music dictionary : Sc - Sd
 



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SCor S-C, reference to the catalogue prepared by Douglas Alton Smith and Tim Crawford of the music of Silvius Leopold Weiss (1687-1750)
earlier references to this catalogue use the single letter S relecting the earlier work of Douglas Alton Smith alone
Sc.abbreviation of sculpsit (Latin: engraved by - usually after the engraver's name), sculpserunt (Latin: engraved by - usually after the engraver's name)
Scacciapensieri(Italian m.) Jew's harp
Scagliola(Italian f.) hard plaster painted to simulate stone or marble
Scagnello(Italian m.) the bridge on a stringed instrument
Scagnelo da tromba(Venetian dialect m.) the 'trumpet bridge' found, for example, on the tromba marina
Scala(Italian f.) musical scale, gamut
scala di Do maggiore (Italian: scale of C major)
scala di La minore naturale (Italian: natural minor scale of A minor)
scala di La minore armonica (Italian: harmonic minor scale of A minor)
scala di La minore melodica (Italian: melodic minor scale of A minor)
Scala alterataaltered scale
(Italian f.) altered scale
Scala araba arabic scale scale
(Italian f.) arabic scale
although there are many 'arabic' scales, this arabic scale (the scale most commonly given this name) is the relative mode of the harmonic minor scale starting on the fifth degree
Scala a toni interi whole tone scale
(Italian f.) whole tone scale
Scala aumentataaugmented scale
(Italian f.) augmented scale
Scala bebop(Italian f.) bebop scale
Scala bluesblues scale
(Italian f.) blues scale
Scala cinesechinese scale
(Italian f.) Chinese scale
Scala cromatica(Italian f.) chromatic scale
Scala diatonica(Italian f.) diatonic scale
Scala diminuita octatonic or diminished scale
(Italian f.) diminished or octatonic scale
Scala dominante bebop bebop dominant scale
(Italian f.) bebop dominant scale
Scala enigmaticaenigmatic scale
(Italian f.) enigmatic scale, invented by Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901) and first used in his Ave Maria of 1897
Scala equalizzata(Italian f.) equal-tempered scale
Scala esatonale whole tone scale
(Italian f.) whole tone scale
Scala esatonica whole tone scale
(Italian f.) whole tone scale
Scala maggiore major scale
(Italian f.) major scale
Scala maggiore bebop bebop major scale
(Italian f.) bebop major scale
Scala minore armonica harmonic minor scale
(Italian f.) harmonic minor scale
Scala minore bebop bebop minor scale
(Italian f.) bebop minor scale
Scala minore melodica(Italian f.) melodic minor scale
Scala minore napoletananeapolitan minor scale
(Italian f.) Neapolitan minor scale
Scala minore naturalenatural minor scale
(Italian f.) ancient minor scale, natural minor scale
Scala modale(Italian f.) modal scale
Scala musicale(Italian f.) musical scale
Scala napoletananeapolitan scale
(Italian f.) Neapolitan major scale
Scala orientaleoriental scale
(Italian f.) oriental scale
Scala pentatonica maggiorepentatonic major scale
(Italian f.) pentatonic major scale
Scala pentatonica minorepentatonic minor scale
(Italian f.) pentatonic minor scale
Scala pentatonica minore con sesta maggiorepentatonic minor major 6 scale
(Italian f.) pentatonic minor, major 6 scale
Scalar transpositionsee 'transposition'
Scala temperata(Italian f.) equal-tempered scale
Scaldancient Scandinavian bards
Scalescala (Italian), Tonleiter (German), gamme (French)
a group of notes (or pitch-classes) arranged sequentially, rising or falling. The ordered group lies between two notes an octave apart and the intervals between neighbouring degrees of the scale define the scale, as, for example, the rising interval-sequence 'tone-tone-semitone-tone-tone-tone-semitone' will describe a rising major scale. Most scales have 5, 6, 7 or 8 notes to the octave but any number, from 2 to 12, is possible
a group of notes (or pitch-classes) regarded abstractly as a 'pool' of available notes. In this sense, scale really means the same as chord
the compass of a voice or an instrument
as applied to pianos and members of the harpichord and clavichord families, the 'scale' is the length of the strings of an instrument. Since they double in length for each octave of descent most of the string lengths can be calculated if that of one string is known. The usual convention is to specify the length of c" (in the case of eight-foot choirs, the shorter string is usually measured.)
in organ flue pipes, the ratio between the width and length of the bore:
broad scale stopsflutes and stopped flues
medium scale stopsdiapasons
narrow scale stopsstrings
Scale degreescale degree refers to the location of a pitch within the ordering of pitches that produce a scale. For example, the first pitch of a scale is scale degree I. Scale degree also has a functional meaning in the syntax of tonal music. Scale degrees can influence the harmonic unfolding of sections of music, and the progression of scale degrees through the work unify it
Scale lengthon a guitar, the length of the vibrating string from nut to saddle, or twice the distance from the nut to the 12th fret
Scale rotte(Italian f. pl.) broken scales, imperfect or unqual scales
Scale syllables
in 'fixed do' solfeggio, the notes of the chromatic scale are named using the solfeggio or Latin names which in French, English, Italian and German are:
rising or ascending scale
CC#DD#EFF#GG#AA#Bc
do
ut (French)
dire
(French)
rimifafisol
so (English)
silaliti
si (Continent)
do
ut (French)
falling or descending scale
cBBbAAbGGbFEEbDDbC
do
ut (French)
ti
si (Continent)
telalesol
so (English)
sefamimere
(French)
rado
ut (French)
Scale-tone seventh chordsthree note chords built on each degree of the scale with an added seventh based on the notes of the scale
the scale-tone sevenths of a major key are: I7 (Maj7), ii7 (m7), iii7 (m7), IV7 (Maj7), V7 (dominant 7th), vi (m7), vii (half diminished 7th)
Scale-tone triadsthree note chords built on each degree of the scale
the scale-tone triads of a major key are: I (Maj), ii (m), iii (m), IV (Maj), V (Maj), vi (m), vii (diminished)
Scalingthe relationship between the length and thickness of a vibrating string and the note (tone) it produces, for example, with a constant tension and thickness, half the length of a given string will sound an octave higher than the entire length of the string
in organ building the term has a similar meaning - it is the proportion of the width of a pipe to its length. Tone quality of the pipe will change as the proportion changes
Scalloped fretboardon a plucked stringed instrument, when the fretboard has been carved out to increase the depression between successive frets
Scallop edgea die-cut tooth-like border with rounded points around the edges of a card
Scalpellino (s.), Scalpellini (pl.)(Italian m.) an apprentice employed by a sculptor in the rough preparation of block of stone, from which the term is used more generally for an inferior sculptor
scambiare(Italian) mistake
Scambiétti(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) friskes, leapings or nimble skippings, tumbling trickes or changings in dancing and tumblings
Scambio(Italian m.) exchange, trade
Scampanata(Italian f.) unsophisticated extemporised music, charivari
scamparla bella(Italian) have a narrow escape
Scandicussee 'neume notation'
Scandicus flexussee 'neume notation'
Scandinavian culturesee 'Nordic culture'
Scansionanalyzing the meter in lines of poetry by counting and marking the accented and unaccented syllables, dividing the line into metrical feet and showing the major pauses, if any, within the line. The conventional system of scanning calls for marking accented syllables with an accent mark and unaccented syllables with a small u
meter (British English spelling: metre) describes the linguistic sound patterns of a verse; scansion is the analysis of poetry's metrical and rhythmic patterns; prosody is sometimes used to describe poetic metre, and indicates the analysis of similar aspects of language in linguistics. Metre is part of many formal verse forms
Scappamento(Italian m.) escapement lever, hopper
scarabillare un violino(Italian) scrape a fiddle (pejorative)
Scarabaeus (s.), Scarabaei (pl.)(Latin) a kind of beetle, an ancient Egyptian jewel carved in the form of a beetle with a design in intaglio on the flat underside
Scarpa long steep slope or cliff at the edge of a plateau or ridge, usually formed by erosion
Scat-Gesang (s.), Scat-Gesänge (pl.)(German m.) scat singing
Scatola(Italian f.) box
Scatola dell'altoparlante(Italian f.) speaker cabinet
Scatola musicale(Italian f.) musical box
Scat songscat singing can be highly artistic, with nonsense words generally used only in the improvised chorus as part of a song that otherwise has ordinary words, which although much in vogue in the 1930s remains popular today as part of the jazz style
[entry courtesy of Ben Crowell, 2004]
Scazonscholiambic verse, limping iambs
Scelta(Italian f.) choice
scelto(Italian) selected
scemando(Italian) getting less (i.e. diminishing in volume, decreasing in force,), becoming quieter, diminuendo (Italian), deficiendo (Italian), abnehmend (German), en amoindrissant (French)
Scena(Italian f., literally 'scene') an episode in an opera composed of elements such as arias, recitative, even dialogue (an act generally comprises several scenes), performed by one or more voices with instrumental acompaniment
(Italian f.) stage, theatre, scenery
Scenario (s.), Scenarii (pl.)(Italian m.) the outline of a work often prepared before either music and libretto has been written
(Italian m.) scenery, set
a plan of campaign prepared for use in the event of the outbreak of war
Scénario(French m.) scenery, set
Scenata(Italian) row, scene
Scenescena (Italian), Auftritt (German), scène (French)
a term that can refer to a specific youth subculture or movement, generally used by individuals who identify with that subculture, however it is sometimes used in a pejorative sense by non-members. Scenes are distinguished from the general culture through fashion, identification with specific (at times obscure or experimental) musical genres or political perspectives and a strong in-group or "tribal" group identity. The term can also be used to describe specific subsets of a subculture, usually geographical, as in "the American drum and bass scene" or "the London goth scene". Not all youth subcultures are necessarily labeled as scenes
a dramatic sequence that takes place within a single locale (or setting) on stage. Often scenes serve as the subdivision of an act within a play
Scène(French f.) stage
(French f.) a precursor of the mélodie
Scène à faire(French f.) a climactic scene in a play (or in real life) up to which all the previous action is seen to lead
sceneggiare(Italian) dramatize
Scenerythe visual environment created onstage using a backdrop and props. The purpose of scenery is either to suggest vaguely a specific setting or produce the illusion of actually watching events in that specific setting
Scenic reconstructionthe reconstruction non-musical aspects of original performances of early opera, masques, etc. A lack of attention paid to the non-musical aspects of original performances can often result in serious misunderstandings of the relationship between the various components
Scenografia(Italian f.) scenography
Scénographie(French f.) scenography
Scenographythe practice of making theatre including sets, costumes and texts from a theoretical and practical point of view
Sceopsee scôp
Scepticismthis generic term covers several different anti-dogmatic tendencies in ancient and modern philosophy. The founder of the school is traditionally considered to be Pyrrho of Elis (c.360-c.270 BC), whose writings, along with all the other original works of the formulators of the tradition, are lost. Information about the movement is contained in later writings such as Cicero's Academica (c.45 BC), Diogenes Laertius' Life of Pyrrho (3rd century AD), and especially the works of Sextus Empiricus (c.160-c.210 AD). The central thesis of the Sceptics is that certitude is impossible, owing to the many obstacles preventing valid empirical knowledge, in particular the absence of a criterion by which to distinguish truth from falsity. Rather than establishing a system of positive philosophy, the Sceptics emphasized the critical and negative nature of philosophy in questioning what was taken as legitimate knowledge by dogmatic schools such as Platonism and Stoicism. Little known in the Middle Ages, the Sceptical position was revived in the Renaissance when the writings of Diogenes Laertius and Sextus Empiricus once again became available. Gianfrancesco Pico della Mirandola was the first Renaissance writer to utilize Sceptical arguments in a systematic way: his lead was followed by Francisco Sanches (1552-1623 ), Michel de Montaigne (1533-92), and many others. The publication of Latin (1562, 1569) and Greek (162I) editions of Sextus Empiricus was important for later diffusion
Schablone(German f.) groove, pattern, routine, stencil, template
Schablonenhaftigkeit(German f.) conventionality
schablonenmäßig(German) routine, routinely
schablonieren(German) to stencil
schachern(German) haggle
Schachtel(German f.) box
Schadenfreude(German) malicious enjoyment of the discomforture of others
schadhaft(German) defective
schädigen(German) damage, harm
Schädigung(German f.) damage
schädlich(German) harmful
Schäfergedicht(German n.) idyl, ecologue, pastoral
Schäferlied(German n.) pastoral song, shepherd's song
Schäferpfeife(German f.) shepherd's pipe
Schäferspiel(German n.) pastoral song, shepherd's song
Schäfertanz(German m.) shepherd's dance
Schaffel(from a German word meaning "shuffle") is a term used to describe a trend in progressive electronic music in which the time signatures are built in variations of 6/8, 12/8, 3/4, or 4/4 triplet feels
  • Schaffel from which this extract has been taken
Schaffensprozess(German m.) the creative process
Schale (s.), Schalen (pl.)(German f.) cymbal
schalkhaft(German) roguish, playful, wanton, roguishly, playfully
Schall (s.), Schälle (pl.)(German m.) sound, tone
Schallabstrahlung(German f.) radiated sound
Schallanalyse(German f.) sonic analysis
Schallbecher(German m.) bell (of a wind instrument), padiglione (Italian m.), Aufsatz (German m.), Schalltrichter (German n.), pavillon (French m.), pabellón (Spanish m.)
Schallbecken(German n.) cymbals
Schallbret(German n.) sound-board
schalldämmend(German) sound absorbing
Schalldämmung(German f.) sound proofing
schalldicht(German) soundproof
Schalldose(German f.) cartridge, pick-up
schallen(German) to sound, to ring out, to resound, to echo
schallend lachen(German) roar with laughter
Schallgeschwindigkeit(German f.) the speed of sound
Schallgrenze(German f.) sound barrier
Schallhorn(German n.) horn, cornet, trumpet
Schallintensität(German f.) sound pressure level
Schallkasten(German m.) the body of an instrument (particularly the sound-box of an instrument), klankkast (Dutch), caisse de résonance (French), cassa armonica (Italian), cassa di risonanza (Italian), Resonanzboden (German), Resonanzkörper (German)
Schallloch (s.), Schalllöcher (pl.)(German n.) F-Loch (German n.), F-hole or sound hole, ouie (French f.) or trou d'F (French m.), foro armonico (Italian m.), "f" (Italian f.), a hole (of holes) in the soundboard or belly of a stringed instrument from which the vibrational energy in the sound box is radiated
(German n.) tone hole
Schallmauer(German f.) sound barrier, muro del suono (Italian m.), mur du son (French m.), barrera del sonido (Spanish f.)
Schallplatte(German f.) phonograph record, disc
Schallplattenspieler(German m.) record player
Schallrohr(German n.) speaking-trumpet
schallschluckend(German) sound absorbing
Schallspektrum(German n.) sound (usually frequency-) spectrum
Schallstärke(German m.) intensity, loudness
Schallstück(German n.) bell (of a wind instrument)
Schalltrichter(German n.) synonymous with Schallbecher
Schalltrichter hoch(German) synonymous with Stürze hoch
Schallwandler(German m.) sound transducer
Schalmay(German f.) schalmei
Schalmei(German f.) a reed-stop in the organ of 16 ft., 8 ft. or 4 ft. pitch
(German f., Dutch) shawm, ciaramella (Italian f.), cennamella (Italian f.), Hirtenpfeife (German f.), chalumeau (French m.), pipeau (French m.), simple rustic reed pipe, ancestor of clarinet, with 6 to 8 finger holes
(German f.) a reed pipe
(German f.) a signal horn, also called a Martinshorn, after Max Bernhardt Martin, their Markneukirchen manufacturer. Basically they are orchestrated duck-calls, in the huntsmans' sense, having metal tongues as their tone generators. The valves were not fingered in the brass instruments' sense. They are simply routers towards the intended tongue sitting at the inner end of its resonance bell. Their history goes back some 80 or 90 years. The Social Democratic Workers' movement in Germany was inspired by the Wanderbewegung (trecking movement), which promoted guitars, mandolins, and recorders as their musical tools. The Schalmeien had a stronger sound, and they didn't call for refinements of embouchure, intonation, tonguing, or any other skill but blowing and pressing the buttons. These instruments survived their Nazi connotations and enjoyed a renaissance in the German Democratic Republic. More recently a 15-or-so-piece Schalmeien street band marched the streets of Dresden
they came in different versions:
8 note melody (with the variant of 16 note doubled octaves)
8 note altos
8 note baritones
5 note 'chord honkers' providing tonic and dominant
4 note basses, sometimes in helicon shape
information taken from Tubenet
(German f.) the chanter of a bagpipe
Schalmeie(German n.) schalmei
Schalmeienkapelle(German f.) a shawm and bombard band
Schalmey(German f.) schalmei
Schalttafel(German f.) switchboard
Scharnier(German n.) hinge
Scharfon the organ, a shrill mixture stop, of several ranks of pipes
scharf(German) sharp, emphatic, definite, precise, acute, emphatically, definitely, precisely, sharply, acutely
schärf betont(German) sharply accented, with emphasis
Schärfblick(German m.) perspicacity
Schärfe(German f.) sharpness, definiteness, precision
scharfe Kante(German f.) featheredge
Scharlatan(German m.) charlatan (English, French m.), mountebank, ciarlatano (Italian), cerretano (Italian), saltimbanco (Italian m.), curandero (Spanish m.), curandera (Spanish f.), person falsely claiming knowledge or skill (particularly a fake doctor), an unfinished or superficial performer
[German translation provided by Michael Zapf]
Scharnier(German n.) hinge, joint
Scharnierverstärkung(German f.) hinge reinforcement
scharren(German) scrape, scratch
schartig(German) jagged
ScharWVthe catalogue prepared by Matthias Schneider-Dominco of music by (Franz) Xaver Scharwenka (1850-1924)
Schatten(German m.) a shadow, a cloud, shade
schattenhaft(German) shadowy, spectral, shady
Schattenspielfigur(German f.) figure in silhouette play
Schattierung(German f.) shading
Schau(German f.) a show
Schaubild(German n.) a diagram
Schaubühne(German f.) a theatre
schauerlich(German) gruesome
schauerig(German) ghastly
Schauergeschichte(German f.) a horror story
Schaukasten(German m.) a display case
schaukeln(German) to rock, to sway, to swing
Schaumgummi(German m./n.) foam rubber
schaurig(German) ghastly, gruesome, errie, errily
Schauspiel(German n.) drama, play, spectacle
Schauspieldirektor(German m.) the organiser or manager of an opera company
schauspielen(German) to act
Schauspieler (m.), Schauspielerin (f.)(German) actor, actress, player
schauspielern(German) to act, to play-act
Schauspielhaus(German n.) a theatre
Schauspielmusik(German f.) music for the stage, theatre music
Scheda(Italian f.) index card
Schediasmata(Latin) pieces written extempore, on the spur of the moment
Schediphona cross between a trombone and an euphonium developed by Josef Josefovich Schediwa, Odessa, The Ukraine, and patented in 1901 (with a subsequent patent [No. 8733] taken out in 1902 for Bohland & Fuchs in Graslitz). Made in brass with silver trim with, in addition to the normal three valves, a fourth valve controls through which bell air will flow, producing either a trombone sound from the cylindrical tubing or a more mellow sound from the larger conical bore of the euphonium side of the instrument
Scheggia(Italian f.) splinter
Scheide(German f.) slide casing
Scheinhochzeit(German f.) bogus wedding
Scheinkonsonanz(German f.) consonant interval sounding dissonant in context
Scheinwerfer(German m.) spotlight
Scheitholt(German n.) or Scheitholz (German n.), a German predecessor of the dulcimer
schel(Dutch) jingle
Scheitholz(German n.) Scheitholt
Schelle (s.), Schellen (pl.)(German f.) bell
the plural Schellen is the German word for sleigh bells
schellen(German) ring
Schellenbaum(German m.) or türkischer Halbmond-Stern, Turkish crescent, chapeau chinois, albero di sonagli
Schellengeläute(German n.) sleigh-bells
Schellentrommel(German f.) tambourine
schelmisch(German) joking, roguish
Schema(German n., Italian m.) or, in German, Schemamata - model, pattern, diagram, outline
Schema (s.), Schemata (pl.)(Latin from Greek) a diagrammatic representation designed to make a complicated argument clearer
Schema atticumthis popular grammatical construction appears in ancient Attic Greek (and it is later mimicked in New Testament Greek). It is a specific type of enallage in which a neuter plural subject takes a singular verb. Normally, this construction would be considered a grammatical error in Greek, but if poets, playwrights, or prophets do it intentionally, it becomes high art
Schema construttivo (s.), Schemi construttivi (pl.)(Italian m.) technical drawing (technical diagram show how something is built)
Schemamata(German n.) see Schema
Schema pindarikonthis popular grammatical construction appears in the ancient Attic Greek of Pindar and later in New Testament Greek. It is a type of enallage in which any compound subject takes a singular verb. Normally, that would be considered a grammatical error, but if the poet Pindar does it, it is high art. This general term contrasts with the more specific schema atticum, above
Schemel(German m.) stool
Schemozzle(from Yiddish) or schlemozzle, a muddle, a quarrel
Schenkerian analysisan approach to musical analysis devised by Heinrich Schenker (1868-1935), who conceived of all tonal pieces as generated from a basic cell, the triad (major or minor chord) which, so he theorised, gained its importance from the position of these notes in the harmonic series. The interest and singularity of a composition were ascribed to the imagination and consistency with which the composer elaborated the triad into a complete piece. Schenker's theories have been applied to non-tonal music and influenced 20th-century theoreticians although recently modern psychology and acoustics refutes some of his original claims
Schenker, Heinrich (1868-1935)Polish-Austrian music theorist who developed the concept of structural levels and coherence in tonal music
scheppern(German) clank
Scherz(German m.) fun, joke, play, a jest
scherz.abbreviated form of scherzando (Italian: jokingly, playfully)
scherzandissimo(Italian) exceedingly playful and lively
Scherzando(Italian) a musical piece whose character is playful, lively or merry
scherzando(Italian) playful, lively, merry, jokingly, playfully
scherzante(Italian) playful, lively, merry, jokingly, playfully
scherzare(Italian) to joke
scherzend(German) jokingly
scherzetto(Italian) a little scherzo
scherzevole(Italian) playful, lively, merry
scherzevolmente(Italian) jokingly, playfully, merrily
Scherzfrage(German f.) riddle, conundrum
scherzhaft(German) jocose, jesting, playfully, burlesque, humorous
Scherzhaftigkeit(German) playfulness
Scherzi musicali(Italian m. pl.) light secular songs or canzonets. When applied to instrumental pieces, synonymous with capricci
Scherzino(Italian) a short or light scherzo
scherzlich(German) merrily, playfully
Scherzo (s.), Scherzi (pl.)(Italian m., Spanish m., German n.) a joke, a jest
a vocal work by Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643)
a lively piece played between two performances of a minuet - i.e. 'minuet - scherzo - minuet', a movement of a symphony (usually the third) or piano sonata, a work for solo piano
Scherzo and trioa replacement for the 'minuet and trio' in the sonata cycle
scherzosamente(Italian) playfully, merrily
scherzoso(Italian) playful, merry, jocose
scheuchen(German) shoo
Schiacciato rilievo(Italian) a form of relief-carving in which the projection of the figures from the ground is reduced to the minimum consistent with adequate modelling
schiarirsi la gola(Italian) to clear one's throat
schiarirsi la voce(Italian) to clear one's throat
Schichtung(German f.) layering
Schiebefenster(German n.) sliding window
schief(German) crooked, lopsided, slanting, sloping, leaning, oblique
(German) not straight, suspicious (about a person)
Schiena(Italian f.) back
schiettamente(Italian) simply, sincere, plain, in the sense 'unadorned'
schietto(Italian) simple, neat, sincere, plain, in the sense 'unadorned'
Schifferklavier(German n.) piano accordion
Schillinger Systema method of musical composition is based on a mathematical process which primary areas include the theory of rhythm, theory of harmony. It is broken down into diatonic (a scale) and extended to symmetric (equal sub-divisions of the octave). The Schillinger System further includes theory of melody, counterpoint, form and semantics (emotional meaning as in movie music). The Schillinger process was named after Joseph Schillinger (1895-1943), a Russian musician who served as teacher of composition to George Gershwin, Glenn Miller, Robert Emmett Dolan, Carmine Coppola and many others
Schirmherr(German m.) patron
Schirrholz (s.), Schirrhölzer (pl.)(German n.) bull-roarer, thunder stick
Schisma split or division in the church concerning religious belief or organizational structure
Schisma(English, German n., Spanish f., Italian f.) a number of very small intervals including the difference between five octaves and eight justly tuned fifths plus one justly tuned major third (expressed by the ratio 32805:32768, and equal to 1.95 cents) and the difference between the Pythagorean and syntonic commas. The syntonic comma is 11.008 schismas, the Pythagorean comma 12.008, and the minor diesis 21.016 schismas, so practically 11, 12 and 21. There are also temperaments with the fifth tempered by a fraction of a schisma. There are 614.21264 schismas in an octave. A similar useful unit is 1/612 part of an octave, or one step of 612-tone equal temperament, because this temperament has extremely accurate approximations of fifth and thirds, and because 612 is divisible by 12. So one step is also very close to 1/12 of a Pythagorean comma andf the schisma
Schismatic temperamentin music, schismatic temperament, also called schismic temperament or Helmholtz temperament, is the temperament which results from tempering the schisma of 32805:32768 to a unison
schivare(Italian) avoid
Schizophrenia(Pseudo-Greek) split personality
Schizzo(Italian m.) a sketch
Schlacht(German f.) a battle
Schlachtgesang(German m.) a battle-song, a war-song
Schlachtruf(German m.) a battle-cry, a signal for attack
Schlaflied(German n.) a lullaby
Schlag(German m.) stroke, blow
(German m.) beat (as regards tempo), pulsation
Schlagbass(German m.) slap bass, contrabbasso a pizzicato (Italian), contrebasse jouée sans archet (French)
Schlagbrett(German n.) plectrum guard, pick guard, parapenne (Italian m.), Schlagbrett (German n.), plaque de protection (French f.)
Schlägel(German m.) drumstick, mallet
schlagen(German) to strike, to beat, to warble, to trill
for example, die Pauken schlagen (German: to beat the kettle-drums) or den Takt schlagen (German: to beat the time)
Schläge pro Minute(German pl.) or SpM, beats per minute (BPM)
Schlagfeder(German f.) plectrum
Schlagfell(German n.) drumhead, drum skin
Schlaggitarre(German f.) or Jazzgitarre, jazz guitar, chitarra jazz (Italian), chitarra battente (Italian), guitare de jazz (French)
Schlaginstrument (s.), Schlaginstrumente (pl.)(German n.) percussion (instrument)
Schlagrassel(German f.) jawbone, vibraslap
Schlagstäbe(German m. pl.) claves
Schlagwerk(German n.) percussion (instruments) (as a group or section in a band, orchestra, etc.)
Schlagzeug(German n.) percussion (instruments) (as a group or section in a band, orchestra, etc.)
Schlagzeuger, Schlagzeugerin (f.)(German) drummer, percussionist
Schlagzeugspiel(German n.) percussion playing
Schlagzither(German f.) a zither whose strings are plucked, in contradistinction to a Bogenzither whose strings are bowed
schlampig(German) slovenly
Schlangenbass(German m.) serpentone (Italian m.), serpent (English, French m.), serpentón (Spanish m.), Serpent (German m.)
Schlangenlinie(German f.) wavy line
Schlangenrohr(German m.) serpentone (Italian m.), serpent (English, French m.), serpentón (Spanish m.), Serpent (German m.)
Schlaraffenland(German n.) land of plenty, Cockaigne (French)
schlecht aufgelegt sein(German) be in a good mood
schlect ausgehen(German) end badly
schlechte Entscheidung(German f.) bad call (colloquial: bad decision)
schlechte Qualität(German f.) or geringe Qualität (German f.), poor quality
schlechte Rezensionen bekommento get a bad press
schlechter Taktteil(German m.) unaccented part of a bar
schlechter Takttheil(German m.) unaccented part of a bar
Schleifbogen(German m.) a slur
schleifen(German) to slur, to slide, to glade
Schleifer(German m.) a gliding note, a slurred note, an ornament used to fill in the interval between two notes (for example, a coulé, slide or conjunct double appoggiatura)
Schleifezeichen(German n.) a slur, a mark indicating that the player should play legato
Schleifklotz(German m.) sanding block
Schleiflade(German f.) slider chest (US), slider soundboard (UK)
Schlemiel(Yiddish) or Schlemihl, a person who is patient in undeserving adversity
Schlemozzle(Yiddish, from German) also Schemozzle or Shemozzle, a muddle, a mess, a quarrel, a row
schlemozzle(Yiddish, from German) also schemozzle or shemozzle, to decamp, to make off
schleppen(German) drag, retard the time
schleppend(German) dragging, drawling, strascinando, en traînant, stentando
schleunig(German) prompt
schleunigst(German) hurriedly, at once
Schlgabbreviation of Schlagzeug (German: percussion - percussion (French))
schlicht(German) simple, plain
schließen(German) to indent, to contract, to conclude, to close down, to break up, to bar
schlimmer als ursprünglich angenommen(German) worse than initially thought
Schlittelrohr(German n.) chocalho
Schlittenglocken(German f. pl.) sleighbells
Schlitztrommel(German f.) slit drum, log drum
Schloß(German n.) a castle
schluchzend(German) sobbing
Schlummerlied(German m. literally 'slumber song) lullaby, berceuse
Schlund(German m.) back of the throat
occasionally used to mean 'pharynx', although Rachen is more correct
Schluß(German m.) end, conclusion
(German m.) cadence, close
Schlußabrechnung(German f.) final account
Schlußakkord(German m.) final chord
Schlußbild(German n.) closing picture
Schlüssel(German m.) clef
Schlüsselbein(German n.) collar-bone
Schlüsselbund(German m. & n.) a bunch of keys
Schlüsselfiedel(German f.) nyckelharpa
Schlüsselloch(German m.) keyhole
Schlüsselring(German m.) key-ring
Schlüsselroman(German m.) roman à clef (French m.), livre à clef (French m.), key-novel
Schlußfall(German m.) a cadence
Schlußfolgerung(German f.) conclusion
Schlußformulierung(German f.) closing remarks
schlüssig(German) conclusive, conclusively
Schlußkadenz(German f.) harmonic cadence
Schlußpunkt(German m.) closing remark
Schlußreim(German m.) the burden or refrain of a song
Schlußsatz(German m.) concluding, or last, movement or division of a work, finale, coda
Schlußstück(German n.) concluding piece, finale
Schlußtaktstrich(German m.) double bar (for example, as at the end of piece of music, or the end of a movement)
Schlußtanz(German m.) a clean out
Schlußverkauf(German m.) (end of season) sale
Schlußvortrag(German m.) closing remarks
Schlußzeichen(German n.) the double bar, that signifies where the piece will end
schmachtend(German) languishing, longing, languishingly, longingly
Schmaltz(Yiddish, from German) anything excessively sentimental
schmatzende Geräusch(German n.) smack (sound)
Schmaltzer(Yiddish, from German) an excessively-sentimental song
schmeichelnd(German) coaxingly, flattering, caressing, lyrical
schmelzend(German) dying away, diminishing
Schmerz(German m.) pain, sorrow, grief
schmerzhaft(German) plaintive, sorrowful
schmerzhaftigkeit(German) painful, sorrowful, in a dolorous style
schmerzlich(German) painful, sorrowful, in a dolorous style
schmerzvoll(German) sorrowful, in a doleful manner
schmetternd(German, literally 'blaring', 'brassy, 'resounding') a strongly-blown stopped horn
Schmidafter Hans Schmid, the cataloguer of music by Frantisek Rossler-Rosetti (1746-1792)
Schmiedeeisen(German n.) wrought iron
Schmiederor 'S', after Wolfgang Schmieder (1901-1990), used to identify works by Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) listed in the Schmieder-Verzeichnis
schmieren(German) grease, lubricate (as in 'grease/lubricate the joint of a wind-instrument')
Schmuck(Yiddish, from Slovene) a fool, an innocent
schmückend(German) ornando (Italian), adornando (Italian), adorning, zierend (German), en ornant (French)
Schmutztitel(German m.) (in typography) bastard title (also called 'half title')
Schnabel(German m., literally 'a beak') a mouthpiece, such as that on a clarinet, boquilla (Spanish f.), embocadura (Spanish f.), becco (Italian m.), bec (French m.)
Schnabelflöte(German m., literally 'a beak-flute') recorder
Schnarre(German f.) snare drum
(German f.) rattle, ratchet
schnarrend(German) rattling
(German) croaking (with reference to single and double reed instruments)
[entry provided by Wesselin Christoph Karaatanassov]
Schnarrender Ton(German m.) growling note, ton ronflant (French m.)
Schnarrharfe(German f.) bray harp
[entry provided by Michael Zapf]
Schnarrpfeifen(German pl.) reed pipes, reed work or stops in an organ
Schnarrsaite(German f.) snare
Schnarrwerk(German n.) Zungenstimmen or Lingualpfeifen, the second most important organ pipes after the Labialpfeifen. They have free vibrating reeds which are activated by the air stream
Schnecke(German f., literally 'a snail') scroll
(German f.) or Kopf (German m.), tête (la volute et le cheviller) (French f.), volute (English, French f.), riccio (Italian m.), testa (Italian f.), chiocciola (Italian f.), scroll
the scroll is the carved spiral found just above the pegs at the very top of the neck of a violin, viola, etc. - if the instrument bears a carving of a face, animal, etc. then it is called a head and not a scroll
Schneide(German f.) blade (knife), bit (drill)
Schneidekante(German f.) blade edge (knife)
schneiden(German) schnitzen (German), zerschneiden, to carve
schneidend(German) defining, bitter (as in bitter wind), acerbic
schneidende Humor(German m.) acerbic humour
schnell(German) fast, rapid, quick, quicker, allegro
Schnelle(German) quickness, swiftness, rapidity
Schneller(German m.) inverted mordent, passing shake, Pralltriller
evidence suggests that, in the early 18th-century, the Pralltriller, also called the 'half-trill', performed the function of the inverted or upper mordent and is therefore the more correct term. From the mid 18th-century, the Schneller gradually replaced the Pralltriller
schneller(German) quicker, faster, more quickly
schnelleres tempo(German) quicker speed
schneller werden(German) accelerando, quickening the pace
Schnelligkeit(German f.) speed, Schnelle
Schnell-Polka(German, literally 'fast polka') a particularly fast, lively variety of polka, similar to the galop
Schnellspannzange(German f.) quick-change collet
schnell und schmetternd (wie eine Fanfare)(German) fast and brassy (like a fanfare)
Schnell-Waltzer(German) quick waltzes
schnell wenden(German) turn over quickly, volti subito
schnippen(German) to snap
schnipsen(German) to snap
schnipsen(German) to snap
Schnitt(German m.) omitted section, a 'cut'
Schnitzelan abbreviation for das Wiener Schnitzel (German n.: a veal cutlet)
Schnitzeljagd(German f.) a paperchase
Schnitzeln(German n.) a chipping (for example, of wood)
schnitzen(German) to carve, to whittle, to carve a sculpture
Schnitzer(German m.) a sculptor
(German m.) a bloomer, a blunder, a bungle, a slip, a slip-up
Schnitzerei(German f.) a carving
Schnorrer(Yiddish, from German) a Jewish beggar
schnüffeln(German) sniff, snoop around
Schnupfen(German m.) (head) cold
Schnupftabak(German m.) snuff
schnuppern(German) sniff
Schnür (s.), Schnüren (pl.)(German f.) string, cord, braid, flex
schnüren(German) tie, lace (up)
Schnurrbart(German m) moustache
schnurren(German) hum, purr (cat)
Schnurrhaare(German n. pl.) whiskers (cat)
Schnürschuh(German m.) lace-up shoes
Schnürsenkel(German m.) (shoe-)lace
Schofaralso Shofar or Shophar, synagogue horn
Schola cantorum(English, German f., from Latin 'school of singers') also simply, schola, the trained choir of a church or monastery
originally the choir that performed music during the services conducted by the medieval Popes
a private music school in Paris, founded in 1894 by Charles Bordes, Alexandre Guilmant and Vincent d'Indy as an alternative to the Paris Conservatoire
Schola cantorum basiliensisthe Schola Cantorum Basiliensis boasts a world famous Department of Musicology which records and produces its own albums under the prestigious French recording label harmonia mundi and publishes specialist books, such as facsimile editions of scores from the Vatican Library and priceless codices from the National Library of Vienna
Scholar's lutesee qin
Scholasticismthe term is ambivalent. It describes the characteristic method of instruction and exposition used in medieval schools and universities: the posing of a case (quaestio), arguing (disputatio) and settling it (sententia). It also describes the subject matter that was particularly shaped by this method: philosophy, with its strong connection with Christian theology and its dependence on Aristotelian texts and commentaries, and theology, with its assumption that spiritual truths can be seized with the tools of formal logic. 'Scholasticism' has thus become almost synonymous with medieval thought. As such, it can appear the antithesis of Renaissance thought, especially as writers like Petrarch and Valla poured scorn on both the methods and the content of medieval scholarship. None the less, in spite of Valla's insistence (in his Encomion S. Thomae of 1457) that theologians should eschew dialectic and listen anew to the sources of spiritual understanding, the gospels and the early Greek and Roman Fathers, scholastic method maintained its vitality in the areas where continuity with medieval practice was strongest, theology itself and 'Aristotelian' philosophy. Medieval scholars, moreover, notably Aquinas, were quoted with admiration even by neo-Platonic philosophers. It was because the central concerns of humanism - moral philosophy, textual scholarship, history and rhetoric - were different from those of medieval, university-based study, and were less suited to a dialectical form of exposition, that scholasticism was left, as it were, on one side. But to ignore its presence is to exaggerate the difference between the new learning and the old
Scholion(Greek) scholium
Scholium (s.), Scholia (pl.)(Latin, from Greek) a gloss, a explanatory marginal note or comment, especially an ancient comment, on a Greek or Latin work
schon(German) already
schonen(German) spare, look after
schönen Künste(German f. pl.) the fine arts, the liberal arts (specifically)
schöner Gesang(German m.) bel canto
Schönheit(German f.) beauty
Schönheitsfehler(German m.) blemish
schönmachen(German) smarten up
Schonung(German f.) gentle care, rest (in a hospital), plantation (trees)
schonungslos(German) ruthless, ruthlessly
Schonzeit(German f.) close season
Schoola method of teaching, as for example Spohr's Violin School, etc.
a style of composition, as for example, the madrigal school, etc.
a group of composers whose works founded some particular style in the evolution of musical composition, for example, the Russian school, etc.
literary scholars use this term to refer to groups of writers or poets who share similar styles, literary techniques, or social concerns
an educational institution, for example, primary school, public school, etc.
School banda group of student musicians who rehearse and perform together. The band is usually under the direction one or more Conductors (or Band Directors). Bands in school are Wind Bands, consisting of wind and percussion instruments and often a String Bass
School of musicconservatorio (Italian), Musikschule (German), conservatoire (French)
Schoor thomlarge Cambodian bass drums
Schottis(Norwegian) schottische
schottisch (m.), schottische (pl.)(German) Scottish
Schottische(German, literally 'Scottish') a form of round dance, resembling a polka, usually written in 2/4 time
when first introduced into mid-19th-century England, the schottische was called the 'German polka'
the Highland schottische is often danced to 'strathspey' tunes
(Dominica, Caribbean) the dance, which was popular in the est Indies, is pronounced sorti in Creole
schottisch Kariert(German) tartan
Schouder-ademhaling(Dutch) shoulder- or clavicular-breathing
schräger Bewegung(German f.) oblique motion
schrägsaitig(German) obliquely strung (piano), a corde oblique (Italian), à cordes obliques (French), a cuerdas oblicuas (Spanish)
Schrägstrich(German m.) slash (i.e. /)
Schrägstrich rückwärts(German m.) backslash (i.e. \)
Schrammel chromatic accordionan accordion with a melody (right hand) keyboard in the chromatic B-Griff system and a twelve-button diatonic bass keyboard. It is named for a traditional combination of two violins, accordion and Kontragitarre known as Schrammelquartett, the music being performed was called Schrammel music, in the Vienna chamber music tradition based on Austrian country music and the Wienerlied. In a matter of a few years it became extremely popular. In most cases, it has two or three sets of reeds tuned in unison configuration. The sound is quite different or special, when compared to the larger modern chromatic button accordions. The handmade reeds used may also contribute to its sound
Schrammelharmonika(German f.) Schrammel chromatic accordion
Schrammel musicSchrammelmusik (German f.), in 1878, the Schrammel brothers, Johann (1850-1893) and Josef (1852-1895), two violinists joined together with George Dänzer, a virtuoso of the G clarinet, and Anton Strohmayer, a performer on the Kontragitarre. Johann Schrammel, whose father was a clarinetist and whose mother was a folksinger, was formally educated at the conservatory, specializing in violin and ethnomusicology. He founded an instrumental ensemble, half-classical (two violins) and half-folk (G clarinet and Kontragitarre), creating a unique genre of instrumental music drawing on Vienna's wealth of folk music for inspiration. Later, the quartet included a Schrammelharmonika or Schrammel chromatic accordion
Schrammelmusik(German f.) Schrammel music
Schrammelquartettnamed for a traditional combination of two violins, accordion, and Kontrgitarre
schränken(German) to tighten
Schranzthe name given to European (especially German) hard techno, a style of techno typically around 140-150 BPM and based around massively bass-heavy kick drums, driving percussion and distorted, looping synth noises
  • Schranz from which this extract has been taken
schrapen(German) to scrape
Schraper(German m.) a scraper
Schrapinstrument(German n.) scraped instrument
Schraube(German f.) screw
Schraubenfeder(German f.) coil spring
Schraubengewinde(German n.) screw thread
Schraubenmutter(German f.) nut (as in nuts and bolts)
Schraubenzieher(German m.) screwdriver, turnscrew
Schraubgewinde(German n.) screw thread
Schrecklichkeit(German f., literally 'frightfulness') a deliberate policy of committing atrocities in order to cow an enemy or a subject people
Schrei(German m.) a scream, a yell, a screech, a squeak
Schreibart(German f.) style, manner of composing or writing
Schreiber(German m.) music copyist
Schreibmaschine(German f.) typewriter
Schreibübungen(German pl.) writing practice
schreien(German) to scream, to screech, to squeak, to yell
schreiend(German) screaming, screeching, squeaking, yelling
Schreierpfeife(German f.) see rauschpfeife
Schreittanz (s.), Schreittänze (pl.)(German m.) a step dance, basse-dance (French)
Schreiwerk(German, literally 'shrill work') acute or mixture stops, in an organ
Schrift(German f.) writing, book, periodical
Schriftleiter(German m.) editor
see Herausgeber, Redakteur
Schriftleitung(German f.) editorship, editorial staff
see Redaktion
Schritt(German m.) step
schrittmässig(German, literally 'stepwise') at a walking pace, andante
schrittweise(German, literally 'stepwise') at a walking pace, andante
schrittweise Bewegung(German f., literally 'stepwise') conjunct movement
schroff(German) brusquely, abruptly, curtly, gruff, rugged, craggily
eine schroffe Antwort (German: an abrupt reply)
Schroef(Dutch) screw, peg
Schubertiadsfrom about 1814, Franz Schubert (1797-1828) enjoyed the companionship of several friends, especially Josef von Spaun, the poet Johann Mayrhofer and the law student Franz von Schober. Frequently gathering for domestic evenings (later called Schubertiads) of Schubert's music, this group more than represented the new phenomenon of an educated, musically aware middle class: it gave him an appreciative audience and influential contacts (notably the Sonnleithners and the baritone J.M. Vogl), as well as the confidence, in 1818, to break with schoolteaching
Schübler chorales, BWV 645-650Georg Schübler published Six Chorales by Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) in about 1748. Originally titled "The Six Chorales of Various Kinds To Be Performed on an Organ With Two Manuals and Pedal," they are now commonly called the 'Schübler Chorales'. They are unique in Bach's organ compositions in that five out of the six chorales are transcriptions from his cantatas rather than original compositions. In each chorale the melody is easily heard, because it is assigned to its own keyboard throughout the piece
schüchtern(German) shy
Schuhabstreifer(German m.) doormat, stuoia (Italian f.), Abtreter (German m.), paillasson (French m.), felpudo (Spanish m.)
Schuhplattler(German - Bavarian dialect) a traditional folk dance from Upper Bavaria and Austria in which the male dancers slap their thighs and knees and the soles of their shoes
Schuhspitze(German f.) toecap (of a shoe)
Schuiftrompet(Dutch) slide trumpet
Schuldrama(German n.) a school play
Schuldschein(German m.) promissory note
Schuldwechsel(German m.) promissory note
Schule(German f.) school, a method for learning an instrument, a particular style of composition, the manner or method of an eminent composer, performer or teacher
Schulgerecht(German) regular, in due form, written correctly in accordance with recognised rules and principles
Schulinstrument(German n.) classroom instrument, a term very commonly applied to the range of instruments designed for the Orff classroom music system
[entry provided by Michael Zapf]
Schulmusik(German f.) school music
Schulter(German f.) shoulder
Schultergeige(German f., literally 'shoulder viola') viola da spalla
Schulterstütze(German f.) shoulder rest, spalliera (Italian f.), coussin (French m.)
Schunda-tárogatówith the approach of the Hungarian millenium celebrations in 1895, the Budapest instrument maker Venzel József Schunda (1845-1923) tried his hand at designing "national" musical instruments. To this end he produced the concert cimbalom - a complex, powerful, piano-sized instrument which is far removed from the simple little hammered dulcimer from which it is derived - and a modern tárogató. Several years of experimentation, beginning with double reed instruments, led in 1894-96 to the single reed instrument that we know today. In this enterprise he worked in conjunction with the performer Gyula Káldy, who authored the first method book for the new instrument. The new tárogató could be roughly described as a soprano saxophone - in the Schunda design the bore proportions and taper angle are in fact exactly the same as in contemporary soprano saxophones - with the body made of wood, and with keywork modelled on that of simple German clarinets (the fingering pattern is similar in principle to what is known as the 'Albert system' in North America and the 'simple system' in the U.K.) The mechanism featured a single octave key, a ring key on the lower joint but none on the upper, and a range down to low Bb, the key for which was operated by the right thumb. The mouthpiece was smaller than a soprano saxophone's, and was intended to use (German) clarinet reeds
Schuss(German) (to make) an unchecked descent on skis down a steep slope
Schusterfleck(German m., literally 'cobbler's patch') a derogatory term for a rosalia
schütteln(German) to shake
schüttelnd(German) shaking
Schüttelrohr(German n.) alternatively chocalho or shocallo, a Brazilian bamboo shaker
Schutzumschlag(German m.) dust jacket, dust-cover (paper cover on a hardback book), sopraccoperta (Italian f.), jaquette (French f.), sobrecubierta (Spanish f.)
Schw.abbreviated form of Schwammschlägeln (German: sponge-headed mallet)
Schwathe mid-central vowel or the phonetic symbol for it. This phonetic symbol is typically an upside down e. The schwa vowel appears in words like putt and sofa and duh. The same sound appears blended with an /r/ in words like pert, shirt, and motor
schwach(German) piano, weak, soft, faint, feeble
schwächen(German) to weaken, to soften
schwächer(German) more piano, weaker, softer, fainter
schwacher Takttheil(German) weak beat
schwacher Taktteil(German) weak beat
schwächer werden(German) becoming weaker, weakening, indebolendo (Italian), affievolendo (Italian), abschwächend (German), en affaiblissant (French)
Schwamm(German m.) sponge, fungus
Schwammgummi(German m.) spongerubber
schwammig(German) porous, bibulous
Schwammigkeit(German f.) sponginess
Schwammschl.abbreviated form of Schwammschlägeln (German: sponge-headed mallet)
Schwammschlägel(German m.) sponge (soft) mallet
Schwan(German m.) swan
schwanger(German) pregnant
schwängern(German) to make pregnant
Schwangerschaft(German f.) pregnancy
Schwank(German m.) farce (theatrical)
schwanken(German) sway, rock (boat), fluctuate
schwankend(German) swaying
Schwankung(German f.) fluctuation
(German f.) also Windschwankung (German f.), Windstößigkeit (German f.), wind sag (instability in an organ pipe due to unsteady wind supply), houppement (French m.)
Schwann CatalogueWilliam Joseph Schwann (1913-1998) founded the eponymous record catalog which had the world's largest circulation, available in record shops or by subscription
Schwanz(German m.) tail
schwänzen(German) to skip (for example, to absent oneself (from school))
Schwarm(German m.) swarm (bees), shoal (fish), idol (someone who is loved)
Schwärmer(German) or Rauscher, also known as tremolo, a passage in which each note or every two notes alternately are several times repeated
see bombo
Schwärmerei(German) extravagant enthusiasm, particularly the intense sentimental attachment of an adolescent to an adult of the same sex
schwärmerisch(German) addicted to intense sentimental attachments
Schwarte(German f.) rind, tome (book)
schwarz(German) black, illegal, illegally
Schwärze(German f.) blackness
schwarze Ausziehtusche(German f.) Indian ink
schwarze Liste(German f.) blacklist
schwärzen(German) blacken
schwarze Piratenflagge(German f.) Jolly Roger (pirate's flag bearing the skull and cross bones)
schwärzer(German) blacker
schwarzes Brett(German n.) noticeboard, bulletin board, blackboard
schwärzest(German) blackest
schwarze Taste(German f.) black key (on a keyboard)
Schwarzmarkt(German m.) black market
schwarzsehen(German) to be pessimistic (figurative)
Schwarzwald(German m.) Black Forest
schwebenGerman tuning theory notoriously used schweben to denote both the beating and the tempering that causes it. People wrote about intervals schwebend (tempered) by some fraction of a comma, and also about intervals which schweben (beat) more or less rapidly
[comment posted by Tom Dent to clavichord@yahoogroups.com on 7th Sep. 2006]
schwebend(German) soaring, floating, undulating
Schwebung(German f.) the beating between two notes slightly out of tune with one another, difference tone
(German f.) a tremulant stop
Schwebung (s.), Schwebungen (pl.)(German f.) beat, oscillation
Schwebungensee martellement
Schwebungsfrequenz(German f.) beat frequency
Schwebungston(German m.) difference tone
Schwegel(German) synonymous with Schnabelflöte
Schweige(German) a rest
Schweigen(German n.) silence
schweigen(German) to be silent
schweigt(German) tacet
Schweigezeichen(German n.) a rest
Schweinerei(German) beastliness
Schweizerflöte(German f., literally 'Swiss flute') an 8 ft. metal flue-stop, of penetrating tone, on an organ
Schweizerpfeife(German f., literally 'Swiss pipe') a cross-fife
Schwelle(German f.) threshold, (railway) sleeper
schwellen(German) crescendo
on an organ, to swell
Schweller(German) swell (of an organ)
Schwellkasten(German m.) the swell box
Schwellton(German m.) messa di voce
Schwellung(German f.) swelling
Schwellwerk(German n.) in the organ, the Swell division, organ pipes enclosed in a cabinet with moveable wooden shutters or lids that may be opened and closed using pedals to vary the volume of the pipes
Schwemme(German f.) watering-place, glut
schwemmen(German) wash
Schwenk(German m.) swing
schwenken(German) swing, wave, rinse
schwer(German) heavy, ponderous, heavily
(German) difficult, hard, serious, bad, with difficulty, badly, seriously
schwer arbeiten(German) work hard
Schwere(German f.) heaviness, weight, difficulty, gravity (seriousness)
Schwerelosigkeit(German f.) weightlessness
schwerer Spielbass(German m.) (dramatic) comic bass
schwerfällen(German) be hard
schwerfällig(German) ponderous, ponderously, clumsy, clumsily
Schwergewicht(German n.) heavyweight
schwerhören(German) be hard of hearing
schwerhörig sein(German) be hard of hearing
Schwerkraft(German) gravity (physics)
schwerkrank(German) seriously ill
schwerlich(German) hardly
schwermachen(German) make difficult
schwermüthig(German) heavy-hearted, dejected, melancholic, sad, pensive
schwermütig(German) heavy-hearted, dejected, melancholic, sad, pensive
schwermutsvoll(German) heavy-hearted, dejected, melancholy, sad
schwernehmen(German) take seriously
Schwerpunkt(German m.) balance point, centre of gravity, emphasis, the main point of attack in a battle
Schwert(German n.) sword
Schwertlilie(German f.) iris (flower)
schwer tragen(German) to carry a heavy load, to be deeply affected (figurative)
schwer tragen an(German) to be deeply affected by (figurative)
schwertun (mit)(German) have difficulty (with)
Schwerverbrecher(German m.) serious offender
schwerverdaulich(German) indigestible
Schwerverletzte(German m./f,) seriously injured person
schwer von Begriff(German) slow of the uptake
schwerwiegend(German) weighty
schwer zu sagen(German) difficult or hard to say
Schwester(German f.) sister, nurse (hospital)
schwesterlich(German) sisterly
Schwiegel(German) synonymous with schwegel
(German) an organ stop, of the flute species, of metal and pointed at the top
Schwiegereltern(German pl.) parents-in-law (or 'in-laws'), parenti acquisiti (Italian m. pl.), beaux-parents (French pl.), parientes políticos (Spanish m. pl.)
Schwiegermutter(German f.) mother-in-law, suocera (Italian f.), belle-mère (French f.), suegra (Spanish f.)
Schwiegersohn(German m.) son-in-law, genero (Italian m.), beau-fils (French m.), gendre (French m.), yemo (Spanish m.)
Schwiegertochter(German f.) daughter-in-law, nuora (Italian f.), belle-fille (French f.), nuera (Spanish f.)
Schwiegervater(German m.) father-in-law, suocero (Italian m.), beau-père (French m.), suegro (Spanish m.)
Schwiele(German f.) callus
Schwierigkeit(German f.) difficulty, difficoltà (Italian f.), difficulté (French f.), dificultad (Spanish f.)
schwindend(German) becoming quieter, dying away, diminuendo, morendo
schwingen(German) to oscillate
schwingend(German) swinging
Schwingung (s.), Schwingungen (pl.)(German f.) oscillation, vibration, wave
Schwingungserreger(German m.) vibrational mode, mode of vibration
Schwingungserzeuger(German m.) oscillator, generator, vibrating body
Schwingungsverstärker(German m.) resonator
schwirrende Geräusch(German n.) a whirr, a whirring sound
Schwirrholz (s.), Schwirrhölzer (pl.)(German n.) bull roarer
[clarified by Michael Zapf]
schwülstige Stil(German m.) an inflated style, an overblown style, bombast
schwung(German) swing
Schwungkörper(German m.) balance weight
schwungvoll(German) energetic, swingingly, full of vigour, vigorous
Schwyzerörgeli(Swiss, literally 'Swiss organ') a variant on the diatonic button accordion, which usually has a 3-row diatonic treble and 18 unisonoric bass buttons in a bass/chord arrangement (actually a subset of the Stradella system), that travel parallel to the bellows motion
scialacquare(Italian) squander
scialare(Italian) spend recklessly
Scialle(Italian m.) shawl
Scialumò(Italian) chalumeau
sciancato(Italian) lame
Sciarpa(Italian f.) scarf
'Sciarrino' whistleswhistle tones produced with the flute or piccolo mouthpiece covered, a feature particularly of music by Sciarrino and his students
sciatto(Italian) slovenly, careless
Sciattone (m.), Sciattona (f.)(Italian) slovenly person
Scie musicale(French f.) musical saw
Science fiction(originally 'scientifiction', a neologism coined by editor Hugo Gernsback in his pulp magazine Amazing Stories) literature in which speculative technology, time travel, alien races, intelligent robots, gene-engineering, space travel, experimental medicine, psionic abilities, dimensional portals, or altered scientific principles contribute to the plot or background
Scientia(Latin) systematic knowledge
Scientiae causa(Latin) a experiement, involving pain or suffering, which is said to be justified for its scientific value
scientifico(Italian) scientific
Scientific perspectivea method of creating an illusion of three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional plane though the employment of mathematical principals. Attempts at creating perspective can be seen in early Western art, but it was entirely based on personal observation. Filippo Brunelleschi was the first to employ scientific perspective to his paintings of 1413, where the receding angles of objects converge at a single vanishing point. The mathematician, Leone Battista Alberti would be the first to publish these principals in 1435
Scientific pitchsee 'philosophical pitch'
Scientific pitch notationalso known as 'note-octave notation', 'scientific pitch notation' is a method, used in Western music, of naming the notes of the standard Western chromatic scale by combining a letter-name, accidentals, and an Hindu-Arabic numeral identifying the pitch's octave, thus, for example, A4 refers to the A above middle C
see 'octave'
Scientific RevolutionThe event which most historians of science call the scientific revolution can be dated roughly as having begun in 1543, the year in which Nicolaus Copernicus published his De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) and Andreas Vesalius published his De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human body). As with many historical demarcations, historians of science disagree about its boundaries, some seeing elements contributing to the revolution as early as the 14th century and finding its last stages in chemistry and biology in the 18th and 19th centuries.[1] There is general agreement, however, that the intervening period saw a fundamental transformation in scientific ideas in physics, astronomy and biology, in institutions supporting scientific investigation, and in the more widely held picture of the universe
scier(French) to saw
scier en travers(French) to saw across
scil(icet)a contraction of scire licet (Latin: is it permitted to know)
(Latin) namely, that is to say
Scilla(Latin) small bells (formerly used to hang upon the tail of ermine, upon royal ermine robes), an heraldic term
Scintilla(Latin) a spark, an atom, a minute particle (of doubt, truth, evidence, etc.)
scintillante(Italian) brilliant, sparkling
Scintille di musica (1533)a theoretical treatise by Giovanni Maria Lanfranco (died 1545), published in Brescia, which includes details of many stringed instruments of the period
scintillantemente(Italian) brilliantly, sparklingly
Sciolisma pretentious attitude of scholarship, superficial knowledgeability
scioltamente(Italian) with freedom, agility, easily, fluently, freely, loosely, nimbly, unconstrained
(Italian) a marking indicating that the notes are to be detached rather than legato
Scioltezza(Italian f.) freedom, agility, ease, nimbleness, lightness
sciolto(Italian) free, loose, nimble, fluent, easy
Sciólto(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) loose, free, at liberty, untide, untangled, unsnared. Also quit, absolved or discharged. Also quick, nimble and full of agility. Also a kind of verse used among the Italians, a loose verse, a blancke verse
Scire facias(Latin, literally 'cause (him) to know') in law, a writ issued as a warning of the revocation of a patent
Sciroccosirocco
scivolando(Italian) glissando in piano playing
Sclerosis(Latin) a morbid hardening of any animal tissue
Sclerotichardened
Scolaro(Italian m.) scholar, accomplished pupil
Scolica enchiriadisan anonymous ninth-century music theory treatise and commentary on its companion work, the Musica enchiriadis. These treatises were once attributed to Hucbald, but this is no longer accepted
Sconcea general name for a wall-light consisting of a back-plate and either a tray or branched candle-holders
Scoopan unusual type of portamento, to slide up to pitch from slightly below it, a term normally applied to singers but also applied to jazz trumpet and cornet players
Scôp(literally, 'shaper' or 'maker') or sceop, an Anglo-Saxon professional storyteller, who traveling from village to village, would tell tales in return for food, lodging and money. Another Anglo-Saxon word for a poet or storyteller was hearpere (harper), implying the use of this instrument or the lyre from which it developed
scoperto(Italian) uncovered, undamped
scoppia in pianto(Italian) bursting into tears
Scoppio(Italian m.) peal of laughter
scordato(Italian, from scordare, to mistune) mistuned, out of tune, false, untuned
see 'altered tuning'
Scordatura(Italian f., from scordare, to mistune; also English, French f.) Skordatur (German f.), see 'altered tuning'
Scorepartitura (Italian f., Spanish f.), Partitur (German f.), partition (French f.)
a representation on the page of a whole musical work, with each voice-part on its own staff, which in a modern score will be arranged:
sectioninstrument
woodwindpiccolo
flutes
oboes (cor anglais)
clarinets (bass clarinet)
bassoons (double bassoon)
brasshorns
trumpets
trombones
tuba
percussiontimpani
side drum
bass drum
triangle
etc.
other instrumentsharp
celesta
solo instrumentpiano
solo violin
etc.
solo voicesoprano
etc.
choir or chorussoprano
alto
tenor
bass
stringsfirst violins
second violins
violas
cellos
double basses
when the separate instrumental and vocal parts of a musical work are printed together, the resulting sheet music is called a score. This term has also been used to refer to sheet music written for only one performer. The distinction between score and part applies when there is more than one part needed for performance. Scores come in various formats, as follows:
conductor's score
full score
open score
a full score is a large book showing the music of all instruments and voices in a composition, lined up in a fixed order. It is large enough for a conductor to be able to read while directing rehearsals and performances
miniature scorelike a full score, but much reduced in size. It is too small for practical use, but handy for studying a piece of music, whether it be for large ensemble or solo performer. A miniature score may have some introductory remarks
study scoresometimes the same size as, and often indistinguishable from, a miniature score, except in name. Some study scores are octavo size, thus somewhere between full and miniature score sizes. A study score, especially if it is part of an anthology for academic study, may include extra comments about the music and markings for learning purposes
piano score
piano reduction
a more or less literal transcription for piano of a piece intended for many performing parts, especially orchestral works; this can include purely instrumental sections within large vocal works (see vocal score immediately below). Such arrangements are made for piano solo (two hands) or piano duet (one or two pianos, four hands). Extra small staves are sometimes added at certain points in piano scores for two hands in order to make the presentation more nearly complete, even though it is usually impractical or impossible to include them while playing. As with vocal score immediately below, it takes considerable skill to reduce an orchestral score to such smaller forces, because the reduction needs to be not only playable on the keyboard but also thorough enough in its presentation of the intended harmonies, textures, figurations, etc. Sometimes markings are included to show which instruments are playing at given points. While piano scores are usually not meant for performance outside of study and pleasure (Liszt's concert transcriptions of Beethoven's symphonies being a notable exception), ballets get the most practical benefit most from piano scores, because with one or two pianists they allow unlimited rehearsal before the orchestra is absolutely needed. They can be used also to train beginning conductors. Piano scores of operas do not include separate staves for the vocal parts, but may add the sung text and stage directions above the music
vocal score
or, more properly, piano-vocal score
a reduction of the full score of a vocal work (e.g., opera, musical, oratorio, cantata, etc.) to show the vocal parts (solo and choral) on their staves and the orchestral parts in a piano reduction (usually for two hands) underneath the vocal parts; the purely orchestral sections of the score are also reduced for piano. If a portion of the work is a cappella, a piano reduction of the vocal parts is often added to aid in rehearsal (this often is the case with a cappella religious sheet music). While not meant for performance, vocal scores serve as a convenient way for vocal soloists and choristers to learn the music and rehearse separately from the instrumental ensemble. The vocal score of a musical typically does not include the spoken dialogue, except for cues
choral scorethe related but less common choral score contains the choral parts with no accompaniment
organ scorethe comparable organ score exists usually in association with church music for voices and orchestra, such as arrangements (by later hands) of Handel's Messiah. It is like the piano-vocal score in that it includes staves for the vocal parts and reduces the orchestral parts to be performed by one person. Unlike the vocal score, the organ score is sometimes intended by the arranger to substitute for the orchestra in performance if necessary
vocal selectionsa collection of songs from a given musical is usually printed under the label vocal selections. This is different from the vocal score from the same show, in that it does not present the complete music, and the piano accompaniment usually is simplified and includes the melody line
short score
close score
compressed score
a reduction of a work for many instruments to just a few staves. Rather than composing directly in full score, many composers work out some type of short score while they are composing and later expand the complete orchestration. (An opera, for instance, may be written first in a short score, then in full score, then reduced to a vocal score for rehearsal.) Short scores are often not published; they may be more common for some performance venues (e.g., band) than in others
lead sheetalso known as "fake" music, gives the least information of the types of score listed above. Almost exclusively limited to vocal music, it indicates the melody and lyrics, but usually shows the harmony only by placing indications of the underlying chords above the melody. Thus, in effect it is an enhanced vocal part rather than a detailed representation of the piece. It is commonly used in popular music and jazz. A collection of fake sheets is known as a fake book
by the close of the 18th century scores possessed as many varied uses as they do today, as if in response to a greater sense of discipline. Several writers had urged more comprehensive use of scores. For Walther (1732) the purpose of the score was to avoid mistakes the sooner in performance, and the Encyclopédie (1765) edited by Diderot and d'Alembert concluded: "He who conducts a concert must have a score in front of him". The publication of instrumental scores in England shows the progression in function from study to practical utility. However, a complete and legible score is the best plan for any musical publication, not only as it renders the study of music more easy and entertaining, but also the performance of it more correct and judicious. Moreover the whole score could be rendered at the keyboard: 'a skillful hand on the organ or harpsichord, may give a pleasing idea of a general performance in concert.'
the score can be seen as the spatialization of what happens in the music, while the performed music is the interpretation of the score as a temporal unfolding of the structure it contains
Scoreto arrange or orchestrate a piece of music (as in 'the worked has been scored for ...'), orchestrare (Italian), orchestrieren (German), instrumenter (French), instrumentar (Spanish), orquestar (Spanish)
Score layoutthe disposition of parts in a score, their layout, key, form and grouping, and the spacing between the various individual or grouped lines
there are many conventions about how scores are arranged, one of which is that higher-pitched instruments or voices are usually placed higher on the page than lower-pitched parts. In orchestral scores, the groupings are by instrumental 'family': woodwinds on top of the page, and below them, in descending order, brass, percussion, harp and keyboards, soloists (instrumental or vocal), voices, and strings. Within each family, the arrangement is still from top to bottom by pitch, so that in the strings, for example, the violins are at the top and the double basses at the bottom
score separation
Score-Partscores that are printed in sets for each individual instrument. Players read from their own unique set of pages. For example, a duet for guitar and flute would be printed in two separate sets: one for the flute player and one for the guitar
Scorewritera computer program designed for writing, organizing, editing, and printing music
Scoria (s.), Scoriae (pl.)(Latin, from the Greek skoria, rust) the dross remaining after the smelting of ore, volcanic cinders resulting from the cooling of a stream of lava
scoria differs from pumice in being denser, with larger vesicles and thicker vesicle walls; it sinks rapidly
Scoringinstrumentation, orchestration
scorrendo(Italian) glissando, in a flowing manner, gliding from one note to another
scorretto(Italian) wrong, incorrect
scorrevole(Italian) glissando, in a flowing manner, gliding from one note to another
scorrendo(Italian) flowing, gliding
Scorriuan instrument that was developed by Sardinian bandits to scare the horses of their victims or the police. It is made out of a cork cylinder with a dog skin membrane. When rubbed, the instrument produces a loud screeching sound
Scosso (s.), Scossi (pl.)in 15th-century dance, a term for which no exact description exists in any of the extant Italian dance manuscripts. It is knwon that a rising motion was involved and that the step took a 1/2 misura. TIn reconstructions, this step is generally depicted as a quick rise, and is also referred to as a movimento
Scotch catchsee 'Scotch snap'
Scotch scalepentatonic scale
Scotch snapor Scotch catch, a rhythmic figure, characteristic of a Scottish strathspey, consisting of a short note on the beat followed by a long note which is then held until the next beat, for example, a semiquaver (sixteenth note) followed by a dotted quaver (dotted eighth note)
Scottish country dancinga form of social dance involving groups of mixed couples of dancers tracing progressive patterns according to a predetermined choreography. Scottish Country Dances often considered a type of folk dancing although this is not strictly true - it derives from the courtly dances of the Renaissance and, as a form of ballroom dancing, predates the more modern styles of the quadrille as well as couple dances like the waltz
Scottish fiddlesee 'Shetland fiddle'
Scottish fiddle music
Scottish harpusually a medium-sized gut-strung harp with between 30 and 34 strings that rests on the knee or on the floor, played with the finger pads. Modern instruments often have blades or levers to obtain semitones
Scottish highland dancingsee 'highland dance'
Scottish Renaissancea mainly literary movement of the early to mid 20th century that can be seen as the Scottish version of modernism. It is sometimes referred to as the Scottish literary renaissance, although its influence went beyond literature into music, visual arts, and politics (among other fields). The writers and artists of the Scottish Renaissance displayed a profound interest in both modern philosophy and technology, as well as incorporating folk influences, and a strong concern for the fate of Scotland's declining languages
Scottish smallpipesa bellows blown bagpipe from the Scottish lowlands, related to the Northumbrian smallpipes
scozzese(Italian) Scottish, in a Scottish style
Scrapera percussion instrument consisting of a rough serrated surface in any various shapes that is scraped by a hard object
Scratch bands(Virgin Islands) also called fungi bands, ensembles that use improvised instruments like gourds and washboards to make music called quelbe. The scratch band derives its name from the sound produced by scraping the guiro and features a triangle, gourd, tambourine, conga and ukulele banjo as a rhythm section, as well as a brass section. Other ensembles consist only of a single melody instrument and a vocalist. Scratch bands would stop at house "yards" one by one on their way around town, serenading as they went. This type of performance provided the musicians an opportunity to show off their musical, oral and theatrical gifts. On more formal occasions, scratch bands traditionally perform for quadrilles
scratchen(German) to scratch
Scratchinga DJ or turntablist technique originated by Grand Wizard Theodore, an early hip hop DJ from New York (AMG). The technique is designed to accentuate the work of the DJ by creating an assortment of sounds through the rhythmical manipulation of a vinyl record, and has spread from hip hop culture to a number of other musical forms. Within hip hop culture, scratching is still of great importance in determining the skill of a DJ, and a number of competitions are held across the globe in which DJs battle one another in displays of great virtuosity
a guitar technique, where the strings are played while dampened, i.e., the strings are dampened before playing. In funk music this is often done over a sixteenth note pattern with occasional sixteenths undampened
  • Scratching from which the first extract has been taken
Scratchplatesee 'pickguard'
Scratch toneor, in French, ecrasé, a scratchy noise achieved on bowed string instruments by the use of excess bow pressure
Scratch vocalsor, in French, paroles bouche-trous (French f.pl.), a vocal track that gets recorded without intentions of keeping it or using it in the final production. It's the "rough" vocal track usually recorded along with the rhythm parts (drums, bass, percussion, etc) to help to set the general vibe of the song and to help everyone keep track of where they are in the song. Final vocals are usually overdubbed later, once other tracks have been filled out
Screamermostly composed in a 60-year period (1895-1955), a descriptive name for a circus march, in particular, an upbeat march intended to stir up the audience during the show
Screamoa more chaotic and aggressive form of 'emo' associated originally with 1990s San Diego
Screech notesa variety of unmusical notes created (usually unintentionally) on woodwind instruments. They occur when a player does not fully press down on one of the holes of a woodwind instrument, or blows too hard on an instrument such as a tin whistle. The effect is that an ugly screeching sound is created
on a brass instrument, notes higher than the designated range
Screen cylindera printing cylinder used in rotogravure in which ink is held in tiny regular patterned cells on its surface. It is created by double exposing a photosensitive gelatin tissue to a line screen before the image. Once adhered to the cylinder, both the pattern and the image are etched into its surface. The line screen pattern forms a continuous raised grid across the cylinder, while the image areas are incised the space between theses lines down to varying depths to hold ink. Screen cylinders, invented by Ernst Rolffs in 1908, advanced rotogravure into the modern printing process we use today
Screen-printingoften called 'silk screen printing' from the material formerly used for the screen. A stencil process with the printing and non-printing areas on one surface. The printing (image) area is open and produced by various forms of stencil. The substrate is placed under the screen and ink is passed across the top of the screen and forced through the open (printing) areas on to the substrate below. Samuel Simon patented stencil printing that used screens made of silk (silkscreen) in England in 1907. This process was not commercially viable until a suitable rubber blade (squeegee) was developed in 1936
Screen theorythe most prominent school in 1970s English media studies which began with the assumption that modern mass culture was descended not, as might be expected, from the 'lower genres' (popular narratives; carnivalesque; the popular theatre of clowning, melodrama, pantomime, burlesque, music hall; broadsides and ballads; the long history of comics), but, by an as yet unexplained historical process, from the high bourgeois novel. This was the classic realist text, which denied self-reflexivity and pretended to be a window onto the real. The mass readers/spectators of the realist text, because of psychoanalytic processes beyond their flimsy conscious control, misrecognised themselves as free subjects when really they were subject to the dominant discourses of capitalist society inscribed in the text. The narrative pleasure of such texts bound the readers/spectators into this illusion and this domination. The more they enjoyed something the more trapped they were
Scribal corruptiona general term referring to errors in a text made by later scribes rather than the original authors. In many cases, these mistakes are obviously the result of human error while copying, such as accidentally repeating or leaving out a word or line(s) from the original manuscript
Scribal -Ewhen a scribe adds an unpronounced -e to words for reasons of manuscript spacing, this is called a scribal -e
Scribblerwriter (colloquial)
Scribeor copyist, someone (other than the composer) who notates a "copy"
a literate individual who reproduces the works of other authors by copying them from older texts or from a dictating author. In many parts of the ancient world, such as Classical Rome and Classical Greece, a large number of scribes were slaves who belonged to wealthy government officials and to poets or authors. In other cultures such as Egypt or Tibet, scribes have been seen as priestly or semi-magical individuals. In the medieval period, many monks were given the task of copying classics from the earlier period along with Bibles and patristic writings. Their efforts preserved much of Greco-Roman philosophy and history that might otherwise have been lost
Scrimin drama, a flimsy curtain that becomes transparent when backlit, permitting action to take place under varying lighting
Scripsit(Latin) he/she wrote it
Scriptthe text of the dialogue and stage directions of a play, opera, film, etc.
the act of writing a play, libretto, dialogue, etc.
a generic form of handwriting used as a model by a scribe
Scripterscreenwriter
scriptor(Latin) writer
Scriptorium (s.), Scriptoria (pl.)a room devoted to the hand-lettered copying of manuscripts. Before the invention of printing by moveable type, a scriptorium was a normal adjunct to a library. After the active destruction of classical libraries in the wake of the Theodosian decrees of the 390s and the collapse of public institutions in general, scriptoria were entirely in Christian hands, from the early 5th century onwards
Scripturethe Bible
Scripture songa contemporary worship chorus using a Scripture text or paraphrase thereof, which may be a psalm in whole or part, as, for example, This Is the Day (Psalm 118, Leona Von Brethorst), Let Us Exalt His Name (Psalm 34, Stuart Dauermann) or The Lord Reigns (Psalm 97, Dan Stradwick)
scritto da(Italian) written by
Scrittura(Italian f.) writing, scripture
(Italian f.) engagement
scriva(Italian) written
Scrivenera person who drafts (legal) documents, a scribe
ScrollSchnecke (German f.), Kopf (German m.), tête (la volute et le cheviller) (French f.), riccio (Italian m.), testa (Italian f.), chiocciola (Italian f.), that part of the violin, etc. where ornamental carving is often found. On the violin and related stringed instruments it lies at the end of the neck just above the pegs
an ornament or ornamental design that resembles a partially rolled scroll of paper, as the volute in Ionic and Corinthian capitals.
a roll of parchment, papyrus, or paper which has been written upon. They were used in ancient civilizations before the codex or bound book was invented in the first century. The way a scroll was read by being unrolled meant scribes were sometimes confused; for example, there are versions of the Egyptian Book of the Dead with repeated sections. Nevertheless, scrolls were more highly regarded than codices until well into Roman times. Codices contained notes, drafts, and records rather than serious literature
in heraldry, a ribbon inscribed with a motto
Scrooby Separatistsa group of dissenters that settled in Nottinghamshire in 1606, after attempts to settle in Boston, Lincs and at Immingham on the Humber. They emigrated to Leiden in Holland. Later they emigrated to America becoming the Pilgrim Fathers
Scroopthe peculiar cracking sound produced when silk fabric is folded together or squeezed by hand. This property is acquired, after treating the material in dilute acetc or tartarc acid and drying without washing
Scruggs stylea fingerpicking method of playing the banjo, also known as the three-finger technique or roll that is centered around arpeggios, or chord notes played in rapid succession
S.C.T.Babbreviation for the Spanish equivalent of S.A.T.B. i.e. soprano, contralto, tenor, bajo
abbreviation for the Italian equivalent of S.A.T.B. i.e. soprano, contralto, tenore, basso
abbreviation for the French equivalent of S.A.T.B. i.e. soprano, contralto, ténor, basse
scucito(Italian) detached, non legato, disconnected
Scugnizzo (s.), Scugnizzi (pl.)(Italian m.) a Neapolitan (street-)urchin or beggar-boy
Sculp.abbreviation of sculpsit (Latin: engraved by - usually after the engraver's name), sculpserunt (Latin: engraved by - usually after the engraver's name)
Sculpture d'appartement(French) a piece of scultpure on a small scale, designed particularly for display in a dwelling house
Scultore (m.), Scultrice (f.)(Italian) sculptor
Scultura(Italian f.) sculpture
Scuola(Italian f.) school
Scuola di balletto(Italian f.) ballet school
Scuola di coro(Italian f.) choir school
Scuola di musica(Italian f.) music school, college of music
Scuola elementare(Italian f.) primary school
Scuola media(Italian f.) secondary school
Scuola mista(Italian f.) co-educational school
Scuola viennese(Italian f.) Viennese school
scuotere(Italian) to shake
scuotersi(Italian) rouse oneself
scuotersi di dosso(Italian) shake off
scurire(Italian) to cover
scusandosi(Italian) making excuses
scutendo(Italian) shaking
sdabbreviation of scherzo drammatico (Italian)
S. D.abbreviation of 'snare drum'
s.d.abbreviation of 'stage direction'
SDFabbreviation of sans domicile fixe (French: homeless - noun or adjective)
sdegnante(Italian) disdaining, angry, passionate
sdegnosamente(Italian) disdainfully, scornfully
Sdegno(Italian m.) disdain, anger, wrath, passion
sdegnoso(Italian) disdainful, furious, passionate, fiery
sdoppiare(Italian) halve
SDRabbreviation of Süddeutscher Rundfunk (German)
S.Dr.abbreviation of 'snare drum'
sdrucciolamento(Italian) sliding the fingers along the strings, or the keys of an instrument
sdrucciolando(Italian, literally 'sliding') in harp playing, a glissando
sdrucciolare(Italian, literally 'to slide') in piano playing, turning the finger-nails towards the keys and drawing the hand lightly and rapidly up or down the keyboard (to produce a glissando), or an equivalent technique on any other instrument to produce the same effect
sdrucciolato(Italian) sliding the fingers along the strings, or the keys of an instrument

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