeo-ancient, prehistoric (prefix)
Palaeography (British)or paleography (American) (from the Greek palaiós, "old" and graphein, "to write") is the study of ancient and medieval manuscripts, independent of the language (Koine Greek, Classical Latin, Medieval Latin, Old English, etc.) In a more general sense, palaeography is the practice of reading manuscript text, and of learning how to do so
Palaeolithicof the early part of the Stone Age
Palaeontologythe study of life in the geological past
Palaeontologistone who studies life in the geological past
Palaeozoicof an era of geological time marked by the appearance of plants and animals, especially invertebrates
the Palaeozoic era
Palaestra(Latin from the Greek) a place devoted to athletic exercises, particularly wrestling, the practice of athletics
Palais(French m.) palate (anatomical), hall, public dancehall (colloquial)
Palais de danse(French m.) a dance-hall open to all on payment of an entrance-fee
Palalaliaa neurological speech disorder characterized by involuntary repetitions of phrases at increasingly rapid rate
Palan(French m.) hoist
Palanca(Spanish f.) lever, influence (figurative)
Palangana(Spanish f.) wash-basin
Palanquinalso 'palankeen', (in India and the East) covered litter for one
Palatablepleasant to the taste, acceptable (of an idea), satisfactory (acceptable)
Palatalpertaining to the palate
in linguistics, any sound involving the hard palate, especially the tongue touching or moving toward the hard palate (for example, /y/ is 'yes')
Palatal dipthongizationa sound change in which either the ash or the /e/ sound in Old English words became a diphthong when preceded by palatal consonants
Palatalizationin linguistics, the process of making a sound more palatal - i.e., moving the blade of the tongue closer to the hard palate
Palatestructure closing the upper part of the mouth cavity in vertebrates, sense of taste, mental taste, liking
Palatial(of a building) like a palace, spacious and splendid
Palatinateterritory under the jurisdiction of a Count Palatine
Palatinealso Palatine, (historial: of an official etc.) having local authority that elsewhere belongs only to a sovereign (Count Palatine), (historical: of a territory) subject to this authority
Palato(Italian m.) palate
Palato spaccato(Italian m.) cleft palate
Palatovelarin linguistics, a sound that is either palatal or velar
Palavertedious fuss and bother (colloquial)
natural(Finnish) the sign placed before a note that is neither sharpened or flattened
Palazzo (s.), Palazzi (pl.)(Italian m.) a fine mansion (in Italy), palace, building
Palazzo di giustizia(Italian m.) Law Courts
Palchetto per orchestra(Italian m.) band stand
Palco(Italian m., Spanish m.) stage, platform, box (in a theatre or opera house)
Palcoscenico(Italian m.) stage
Paldong(Philippines) an end-blown bamboo flute, usually played as a solo instrument by men, sometimes to court women
  • Paldong from which this information has been taken
Pâle comme un linge(French) white as a sheet
Paleographythe study of ancient handwriting. Paleographers (those who specialize in paleography) can deduce much about the age of manuscripts, lines of transmission, etc., by studying the handwriting of individual scribes
Paleolithicor 'palaeolithic', of the early part of the Stone Age
Paleontologyor 'palaeontology', the study of life in the geological past
Palaeontologista person who studies life in the geological past
palesare(Italian) to disclose
palesarsi(Italian) to reveal oneself
palese(Italian) evident
Palestina(Spanish f., Italian f.) Palestine
Palestino(Spanish m.) Palestinian
palestino(Spanish) Palestinian
Palestra(Italian f.) gynasium, gymnastics
Palestrina, allasee alla Palestrina
Palestra(Spanish f.) arena (figurative)
Palestrina stylesee stile antico
Paleta(Spanish f.) palette (of a painter), trowel
Paleto(Spanish m.) yokel
Paletot(French) a loose coat, a cloak with sleeves
Paletteartist's thin board or slab for laying and mixing colours on, range of colours used by an artist
Palette-knifethin flexible steel blade with a handle for mixing colours or applying or removing paint, blunt round-ended flexible kitchen knife
Palfreya short-legged, long-bodied horse which proceeded at a gentle amble, considered suitable for a lady
Palheta(Portuguese) pick, as used, for example, to play the banjo
Palheta dupla(Portuguese) double reed, as on an oboe, cor anglais (English horn), or bassoon
Palheta simples(Portuguese) single reed, as on a clarinet
Paliativo(Spanish m.) palliative
paliativo(Spanish) palliative
palidecer(Spanish) to turn pale
palidez(Spanish) paleness
pálido (m.), pálida (f.)(Spanish) pale. pallid
Palillo(Spanish m.) small stick, toothpick
Palillos(Spanish m. pl.) castanets also known as catanuelas, a small pair of wooden plates held together in one hand which are clicked in order provide rhymthmic accompaniment during a dance. Palillos are not used in 'pure' flamenco
Palilogiasee epizeuxis
Palimpsesta manuscript page, scroll, or book that has been written on, scraped off, and used again. Romans wrote on wax-coated tablets that could be reused, and a passing use of the rather bookish term palimpsest by Cicero seems to refer to this practice. The term is also applied to a monumental brass turned and re-engraved on the reverse side
Palindromea word, sentence, verse or piece of music that reads the same forward or backward
Palindromicin the form of a palindrome
Palinode(Greek, 'singing again') a poem, song, or section of a poem or song in which the poet renounces or retracts his words in an earlier work
Palio(Italian m.) prize
Il Palio (Italian: horse-race held at Sienna)
Palisandro(Spanish m.) palisander (a wood species that, in England, is called rosewood)
Palitas (cubanas)these instruments, smaller in size than the paila, allowed the performer to sit while he played
Palito (s.), Palitos (pl.)(Spanish m., literally meaning 'sticks') the sticks and pattern played during rumba. A pair of sticks is traditionally used to play gua-gua that accompanies the rumba styles, and for this reason the name is also applied to the patterns played on the gua-gua. In non-traditional settings, the patterns can be played on any wooden sound-producing percussion instrument
Paliza(Spanish f.) beating
Palizada(Spanish f.) fence, enclosure
Palizzata(Italian f.) fence
Palkki(Finnish) beam
Pallaa traditional ancient Roman mantle worn by women, fastened by brooches
(Italian f.) ball, bullet (projectile)
Pallacanestro(Italian f.) basketball
Palladiotypesor 'palladium print', a photographic image based on the chemistry of the cyanotype in which paper is photo sensitised with iron salts. When developed out, the salts are replaced with palladium. This process was used to create homemade photo paper since the 1870s. Commercial palladium paper was introduced in 1916 as a substitute for platinum paper that became unavailable during the First World War. Palladium and platinum share many characteristics; their colours can range from a silvery grey to a warm brown; and they were sometimes even mixed together. Both metals are very stable for they embed themselves into the paper, rather than lie on its surface. This also gives them a very matte finish that makes them almost unrecognisable as photographs
Palladium(Latin from the Greek) the image of Pallas at Troy, upon on which the safety of the city was supposed to depend
anything on which the safety of a nation (institution, etc.) depends, a safeguard
Pallanuoto(Italian f.) water polo
Pallavolo(Italian f.) volley-ball
palleggiare(Italian) to dribble, to knock up (tennis)
Pallet (valve)when air flows into an organ pipe, it goes through a hole in the wind chest beneath the pipe. The 'pallet valve' closes this hole when the pipe is not being used. Pressing the key opens this valve
Palliativea treatment that alleviates a disease without curing it
Palliativo(Italian m.) palliative
Pallidpale (especially as a result of an illness)
pallido(Italian) pale
Pallina(Italian f.) marble (made of glass)
Pallium (s.), Pallia (pl.)(Latin) the rectangular cloak worn as an outer garment (especially by the Greeks) in ancient Rome, the vestment considered as a symbol of his office conferred on an archbishop
Palloncino(Italian m.) balloon, Chinese lantern
Pallone(Italian m.) ball, football, balloon
Pallore(Italian m.) pallor
Pallottola(Italian f.) pellet, bullet (projectile)
Pallottolina(Italian f.) pellet
Palma(Spanish f.) palm (of the hand), palm (tree), date palm
(Italian f.) palm (tree), date palm
Palmada(Spanish f.) slap
Palmadas(Spanish f. pl.) applause
Palma de la mano(Spanish f.) palm of the hand
Palmas(Spanish f. pl.) applause
(Spanish f. pl.) hand-clap percussion used in flamenco music (Spain) and in some Spanish American countries
Palm court orchestrathe term 'palm court' evokes afternoon tea at the Ritz amid potted palms and wicker furniture, dancing to Geraldo at the Savoy, cruising the French Riviera with the smart set, taking the waters at Leamington spa - a setting and style reflective of 'British High Society' between the Wars. In fact the genre is Victorian, light music performed by small orchestras in seaside hotels and on bandstands, or even smaller ensembles playing during the evening meal in hotel dining rooms
Palm cupatyle of Saxon glass vessel in the form of a hemispherical bowl with a wide everted rim
Palmera(Spanish f.) date palm
Palmeros(Spanish m. pl.) in flamenco, men who clap while the musicians play
Palmette(French f.) a fan-shaped ornament divided into branches like a palm-leaf
Palm mutea feature of guitar playing, where the palm of the hand is placed against the strings to silence them
Palmo(Spanish m.) span (of the hand), small amount
(Italian m.) palm (of the hand)
palmo a palmo(Spanish) inch by inch
Palmo della mano(Italian m.) palm of the hand
palmotear(Spanish) to clap, to applaud
Palmoteo(Spanish m.) clapping, applause
Palm Sundaythe Sunday before Easter, commemorating Christ's triumphant entry into Jerusalem the week before he was crucified
Palm wineor maringa, a music style from Sierra Leone based on the sound of acoustic guitar riffs accompanied by traditional percussion. It evolved among the Kru people of Sierra Leone and Liberia, who used Portuguese guitars brought by sailors, combining local melodies and rhythms with Trinidadian calypso
Palo(Spanish m.) stick, pole, handle (that is held), club (golf), blow (that is struck), suit (cards), mast (ship)
(Italian m.) pole, stake
the name of Congolese-derived religious groups in Cuba, the music of which uses one to three congas and a cowbell
Palo de lluvia(Spanish m., literally 'rain stick') made of giant bamboo reeds measuring up to six feet in height, the inside of the instrument has dozens of sticks placed diagonally and held in place by drilling holes into the bamboo. After the sticks are secure, small dried beans, rocks or seeds are added. The two ends of the bamboo are then sealed and turning the stick upside down causes the small objects to fall, hitting the criss-crossed sticks. This produces the mystical rainfall sounds of this instrument
Paloma(Spanish f.) dove, pigeon
Palombaro(Italian m.) diver
Palomino(Spanish m.) a horse of a light colour ranging from cream to chestnut with a light main and tail
Palomitas(Spanish f. pl.) popcorn
Palosa drum from the Dominican Republic
the different styles and songs in flamenco
Palotachean instrumental piece in duple time from Hungary
PalouiIndonesian transverse flute
  • Paloui from which this information has been taken
palpar(Spanish) to feel, to touch, to palpate (medical)
palpare(Italian) to feel
Palpebra(Italian f.) eyelid
Palpitación(Spanish f.) palpitation, throbbing
palpitante(Spanish) throbbing
palpitar(Spanish) to throb, to beat
palpitare(Italian) to throb, to quiver
Palpitazione(Italian f.) palpitation
Palpito(Italian m.) throb, beat (of the heart)
Pálpito(Spanish m.) hunch (an idea about something), presentiment
Palta(Spanish, Latin-America) avocado
Palude(Italian f.) marsh
palúdicio (m.), palúdicia (f.)(Spanish) marshy, malarial
paludoso(Italian) marshy
palustre(Italian) marshy
PalweiBurmese duct flute used in the Burmese classical orchestra saing waing. Although it has a low volume capacity, the instrument gives out a clear, high pitched tone
  • Palwei from which this information has been taken
Pambea small Indian drum
Pambichethe national dance of the Dominican Republic, a slower less syncopated type of merengue that is easier to dance
it is suggested that the merengue was slowed down to accommodate American soldiers (who occupied the country from 1916-1924) and couldn't dance the difficult steps of the merengue
  • Pambiche from which this information has been taken
Pampas(Spanish, literally 'steppes') properly 'pampas-grass', a giant ornamental grass
Pampino(Italian m.) vine leaf
Pamula(Latin) an archaic name for the manual keys of an organ, etc.
Panin Greek mythology, Pan, the son of Hermes and the nymph Dryope, is part man but has the ears, horns and legs of a goat. Pan is a god of creativity, music, poetry, sensuality and sexuality, or panic and nightmares, who haunts forests, caverns, mountains, brooks and streams. His lovers included Echo, Selene, Cyparissus, Daphnis, and Olympus. His favourite time is noon when he seduces young men while teaching them to play the syrinx, or pan-pipes. The nymph Syrinx was devoted to Artemis and fled Pan's advances, only to be transformed into a bed of marsh reeds, which when the wind blew, made a beautiful but sad sound. This inspired Pan to cut two of the reeds, fasten them together, and make a pipe that he could play
Pansteelpan (also known as pan or steel drum, and sometimes collectively with the musicians as a steelband) is a musical instrument and a form of music originating in Trinidad in the West Indies. The pan is a pitched percussion instrument, tuned chromatically (although some toy or novelty steelpans are tuned diatonically), made from a 55 gallon drum of the type that stores oil, and is one of the most recently invented musical instruments. Drum refers to the steel drum containers from which the pans are made; the instrument is correctly called a pan (and pans are not, technically, regarded as drums)
  • Pan music from which this information has been taken
to move the sound between full left and full right in a stereo sound field
pan(s)abbreviation of 'pantomime(s)'
Panacea(Italian f., from Latin from the Greek) a universal remedy for all diseases, a cure for all troubles, a solution to all problems
Panacea Societygroup set up in 1928 by ex-lunatic asylum patient Mabel Barltrop who claimed to be the incarnation of the shiloh 'born' to the prophetess Joanna Southcot - changing her name to Octavia she gathered around her a group of followers to carryout the final works of Southcot. They claim to have the 'Ark' containing the prophetesses final words which will save England and the world from all ills, hence the name the 'Panacea society' - the box can only opened by getting together 24 Bishops - a feat that has so far defeated the Panaceans - despite them building a house for the purpose with 24 bedrooms and a special ark opening room. Barltrop gathered around her 12 female 'disciples' and with donations from followers built and purchased a number of houses in Bedford, which had been declared the ancient site of the garden of Eden by Barlthrop. The society is still in exsistence with its elderly members still calling for the Bishops to heed thier call and save us all from "Crime and Banditry"
Panca(Italian f.) bench
Panache(French) the plume of feathers on a helmet, an air of gallantry, swagger
Panada(Spanish) or panatella, a dish consisting of bread boiled to pulp and flavoured with sugar, spices, etc.
Panaylonan alto flute in G, with fifteen keys, invented by A. Bayr of Vienna, with a range of over three octaves, and which can produce double notes, as thirds, fourths, sixths, etc. which, in some keys, sound like musical glasses
Pancada(Portuguese) or batida (Portuguese), battement (French)
Pancetta(Italian f.) bacon
Panchavadyam(Sanskrit, pancha literally 'five') a classic performance of five different musical instruments, that are unique to Kerala state of India, in involves a breathtakingly fast performances on five percussion instruments, the timila, madhalam and edakka (three different types of drum), the elathalam (a cymbal) and kombu (a trumpet)
Panchari melamsee pandi melam
Panche Bajaan ensemble formed of five traditional Nepali musical instruments that plays during auspicious occasions. The instruments are jhurma (cymbals), tyamko or dholaki (drums), damaha (kettledrum), narsiha (a long curved horn), sanai (a shawm), and karnal, (a trumpet)
Panchetto(Italian m.) (foot)stool
Panchina(Italian f.) piano stool, garden seat
Panchromaticthe ability of film to capture the entire visual spectrum of light. Panchromatic emulsion was invented by Frederick Ives in 1881 and introduced to the public as film in 1906
Pancia(Italian f.) belly, tummy
Pancone(Italian m.) workbench
Pancratium(Latin from the Greek) or pancration, an athletic contest combining boxing and wrestling, a 'free-for-all'
Pandanus(Polynesia) a sitting mat that is also used as a percussion instrument
Pandavasthe five brothers, princes of the Lunar Race, who were the victors in the Mahabharata war
Pandean pipesa panpipe
Pandeiradalively Galician tambourine-based tunes
Pandeireta(Spain f.) Galician tambourine
Pandeiro(Spain f.) frame drum or tambourine from Portugal, Brazil and Galicia. The jingles, unlike those on the modern orchestral tamborine, which are made of steel or brass, which produce a 'brilliant' sound that more easily cuts though the sound of an orchestra, are usually made of softer tin, like the original 'bottle top' jingles, and produce a much drier sound more suited to the fast rhythms of Brazilian music
Pandereta(Spanish m.) or pandereta brasiliena, Spanish and Spanish-American tambourine without 'jingles', used in the Puerto Rican plena style. In Spain it is played mainly by women
Pandereta brasilian(Italian f.) pandereta
Pandereta brasiliena(Spanish f.) pandereta
Pandéréta brésilienne(French f.) pandereta
Pandero(Spanish m.) large Spanish and Spanish American frame drum
tambourine but without the cymbals
Pandero cuadrado(Spain m.) square frame drum which, on occasions, may be stuffed with foils, seeds, etc., to give a different sound. It is played with the fingers, the hands or the fists and in occasions, as in Peñaparda (Salamanca), with a stick and the hand at the same time
PanderoaBasque frame drum
Pandiatonicisma term devised by the Russian-born lexicographer Nicolas Slonimsky (1894-1995) for a passage of music that uses only the tones of a single diatonic scale but does not rely on traditional harmonic progressions and dissonance treatment to establish the tonal centre
Pandi melama classic performance (or melam) employing several musical instruments that are unique to Kerala in Southern India. The pandi melam which is generally performed outside the temples while the panchari melam, which is otherwise similar to pandi melam is played inside a temple
Panditmeaning 'scholar', in Indian classical music, a person well versed in the theory of music
Pandorasee bandora
Pandorethe Iranian name for the tambura
(German) pandora
Pandouraa lute of the ancient Greek and Roman cultures with a long neck and small soundbox
Pandourisee panduri
Panduasee pandurina
Pandura(Italian) pandora
Pandurifretted three-string lute from Georgia
Pandurina(Italian f.) or pandua, a small lute-like instrument strung with wire
pané(French) breaded (in cooking, passed through seasoned flour, eggwash and bread crumbs)
Panegyrica formal public speech delivered in high praise of a person or thing, a generally highly studied and discriminating eulogy, not expected to be critical. It is derived from Greek meaning a speech "fit for a general assembly" (panegyris). In Athens such speeches were delivered at national festivals or games, with the object of rousing the citizens to emulate the glorious deeds of their ancestors
  • Panegyric from which this extract has been taken
Panem et circenses(Latin) (the populace) desires 'bread and circuses'
the two elements considered effective as a means of pacifying the common populace
Panflöte(German f.) panflute, panpipes, flauto di Pan (Italian m.), siringa (Italian f., Spanish f.), flûte de Pan (French f.), syrinx (French m.)
Panfluit(Dutch) panflute
Panflutealso known as pan pipes, syrinx, or quills. There is evidence of the panflute surviving from ancient Mesopotamia and the great civilizations of 3500 BC. In the British Museum, London, there is a bas-relief from India of women making music on the syrinx, double aulos and drum and we can clearly see a woman playing a panpipes of 13 to 15 pipes. The bas-relief stems from the old India of the Gandhara period (first to fifth century AD). Archaeological proof of the existence of pan flutes can be found also throughout Europe. Viking panpipes have been found in excavations dating from the tenth century. The panpipe is made of a row of bamboo tubes, set in a frame, from which the player produces a series of different notes by blowing across the top of the stopped cylindrical pipes
Pangul(Korea) 13 small bell-shaped instruments attached to a handle, which is held and shaken causing the bells to strike one another and sound
  • Pangul from which this information has been taken
Panharmonicobased in Modena, Italy, Giacomo Gavioli (1786-1875), developed many self-playing musical instruments including the Panharmonico which became the predecessor of the portable belly organ. His son Ludovico Gavioli (1807-1875) worked together with his father on further developments of the barrel organ and the organ shop moved in 1845 from Italy to Paris where it was named Gavioli & Cie, Paris
Panharmonikon(German) a kind of orchestrion invented in about 1800 by Johann Mälzel of Vienna, for which in 1813 Beethoven wrote a piece called Wellington's Victory (later named the Battle Symphony) although the two men fell out before it could be performed in that version. In 1818, Mälzel and his renamed Orchestrion arrived for several year's successful touring in Britain
Panhusee erhu
Panier(French m.) basket
Panier à provisions(French m.) shopping basket
Panique(French f.) panic (familiar)
paniquer(French) to panic
Panisorhythmsee 'panisorhythmic'
Panisorhythmica work is panisorhythmic if all its voices are isorhythmic in at least one section
PanjitarAfghan five-string lute derived from the tar
Panjtara Uighur tar with a long neck
Panko(Nigeria) based originally on an upbeat dance rhythm from Eastern Nigeria, Panko was modernized and updated by a wide range of traditional and popular Nigerian musicians until it became a broadly embraced genre of pop music
Pan-kuChinese drum
Panmelodionthe tone of this keyboard instrument is produced by the friction of a cylinder on metal bars. It was invented, in 1810, by Franz Lippich of Vienna
Panne(French f.) breakdown
Panne de courant(French f.) power failure
Panne d'électricité(French f.) power failure
Panneau(French m.) sign, (advertising) hoarding, panel
Panneau d'affichage(French m.) notice-board
Panneau décoratif(French m.) decorative panel, drawing or print in which pictoral content is subordinated to decorative effect
Panneau de signalisation(French m.) road sign
Panningthe process of controlling the relative position of a sound in a stereo field during mixdown or recording using a pan-pot. Usually this is not completely effective as the pan-pot alters only the relative amplitude of the sound left to right and not the crucial time aspect
Panoplie(French f.) outfit (cowboy suit, etc.), range (of arguments), package (of measures)
Panoplie d'armes(French f.) armoury, equipment, instruments (humorous)
Panoramaa view
a large-scale 360-degree painting within a cylindrical structure (called a 'rotunda') that is viewed from its centre to produce in the viewer an illusion of reality. The first such panorama was patented in 1787 by an Irishman, Robert Barker
rolling scenery for providing a changeable backdrop to theatrical performances. Ballet-goers see a moving panorama in tradition productions of The Sleeping Beauty; indeed, the scene in which the Prince travels to find Aurora is known as the 'panorama scene', in which 'as the boat advances, the banks of the river change; villages, countryside, forests, mountains are seen, and finally, the castle of the sleeping beauty comes into view.'
Panpfeife(German f.) panflute
P'ansorialso spelled pansori, a genre of Korean music popular in Korea during the nineteenth century. It is a voice and percussion music performed by one sorikkun (singer) and one gosu (a drummer). The term pansori is derived from pan, meaning 'a place where many people gather', and sori, meaning 'song', and often protracted (taking several hours to complete), it featured satires and love stories
Pantaleonesee 'Pantalon'
Pantaleon stopsee 'Pantalon'
Pantalonthe first figure and movement of a quadrille
Pantalonalternatively Pantaleon or 'Pantaleon stop', named for the instrument maker, musician and composer Panteleon Hebenstreit (1668-1750), a device for prolonging the sound after the key has been released of which there are several surviving examples on unfretted clavichords from the second half of the eighteenth century. A set of tangents is fixed into a rail running laterally below the keys; these extra tangents stick up between the keylevers, which are cut away to allow them to be positioned just a little to the right of each ordinary tangent. Pulling a drawstop raises these extra tangents so that they are permanently in contact with the strings. (You can see, incidentally, that it will only work on an unfretted instrument)
there seem to be two possible ways of playing when the pantalon stop is drawn:
you can play normally with the usual clavichord touch: in this case your keylever tangent raises the string from the 'pantalon' tangent so that it sounds quite normally while the key is depressed. When the key is released, the string rests on the 'pantalon' tangent and continues to sound. Theoretically it will be slightly raised in pitch, but I suspect this is only really noticeable in the top octave or so of the compass
you can merely 'flick' the keys, which will cause the strings to sound quite loudly while not losing contact with the 'pantalon' tangents. I suspect that this is closer to the sound of Hebenstreit's pantalon than the other method
in both cases all the unplayed notes vibrate sympathetically, just like the piano with the right pedal down
an interesting point is the eighteenth-century desire for undamped sounds, which gave rise not only to pantalon clavichords but also to countless small hammer-action instruments in which the strings were quite undamped, or perhaps were only damped when a stop was specially drawn or a pedal depressed. Burney protested when one of his French hosts played her English square with the dampers disengaged: to his mind it compromised the harmony, but the lady said that with the dampers 'c'est trop sec'. Remember, too, Beethoven's instruction for the first movement of the 'Moonlight' Sonata: senza sordini
Source: Peter Bavington
Pantalona species of dulcimer
Pantalón(Spanish m. - usually pl.) trousers
Pantalón acampanado(Spanish m. - usually pl.) flared trousers, bell-bottoms (flared trousers worn by sailors)
Pantalón bombacho(Spanish m. - usually pl.) baggy trousers
Pantalón corto(Spanish m. - usually pl.) short trousers
Pantalón vaquero(Spanish m. - usually pl.) jeans
Pantalonzug(German m.) a stop in older harpsichords by which the tone of the Panteleon was imitated
Pantaloonsa bifurcated garment for a man, covering the body from the waist downwards, and consisting of breeches and stockings in one
Panta rhei(Greek) everything is in a state of flux
Panteruvaor pantheru, frame rattle from Sri Lanka
Pantheon(Greek, 'all the gods') a collective term for all the gods believed to exist in a particular religious belief or mythos
a great temple in Rome dedicated to all the Olympian gods
Pantherusee panteruva
Pantofflein the sixteenth century, this was an overshoe which was slipped on top of the shoe or hose and had no back. Later the word was used for slippers
Pantomima(Spanish f.) pantomime
Pantomine(English, German f., French f., Spanish f. from the Greek, literally 'imitation of everything') a musical comedy often associated with the Christmas period
a dumb show in which gestures convey emotions, actions, feelings, etc.
the technique of conveying emotions, actions, feelings, etc., by gestures without speech
a section in an intermezzo performed as a pantomime
Pantonala term synonymous with atonal
see 'pantonality'
Pantonalitya term synonymous with atonality
Schoenberg's preferred term for music lacking a clear tonality, arguing that such music combines every key rather than there being no sense of key or tonality
PantonePantone, Pantone Matching System and PMS + are Pantone Inc's check-standard trademarks for colour standards, colour data, colour reproduction and colour reproduction materials, and other colour related products and services, meeting its specifications, control and quality requirements
Panxoliñas(Spain) one of the names given to Christmas songs in Galicia
PAOabbreviation of publication assistée par ordinateur (French: desktop publishing)
p. a p.abbreviation of poco a poco (Italian: little by little, gradually)
papabile(Italian) qualified for the office of Pope, suitable for election or appointment to any high office
Papacythe office of Pope, spiritual leader of the Western church
Papádikas(Spanish f. pl.) melodies from the Byzantine rite, usually slow (40-50 bpm) and melismatic
Papadikea late Byzantine anthology of musical settings, both simple and ornate, for hymns, psalms, and other chants used in the liturgy and daily offices
Papageno-flöte(German) a reference to the magic flute that appears in Mozart's opera Die Zauberflöte, K. 620 and to Papageno, a birdcatcher. In the opera the flute is given to Tamino, a handsome prince, while Papageno is given a chime of bells. The term Papageno-flöte is usually applied either to the panpies or to the mouth organ
Papalwith reference to the office of the pope
Papal bulllegal document issued under the authority of the pope
Papal curiathe central government of the Western church (curia: Latin, 'court')
Papal legatea personal representative of the pope who has been entrusted with his authority
Papayeraa brass band with additional percussion instruments, characteristic of the towns of Colombia's Atlantic coastal region, that plays various types of dance music
Papel(Spanish m.) paper, piece or sheet of paper
(Spanish m.) role, part (in a play, film, etc.)
(Spanish m.) document
Papela(Spanish f.) identity papers (argot)
Papel carbón(Spanish m.) carbon paper
Papel cebolla(Spanish m.) onionskin
Papel cuadriculado(Spanish m.) squared paper
Papel de arroz(Spanish m.) rice paper
Papel de carta(Spanish m.) writing paper, stationery
Papel de China(Spanish m.) India paper
Papel de estaño(Spanish m.) aluminium foil
Papel de estraza(Spanish m.) brown paper (wrapping paper)
Papel de fumar(Spanish m.) cigarette paper
Papel de lija(Spanish m.) sandpaper (blocks)
Papel de música(Spanish m.) music paper, staff paper, score paper
Papel de plata(Spanish m.) tin foil
Papel de seda(Spanish m.) silk paper
Papeleo(Spanish m.) paperwork
Papelera(Spanish f.) wastepaper basket, litter bin
Papeleria(Spanish f.) stationer's, stationery, sheaf of papers
papelero (m.), papelera (f.)(Spanish) paper
Papeleta(Spanish f.) ticket, ballot paper, exam paper, report, tricky problem (familar), difficult job (familiar)
Papelón(Spanish m.) show-off, ridiculous performance
Papelota(Spanish m.) worthless document, useless peice of paper
Papel pauta(Spanish m.) lined paper, ruled paper
Papel pintado(Spanish m.) wallpaper
Papels(Spanish m. pl.) documents, identification papers
Papel secante(Spanish m.) blotting paper
Papera thin, flat material produced by the compression of fibres. The fibres used are usually natural and composed of cellulose. The most common source of these kinds of fibres is wood pulp from pulpwood trees, largely softwoods such as spruce. However, other vegetable fibre materials including cotton, hemp, linen, and rice may be used
Paperas(Spanish f. pl.) mumps
Paperasserie(French) an accumulation of old papers, 'red paper'
Paperboarda range of paper materials with high thickness, normally over 0.010 inches (0.25 mm). It might be build up of one or several plies and is often used in packaging materials. See also Cardboard which is a generic, non-specific, lay term used to refer to any heavy paper pulp based board
Paper cutwhat results when a piece of paper or other thin, sharp material slices a person's skin
Paper marblinga method of aqueous surface design, which can produce patterns similar to marble or other stone, hence the name. The patterns are the result of colour floated on either plain water or a viscous solution known as size, and then carefully transferred to a sheet of paper (or other surfaces such as fabric). This decorative material has been used to cover a variety of surfaces for several centuries. It is often employed as a writing surface for calligraphy, and especially book covers and endpapers in bookbinding and stationery
Paper sizeThere have been many standard sizes of paper at different times and in different countries, but today there are two widespread systems in use: the international standard (A4 and its siblings) and the North American sizes
Paper-typea particular variety of paper, distinguished from other varieties by its watermarks and other features
Papier à lettres(French m.) writing paper
Papier à musique(French m.) manuscript paper
Papier carbone(French m.) carbon paper
Papier de verre(French m.) sandpaper (blocks)
Papier mâché(English, after the French m., literally 'chewed paper') paper reduced to pulp by boiling and macerating with whiting and size, and shaped by moulding
Papier poudré (s.), Papiers poudrés (pl.)(French m.) a sheet of paper lightly coated with face-powder
Papierschnitzel(German f.) shredded paper
Papiers collés(French m. pl.) (a work of art consisting of) pieces of paper or cardboard glued to a canvas
Papiers déchirés(French m. pl.) (a work of art consisting of) torn and twisted paper attached to a background
Papiers découpés(French m. pl.) (a work of art consisting of) paper cut into patterns and attached to a background
Papilla(Spanish f.) pap, mush, baby food
Papiro(Spanish m.) papyrus
Papo(Spanish m.) double chin, goitre, crop (of a bird)
Papoosepopular carrying device for a small child or baby, The papoose originated in North American and is a native Indian term for Small infant
Paprika(Magyar) Hungarian red pepper, a condiment prepared from Capsicum
Papulea small, somewhat pointed elevation of the skin, usually inflammatory but nonsuppurative (as in chicken pox)
Papyrus (s.), Papyri (pl.)an early form of paper made from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge that grows to 5 meters (15 ft) in height and was once abundant in the Nile Delta of Egypt. Papyrus is first known to have been used in ancient Egypt (at least as far back as the First dynasty), but it was also widely used throughout the Mediterranean region, as well as inland parts of Europe and south-west Asia
  • Papyrus from which this extract has been taken
PaqaplenaNorth-American duct flute
para abreviar(Spanish) to cut a long story short
para adelante(Spanish) forward
para ... adentros(Spanish) to ...self (thus: mis adentros 'myself', sus adentros 'himself')
para ampliar sus estudios(Spanish) to further her studies
para arriba(Spanish) upwards
para atrás(Spanish) backwards
Parable(Greek,'throwing beside' or 'placing beside') a story or short narrative designed to reveal allegorically some religious principle, moral lesson, psychological reality, or general truth
par à-coups(French) by fits and starts
Paracumbéan Afro-Caribbean music and dance genre of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries
Parade drumBasler drum
para dendro(Spanish) en dedans (French)
Parade stickdrum major mace, drum major baton
[information supplied by Otis Ware Page]
Paradetrommel(German f.) Basler drum
Paradiddlea pattern of drumbeats characterized by four basic beats and alternating left-handed (L) and right-handed (R) strokes on the successive primary beats (thus alternating LRLL and RLRR)
Paradigmatic analysisthe analysis of paradigms embedded in the text rather than of the surface structure (syntax) of the text which is termed syntagmatic analysis. Paradigmatic analysis often uses commutation tests, i.e. analysis by substituting words of the same type or class to calibrate shifts in connotation. In music, paradigmatic analysis was a method of musical analysis developed by Nicolas Ruwet during the 1960s but later named by others. It is "based on the concept of 'equivalence'. Ruwet argued that the most striking characteristic of musical syntax was the central role of repetition - and, by extension, of varied repetition or transformation
Paradigmatic changealso called associative change, in linguistics, language changes brought about because a sound or a word was associated with a different sound or word
Paradis,le(French m.) in the theatre, the uppermost gallery or 'the Gods', so called because it lies just below the ceiling which was frequently embellished with a representation of a mythological heaven
Paradoxalso called oxymoron, using contradiction in a manner that oddly makes sense on a deeper level
para evitar las aglomeraciones(Spanish) to avoid crowding
para examinar(Spanish) on approval
para fora(Portuguese) en dehors (French)
para frente(Portuguese) en avant (French)
Paragramsee 'pun'
Paragraphus(from Greek paragraphein, 'to write beside') a marginal mark or note, set in the margin to call attention to something in the text, for example, a change of subject, a break in sense or a change of speakers in a dialogue
the modern equivalent is used to indicate where a new paragraph should begin or to serve as a reference mark
Paraguayan harpany South American-style harp characterized by a large soundbox with a rounded base, very light weight, closely-spaced light tension strings (usually nylon), a relatively flat harmonic curve, and with the strings running up through the centre of the neck, which are tuned with gear-style tuners (like a guitar). Almost all harps of this style are played with the fingernails, in very rhythmically intricate music. This is the national instrument of Paraguay, and is commonly found throughout South America, Central America, and in parts of Mexico
Paraguayan polkasee 'Danza Paraguaya'
paraître(French) to come out (as in the appearance of a magazine)
Paralanguagethe non-verbal features that accompany speech and help convey meaning, for example, facial expression, gesticulation, body stance, and tone that can help convey additional meaning to the spoken word
paralelo (m.), paralela (f.)(Spanish) parallel
Paralinguisticproperties of speech apart from the words spoken, including rate, pitch, and intonation, which add meaning to spoken language
Para-liturgical musicin the twelfth century, monophonic non-liturgical music written on sacred themes, usually in Latin. Although today the best known writer of 'para-liturgical music' is probably Hildegard von Bingen (c.1098-1179), a mystic abbess from Germany, the intellectual centre of Europe at the time was Paris and the most famous composer of this type of music was Peter Abélard (1079-1142)
Parallax Stereograma two dimensional photograph made to look as if it were three dimensional by altering its surface. Based on principals discovered in 1896, Frederic Ives invented the Parallax Stereogram in 1903. An image was pieced together from two photographs taken of the same subject at slightly differing angles. When aligned behind thin opaque bars of the same frequency as that of the divided strips of the photograph, the the left and right eye would perceive it at different angles making it appear three dimensional
Parallelbewegung(German f.) parallel or similar motion
Parallel cadenceParallelkadenz (German f.), a cadence formed of parallel chords
see 'cadence (linear or melodic)'
Parallel chordsa sequence of chords where the intervals remain unchanged as the notes of the chord changes, for example, a major chord of C, E, and G would be parallel to a following chord of F, A, and C, which, in turn, would be parallel to a chord consisting of G, B, D
parallèle(French) parallel
Parallelen(German) the sliders in the organ
(German) consecutives
Parallelepipeda solid body of which each face is a parallelogram
parallélépipédique(French) in the shape of a parallelepiped
Parallel fifths and octavesalso termed 'consecutive fifths and octaves'
when writing polyphony, music for a number of independent parts (called 'voices'), the voices should be of equivalent importance and be strictly independent. This means that in strict or traditional part-writing there should be no melodic feature that draws attention more to one voice than another, nor should any voice become dependent on another. Where two voices move in parallel, a perfect-fifth or a number of octaves apart or move in unison. one voice in effect becomes melodically dependent on the other and so the number of independent voices is considered to have been reduced. In addition, notes moving in parallel sound accented which breaks the requirement in strict polyphony to keep the voices of similar importance. Some commentators have suggested that 'many students often don't understand the restriction on the use of these intervals in part-writing'. Further they subscribe to the believe that 'parallel octaves and fifths are only wrong if the student doesn't perceive that they are there'
Parallel intervalssee 'consecutive intervals'
Parallelism(literature) when the writer establishes similar patterns of grammatical structure and length. For instance, "King Alfred tried to make the law clear, precise, and equitable." The previous sentence has parallel structure in use of adjectives. However, the following sentence does not use parallelism: "King Alfred tried to make clear laws that had precision and were equitable"
(music) in jazz, chords or chord voicings moving in parallel motion
Parallelkadenz(German f.) parallel cadence
Parallel key modulationsee 'parallel modulation'
Parallel keystwo keys, one major and one minor, having the same tonic, for example, F major and F minor. For this reason the two keys are also known as the 'tonic major' and the 'tonic minor'
Parallelklang(German m.) parallel triad
Parallel modesmodes with a common root, thus if the root is C, the modes would include C Phrygian, C Lydian, C Aeolian, C Mixolydian and so on
Parallel modulationmodulation from one key to a parallel key (e.g. A major to A minor, or E minor to E major)
Parallel motionmoto retto (Italian), Parallelbewegung (German), mouvement pareil (French), when two parts move the same interval in the same direction at the same time
Parallel octavessee 'parallel fifths and octaves'
Parallel Oktaven(German) consecutive octaves
Parallel organuma polyphonic work based on plainchant in which the new voice is added below the original voice and the two voices move in parallel or oblique motion, emphasizing fourths and fifths, but where they may cadence on a unison; an early form of organum, first discussed c. 900
Parallel Quinten(German) consecutive fifths
Parallelshorizontal nodal lines positioned at different elevations on a bell's wall. These are associated with vertical waves of varying length and frequency
Paralleltonart (s.), Paralleltonarten (pl.)(German f., Swedish) relative key, parallel key
Paralleltoneart(Danish) relative key, parallel key
Paralleltoonaarden(Dutch) relative keys
Paralleltoonsoort(Dutch) relative key
Paraloghi(Greek) narrative song or ballad
Paramese(Greek) the fifth string of the lyre
Parameter(English, German m.) in music, a term applied to any one of the four characteristics of a musical note, namely, pitch, duration, volume and timbre
Paramètre(French m.) parameter
Parametro(Italian m.) parameter
Parámetro(Spanish m.) parameter
Paramparain Indian classical music, referring to Guru-Shishya Parampara, the sacred relationship between the master and the pupil by which knowledge is transmitted to the next generation
Paranda(Venezuelan-Spanish) to go from house to house to fete
Paranete(Greek) the sixth string of the lyre
Parangsome scholars claim that parang is derived from the Venezuelan-Spanish word paranda which means to go from house to house to fete. Daphne Pawan-Taylor, author of 'Parang of Trinidad', a publication of the Trinidadian National Cultural Council of 1979, in her attempt to explain how it all started, writes, "Parang is a term which identifies a custom belonging to Trinidad's Hispanic Heritage. The word itself is neither Spanish nor English. It is the colloquial term for parran, the abbreviation of parranda, the Spanish word which means a spree, or carousel, or a group of more than four people who go out at night singing to the accompaniment of musical instruments." Folklorists, cultural anthropologists and ethnomusicologists who have studied the history of Spain, its language, and its music, from 1498-1797 (the period of Spanish rule of Trinidad), have come to the conclusion that while parang, in the early period of our history, was influenced by religion, the music is a product of the nineteenth century, influenced by parang from the Venezuelan east coast including the estribrillo, sabana blanca, joropo and guarapo
parang songs, written in a 3/4 or 6/8 meter, include:
serenalthe serenal introduces the parang band and offers greetings to the members of the household
despuedira farewell song
galeronMargarita, a remote town in Venezuela, is the home of the galeron, which is sung in the month of May as part of the re-enactment of the Passion of Christ
manzanaresongs sung by the paranderos of Trinidad, inspired by the remote Venezuelan village of Cumana, through which the river Manzanare flows
aguinaldoa song about the life of Christ, which may be divided into annunciacion and nacimiento
annunciacionsongs which deal mainly with the announcement to Mary that she was chosen to be the mother of Christ
nacimientoa song that tells about the birth of Christ
Paranku(Japan) a small one-headed Okinawan hand drum, similar to ones used in Buddhist ceremonies
Paranoia(Greek) a chronic mental derangement characterized by delusions of grandeur or of persecution
Paranomasia(Greek) the technical Greek term for what English-speakers commonly refer to as a pun
par anticipation(French) in advance
para o lado(Portuguese) à la second (French)
Parapa song style from Malaysia
para parar un tren(Spanish) to have a large amount of something (familiar)
tienen dinero para parar un tren (Spanish: they're swimming in money
Parapenne(Italian m.) plectrum guard, pick guard, Schlagbrett (German n.), plaque de protection (French f.)
Paraphernalia(Latin pl.) miscellaneous personal belongings, miscellaneous articles of equipment
Paraphoniain Greek music theory, the fifth, as distinct from symphonia, meaning the unison, and antiphonia, meaning the octave
Paraphrasea brief restatement in one's own words of all or part of a literary or critical work, as opposed to quotation, in which one reproduces all or part of a literary or critical work word-for-word, exactly
(English, German f.) in the fourteen to sixteenth centuries, a melody borrowed from another source (usually chant) and then elaborated freely such as Missa l' hom arme by Guillaume de Machaut (c.1300-1377)
when a sixteenth-century composition borrows only melodic material from another work, the term 'paraphrase' should be used rather than 'parody'. By contrast, 'parody' should refer to the practice of appropriating 'vertical slices' (chords and imitative structures) of the thematic complex of the borrowed music in a fairly strict manner
in the fifteenth century, the paraphrase technique may be traced through four stages:
the cantus firmus migrates successively through several voices
the cantus firmus is subjected to melodic variation but remains in one voice
introductory duos and trios anticipate the arrival of the cantus firmus (which remains in only one voice part)
points of imitation based on the cantus firmus open major sections of a piece, which continue in a non-imitative manner
imitation as a structural device occurred first in secular works before moving to the sacred realm. The syntactic-imitative style reached its fruition in Italy, where humanism and its emphasis on the imitatio were helping to move music from the field of science to the field of humanities
in the eighteenth century, a rhythmic version of scripture or psalms in the native language of the composer such as Estro poetico-armonico: Parafrasi sopra li primi (secondi) venticinque salami by Benedetto Marcello (1686-1739)
in the nineteenth century, a virtuoso elaborated composition based on popular melodies, usually from operas, for example the Carmen Fantasy by Pablo de Sarasate (1844-1908)
André Hodeir was perhaps the first writer to apply the term 'paraphrase' to jazz. He used the term in 1956 to describe a type of improvised melody that lies between two extremes: the unaltered, original melody (called the "head" by jazz musicians) and the ostensibly new melody (called the "chorus phrase") created by the jazz improviser over the harmonic framework of the original melody, as in a contrafact
Paraphrase mass
paraphrasieren(German) to paraphrase
para ponernos a la altura de la competencia(Spanish) to put ourselves on a par with our competitors
para que se airee el cuarto(Spanish) to let some air into the room
Pararhymethe English poet, Wilfred Owen's term for a slant rhyme
Parasceniumin Ancient Greece and Roman, one of two apartments adjoining the stage, probably used as robing rooms
Parasitic notationnotation additional to that intended by the composer and additional to the needs of performance, for example, analytical marks in study scores, Schenker's analytical notation, etc.
para superar la atonía muscular(Spanish) to improve (the) muscle tone
Parataa Maltese children's dance, traditionally performed on the morning of Carnival Saturday, that mock-reenacts the Maltese victory over the Turks
Parataxisrhetorically juxtaposing two or more clauses or prepositions together in strings or with few or no connecting conjunctions or without indicating their relationship to each other in terms of co-ordination or subordination
Paratextalso French peritext, anything external to the text itself that influences the way we read a text
para trás(Portuguese) en arrière (French)
par bonheur(French) luckily
par bravade(French) out of bravado
Parcel gilding(in gilding) selective gilding when only specific areas or decoration are gilded
par chemin de fer(French) by rail
Parchment(Latin, from Pergamum where parchment is said, by Pliny, to have been invented) goat or sheep skin had been used as a writing material before this, but the refined methods of cleaning and stretching involved in making parchment enabled both sides of a leaf to be used, leading eventually to the supplanting of the manuscript roll by the bound book. A technical distinction is usually made between parchment and vellum, which is made from the hide of young calves
Parchment repairThe repair and mending of parchment has taken place for thousands of years. Methods from the earliest hand stiching of tears to today's use of modern equipment to mend and fill parchment show the importance that has been placed on its preservation and conservation
Parclose screena wooden or stone screen enclosing a chapel or shrine
Parco(Italian m.) park
parco(Italian) sparing, moderate
Parco a tema(Italian m.) theme park
Parco di divertimenti(Italian m.) fun-fair
par coeur(French) by heart (learn, recite, play)
par conséquent(French) consequently
parcourir une rue de bout en bout(French) to go from one end of a street to the other
par défaut(French, literally 'by default') in one's absence
par delà(French) beyond
Par de manos(Spanish m.) pair of hands
par dérision(French) derisively
par derrière(French) (from) behind, at the back, at the rear
par-dessous(French) under (with a sense of movement)
par dessous(French) underneath
par-dessous la jambe(French) carelessly, offhandedly
Pardessus(French, from 'par dessus', literally 'over it') an instrument that plays a high descant part such as the pardessus de viole from the 17th- and 18th-centuries which could have five or six strings and was also called the dessus de viole
par-dessus(French) over (with a sense of movement
par-dessus bord(French) overboard
par-dessus la jambe(French) carelessly, offhandedly
par-dessus le marché(French) into the bargain, on top of that
par-dessus tout(French) especially, mainly
par devant(French) at the front, from the front
Pardoneran individual licensed by the medieval church to sell papal indulgences (i.e., "pardons"), official documents excusing the recipient from certain acts of penitence and alleviating the sinner's punishment while in purgatory
Pardonforgiveness for an offence, error, etc.
(as in 'full free pardon') remission of the legal consequences of a crime or conviction
Pardonsanother term for papal indulgences
Pareto trim or shave by cutting away the surface or edge, to cut off the surface or edge (as in pare off, or pare away), to diminish little by little (as in pare away or pare down)
Pareadostwo-line stanzas
parecchio(Italian) quite a lot of, a good many, quite a lot, several, rather
parecchio tempo(Italian) quite a time
par écrit(French) in writing
par éminence(French) pre-eminently, especially
Parent (m.), Parente (f.)(French) relative (person)
parent (m.), parente (f.)(French) related
Parentagelineage, descent from or through parents
parent éloigné(French) distant relative
Paréntesis izquierdo(Spanish m.) opening round bracket, opening parenthesis (
Paréntesis derecho(Spanish m.) closing round bracket, closing parenthesis (
Parenthèse(French f.) round bracket, parenthesis, digression
Parenthesis (s.), Parentheses (pl.)explanatory or qualifying word, clause or sentence inserted into a sentence, usually marked off by brackets, dashes or commas
(in plural) round brackets, i.e. ()
interlude or interval
Parenthetical citationwithin the context of a document composed as per some style guide, a 'parenthetical citation' is a reference to a source that is placed (in parentheses, i.e. between round brackets) at the end of a sentence, but prior to the period/fullstop
Parent scalethe scale from which a mode is derived
Parergon (s.), Parerga (pl.)(Greek) a subsiduary work, a by-product of a more important work, a hobby
in art, a subordinate detail in a pictorial composition (for example, a detail of a landscape in a portrait)
par erreur(French) by mistake
paresseux(French) lazy
par exemple(French) for example, for instance
par exprès (French) sent special delivery
Parfait(French m.) a frozen pudding containing whipped cream and eggs
parfait (m.), parfaite (f.)(French) perfect (perfect cadence, perfect interval, etc.)
Parforce horn(English, German n.) the forerunner of the modern French horn that looks like a circular bugle. Light enough to carry with one hand while riding a horse
Parfum(French) a scent, an odour
Parhypate(Greek) the second string of the lyre
Pariah(Tamil, literally 'drummers') a member of the lowest caste in India, a social outcast, a reprobate
named for the hereditary drummers at certain festivals who belonged to the lowest caste
Pariglia(Italian f.) pair
Pari passu(Latin, 'with equal pace') moving together, at an equal rate of progress, in step with one another, without preference on one side or another
Parishan area under the pastoral care of a priest, himself under the jurisdiction of a bishop; the parish church was the centre of worship for the parish
Parisienne scoopa kitchen implement for cutting spheres out of fruit and vegetables
Parka(Russian) sometimes anglicised as 'parker', a light waterproof jacket with a hood, often fur trimmed., for use out of doors in bleak conditions
Parkett(German n.) stalls (seats in a theatre, cinema, etc.)
par la bande(French) indirectly
parlando(Italian) or parlante, as if speaking, more like speaking than singing
in the style of recitative, singing with a distinct articulation so that all the words are clearly audible
on the piano, parlante calls for distinct, crisp non legato
parlando tra se stesse(Italian) talking amongst themselves
parlantespeaking, talking, lifelike (portrait)
see parlando
Parlantina(Italian f.) talkativenss, loquacity, indiscreet talk
Parlare(Italian m.) talk, way of speaking, speech, dialect
parlare(Italian) to speak, to talk
parlare alla muta(Italian) to speak by signs
parlare bleso(Italian) to lisp
parlare per esperienza(Italian) to speak from experience
parlare pol naso(Italian) to speak through the nose
parlare un momento con(Italian) to have a word with
par la suite(French) afterwards
Parlata(Italian f.) conversation, way of speaking, dialect
parlato(Italian) spoken
the term is applied in opera to dialogue
Parlatore (m.), Parlatrice (f.)(Italian) speaker, talker
Parlatorio(Italian m.) parlour (convent, school, etc.)
par l'entremise de(French) through
parler à(French) to talk to
parler la bouche pleine(French) to talk with one's mouth full
parler par la bouche de ... d'autre(French) to use ... else as one's mouthpiece
parler pour(French) to speak on behalf of
par les temps qui courent(French) these days, nowadays
Parlor organ(US) see 'reed organ'
Parlourin a monastery, an area where speaking was allowed for legitimate puposes
Parlourizationtunes from popular and religious songs, set to new, often sentimental, words, published for performance by amateurs in domestic surroundings, a term introduced by Peter van der Merwe in his book Origins of the Popular Style. The antecedents of twentieth-century popular music (Oxford: Clarendon: 1989)
Parlour organsee 'reed organ'
Parnasse instrumenta glass harmonica
Parodia(Italian f., Spanish f.) parody
Parodie(German f., French f.) parody
Parodos(Greek) in Greek tragedy, the ceremonial entrance of the chorus. Usually the chorus at this time chants a lyric relating to the main theme of the play
Parodyalso called contrafactum, the term 'parody' has a venerable history, going back to Quintilian's Institutio oratoria where it is defined, in Book VI, as an alteration of the text with the intent to alter its meaning. Beginning in Germany in the late seventeenth century, 'parody' was generally applied to the alteration or substitution of a song text, usually from a secular to a sacred sense. French usage of the term, beginning with Henri Estienne (1531-1588), began to carry with it musical implications. This broader French definition was also used to draw attention to the original musical models. Generally speaking, the prepositions 'post' and 'super' were more commonly applied to the use of a musical, as opposed to a textual, model
a Renaissance style of composition, especially prominent in the composition of Masses, in which older material was used in the creation of new music. A composition is a parody only if the entire substance, not just an excerpt, of the original material has been incorporated into the new work
the seventeenth-century view of parody, as set forth in Quitschreiber's treatise De parodia (1611), departed from that of the Renaissance in two main ways. First and most important was a new recognition of the concept of artistic ownership. Second was the regard of parody as a useful pedagogical and stylistic tool in composition (Stileinübung)
humorous or satirical composition which exaggerates the features of some other composition, i.e. burlesque
Parody cantataOttavio Durante's Duetti da Camera per imperare a cantare are unique examples of what may be called a 'parody cantata'. These pieces use Alessandro Scarlatti's solo cantatas as models, but use only the recitatives, not the arias. Durante composed extended introductions, and added a number of devices (including imitation, echo, transpositions, modulations, sequences, variations, and original interpolations) to the original. The version of Durante's Duetti da Camera preserved in Rome, Academy of Santa Cecilia, G. Mss. 302, contains written-out vocal embellishments and figured bass realizations that give a good picture of the performance practices of the day
Parody massthe word parodia, (parody), first appeared in 1587 in Parodia mottetae Domine da nobis auxilium, Thomae Crequilionis by Jacob Paix. In a parody mass, a pre-existing multi-voice song appeared in whole or in part, with material from all voices in use, not just the tune
musicologists have pointed out that the word parodia is inappropriate, the correct term is ad imitationem, and therefore the form should be called 'imitation mass'. Evidence suggests that the association of 'parody' with 'Mass' occurred early in the twentieth century and so this definition is entirely modern
Parola(Italian f.) word, speech
Parola tronco(Italian f.) word accented on the last syllable
Parole(French f.) word, speech
in Ferdinand de Saussure's theory of semiology, parole is the use of language, i.e., manifestations of actual speech and writing. Parole contrasts with langue, the invisible underlying system of language that makes parole possible
Parole (d'honneur)(French f., literally 'word of honour') an undertaking by a prisoner that he will refrain from attempting to escape
Parole musicale(French f.) musical speech
Paroles(French f. pl.) lyrics, the words to a song
Paroles bouche-trous(French f. pl.) scratch vocals
Paronomasia(Greek) a play upon words, a pun
Parousia(Greek) the Second Coming of Christ
Parque(Spanish m.) park, station (fire station, etc.), playpen (child)
dimos un paseo por el parque (Spanish: we went for a walk in the park)
Parqué(Spanish m.) parquet
Parque de atracciones(Spanish m.) funfair
Parque de bomberos(Spanish m.) fire station
Parque de atracciones(Spanish m. - Colombia, Argentina) amusement park, funfair
Parque de entretenciones(Spanish m. - Chile) amusement park, funfair
Parque natural(Spanish m.) nature reserve
Parquet(French) a flooring made of small pieces of wood arranged in patterns, the part of the floor the auditorium of a thetre occupied by the stalls
Parque zoológico(Spanish m.) zoo
Parrandacalled parranda or aguinaldo of parranda, it is a musical form associated with the coast zone of the Venezuelan states of Aragua and Carabobo, where the tambora (drum) is used as an accompanying instrument and the melodies shows Afro-Venezuelan influence
  • Parranda from which this entry has been taken
Parranderomusicians in Trinidad who travelled from house to house in the community and were often joined by friends and neighbours using whatever instruments were at hand, including violin, guitar, claves (locally known as toc-toc), box bass (an indigenous instrument), flute, mandolin, bandolin, caja (a percussive box instrument), and marimbola (an Afro-Venezuelan influence). In exchange for the entertainment, traditional parranderos would be given food and drink rum or poncha creme (an alcohol-rich eggnog)
Parrucca(Italian f.) wig
par sa bouche(French) by one's words, by what one says
Parsley butterbutter mixed with lemon juice and chopped parsley
Parsons codeformally named the 'Parsons Code for Melodic Contours', a simple notation used to identify a piece of music through melodic motion - the motion of the pitch up and down. Denys Parsons developed this system for his 1975 book, The Directory of Tunes and Musical Themes. Representing a melody in this manner makes it easy to index or search for particular pieces
Parsons nosethe extreme end of a bird, where the tail feathers grow
par suite de(French) as a result of
Partparte (Italian), Stimme (German), partie (French)
one voice from a multi-voice work
(from the Latin pars) in medieval music, a short section of a work roughly equivalent to the modern term 'movement' or 'section'. Sources may label each section, in turn, prima pars, secunda pars, tertia pars, etc.
(from the Latin partum) in a play, a particular character played by a single actor, as well as the script written for that character.
Partbooka single vocal or instrumental part of a composition or a group of compositions printed on its own (for example, the early sixteenth-century Eton, Lambeth and Caius choirbooks). In the early sixteenth century, choirbooks gradually passed out of use in favour of partbooks. (At least for a time some choirs seem to have preferred one type of manuscript, some the other, for in 1524 all the polyphonic music at Magdalen College, Oxford was contained in choirbooks, nine of which had been bought between 1518 and 1524, while in 1529 King's College, Cambridge relied almost entirely on partbooks). Partbooks with small paper leaves were undoubtedly cheaper to produce than large elaborately bound choirbooks of parchment. They were also easier to handle, and probably more convenient for a large number of singers to read from. The choir would no longer gather round a lectern, but would presumably sing from the choir-stalls, except in votive antiphons performed before images, where, unless singing from memory was the practice, each book must have been held by one or more singers for all of those on that part to see. Partbooks were retained until the nineteenth century when church musicians took up the vocal score that had been in use in secular music since the seventeenth century
Part crossingpart crossing occurs when two voices cross over each other, for example, if the bass were to cross above the tenor for a few notes
Parte(Spanish f., Italian f., Portuguese) part, portion (of a composition), section (of a machine, piece of furniture)
(Spanish f., Italian f., Portuguese) part, role (in an opera)
(Spanish f.) share, place, spot, zone, area, party, part, side
(Spanish m.) message, report, partie (French)
Parte anterior(Spanish m.) the front (part)
Parte de atrás(Spanish m.) the back (part)
Parte cantate(Italian f.) the singing or vocal part, the principal vocal part (that with the melody)
Parte con guida(Italian f.) a part destined to a performer, including as a score also the staff of other instruments or voices of an ensemble
Parte corale(Italian f.) chorus part
Parte de abajo(Spanish f.) bottom (part)
(la) parte de adelante(Spanish) (the) front
(la) parte de adentro(Spanish) (the) inside
Parte de la oración(Spanish f.) part of speech
Parte médico(Spanish m.) medical report
Parte metereológico(Spanish m.) weather forecast, weather report
par temps clair(French) on a clear day, in clear weather
Partenio(Spanish m.) a song of the ancient Greeks performed by a chorus of young girls (párthenoi), in order to honour of the goddess Athena Parthenos
Parterre(French m.) in the theatre, the upper part of the main seating, usually behind a cross aisle, and almost always steeper than the lower orchestra, the stalls
(French m.) a flower-garden consisting of a symmetrical arrangement of flower-beds
par terre(French) (jump, fall) to the ground, on the ground
Parte solista(Spanish f.) a part containing only one solo for a voice of a choir
Parte superiore(Italian f.) the highest part, the top part
Partheneia(Greek) 'maiden-songs' or hymns sung by choruses of unmarried women. The partheneia were performed as a type of drama by choruses of girls during festivals in connection with their initiation rites
Parthenia(Greek) the name Parthenia is of Greek origin. Its meaning is 'maiden' or 'virgin'. The Parthenon of Athens, Greece, was named after one of the aspects of the divine patroness of the city, Athena Parthenos, or 'Athena the Maiden'. Athena was one of three virgin goddesses of ancient Greek mythology, the other two being Artemis, goddess of the moon, and Hestia, goddess of the hearth
Parthenia or the Maydenhead of the first musicke that ever was printed for the Virginalls was, as the title states, the first printed collection of music for keyboard in England which appeared around 1611
Parthenoi(Ancient Greek) young girls who dedicated themselves to the ancient Greek goddess Athena Parthenos
Partheyen(German) synonymous with Partita
Parthenogenesis(Greek) reproduction without fertilization, especially in invertebrates and lower plants
Parti(Italian f. pl.) parts
(French m.) party (political), (good or bad) match (as in a marriage), decision
partial(French) biased
Partial (s.), Partials (pl.)a note produced by a musical instrument is made up of a fundamental frequency (also called the first harmonic, first mode or first partial) together with its overtones or upper partials. If all the overtones are harmonic (i.e. integer multiples of the fundamental frequency) then each successively higher frequency is also the same successively higher partial, so that the second harmonic is the second partial and so on. However, if any of the overtones are inharmonic then the numbering of the partials (which will include inharmonicities) will no longer follow the numbering of the harmonics (which do not include the inharmonicities)
the partials above the fundamental are also called 'upper partials'
Partial barréor 'half barré', a barré in which the barré finger lies across only some of the strings
Partialité(French f.) bias
Partial signaturea key signature in which at least one accidental is omitted. This was common in the Renaissance when the "missing'' accidental would not be in use in all of the vocal parts. In Bach's day, partial signatures still occurred, though almost always in minor-key flat key signatures, such as in his early motet, Ich lasse dich nicht (BWV 159a)
Partial stopa half stop
Partialton (s.), Partialtöne (pl.)(German m.) partial
Partial tonean harmonic note (or tone)
Partible successionthe opposite of primogeniture, partible succession is the practice in which all the children share equally in an inheritance
Particela(Spanish f.) part
Particela de director(Spanish f.) performance part for a particular instrument of an ensemble work to which cues have been added for the other instruments to permit the performer of the part also to conduct the performance
Particela-guía(Spanish f.) a part destined to a performer, including as a score also the staff of other instruments or voices of an ensemble
Particela solista(Spanish f.) a part containing only one solo for a voice of a choir
Particell(German) condensed score
Particella(French f., Italian f.) a score with the voices and continuo but with all other instruments omitted
Participación(Spanish f.) participation, contribution, (financial) interest, (financial) investment, share (stock), part of a lottery ticket, notice, notification
Participación en los beneficios(Spanish f.) profit-sharing
Participación de boda(Spanish f.) wedding invitation
Participant (m.), Participante (f.)(French) participant, entrant (in a competition)
participar(Spanish) to take part, to participate, to share, to have a share, to notify
participar en la conversación(Spanish) to take part in the conversation
participar en un concurso(Spanish) to take part in a competition
Participataterm used by Franchinus Gaffurius in his Practica musica (1483) to describe the adjustment of musical intervals, i.e. what today we call 'temperament'
Murray J. Barbour describes it, "There, among the eight rules of counterpoint, Gafurius stated that organists assert that fifths undergo a small, indefinite amount of diminution called temperament (participata). Since he was reporting on a contemporary fact, rather than advocating an innovation, the practice may have begun decades earlier than his time."
Participation(French f.) participation, interest (commercial), appearance (of an artist)
Participation dancealso known as social dance, a category of dances where there is no audience (as such) but participants perform and watch at the same time
Partícipe(Spanish m./f.) participant
partícipe(Spanish) participating
participer à(French) to take part in, to participate in, to share (profits), to appear in
Participio(Spanish m.) participle
Parti componenti ed accessori(Italian f. pl.) component parts and accessories, Bestandteile und Zubehör (German pl.), parties composantes et accessoires (French pl.)
Particularidad(Spanish f.) particularity, aspect, peculiarity
Particularité(French f.) particularity
particularizar(Spanish) to distinguish, to characterize, to single out, to give details about
particularizarse(Spanish) to stand out, to distinguish oneself
Particule(French f.) particle
Particulier(French m.) private individual
particulier (m.), particulière (f.)(French) particular, peculiar, private
particulièrement(French) particularly
Partida(Spanish f.) departure, batch, consignment, game, party, gang, item (for example, an entry in the accounts), certificate
Partida de bautismo(Spanish f.) baptismal certificate
Partida de caza(Spanish f.) hunting party
Partida de defunción(Spanish f.) death certificate
Partida de matrimonio(Spanish f.) marriage certificate
Partida de nacimiento(Spanish f.) birth certificate
Partido alto(Brazil) an improvised form of samba, in many ways a forerunner of 'freestyle' rap. It was originally (and remains) a type of samba with short, light refrains that the singers must follow with improvised verses. However, partido alto is equally characterized by a particular rhythmic pattern , refered to as a partido alto rhythm. There are even instrumental compositions in which the musicians play partido alto, though there are neither improvised verses nor simple refrains
Partie(French f., German f.) part
Partie carrée(French f., literally 'a square party') a party of four persons, usually two men and two women
Partie de choeur(French f.) a chorus part
Partie de violon(French f.) the violin part
Partie en accolade(French f.) score of only homogeneous groups of instruments
Partien(German) synonymous with Partita
(German f. pl.) parts
partiendo de la base de(Spanish) on the basis of
Parties composantes(French m. pl.) component parts
Parties composantes et accessoires(French pl.) component parts and accessories, parti componenti ed accessori (Italian f. pl.), Bestandteile und Zubehör (German pl.)
Parties de remplissage(French m. pl.) the inner or 'filling-in' parts in French baroque orchestral works. These parts, usually played by violas, were often added by composer's assistants after the treble and bass parts had been completed
Parties séparées(French m. pl.) partbooks
Partie supérieure(French m.) the highest part
Partij(Dutch) staff
Partimen(Occitan) see jeu-partie
Partimento (s.), Partimenti (pl.)(Italian m.) in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, an pedagogical exercise in figured bass, often with melodic implications
Parti pris(French m.) bias, prejudice, preconceived opinion
partir dans(French) to leave in (after specified time), to leave for (a specified place)
partir de(French) to leave
partir de meilleure heure(French) to leave earlier
partir de zéro(French) to start from scratch
partir pour(French) to leave for, to be off to
partir sans demander son reste(French) to leave without a murmur
Partita(Italian f., German f.) from c.1700 onwards, a suite
in the seventeenth century, an 'air with variations', probably derived from the Italian parti, parts, referring to the variations
in sixteenth- and eighteenth-century Germany, a suite
in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, multi-movement composition consisting of dances and non-dance movements or entirely of non-dance movements
Partita d'onore(Italian f.) a duel
partitamente(Italian) separately, distinctively, point by point
Partitino(German) score of only homogeneous groups of instruments
Partition(French f.) musical score (particularly a full score), Partitur (German f.), partitura (Italian f., Spanish f.)
Partition chant et piano(French f.) score of a vocal-orchestral piece with keyboard arrangement of the orchestra
Partition de direction(French f.) full score
Partition des choeurs(French f.) a score of a work for voice(s) and instruments, but containing only the vocal line(s)
Partition de travail(French f.) a musical score not primarily intended for performance use, with the notation and/or text reduced in size, i.e. a pocket or study score
Partition de poche(French f.) miniature score, a musical score not primarily intended for performance use, with the notation and/or text reduced in size, i.e. a pocket or study score
Partition d'orchestre(French f.) performance score
Partition graphique(French f.) musical notation including non-traditional graphic elements
Partition miniature(French f.) a musical score not primarily intended for performance use, with the notation and/or text reduced in size, i.e. a pocket or study score
Partition pour piano(French f.) piano score
Partition réduite(French f.) close score, short score, a format that presents all the separate parts of a full score usually on only two staves
Partition vocale(French f.) vocal score, score of a vocal-orchestral piece with keyboard arrangement of the orchestra
partito(Italian) divided, divided into parts
Partitur(German f., Swedish, Danish) (musical) score, full score, music (written notes), partitura (Italian f., Spanish f.), partition (French f.), música (Spanish f.)
Partitura(Italian f., Spanish f., Portuguese f.) (musical) score, full score, Partitur (German f.), partition (French f.)
Partitura condensata(Italian f.) condensed score
Partitura de bolsillo(Spanish f.) a musical score not primarily intended for performance use, with the notation and/or text reduced in size, i.e. a pocket or study score
Partitura de coro(Spanish f.) a score of a work for voice(s) and instruments, but containing only the vocal line(s)
Partitura de coro y continuo(Spanish f.) a score with the voices and continuo but with all other instruments omitted
Partitura grafica(Italian f.) musical notation including non-traditional graphic elements
Partitura gráfica(Spanish f.) musical notation including non-traditional graphic elements
Partitura guión(Spanish f.) condensed score
Partituranweisung(German f.) markings/indications (in the score)
Partitura para piano(Spanish f.) piano score
Partitura para voz(Spanish f.) vocal score
Partitura per il direttore(Italian f.) full score
Partitura reducida(Spanish f.) close score, short score, a format that presents all the separate parts of a full score usually on only two staves
Partitura ristretta(Italian f.) close score, short score, a format that presents all the separate parts of a full score usually on only two staves
Partitura tascabile(Italian f.) pocket score, miniature score
Partitura vocal(Spanish f.) vocal score, score of a vocal-orchestral piece with keyboard arrangement of the orchestra
Partitura vocale(Italian f.) vocal score, a score of a work for voice(s) and instruments, but containing only the vocal line(s)
Partiturina(Italian) a musical score not primarily intended for performance use, with the notation and/or text reduced in size, i.e. a pocket or study score
Partiturspiel(German) playing from the score
Partituur(Dutch) partition, score, full score
Partituuri(Finnish) partition, score, full score
Partizione(Italian f.) partition, score, full score
Part musicthe term most commonly means harmonised vocal music but it may also be applied to an musical work written in two or more parts
Partner dancesdances whose basic choreography involves coordinated dancing of two partners, as opposed to individuals dancing alone or individually in a non-coordinated manner, and as opposed to groups of people dancing simultaneously in a coordinated manner
in ballet, the responsibilities of the two partners include:
for the male dancerlifting, catching and carrying a partner, and assisting with leaps, which largely replaces pointwork at moderately advanced levels for male dancers
for the female dancerbeing lifted, carried, and being assisted with or caught after leaps
Partner songtwo or more different songs that can be sung at the same time to create harmony
Part singingthe singing of part music
Parts of speech
in English, the traditional eight divisions or categories for words:
nouna content word that can be used to refer to a person, place, thing, quality, or action
pronouna function word that is used in place of a noun or noun phrase
verbthe word class that serves as the predicate of a sentence
adjectivea word that expresses an attribute of something
adverbthe word class that qualifies verbs or clauses
articlea determiner that may indicate the specificity of reference of a noun phrase
prepositionthe part of speech that governs nouns, pronouns and other elements used nominally, expressing notions such as direction, instrument, agent, etc.
conjunctionan uninflected function word that serves to conjoin words or phrases or clauses or sentences
interjectiona word or phrase with no particular grammatical relation to a sentence, often an expression of emotion
Part songa song, unaccompanied, or less often accompanied by instruments, usually written for three or more voices. Since the nineteenth century, it has been particularly associated with unaccompanied works for amateur choruses of male, female or mixed singers
Part-writingthe essence of polyphonic music
Parure(French) a set of matching pieces of jewellery designed to be worn together
parvenir à(French) to succeed in
Parvenu (m.), Parvenue (f.)(French) an upstart, a person of humble origins who has attained wealth and dignity (assumed to be undeserved)
Pas(French m.) passo (Portuguese m.), in dance, a simple step or a compound movement which involves a transfer of weight, for example, pas de bourrée or pas d'action
a dance executed by a soloist, pas seul, a duet, pas de deux, and so on
pas(French) not, not any
Pasacalle(Spanish) passacaglia (Italian), passecaille (French)
(Ecuador) popular dance music similar to the Spanish pasodoble
Pasacalles(Spanish) simple chord sequences played by harpists and guitarists as a way of establishing the tonality and meter of a following piece
Pasacorredoiras(Spain f. pl.) traditional Galician songs
Pasada(Spanish f., literally 'passing') passing a partner during the course of a dance
pasada de pechopassing chest-to-chest
pasada de espaldapassing back-to-back
pasado mañana(Spanish) the day after tomorrow
Pasapié(Spanish) passepied
pasar la noche en blanco(Spanish) to have a sleepless night
pasar lo bomba(Spanish) to have a marvellous time
pasar por el aro(Spanish) to toe the line, to give in
pasar por el centro(Spanish) to go through the centre (of a town, village, etc.)
pasarse el alto(Spanish) to jump the lights, to go through the stop sign
Pasatiempo(Spanish m.) hobby, pastime
pas beaucoup(French) not many, not much
pas beaucoup de(French) not many of, not much of
pas commode(French) a difficult customer
Pas d'action(French m.) a ballet with a dramatic style (one that tells a story or illustrates a theme)
Pas de basque(French m.) passo de basco (Portuguese), in dance, alternating steps where one foot is on the ground all the time
Pas de bourrée(French m., literally 'bourrée step') in dance, one of a variety of dance steps in which the wieght is transferred from one foot to the other three times. Pas de bourrée is done dessous, dessus, devant, derrière, en avant, en arrière and en tournant, en dedans and en dehors, on the point or demi-pointe
Pas de bourrée couru(French m., literally 'bourrée step, running') in dance, a term of the French School. This is a progression on the points or demi-pointes by a series of small, even steps with the feet close together. It may be done in all directions or in a circle
Pas de charge(French m.) the double, rapid pace used by infantry when going in to the attack
Pas d'echarps(French m.) scarf dance
Pas de chat(French m., literally 'cat's step') passo de gato (Portuguese), in dance, a step in which one foot jumps over the other, that owes its name to the likeness of the movement to a cat's leap
Pas de cheval(French m., literally 'horse's step') in dance, where the dancer does a coupé then a small developpé and tendus back into starting position
Pas de danse(French m.) a step, in dancing
Pas de deux(French m.) passo de dois (Portuguese), passo a dois (Portuguese), a dance for two performers
Pas de deux, grand(French m., literally 'grand dance for two') in dance, this differs from the simple pas de deux in that it has a definite structure. As a general rule the grand pas de deux falls into five parts: entrée, adage, variation for the danseuse, variation for the danseur, and the coda, in which the dancers dance together
Pas de galliarde(French m.) the galliard step
Pas de hache(French m.) an axe dance
Pas de minuet(French m.) the minuet step
Pas de nouvelles, bonnes nouvelles.(French) No news is good news.
pas de quartier(French) (give) no quarter (pitiless)
Pas de quatre(French m., literally 'dance for four') passo de quatro (Portuguese), in dance, the most famous pas de quatre in ballet history took place in London on July 12, 1845, at a command performance for Queen Victoria, when the four greatest ballerinas of the nineteenth century, Marie Taglioni, Carlotta Grisi, Fanny Cerrito and Lucile Grahn, appeared together
pas de quoi(French) don't mention it
Pas de trois(French m.) passo de três pessoas (Portuguese), a dance for three performers. Other dances include pas de cinq, a dance for five people, pas de six, a dance for six people, and so on
Pas de valse(French m., literally 'waltz step') passo de valsa (Portuguese), in dance, a step done with a graceful swaying of the body with various arm movements. It may be done facing or en tournant. The step is like a balancé, except that the feet do not cross
pas devant les domestiques(French) not in front of the servants (to avoid any indiscretion in front of the staff)
pas devant les enfants(French) not in front of the children (to avoid indiscretion in front of the staff)
pasé la aspiradora por la habitación(Spanish) I vacuumed the bedroom, I hoovered the bedroom
pas encore(French) not yet
pasen por aquí, por favor(Spanish) this way please
Paseo(Spanish m.) a leisurely walk, a constitutional
(Spanish m.) a broad street designed for leisurely walking
(Spanish m.) a street parade
(Spanish m.) the A section (or introduction) of the danzón form, or the opening ceremony at a bull-fight
in flamenco, a walking step that connects two sections of a dance. The dancer may walk around striking arrogant poses without losing the timing in the steps
pase por aquí(Spanish) come this way
Pas glissé(French m.) in dance, a single gliding step
Pas grave(French m.) the courant step
Pasha(Turkish) a Turkish title given to military commanders and governors of provinces
Pasichigaretraditional Shona (Zimbabwe) music
Pasillo(Spanish m.) passage
(Pacific coast of Ecuador, Spanish m.) a usually downtempo popular folk dance, descended from the waltz, played with guitar and rondin, the latter being similar to a flute
Pasillo colombianoa Colombian dance that is very similar to the Cuban bolero except that it is danced to a time of 6/8 against 3/4 meter
Pas mal(French) Not bad
Pas marché(French m., literally 'marching step') passo marchado (Portuguese m.), passo andado (Portuguese m.), in dance, this is the dignified, classical walk of the ballerina and the premier danseur
Paso(Spanish m.) step
Paso deslizado(Spanish m.) in dance, a single gliding step, pas glissé (French)
Paso doble(Spanish m., literally 'two step') a lively dance in simple duple time, based on music played at bullfights during the bullfighters' entrance (paseo) or during the passes (faena) just before the kill. The leader of this dance plays the part of the matador and the follower plays the part of the matador's cape
Paso resbalado(Spanish m.) in dance, a single gliding step, pas glissé (French)
Paspy(English) passepied
Pas redoublé(French m.) a quick step
Passacaglia(German f. Italian f., from the Spanish pasar, to walk, and calle, street) also passacaglio, an instrumental dance form, often in 3/4 time, similar to the chaconne in which there is continuing repetition of a theme usually played in the bass (i.e. a basso ostinato). It originated in Spain and became popular in France and Italy during the Baroque period
Passacagliosee passacaglia
Passacaille(French) passacaglio, passacaglia
Passage (s.), Passagen (German pl.)(English, German f., French m.) a section of a musical work
(English, German f., French m.) a repeated figure, usually rapid, which may be ascending or descending
(German f.) free embellishment, that is ornamentation that is not indicated by symbols and has no set form, passeggi (Italian pl.), roulades (French pl.)
if the figure is a scale, the passage is usually called a 'run'
Passage du pouce(French m.) passing the thumb under (the fingers)
Passager clandestin(French m.) stowaway
Passaggio (s.), Passaggi (pl.)(Italian m.) a written or improvised melodic passage, employing pseudo-improvisatory diminutions or divisions, i.e ornamentation, and particularly free embellishment, that is ornamentation that is not indicated by symbols and has no set form, Passagen (German pl.), roulades (French pl.)
(Italian m.) a transition or modulation
(Italian m.) a transitional section in a piece of music, often designed to do little more than offer an opportunity for technical display on the part of the performer
(Italian m.) a term used in classical singing to describe the pitch ranges in which vocal registration events occur. Beneath passagio is often called 'full voice', where an untrained singer can produce a powerful sound, and above it lies the 'head voice', where a powerful and resonant sound is accessible only with considerable vocal training. The prominent Italian/international school of voice describes a primo passaggio and a secondo passaggio in both the male and female voice. A major goal of classical voice training is to maintain an even timbre throughout the passaggio. It is generally regarded to be the most difficult register for a singer to sing, as the muscle position is very exerting. However, through proper training, it is possible to produce a resonant and powerful sound
  • Passaggio from which the last entry has been taken
Passaggio del pollice(Italian m.) passing the thumb under (the fingers)
Passameso(Italian) a species of pastoral Italian song or melody
(Italian m., possibly derived from passo e mezzo, literally 'a step and a half') a old Italian dance in duple time and of moderate tempo. Most passamezzi were one of two types:
namehistorychord progressionkeychords 
passamezzo anticoa favourite ground bass or chord progression during the Italian Renaissance and for all of Europe in the 1500s that consists of two phrasesi|VII|i|V||
a minorAm|G|Am|E||
examples include "Greensleeves". The progression is a variation of the double tonic
passamezzo moderno
quadro pavan
one of the most popular harmonic formulae in the Renaissance period, divides into two complementary strains I|IV|I|V||
C majorC|F|C|G||
the progression or ground bass, the major mode variation of the passamezzo antico, originated in Italian and French dance music during the first half of the 1500s, where it was often used with a contrasting progression or section known as ripresi
Passamezzo antico(Italian m.) see passamezzo
Passamezzo moderno(Italian m.) also called quadran, quadrant, quadro pavan or Gregory Walker. Thirty percent of Stephen Foster's songs resembles this seventeenth-century ground demonstrating a stronger connection to this popular bass pattern than to American folk sources
see passamezzo
Passbandor pass band, the range of frequencies or wavelengths that can pass through a filter without being attenuated
passé, passée (f.)(French) past one's prime, out of date, out of fashion
Passecaille(French) passacaglio (Italian), passacaglia (Italian)
Passeggiata(Italian f.) a leisurely walk, a consitutional
Passéggio(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) a walke, an allie, a walking place, a turne in walking. Also the noise made in walking
Passementerie(French) a trimming of gold or silver lace, or of braid or beadwork
Passemezzo(Italian m.) alternatively to passamezzo
passend(German) fitting, the same meaning as commodo
Passeio(Portuguese m.) promenade (French)
Passeo de basco(Portuguese m.) pas de Basque (French)
Passe-partout(French) a master-key, a solution to all difficulties
(French) an ornamental mount for a photograph or drawing
(French) a simple frame for a photograph or drawing consisting of glass and cardboard held together by paper stuck over the edges
Passepied(German m., French, literally 'passing feet') this Baroque dance came to France from Brittany in the early sixteenth century, although some believe that it can be traced back further. It may have originated with the sailors of the Basse-Bretagne. Like a minuet, only much faster, it was danced with a quick step which was sometimes called the 'fast minuet'. It was also known as the rigaudon (or the rigadoon). Some sources described it as being a form of bransle
  • Passepied from which this information has been taken
passer à travers champs(French) to go through, to go across fields, to go across country
passer de bouche à oreille(French) to be spread by word of mouth
passer de bouche en bouche(French) to be talked about, to be the subject of rumour
passer le meilleur de sa vie à faire(French) to spend the best days of one's life doing, to spend the best years of one's life doing
passer le plus clair de son temps à rêver(French) to spend most of one's time daydreaming
passer prendre ...(French) to go pick ... up
passer tout son temps (à faire)(French) to spend all of one's time (doing)
Passétti(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) little steps or paces. Also little round buttons or bosses of mettall
Pas seul(French m.) a solo dance
pas si bête!(French) (I'm) not such a fool!, what do you take me for?
passim(Latin) all through, in various places, in many passages
Passing acciaccaturasee acciaccatura
Passing bellor 'soul bell', the bell which rings at the hour of the departure to obtain prayers for the passing soul - often used for the bell which rings immediately after death
Passing notenote de passage (French), nota di passaggio (Italian), nota de paso (Spanish), Durchgangston (German), Übergangsnote (German)
a note that is not part of the prevailing harmony but which, as the harmony changes, arrives at another note consonant with the new harmony. Passing notes differ from suspensions in that they usually enter on an accented beat and differ from 'single appogiaturas' in that they are approached by step although, like the 'single' and 'double appoggiatura', they resolve by step
Passing toneUS term synonymous with 'passing note'
Passion(English, German f.) the events leading up to Good Friday, beginning with Christ's arrest and ending with his burial. Portrayals of the Passion, which focus on the Suffering Christ, include depictions of Judas betraying Christ with a kiss, Peter cutting off Malchus's ear, the crown of thorns, and so on
passionatasee passionato
passionatamente(Italian) in an impassioned manner
Passionate, Passionatelyappassionato (French), con passione (Italian), passionata (Italian), leidenschaftlich (German), passionné (French)
passionate(Italian) passionate, impassioned, with fervour and pathos
passionato (m.), passionata (f.)(Italian) passionate, impassioned, with fervour and pathos
Passione(Italian f.) passion, feeling
(Italian f.) The Passion, or seven last words of Jesus Christ on the Cross, set to solemn, and devotional, music
Passionné (m.), Passionnée (f.)(French) an enthusiastic devotee, a 'fan'
passionné (m.), passionnée (f.)(French) impassioned, passionate, appassionato
Passion musicreligious musical works associated with the commemmoration of the suffering and death of Christ
Passion pitcolloquial term for a drive-in theatre, so called owing to their privacy factor and romantic allure for teenagers
Passionsmusik(German f.) Passion music, usually in the form of an oratorio
Passistaa young female Brazilian solo dancer who is chosen to for her excellent skills in dancing to the samba beat of the bateria (rhythm section). The passistas dance in front of the bateria and they are accompanied by talented male dancers playing their pandeiros (frame drums) and courting the passistas
Passiuna tu Christù(Italy) from the folk traditions of the ethnic Greeks living in Salento (Puglia) and Calabria, a religious piece that recounts the Passion of Christ and is performed, in their own distinct dialect, by two singers accompanied by street accordionists
Passivea term used to describes a guitar that does not use pickups which require power (active pickups)
Passive resolutionthe holding or repeating of an active note, e.g. the chord seventh, in the same voice in the chord that follows
Passo(Italian m., Portuguese m.) step, passage, pas (French m.)
Passo a dois(Portuguese m.) or passo de dois (Portuguese m.), pas de deux (French m.)
Passo andado(Portuguese m.) pas marché (French m.)
Passo de allegro(Portuguese m.) or jogado (Portuguese m.), jeté (French)
Passo de dois(Portuguese m.) or passo a dois (Portuguese m.), pas de deux (French m.)
Passo de gato(Portuguese m.) pas de chat (French m.)
Passo de quatro(Portuguese m.) pas de quatre (French m.)
Passo de três pessoas(Portuguese m.) pas de trois (French m.)
Passo de valsa(Portuguese m.) pas de valse (French m.)
Passo andado(Portuguese m.) pas marché (French m.)
Pásso mèzzo(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) a 'cinque-pace', a 'pace-measure'
Paßstift(German m.) dowel, dowel pin
Passus(Latin, 'step') William Langland uses the term passus to refer to each numbered subdivision of his poem, The Vision of Piers Plowman. The idea is each section is a 'step' toward salvation or spiritual truth
Pas tant(French) not so much
Pasta(Italian) a food made of flour and water (and sometime egg), cut or extruded into various shapes, dried, boiled and served with a sauce
Pastaphonean idea suggested by Peter Schickele, an uncooked tube of manicotti pasta played as a horn
Paste boardsee 'card stock'
Pastedownparchment pasted to the inside cover of a book to hold down the edges of the leather binding
Pastellstift(German m.) pastel
Pastellzeichnung(German f.) crayon
Pasticcio(Italian m., literally 'pie') a literary, musical or graphic work consisting of fragments by various artists or from various sources ingeniously pieced together
an opera in which each act is written by a different composer, although some sources suggest that this is a misapplication of the term pasticcio which should mean, in this case, an opera made up of assembled pre-existing material from a single composer, for example a 'ballad opera'
an instrumental work in which each section is written by a different composer, although some sources suggest that this is a misapplication of the term pasticcio which should mean, in this case, an instrumental work made up of assembled pre-existing material from a single composer
occasionally used in the sense of pastiche (see below)
Pastiche(French m., literally 'imitation', 'parody') a work of art using a borrowed style but not necessarily a direct copy. A pastiche often verges on conscious or unconscious caricature, through its exaggeration of what seems most typical in the original model
pasticcio, made up of borrowed elements. Some sources make a strong distinction between a pastiche (an imitation) and a pasticcio (a medley)
Pastille(French) a cake of aromatic paste prepared to be burnt as a perfume or as a disinfectant, a flat round sweetmeat (usually medicinal)
Pastoralpastorale (Italian), Hirtenlied (German), pastorale (French)
(Latin pastor, 'shepherd') relating to a romantic or idealized image of rural life which, in classical literature, means beautiful scenery, carefree shepherds, seductive nymphs, and rural songs and dances
fifteenth to eighteenth centuries, a stage work incorporating music and ballet with a 'rural' theme
an instrumental piece, resembling a siciliana, with rural connotations including an imitation of the drone of a shepherd's bagpipe
an alternative name for a madrigal
(Spanish) pastorale
Pastoraldrama(German n.) pastoral drama
Pastorale(French, Italian) pastoral
(German f.) pastorella (Italian)
(Italian) ancient term for a stage entertainment without music based on characters from mythology or employing rustic subjects, for example, nymphs and shepherds
Pastoral elegya specific type of elegy, from the 1600s, 1700s, and early 1800s, in which the person being mourned is represented as if he were a shepherd. Closely related to the pastoral elegy, the dirge or threnody is shorter than the elegy and often represented as a text meant to be sung aloud. The term monody refers to any dirge or elegy presented as the utterance of a single speaker
Pastorcicos(Spanish m./f.) young children dressed as shepherds (often a feature of Christmas festivities)
Pastorelapastorella (Italian)
Pastorella(Italian f.) pastorela (Spanish f.), pastourelle (French), Pastorale (German f.)
(Italian f., diminutive of postorale) a musical work for singers and small orchestra, performed during the Christmas period, that tells the story of the shepherds who came to Bethlehem to see the infant Jesus
Pastorelle(French f.) a soft movement in a pastoral or rural style
pastorellepastoral, rural, belonging to a shepherd
Pastoritia(Latin) diminutive of pastorale
pastoso(Italian) soft, mellow
Pastourelle(French f., from the Occitan pastorella) a slow musical composition with more than one group of simple time units in each bar, composed in Latin or vernacular, the pastourelle relates an encounter between a knight on horseback and a shepherdess
one of the figures and movements on a quadrille
Pastrami(Yiddish, from the Roumanian) a smoked and highly seasoned meat (usually beef)
pas très catholique(French) a bit fishy
pas trop(French) not too much
pas trop lent(French) not too slow
Pasucais(Spanish) traditional Asturian march
Pasuuna(Finnish) trombone
pas vite(French) not quick
PA-System(German n.) in English, public address system - the microphone, amplifier and loud speakers used to help a speaker project his or her voice throughout an area, public space, etc.
Pásztortülök(Hungarian, literally 'shepherd's horn') ancient Hungarians used the horn as a signaling device and also as a status symbol. Shepherds, swineherds and herdsmen in general took their horns the long horn Hungarian grey cattle. Often decorated, the horns produce an extraordinarily high note
Patlight stroke or tap, especially with the hand, the sound made by this, (on the back) a congratulatory gesture
Patto know or have memorized perfectly (as in, to know off pat), prepared or known thoroughly, glib (as in, a pat answer)
Pata(Spanish f.) leg (humorous of a person, furniture), paw, foot (bird)
(Spanish - Peru m.) guy (colloquial), bloke (familiar), buddy (familiar), mate (colloquial)
(Mozambique) corrugated iron plate that is struck percussively
Pata de palo(Spanish f.) wooden leg
Pataflaflaa drum rudiment named for the sound it produces. It is played by leaving a demisemiquaver rest (16th rest) before two demisemiquavers (sixteenth notes) and two alternating flams. The sticking is LRLR or RLRL. The pataflafla is most commonly used in serial with other pataflaflas with a flam in place of the initial rest. The sticking is all standard in that example
partager le point de vue de ...(French) to see eye to eye with ...
Pa'tala(Burmese) xylophone with bamboo keys, also used to accompany the voice
Patas anteriores(Spanish forelegs, front legs
patas arriba(Spanish) in a mess
Patas de gallo(Spanish crow's feet (figurative)
Patas delanteras(Spanish front legs
patas (para) arriba(Spanish) upside down (familiar)
Patas traseras(Spanish hind legs
Patayaniin Kerala, Southern India, a week- long ritual dance, held in Kaali temples on the banks of the Pamba river during the Malayalam months of Meenam and Medam (March-April)
  • Patayani from which this short extract has been taken
Patchin some early keyboard synthesizers, one selected "instruments" to play (e.g., vibraphone, clarinet). Later, the term "voice" emerged, in part, because some of the sounds went beyond instruments (police whistles, human voices, etc.). In contemporary MIDI-computing, the word "patch" is prominent- one reason being that a single keyboard setting, like 99, may encompass a large range of percussive sounds. In any event, to a sequencer, the patch setting will determine the nature of the sounds
material used to mend a hole or to use as a reinforcement
Patchankaa style music that is characterized by a mixing traditional music with punk, reggae, rock and political lyrics
Patchboarda board with electrical sockets linked by movable leads to enable changeable permutations of connection
Patchouli(Tamil, pach ilai, literally 'green leaf') a penetrating perfume prepared from a plant native to the Malay peninsula
Patch pocketa piece of cloth sewn on a garment as a pocket
Patch upto repair with a patch or patches, (of material) to serve as a patch to, to repair hastily, to settle (a quarrel)
Patchworka thing composed of fragments, etc.
technique of sewing pieces of fabric together to form a larger piece. often found in hexagonal designs and incorporating thrifted fabrics
Patchwork melodiessee 'centonic melodies'
Patchyuneven in quality
Pateslit log drums from the Cook Islands
the head (colloquial)
(German m.) godfather, padrino (Italian m., Spanish m.), parrain (French m.)
(German m.) sponsor (figurative)
Pâte(French f.) a paste, a dough, a pastry, a batter
in cooking, a meat paste dish served as an appetiser
Pâté(French m.) a pasty, a pie, an ink-blot
Pâte à modeler(French f.) Plasticine
Pâté de foie gras(French m.) a pie made of fatted goose liver, although today the term is more commonly used for the fatted goose liver itself
Pâté de maisons(French m.) block of houses
Pâte dentifrice(French f.) toothpaste
Pâté-de-verre(French m.) an ancient technique that was revived by the French sculptlor Henri Cros, a composition of powdered glass of various colours, moulded to shape and fired like a ceramic
Pâté dure(French m.) natural kaolin clay used in the manufacture of porcelain, porcelain made from such clay
Pâtée(French f.) feed, mash (for animals, etc.)
Pâté en croûte(French m.) meat pie
Patek style tenor banjothree-finger picking on a four-string tenor banjo retuned from 'CGda' to 'DGdg' or another open tuning
Patelin(French m.) village (familar)
Patella (s.), Patellae (pl.)(Latin) kneecap
Patena shallow dish for bread at the Eucharist
Patencythe openness (lack of obstruction) of a bodily passage or duct
PatengeCongolese frame drum held between the legs, the pitch can be changed by the pressure of the heel on the skin
Patenkind(German n.) godchild, figlioccio (Italian m./f.), filleul (French m.), filleule (French f.), ahijado (Spanish m.)
Patensohn(German m.) godson, figlioccio (Italian m.), filleul (French m.), ahijado (Spanish m.)
Patent(English, German n.) invention or process protected by law (giving the patentee sole rights to make, sell, etc.), the official document conferring such rights, brevet (d'invention) (French m.), brevetto (Italian m.), Patentierung (German f.), patente (Spanish f.)
a high gloss and waterproof finishing to leather and nylon
patent(German) clever, cleverly, resourceful (person)
(English, French) evident, evidente (Italian), offensichtlich (German), patente (Spanish)
(English) to apply for a patent, brevettare (Italian), patentieren (German), breveter (French), patentar (Spanish)
Patentamt(German n.) patent office
Patent anmelden, ein(German) to apply for a patent, to take out a patent
Patentanmeldung(German f.) patent application
Patente(French f.) trade licence
patenté(French) licensed
Patenteeone who holds a patent
patentieren(German) to patent
Patentierung(German f.) patent (English), Patent (German n.), brevetto (Italian m.), brevet (d'invention) (French m.)
Patentinhaber(German m.) patent holder
Patent leatherglossy leather, vernice (Italian f.), Lackleder (German n.), cuir verni (French m.), charol (Spanish m.)
Patent lever valvesee 'disc valve'
Patentlyobviously, manifestly, evidently, evidentemente (Italian), offensichtlich (German), manifestement (French), evidentemente (Spanish)
Patent-note notationan alternative name for 'Shape notation'
Patentochter(German f.) god-daughter, figlioccia (Italian f.), filleule (French f.), ahijada (Spanish f.)
Patentschrift(German f.) patent specification
Patentschutz(German m.) patent protection
Patent verleihen, ein(German) to (apply for or go through the process of gaining a) patent
Patentverletzung(German f.) patent infringement
Patent Voice Flutesee 'Voice Flute, Patent'
Patère(French f.) (coat) peg
Pater(Latin) father
Pater familias (s.), Patres familiarum (pl.)(Latin) father of the family, the head of a household (in English paterfamilas)
paternel (m.), paternelle (f.)(French) paternal
Paternité(French f.) paternity
Pater noster(Latin, literally 'Our Father') or 'paternoster', (the first words of) the Lord's Prayer in Latin, the larger type of bead in a rosary (or the rosary itself), a fishing line to which groups of hooks are attached at intervals
Pater patriae (s.), Patres patriae (pl.)(Latin, 'literally 'father of the country) a title given to any person who has rendered signal service to his country
Pâte-sur-pâte(French f.) a method of decorating with pottery slip, layers being built up to form a pattern in relief or using contrasting colours applied over a ground
Pateta melody type or mode used in Javanese gamelan music
Pâte tendre(French f., literally 'soft paste') an artificial clay used in the manufacture of porcelain (used in early Sèvres porcelain)
pateticasee patetico
pateticamente(Italian) pathetically
patetico (m.), patetica (f.)(Italian) pathetic
pâteux (m.), pâteuse (f.)(French) pasty, coated (tongue)
Pathemata mathemata(Greek) painful experiences are instructive, one learns by suffering
Pathet(Javanese) or patet, an organizing concept in gamelan music. It is similar to melody types such as modes, ragas, or maqamat. In essence, a pathet indicates which notes are to be stressed in the melody, especially at the end of phrases (seleh), as well as determining which elaborations (cengkok and sekaran) will be appropriate. However, in general, pieces are conceived as mixtures of various pathets, and the reality is often rather complicated
  • Pathet from which this information has been taken
Patheticarousing pity, arousing sadness, arousing contempt, patetico (Italian), pathetisch (German), pathétique (French)
Pathetic fallacyattribution of human emotions to inanimate things, especially in literature
pathetico(Italian) pathetic, that stirs the passions (usually when talking about speeches, orators or music)
"Pathetico means pathétique, touching, expressive, passionate, capable of arousing pity, compassion and all the other passions that stir the human heart. Thus one says stilo pathetico, canto pathetico, fugo pathetico. Chromatic music with its major and minor semitones that both descend and rise is very appropriate for this, as is also a good handling of dissonances on all augmented and diminished intervals. A variety in tempi [mouvements], sometimes vif and sometimes languishing, sometimes slow and sometimes fast, and so on, also contributes a great deal to it." - Brossard (1703)
Pathétique(French m.) pathos
pathétique(French) pathetic, moving, that stirs the passions (usually when talking about speeches, orators or music)
"Passionate, touching and capable of moving and stirring the passions. ... [In music] is said of something touching, expressive, capable of stirring pity, anger [and every other passion]." - Furetière (1702); bracketed words were added in 1727
"Pathetico means pathétique, touching, expressive, passionate, capable of arousing pity, compassion and all the other passions that stir the human heart. Thus one says stilo pathetico, canto pathetico, fugo pathetico. Chromatic music with its major and minor semitones that both descend and rise is very appropriate for this, as is also a good handling of dissonances on all augmented and diminished intervals. A variety in tempi [mouvements], sometimes vif and sometimes languishing, sometimes slow and sometimes fast, and so on, also contributes a great deal to it." - Brossard (1703)
pathétiquement(French) with pathos, pathetically
pathetisch(German) pathetic, emotional, with emotion
Pathfinderan explorer, a pioneer
Pathologie(French f.) pathology
pathologique(French) pathological
Pathos(English, Greek, German n.) a writer or speaker's attempt to inspire an emotional reaction in an audience - in particular, evoking pity or compassion, the expression of a tender emotion
(Greek, literally 'feeling') the depiction of momentary (transient) emotional states of a person in an opera (see also ethos)
patiemment(French) patiently
Patient (m.), Patiente (f.)(French) patient (medical)
patienter(French) to wait
Patimento(Italian) suffering, grief, affliction
Patin(French m.) skate
(German f.) godmother, marraine (French f.), madrina (Italian f., Spanish f.)
Patina(Latin, literally 'dish') a greenish film produced by oxidation on bronze subjected to prolonged weathering
the term is applied more generally to any surface alteration produced by exposure to the elements or by prolonged use
Patinage(French m.) skating
Patin à roulettes(French f.) roller-skate
Patinationsthe effects of time on an object and the finish it imparts
patiner(French) to skate, to spin (a car)
Patineur (m.), Patineuse (f.)(French) skater
Patinoire(French f.) skating-rink
Patio(Spanish m.) an inner courtyard (open to the sky) in a Spanish house
pâtir(French) to suffer
pâtir de(French) to suffer from
Pâtissier (m.), Pâtissière (f.)(French) pastry-cook, cake shop owner
Pâtisserie(French f.) cake shop (both one that sells cakes and one that allows consumption on the premises), pastry, (the art of) cake making, any confection made of pastry
Patois(English, French m.) a dialect spoken in a particular district, but that differs substantially from the literary language of the country (an essential feature is that the dialect is regional rather than based on class as for example in the case of argot or slang)
patraque(French) peaky, out of sorts (familiar)
Patria potestas(Latin) the absolute power wielded by a father over his family (characteristic of family life in ancient Rome)
Patriarchmale head of a family or tribe, a venerable old man, chief bishop in the Orthodox Church
Patrie(French f.) homeland
Patrigno(Italian m.) stepfather
Patrimoine(French m.) heritage
Patriotic songa song that demonstrates love for one's country. It may have words, or it may be simply instrumental; it may be an official national anthem or may not be. It is often sung on holidays. Common themes include love of country or other patriotic and nationalist sentiments. Some patriotic songs are militaristic, jingoistic, or have themes that glorify self-sacrifice; others focus on a land's beauty, history, or ideals
Patristicreferring to the early fathers of the Christian church, the commentators of the early centuries AD, or their works
Patronperson who provides financial support for an artist
Patron (m.), Patronne (f.)(French) the proprietor of a commercial establishment (inn, café, restaurant, etc.)
Patronage (from Latin pater, 'father') a social system in which artistic creation depended on sponsorship from those who were prepared to pay for it. Although today's patrons tend to be the state or businesses, in the past artists and musicians were patronized by the church, the aristocracy and royalty
Patronizeto treat condescendingly, to be a patron or customer of (someone, some business)
Patrón rítmico(Spanish m.) rhythmic pattern
Patron sainta saint regarded as protecting a person, place, society, activity, etc.
Patronymica name derived from the name of a father or ancestor (for example, Ivanovich, O'Kelly, Williamson)
patroon(Dutch) pattern
patsch(German, literally 'slap') to lightly slap one's thigh
Patsou(Comoros) a brass plate struck with two small sticks
Pattalasee pa'tala
Pattalarsee pa'tala
Patte(French f.) lower joint (of a wind instrument), pezzo inferiore (Italian m.), Unterstück (German n.), Fußstück (German n.), troisième corps (French m.), cuerpo inferior (Spanish m.)
(French f.) leg or paw (of an animal)
Pattena wood, leather, or cork undersole which was fastened on the foot by straps and buckles and worn out-of-doors to protect the hose and soft shoes
Pattersound of quick light steps or taps
to make a sound of quick light steps or taps
Patterera vendor of chapbooks who would sing the songs on the broadside for any customer unacquainted with the tunes. Those who sang the songs while walking the streets were called running patterers while those with a fixed pitch were termed standing patterers
Patternregular or logical form, order, etc.
model, design or instructions for making something
a wooden or metal shape (called the master) from which a mould is made for casting
Pattern pickingthe use of "preset right-hand patterns" while fingerpicking on a guitar (the left hand voicing traditional chords)
Patter songa polyphonic work sung in parlando style, where one or more voices sings the syllabic text as fast as possible
the texture adopted in the medieval Petronian motet
Patting jubaan improvised dance of African origin that involves rhythmically intricate hand-clapping
Patt waing(Burmese) a set of 21 drums hanging inside a circular and ornately decorated frame, each drum carefully tuned by the application of tuning paste to the centre of the drum. The tuning is frequently altered during a performance according to the requirements of the particular composition being played. The player evokes a variety of sounds from the patt waing by the use of several types of strokes with the bare fingers on the head of the drum
Pau(China) a bamboo instrument that is held horizontally. With his lips, the player completely covers the mouthhole into which a free reed has been inserted. The reed is made to vibrate by both inhaling and exhaling
  • Pau from which this extract has been taken
Pauk(Dutch) kettledrum, timpani
Pauke (s.), Pauken (pl.)(German f., literally 'to pound') kettledrums, timpani
Paukenfell(German n.) timpani vellum drum-head
Paukenklöpfel(German) timpani mallet, timpani stick
Paukenschlägel(German m.) timpani mallet, timpani stick
Paukenschläger(German m.) timpanist
Paukenstock(German) timpani mallet, timpani stick
Paukenwirbel(German m.) drum roll
Pauker (m.), Paukerin (f.)(German) a player of the kettle-drums or timpani
Paume de la main(French f.) palm of the hand
Paunchbelly, stomach, especially when protruding
Paupiettea stuffed, rolled fillet of fish
Paura dinanzi al pubblico(Italian f.) stage fright
pauroso(Italian) fearful, timid
Paus(Swedish) rest
Pausa(Italian f., Spanish f.) rest, pause, stop, point d'orgue (French)
(Latin) in mensural notation, a vertical line drawn through the staff, that indicates the absence of a sounding note or notes
(Italian f.) intermission
semiquaver rest(Catalan f.) a semibreve rest, a whole rest
Pausa de blanca
minim rest(Catalan f., Spanish f.) minim rest (half rest), a rest half the value of a semibreve rest (whole rest)
Pausa de breve
breve rest(Spanish f.) a breve rest (double whole rest) equal to two semibreves (whole notes)
Pausa de corchea
quaver rest(Spanish f.) a quaver rest, an eighth rest, a rest one eighth the time value of a whole rest or semibreve rest
Pausa de corxera
quaver rest(Catalan f.) a quaver rest, an eighth rest, a rest one eighth the time value of a whole rest or semibreve rest
Pausa de cuadrada
breve rest(Spanish f.) a rest equal to two semibreve rests (whole rests) or one breve rest
Pausa de fusa
demisemiquaver rest(Catalan f., Spanish f.) a demisemiquaver rest, a thirty-second rest, a rest one thirty-second the time value of a whole rest or semibreve rest
Pausa de garrapatea
semihemidemisemiquaver rest(Spanish f.) semihemidemisemiquaver rest, a one hundred and twenty-eighth rest, a rest having the time duration of one hundred twenty-eighth of the time duration of a semibreve rest (whole rest)
Pausa della croma
quaver rest(Italian f.) a quaver rest, an eighth rest, a rest one eighth the time value of a whole rest or semibreve rest
Pausa della mezza-quarto
quaver rest(Italian f.) a quaver rest, an eighth rest, a rest one eighth the time value of a whole rest or semibreve rest
Pausa de negra
crotchet rest orcrotchet rest(Catalan f., Spanish f.) a crotchet rest (quarter rest) of which four equal the time value of a whole rest or semibreve rest, pausa di semiminima (Italian f.), soupir (French m.), Viertelpause (German f.), silencio de negra (Spanish f.), silencio de semiminima (Spanish m.), pausa de semiminima (Spanish f.)
Pausa della minima
minim rest(Italian f.) a minim rest, a half rest, a rest half the time value of a whole rest or semibreve rest
Pausa de quadrada
breve rest(Catalan f.) a breve rest (double whole rest) equal to two semibreves (whole notes)
Pausa de redonda
semibreve rest(Spanish f.) a semibreve rest (whole rest)
Pausa de rodona
semibreve rest(Catalan f.) a semibreve rest, a whole rest
Pausa de semibreve
semibreve rest(Spanish f.) a semibreve rest, a whole rest
Pausa de semicorchea
semiquaver rest(Spanish f.) a semiquaver rest, a sixteenth rest, a rest one sixteenth the time value of a whole note rest or semibreve rest
Pausa de semicorxera
semiquaver rest(Catalan f.) a semiquaver rest, a sixteenth rest, a rest one sixteenth the time value of a whole note rest or semibreve rest
Pausa de semifusa
hemidemisemiquaver rest(Catalan f., Spanish f.) a hemidemisemiquaver rest, a sixty-fourth rest, a rest one sixty-fourth the time value of a whole note rest or semibreve rest
Pausa de semiminima
crotchet rest orcrotchet rest(Spanish f.) a crotchet rest (quarter rest) of which four equal the time value of a whole rest or semibreve rest, pausa di semiminima (Italian f.), soupir (French m.), Viertelpause (German f.), silencio de negra (Spanish f.), pausa de negra (Spanish f.), silencio de semiminima (Spanish m.)
Pausa di biscroma
demisemiquaver rest(Italian f.) demisemiquaver rest (thirty-second rest), of which thirty two equal a breve rest (whole rest)
Pausa di breve
breve rest(Italian f.) a breve rest (double whole rest) equal to two semibreves (whole notes)
Pausa di centoventottavo
semihemidemisemiquaver rest (Italian f.) semihemidemisemiquaver rest, a one hundred and twenty-eighth rest, a rest having the time duration of one hundred twenty-eighth of the time duration of a semibreve rest (whole rest)
Pausa di croma
quaver rest(Italian f.) a quaver rest (eight rest) of which eight equal a semibreve rest (whole rest)
Pausa di minima
minim rest(Italian f.) minim rest (half rest), a rest half the value of a semibreve rest (whole rest)
Pausa di semibiscroma
hemidemisemiquaver rest(Italian f.) hemidemisemiquaver rest (sixty-fourth rest), a rest one sixty-fourth the time value of a whole note rest or semibreve rest
Pausa di semibreve
semibreve rest(Italian f.) a semibreve rest (whole rest)
Pausa di semicroma
semiquaver rest(Italian f.) a semiquaver rest (sixteenth rest), a rest one sixteenth the time value of a whole note rest or semibreve rest
Pausa di semiminima
crotchet rest orcrotchet rest(Italian f.) a crotchet rest (quarter rest) of which four equal the time value of a whole rest or semibreve rest, soupir (French m.), Viertelpause (German f.), silencio de negra (Spanish f.), pausa de negra (Spanish f.), silencio de semiminima (Spanish m.), pausa de semiminima (Spanish f.)
Pausa generale(Italian f., Spanish f.) a pause or rest for all the performers
Pausa lunga(Italian f.) a prolonged pause
Pausa multipla(Italian f.) multibar rest
semibreve rest(French f.) a semibreve rest, a whole rest. ganze Pause (German f.)
Pause(English) the fermata sign
(French f.) pause, rest (in particular, the semibreve or whole note rest - see above)
(German f., Danish) pause, rest
"The notes I handle no better than many pianists. But the pauses between the notes - ah, that is where the art resides." Artur Schnabel
Pause de brève
breve rest(French f.) a breve rest (double whole rest) equal to two semibreves (whole notes)
Pause générale(French f.) a pause or rest for all the performers
Pause, longsee 'long pause'
Pause multiple(French f.) multibar rest
Pausenzeichen(German n.) a rest sign (the symbol itself), an interval signal, a call sign (radio)
pauser(French) to pause, to rest, to keep silent
Pauses(Catalan f. pl.) rests
pausieren(German) to pause, to rest, to keep silent
pausiren(German, archaic) to pause, to rest, to keep silent
Pauta(Spanish f.) (musical) staff, ruler, writing guide, line, guideline, example (figurative), model (example)
pautado (m.), pautada (f.)(Spanish) lined, ruled
Pauta musical(Portuguese) (musical) staff
Pauzeteken(Dutch) pause
Pavan(English, from the Italian pavo, literally 'peacock') a stately court dance of the 16th- and 17th-centuries, probably of Italian origin, comprising a pattern of five steps, hence its alternative name cinque pas. It was usually coupled with a quicker triple time dance which in Italy would be the saltarello and in France and England the 'galliard'. During the late sixteenth century, the pavan was also known in Italy as the passamezzo
Pavana(Italian f., Spanish f.) pavan, pavane (French)
Pavane(French f., German f.) pavan
Pavanella(Italian f.) pavan
Pavé(French m.) a cobbled street, cobbled paving, a method of setting precious stones close together so that no metal is visible between them
Pavement artistartist who draws in chalk on paving-stones for tips
paventato(Italian) timid, fearful, timorous, with an expression of horror and anxiety
paventoso(Italian) timid, fearful, timorous, with an expression of horror and anxiety
Pavilionlarge building or tent used for exhibitions, entertainments, etc.
Pavillon(French m.) the bell of a wind instrument, padiglione (Italian m.), Aufsatz (German m.), Schalltrichter (German n.), Schallbecher (German m.), pabellón (Spanish m.)
(French m.) bell tree, chapeau chinoise
(French m.) in architecture, a small ornamental building set in a garden, a summerhouse
Pavillon chinois(French m.) a staff with numerous small bells which impart brilliancy to a performance
Pavillon en l'air(French m.) with bells turned upwards (a direction to horn players), a direction which in German is Stürze in die Höhe
Pavillon piriforme(French m.) pear-shaped bell (as on a cors anglais), padiglione piriforme (Italian m.), Liebesfuß (German m.), pabellón en forma de pera (Spanish m.)
Pawla lever with a catch for the teeth of a wheel or bar (on a boat or ship, used to lock a capstan, windlass, etc.)
Pawna person used by others for their own purposes
Pax(Latin, literally 'peace') kiss of peace
Pax vobiscum(Latin) may peace be with you
Payada de contrapunto(Spanish f., literally 'singing match') two singers (payadores) accompany themselves on the guitar, improvising on different topics as though in competition with each other
Payadores(Spanish m. pl.) in parts of South America, travelling poets and singers, the repositories of indigenous folk song traditions
payer à la pièce(French) to pay for piecework, to pay by the piece
payer à l'heure(French) to pay by the hour
payer cash(French) to pay (in) cash
payer comptant(French) to pay cash
payer d'audace(French) to take a risk
payer de ...(French) to sacrifice ..., to give ... up
payer de mine(French) to look good, to look nice
payer de sa poche(French) to pay out of one's own pocket
payer en espèces(French) to pay cash
payer en nature(French) to pay in kind (to barter rather than paying with cash)
payer la casse(French) to pay for the damage, to pick up the pieces
payer le déplacement(French) to pay travelling expenses
payer le travail(French) to pay for the work
payer les pots cassés(French) to pay for the damage, to pick up the pieces
payer par chèque(French) to pay by cheque
payer pour(French) to pay for
payer pour le savoir(French) to learn something the hard way
payer ses dettes(French) to pay one's debts
payer ses impôts(French) to pay one's taxes
Pa yin
the eight categories of sound found in Chinese and Japanese musical theory
stonestone chimes
silkstringed instruments
wooddouble-reed wind instruments
gourdsho, or mouth organ
Paynima heathen, a person who is not a Christian (especially a Muslim)
Payogypsy term for a non-gypsy
Payolabribery or under-the-table payments
Paysage(French) a rural scene, the countryside, the landscape, a representation of a rural scene, a landscape painting
Pay Bas, les(French m.) the Low Countries (Blegium and Holland)
Pays de cocagne(French m., in Old French pais de cocaigne) land of plenty
Pays de mission(French m.) a missionary country
Pays sans frontière(French m.) a country without frontiers, an international community, a country of the mind
PBS abbreviation of 'Public Broadcasting System'
PCabbreviation of no. of chanson in A. Pillet and H. Carstens: Bibliographie der Troubadours (Halle, 1933)
abbreviation of poste de commandement (French: HQ)
Pccabbreviation of pour copie conforme (French: certified copy)
PCVabbreviation of paiement contre vérification or percevoir (French: collect call - telephone call)
Pdabbreviation of 'Pure Data'
PDGabbreviation of président-directeur général (French: CEO)