music dictionary : Tj - To
 



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tjue(Norwegian) twenty
tjuga, tjudo(Swedish) twenty
Tjurungasee churinga
Tlapitzallipre-Hispanic small Mexican flute
Tlf.abbreviation of teléfono (Spanish m.: telephone)
tmabbreviation of tragédie en musique (French)
Tmesis(Greek) in linguistics, the separation of the elements of a compound word by the insertion of another word or phrase
intentionally breaking a word into two parts for emphasis. In English, this rhetorical scheme is fairly rare, since only the compounds of "ever" readily lend themselves to it, but it is much more common in Greek and Latin
TMusA, T.Mus.A.abbreviation of 'Teacher of Music Australia (AMEB)'
To(Ghana) calabash rattle
(Danish, Norwegian) two
Toast(English, French m., German m.) a toasted piece of sliced bread, a call to drink the health or in honour of a person, event, etc.
Toastingone of many alternative Jamaican terms for what in other parts of the world is called 'rapping'
toben(German) to rave, to rage, to play boisterously, to rush
tobend(German) blustering
Toberavery similar to the txalaparta except that they are made of iron in place of wood
TobshuurMongolian lute
tobsüchtig(German) raving mad
Tocabilidad(Spanish) action (the height of the strings above the fret- or fingerboard)
toca madera(Spanish) touch wood (for good luck)
Tocaor (m.), Tocaora (f.)also tacaor (m.) or tacaora (f.), the Iberian term for a flamenco guitarist
tocar(Spanish) to touch, to blow (a trumpet), to play with, to mess about with, to play (musical instrument), to ring (sound), to knock (wood), to honk (a horn), to strike (a bell), to touch on (mention)
(Spanish) to win, to have to, to concern, to be related to, to be a relative of, to touch
(Spanish) to do the hair of
tocar a muerto(Spanish) to toll a bell
tocar a su fin(Spanish) to be coming to an end
tocar con(Spanish) to be next to
tocar el timbre(Spanish)to ring the bell
tocar en(Spanish) to border on
tocar la bocina(Spanish) to sound the horn (car, etc.)
tocar la campana(Spanish) to ring the bell
tocar música(Spanish) to perform music, to play music
tocarse(Spanish) to touch oneself, to touch one another
(Spanish) to cover one's head
tocarse la nariz(Spanish) to pick one's nose
¿tocas algún instrumento?(Spanish) do you play any instruments?
Tocata(Spanish m.) record player (familiar)
Tocata(Spanish f.) toccata
Tocayo (m.), Tocaya (f.)(Spanish) namesake
tocca a te(Italian) it is your turn
toccante(Italian) touching
toccare(Italian) to touch, to feel (to the touch), to concern, to call at
toccare a(Italian) to happen, to be up to, tov have to
Toccata(English, German f., Italian f., from the Italian toccare meaning 'to touch') a piece of music for keyboard intended as a virtuosic display. A toccata is often the prelude to a fugue
in the 16th-century, synonymous with anabole, fantasia, ricercar, prelude, preambulum and prooemium
Toccatinadiminutive form of toccata
Toccatinodiminutive form of toccata
Toccato(Italian) the fourth (i.e. the lowest) part of a choir of trumpets
Tocco(Italian m.) touch, stroke (of a bell)
Tochariana branch of the Indo-European family of languages - now extinct. Unusually, Tocharian was geographically located in central Asia, far away from most other Indo-European languages
Tocho(Spanish m.) iron ingot, tome (a large book), a boring book
Tochter(German f.) a daughter
Tochtergesellschaft(German f.) a subsidiary
Tocino(Spanish m.) lard
Tocón (m.), Toncona (f.)(Spanish) a person with roving hands (a groper)
Tocsin(English, French m.) an alarm bell
the striking of a bell as an alarm
Tod(German m.) death
todavia(Spanish) still, yet, even
todavia más(Spanish) even more
todavia menos(Spanish) even less
todelt Takt(Danish) duple meter
todernst(German) deadly serious, deadly seriously
Todesangst(German f.) mortal fear
Todesanzeige(German f.) obituary, death notice
Todescasee tedesca
Todesfall(German m.) death
Todesgesang(German m.) a dirge, a work commemorating the dead
Todeslied(German n.) a dirge, a work commemorating the dead
Todesopfer(German n.) a fatality, a casualty
Todesstafe(German f.) death penalty
Todesurteil(German n.) death sentence
Todfeind(German m.) mortal enemy
todito (m.), todita (f.)(Spanish) all (familiar)
todkrank(German) dangerously ill
tödlich(German) fatal, fatally, mortal, mortally, deadly
tödlichgelangweilt(German) bored to death
todmüde(German) dead tired
Todo(Spanish m.) whole
todo(Spanish) everything, completely, totally
todo (m.), toda (f.)(Spanish) all, like (the same as)
todo acabó bien(Spanish) it all ended happily
todo amaneció cubierto de nieve(Spanish) in the morning everything was covered in snow
todo bicho viviente(Spanish) everyone
todo derecho(Spanish) straight on
todo el mundo(Spanish) everybody
todo el santo dia(Spanish) all day long
todo lo contrario(Spanish) quite the contrary, quite the opposite
todo lo más(Spanish) at the most
Todopoderoso, el(Spanish m.) The Almighty
todopoderoso (m.), todopoderosa (f.)(Spanish) all-powerful, almighty
todo quedó en el aire(Spanish) everything was left up in the air (left unfinished, left unresolved)
todos(Spanish) everybody, tutti (Italian)
todsicher(German) dead certain (familiar), for sure
Todsünde(German f.) a deadly sin
Todt(German m.) dead
Todtenlied(German n.) a dirge, a work commemorating the dead
Todtenmarsch(German m.) dead march
Todtenmesse(German f.) Mass for the dead, requiem mass
Todtenmusik(German f.) funeral music
Todtgesang(German m.) a dirge, a work commemorating the dead
todunglücklich(German) desperately unhappy
Toe dancea dance that is performed on the toes, especially in ballet
Toe dancera dancer who performs on the toes, especially in ballet
toegevoegd(Dutch) added
toenemen (in luidheid)(Dutch) augmenting, increasing
Toe pistonssee 'toe studs'
Toe railsmall rail around the deck of a boat. The toe rail may have holes in it to attach lines or blocks. A larger wall is known as a gunwale
To'ereTahitian slit log drum, played with one stick
Toe studsor toe pistons, these are the large buttons on the console near the pedals that control several mechanisms on the organ. On the right, there are a group of divisional toe pistons that only memorize stops for the pedal division. The group on the left is the general pistons which affect all stops and couplers on the organ. These are repeats of the thumb generals below the manuals. The last kind of toe studs you will see are called reversibles. These are usually spread out across the bottom of the console, above the generals and pedal divisionals. These are a convenience item and has only one function per stud
Toets(Dutch) key (for example, as onea piano, etc.), trial, test, attempt, effort, endeavour
Toetsenbord(Dutch) keyboard (piano, computer, typewriter, etc.), keyboard instrument
toevallig (verplaatsings) teken(Dutch) accidental
TofHebrew frame drum
Tofua low-fat bean curd made from soya beans
Toga(Latin) the normal outer garment of a citizen of ancient Rome youth at puberty, an academic gown (in some continental countries)
Togaku(Japanese) togaku and to-sangaku were gagaku styles derived from T'ang China, where court musical life was multicultural and followed a formal rules, called the 'Ten Styles of Music'. These rules governed the hierarchy and use of Chinese and foreign musical styles in court. Performances that followed these rules and musical types was known as togaku, or T'ang music, while those that drew their form and content from popular music from T'ang China, were classified as to-sangaku, or 'unofficial T'ang music'
Toga virilis(Latin) (any symbol of) intellectual maturity (a reference to the toga, a garment adopted by an ancient Roman youth at puberty)
Toge(French f.) the gown (of a judge, etc.)
Togglea pin, rod, or crosspiece fitted or inserted into a loop in a rope, chain, or strap to prevent slipping, to tighten, or to hold an attached object
To give the pitcha phrase that describes the supply of a reference note (usually by an oboist) to which the members of an orchestra will tune their instruments, or a choir to take its pitch (for example, using a pitch pipe) or the use of an electronic or other pitch source such as a tuning fork when tuning a violin, guitar, piano, harpsichord or organ
togli(Italian) take off, take away, in the sense to turn off some aspect of organ or harpsichord registration
togliere il pedale sinistro(Italian) take off (or release) the left pedal, take off (or release) the damper pedal
togliere la sordina(Italian) take off the mute, mute off
togliendo(Italian) taking away, wegnehmend (German), en ôtant (French)
Tohoun(Benin) a calabash turned over in a container filled with water and drummed with sticks
Tohu-bohu(French m., from Hebrew) chaos and utter confusion, a hubbub
Toi(French) you, yourself
Toile(Italian) theatre curtain, a fabric used in dressmaking (linen or a mixture of linen and silk)
(French f.) cloth, canvas, cotton
Toile d'araignée(French f.) (spider's) web
Toile de fond(French f.) a backdrop, a backcloth
Toilette(French) washing, clothes, dress, manner and style of dressing, the action or process of dressing
(German f.) toilet
Toilettenpapier(German n.) toilet paper
Toi-même(French) yourself
toiser ...(French) to look ... up and down
Toison(French f.) fleece
Toisto(Finnish) repeat
Toit(French m.) a roof
Toit-ouvrant(French m.) a sun-roof (of a car)
Toiture(French f.) a roof
Tokecanoe shaped iron bell held in palm and struck with an iron beater from Ghana
Tokens, chordsee 'chord tokens'
Tokkafrom Assam (India), a type of clapper made of thin bamboo tube, split in half leaving the lower end intact. The lower end is held, and the rattle is shaken to produce a sound
Tokkata (s.), Tokkaten (pl.)(German f.) toccata
Tokmaksee davul
Tokonoma(Japanese) a shaded alcove in a Japanese house (often used to display an arrangement of flowers)
Tôle(French f.) an iron sheet
Tôle-ondulée(French f.) (a sheet of) corrugated iron
tolérable(French) tolerable, endurable, fairly good
Tolérance(French) allowance (in business, when importing goods duty free), forbearance, willingness to tolerate
tolérant (m.), tolérante (f.)(French) tolerant, disposed to tolerate others or their acts or opinions
Toleranz(German f.) tolerance
tolérer(French) to tolerate, to allow
tolerieren(German) to tolerate
toll(German) crazy, mad, fantastic (familiar), awful, beautifully, very, badly
Tollé(French m.) hue and cry
tollen(German) to romp
Tollingthe measured striking of a bell, usually that in a church tower or a tower of a public building
tollkühn(German) foolhardy
Tollwut(German f.) rabies
tollwütig(German) rabid
TololocheMexican double bass guitar
tolpatschig(German) clumsy, clumsily
Tölpel(German m.) a fool
tolv(Danish, Norwegian, Swedish) twelve
tolvte(Danish) twelfth
Tom(Portuguese) whole tone
toma, agarra(Spanish) here, hold this
tomando como base(Spanish) on the basis of
tomar apuntes(Spanish) to take notes
tomar armas(Spanish) to take up arms
tomar cartas en un asunto(Spanish) to intervene (in an affair)
tomar el pelo a uno(Spanish) to pull someone's leg (figurative)
tomar el tren(Spanish) to take the train
tomar las aguas(Spanish) to take the waters (at a spa, health clinic, etc.)
tomar las armas(Spanish) to take up arms
tomarle antipatía a ...(Spanish) to take a dislike to ... (somebody/something)
tomar ... por asalto(Spanish) to take ... by storm
tomarse un día de asueto(Spanish) to take a day off
tomar una determinación(Spanish) to make a decision
Tomate(French f., German f.) tomato
Tomatenmark(German n.) tomato purée
Tômbaksee tonbak
Tombe(French f.) a grave, a tomb
Tombeau(French m.) a tomb, a piece written in someone's memory, an elegy
Tomb chesta tomb set above ground level in a box-like structure (also known as a table tomb)
Tombée de la nuit(French) nightfall
tomber(French) to fall, to drop, to die down
tomber à l'eau(French) to fall through (figurative)
tomber amoureux de(French) to fall in love with
tomber à point(French) to come at the right time
tomber au champ d'honneur(French) to be killed in action
tomber bien(French) to come at the right time
tomber dru(French) to fall thick and fast
tomber en panne(French) to break down
tomber en panne en route à(French) to break down on the way to
tomber en syncope(French) to faint
tomber les quatre fers en l'air(French) to fall flat on one's back
tomber sur(French) to run across
Tombola(German f.) a raffle
Tomb slaba plain or carved cover for a grave within a church, set at floor level
Tome(French m.) volume (of a set of collected volumes)
tome usted asiento(Spanish) please take a seat
Tom inteiro(Portuguese) whole tone
Tompiona plug in a flute or an organ pipe, used to modulate the tone
Tom-tom(Italian m., English, German n., French m.) or 'tomtom', in the modern orchestra, a tunable drum without snares having a wooden shell and two heads, with a sharp hollow sound
an American Indian drum constructed with a wooden frame or a carved and hollowed-out log, with finely tanned buckskin or elkskin stretched taut across the opening by sinew thongs. Traditionally American Indian drums are large, two to three feet in diameter, and they are played communally by groups of men who stand around them in a circle. However, there were also some tribes in which each drummer had his own instrument These hand drums are the ones that are sometimes called tomtoms by non-native people -contrary to popular belief, tomtom is not an American Indian word, but rather an English word for a child's toy drum
a child's toy drum
ton (m.), ta (f.)(French) your
Ton(German m.) clay
Ton (s.), Töne (pl.)(German m.) note, pitch, key, sound, stress (emphasis), shade (paint, dye, etc.)
(German m.) the interval of a second
(German m.) Medieval and Renaissance verse structure and song tune which was commonly associated with more than one poetic text
Ton(French m., Swedish) pitch, key, note, tone, melody, voice
(French m.) the interval of a second, tone, key (music), pitch (of the voice)
Tonabstand(German m.) an interval
Tonabnehmer(German m.) pick-up
Tonada(Spanish f., from tono, a polyphonic song) a tune set for a dance or to verse
the Chilean tonada is a traditional song form that is not danced
Tonadicasee tonadilla
Tonadilla(Spanish) also tonadica, diminutive form of tonada, originally a short guitar-accompanied song but which developed into short stage pieces which were concerned with Spanish national melodies and dances and aspects of popular life. This comic opera form was popular particularly during the 18th-century when it comprised solo songs and choruses separated by dialogue. The tonadilla was the precursor to the zarzuela
Tonadillera(Spanish) a singer of tonadillas
Ton aigre(French m.) shrill sound
Tonalmusic that is based on major and minor tonalities or modes rather than twelve-tone, or other atonal musical systems
in a fugue, if the answer has exactly the same intervals as the subject, the only difference being that it is transposed, the answer is said to be 'real', but if the answer varies from the subject it is said to be 'tonal'
Tonal ambiguitycertain intervals, progressions and choice of harmonies result in a collapse of a strong sense of key or tonality
for example:
the use of diminished sevenths or tritonesfor example, whole tone scale
semitonal progressionsfor example, twelve note scale
bare fifths
free chromaticism
a lack of cadencesleading to fluid tonality
oscillating major-minor triads
a high level of dissonance
unresolved appoggiatura chords
Tonal answerin a fugue, after the first entry or statement, there will be an answer, a second statement at a diffent pitch
an answer can be of two types:
real answerwhere the answer is not modified so that it is in a different key to that of the subject
tonal answerwhere the answer is modified to keep it in the same key as that of the subject
Tonal centerUS spelling of 'tonal centre'
Tonal centrethe most prominent pitch-class, i.e. the tonic
Tonale(Latin, German) tonary
Tonal fuguethe term used to describe a fugue in which the answer is a modified reproduction of the subject
Tonal functionrarely found in harmony text books, the entry "tonal function" is subject of many discussions. ... The term "tonal function," normally employed in the sense of "harmonic function," is far from being clearly defined and its use has been vague. Basically, function means harmonic meaning or action, and both terms heve been used differently. For example, harmonic meaning or tonal function might be used as a scalar degree and its variations, used as a root of different chords; or even it can be associated to tendencies of individual pitches of a chord. The most frequent use of the term function has been that of relating the harmonic meaning of an element capable of expressing a tonality with a tonal center, a tonic
Tonalidad(Spanish f.) tonality, key (in music), tonalité (French)
Tonalidad homónima(Spanish f.) or tonalidad paralela, parallel key (a pair of keys, one major and the other minor, with the same key note)
Tonalidad paralelasee tonalidad homónima
Tonalidad relativa(Spanish f.) relative key (for example, the key of A minor is the relative minor to the key of C major, and the key of C major is the relative major to the key of A minor)
Tonal imitationnon-modulating imitation, i.e. imitation within the key of the musical work
Tonalità(Italian f.) tonality
Tonalità affine(Italian f.) relative key
Tonalità relativa(Italian f.) relative key
Tonalität(German f.) tonality
Tonalitats, les(Catalan) the keys
Tonalitätsvorstellung(German f.) the concept of tonality
Tonalité(French f.) tonality, tone, dialling tone (on the telephone), dial tone (on the telephone)
Tonalité à l'armure(French f.) key signature
Tonalité eloignée(French f.) remote key
Tonaliteetti(Finnish) tonality
Tonalité flottante(French f.) vagrant harmony
Tonalité fuyante(French f.) vagrant harmony
Tonaliteit(Dutch) tonality
Tonalité relative(French f.) relative key
Tonalité voisine(French f.) related key
Tonalitytonalità (Italian), Tonalität (German), tonalité (French)
a system of relating pitches or chords
in Western music, a system of relating scale-degree functions, such as tonic, supertonic, mediant, etc
an organizing principle, where an important aspect of music construction is the preeminence of a central pitch or tonic
synonymous with key, where a piece is considered to be governed or organized with respect to a single key
a system of relating keys or key areas for works that modulate, and where tonal closure is deemed important
Tonal memoryin music, tonal memory is the recollection of a previously sounded tone
Tonal musicsee 'atonal'
Tonal music as languagetheories explaining chord progressions (in particular root progressions) in tonal music have been presented by several theorists, including: Rameau, Weber, Schoenberg, McHose and Piston. There have also been some chord progression analyses by computer. Schenker's theory in contrast emphasises the importance of contrapuntal elements in the understanding of musical structure. None of the above theories accurately describes the behaviour of chord progressions in tonal music. Through the systematic analysis of chord progressions, a theory is possible which describes more accurately the patterns of chord progressions within the musical phrase and that, when analysed correctly, root progressions show patterns similar to grammatical structures in language. By these patterns each chord can be fully explained in terms of its role in relation to the musical phrase
Tonal scalesee 'anhemitonic scale'
Tonal sequencesee 'sequence'
tonangebend(German) leading (figurative)
tonante(Italian) thundering, thunderous
Tonarium(Latin) a pitch-pipe
(Latin) tonary
Tonarius(Latin) tonary
Tonart(German f.) key (as in 'the key of C major'), mode, scale, key signature, character of different types of scale (i.e. major, minor, modal, etc.), tone (of voice), a (musical) note
(German f., Swedish) tonality
Tonarten(German f. pl.) scales or modes
Tonartencharakter(German m.) key colour
Tonartssignatur(Swedish) key signature
Tonartvorzeichnung(German n.) key signature
Tonary(from the Latin, tonarium, tonarius, tonale) from the Medieval period, a chant book arranged according to mode
Tonásone of the oldest flamenco styles, with songs that include long moans and sudden halts, relating the tragedies suffered by the incarceration of the Gypsies, chain gangs, hard labour and violent quarrels. There are twenty variants, including martinetes and deblas
Tonatella (s.), Tonatellas (pl.)see tonadilla
Tonausweichung(German) modulation
Tonbakalso called tômbak, a goblet shaped drum made from wood with a drum head is made from lamb or goat skin. The variety of sounds are made from various finger rolling and snapping techniques
Tonband (s.), Tonbänder (pl.)(German n.) recording tape
Tonbandgerät(German n.) tape recorder
Ton bas(French m.) a low, deep tone or note
Ton bemolisé (s.), Tons bemolisés (f.)(French m.) flattened or flatted note
Tonbeugung(German f.) pitch bend
Tonbezeichnung (s.), Tonbezeichnungen (pl.)(German f.) note name
Tonbild(German n.) tone-picture, tone-poem
Tonbildung(German f.) tone production, the study of improving tone production
Ton bouché(French m.) stopped note on a horn
Tonbuchstabe(German m.) note letter-name (correction by Debbie Hogg)
Tonbühne(German f.) orchestra, orchestral platform
Toncharakter(German m.) tone quality
Toncluster(German n,) note cluster, tone cluster
Tondauer(German f.) note duration, tone duration
Ton de chambre(French m.) the pitch (a'=c. 404Hz.) used between 1680-1800 in France and in other parts of Europe
Ton de chasse(French m.) hunting call
Ton de cor(French m.) horn crook
Ton d'écurie(French m.) in the 1630s, French wind instruments (which in this period never played in church) were at a level similar to the Italian mezzo punto. In France that pitch was called ton d'écurie, and woodwinds continued to be made to it until the 18th century
Ton d'eglise (s.), Tons d'eglise (pl.)(French m.) church mode
Ton de la trompette(French m.) trumpet crook
Ton de rechange(French m.) crook, and in particular, spare crook
Ton de trompette(French m.) trumpet crook
Tondeuse(French f.) shears, clippers (for cutting)
Tondeuse à gazon(French f.) a (lawn-)mower
Ton dharsmall Tibetan drum shaped like an hourglass with two pieces of string at the end of which are small round strikers. The drum is turned rapidly left and right. The strikers whip around and alternately strike each drumhead, also known as damaru
Tondichter(German m.) composer, poet
Tondichtung(German f.) tone-poem
Ton dièzé (s.), Tons dièzés(French m.) sharpened or sharped note
Tondo (s.), Tondi (pl.)(Italian) a circular painting, a relief carving within a circular border
tondo(Italian) full-toned
Ton d'Opera(French m.) the pitch, a'=c.393Hz., used between 1660-1750 in the Opera in Paris, France
Ton doux(French m.) sweet tone
tondre(French) to mow (the grass), to shear (sheep), to clip (hair)
Ton du cors(French m.) horn crook
Ton d'ut(French m.) key of C
Tonethe means of creating a relationship or conveying an attitude or mood. By looking carefully at the choices an author makes (in characters, incidents, setting; in the work's stylistic choices and diction, etc.), careful readers often can isolate the tone of a work and sometimes infer from it the underlying attitudes that control and color the story or poem as a whole
(English, Danish) or note, a sound of definite pitch
tuono (Italian), Ton (German), ton (French), the interval equivalent to two semitones, a major 2nd, a whole-tone
tono (Italian), Ton (German), son (French), ton (French), the quality of a sound
the American word for 'note'
a recitational melody in Gregorian chant
Töne(German m. pl.) plural of Ton
Tone armthe arm of a phonograph turntable that holds the cartridge
Toneart(Danish) tonality
Tone clustera truly simultaneous musical chord comprised of consecutive tones separated chromatically: for instance, the tones C, C#, D, D#, E, and F, held at the same time. Variants of the tone cluster include chords comprised of tones separated diatonically or pentatonically and played in unison (on a piano, for example, a chord created by striking a set of consecutive black keys). Tone clusters may also be considered secundal chords. In true tone clusters, the notes are sounded and held fully and synchronically, distinguishing them from ornamented figures involving acciaccaturas and the like. In the context of Western classical music, tone clusters tend to be heard as very dissonant
Tone colorUS spelling of 'tone colour'
Tone coloursee 'timbre'
Tone controlbetween the source of the sound signal and the loudspeaker(s) all sorts of changes to that signal can be made by various tone control circuits. They may be just very simple, or very elaborate, as required by users, and these circuits are often called filters
Tone deafnessalso called 'amusia', 'tune deafness', 'dysmelodia' and 'dysmusia'. A person who is tone deaf lacks relative pitch, the ability to discriminate between notes. Thus one who is tone deaf is unable to accurately discriminate between musical notes and is thus also incapable of reproducing them. However, the particular quality of being tone deaf is descriptive of having difficulty or being unable to correctly hear relative differences between notes, while in common usage it refers to a person's inability to reproduce them accurately. The latter inability is most often caused by lack of musical training or education and not actual tone deafness. However, tone deaf people seem to be only disabled when it comes to music, and they can fully interpret the prosody or intonation of human speech. It has been observed that in societies with tonal languages such as Cantonese and Vietnamese, there are almost no tone deaf people
  • Tone deaf from which this short extract has been taken
Toneelmuziek(Dutch) incidental music
Toneelschrijver(Dutch) playwright
toneelstuk(Dutch) play
Tone generatorsee 'signal generator'
Tonehøjde(Danish) pitch
Tone holesee 'finger hole'
tönen(German) to tune, to sound, to tint (to add colour)
Tonen (van orkest/grammofoon)(Dutch) musical strains or sounds (from an orchestra/a gramophone)
Ton entier(French m.) whole tone, the interval of a major second
Tone paintingthe use of various tone qualities, moods etc. to engender a response in the listener
the response in the listener to various choices of tone colour, mood, etc.
Tone placementlearning the facts about tone placement and resonance make a huge difference in the abilities of a singer. In simple terms, a singer has numerous body cavities (nasal cavity, chest cavity, etc.) and amplifiers (bones, ligaments, etc.) that act as resonators. Focusing the vocal tone through the proper resonating chamber with the proper support is important with regard to controlling and developing your personal sound
Tone poemsymphonic poem
Tone productionthe manner of producing musical notes. In vocal music, it involves the coordination of breath support, resonance of the tone and vowel and consonant sounds. In wind instruments, it involves the coordination of breath support, tonguing, and embouchure. In stringed instruments, it involves the varied uses of the bow and finger movement, such as vibrato
Tone ringon the banjo, elaborate tone enhancers, which actually improved the instrument's sound, tone rings were placed on the top of the wooden banjo rim, allowing the head (which was stretched over the tone ring) to vibrate more freely than when it was just mounted over the rim itself. This greatly increasing the volume. Tone rings usually had round or square profiles, were made of brass or some other metal, and were might be raised slightly above the banjo rim by an additional ring of metal
Tone rowsee 'note-row'
TonescapeTonalsoft Tonescape is a commercial, Windows-based, graphical music composition software developed by Joe Monzo and Chris Wittmann of Tonalsoft, Inc.. As of November 29, 2005, Tonescape is in the final phase of the alpha stage of development. With Tonescape, Tonalsoft aimed to develop a fast, intuitive, and highly extensible standalone digital music production package for electronic music, allowing the user to compose music in any imaginable tuning system. Tonescape is the flagship product from Tonalsoft
  • Tonescape from which this extract has been taken
Tonettesmall black plastic whistle-type instrument which was once popular with elementary school children, now largely superceeded by the more accurately tuned and better sounding recorder
Tonfall(German m.) a cadence
(German m.) inflection, tone (of voice), intonation (accent)
Tonfarbe(German f.) tone-colour, tone quality, timbre
Tonfilm(German m.) sound film (as opposed to 'silent film'), talkie, talking picture
Tonfilmaufnahme(German f.) film recording
Tonfolge(German f.) a tune, a melody, a succession of sounds
Tonfülle(German f.) volume of tone
Tonführung(German f.) melodic or harmonic progression
Tonfilmaufnahme(German f.) film recording
Tonfuss(German m.) meter
T'ongsee 't'ong guitar'
Tonga(Hindi) a light two-wheeled horse-driven Indian cart or carriage
Tongali(Philippines) a four-holed nose flute (one hole in the back) from northern Philippines and played by the Kalinga and other peoples of Luzon. It is a solo instrument played only by men for courting and at funerals
Tongang(German) tune, melody
Tongan music notationa subset of the standard music notation, originally developed by the missionary James Egan Moulton in the 19th century for singing church hymns in Tonga
Tongatongfrom the Philippines, a bamboo tube held in one hand, the closed end at the bottom, and struck against the ground or a hard surface. The palm of the other hand partly opens or closes the open end, changing the timbre
  • Tongatong from which this information has been taken
Tongattung(German f.) the individuality of two modes, the major and the minor
however, Tongeschlecht is more correct
TongboChinese cymbals
Tongedicht(German n.) tone poem
Tongemisch(German n.) tone mixture
Ton générateur(French m.) the fundamental note, or root, of a chord
(French m.) the principal key in which a piece is written
Tongeschlecht(German m., literally 'tonal genus') the character of a mode or scale, for example, whether major or minor
tongesteigert(German) reinforced (in tone)
Tonggu(Chinese) a type of drum
T'ong guitaror 'tong guitar', a form of Korean music developed in the early 1970s. It was heavily influenced by American pop music, and artists in the genre were considered Korean versions of American folk singers. In the 1980s, t'ong became a form of soft rock ballad that earned critical scorn, being described as a 'mindless love affair with american culture'
TonglingChinese hand bell
Tongs(French f. pl.) flip-flops
Tonguethe long, bent, metal bar inside the frame of a Jew's harp, music box, thumb piano, or other plucked idiophone, plucked with the finger or in some other way, the vibration of which produces notes. Where the device uses a ratchet, the tongue is wooden and makes a clicking sound
clapper or beater of a bell
to articulate a note on a wind instrument
the pivoted part of a harpsichord jack which carries the plectrum
Tongue in cheekor to speak with one's tongue in one's cheek, ironicamente (Italian), nicht ernst (German), ironiquement (French), irónicamente (Spanish)
a familiar expression meaning to speak ironically
Tongue-tiedsenza parola (Italian), sprachlos (German), muet (French), mudo (Spanish)
incoherent, unable to express yourself clearly or fluently
Tongue twisterscioglilingua (Italian m.), Zungenbrecher (German m.), (phrase) difficile à prononcer (French f.), trabalenguas (Spanish m.)
a word or group of words difficult to articulate rapidly, usually because of a succession of similar consonantal sounds
Tonguingon wind instruments, the production of tone effects through the use of the tongue, for example, single tonguing, double tonguing, triple tonguing, flutter-tonguing
Tonhalte-Pedal(German n.) sostenuto pedal
[entry provided by Mark Polesky]
Ton haut(French m.) a high note
Tonhöhe(German f.) pitch (of a note), compass, register
Tonhöjd(Sweden) pitch, compass, register
Tonholz(German n.) tone wood
Tonisee tono
Tonictonique (French), tonica (Italian), nota fondamentale (Italian), Tonika (German), tónica (Spanish), first degree of a major or minor scale
the key centre
the note, in relation to which, the actual pitch of the other notes in a scale refer
Tonica(Italian f.) or nota fondamentale, tonic, key-note
Tonica(Dutch) tonic, key-note
Tónica(Spanish f.) tonic, key-note, fondamentale (French), tonique (French)
Tônica(Portuguese) tonic, key-note
Tonic accentemphasis that may be given to notes where their pitch is higher than that of the notes following or preceding them
Tonic chordthe chord based on the tonic of a key or scale
the I chord
Tonic dominant axisthe tonality-defining relationship governed by the tonic and dominant chords, whose roots are a perfect fifth apart
Tonic eleventh chorda six-note chord built in thirds on the first degree of a scale, I
Tonic functiona chord that can substitute for the tonic, for example, the submediant
Tonicisation(French) tonicization
Tonicizationalso called 'false modulation' or 'transitory modulation', tonicization is a process that temporarily allows a chord other than the tonic to function as a goal of motion or point of stability, and therefore, function as a temporary tonic. A chord is said to be "tonicized," when it is preceded by its own dominant, dominant seventh, seven chord, or diminished seventh, that is, the dominant determined by the key of the chord. Tonicization is a local event, unlike modulation, which implies establishing a new key centre and continuing in the new key. Any chord in a major key, except VII, can be preceded by its own dominant. Any chord in the natural minor, except II, can be preceded by its own dominant
Tonic major / Tonic minorthe names given to the two parallel keys that have the same tonic, for example C major (tonic major) and c minor (tonic minor)
Tonic minora jazz scale or chord with a minor 3rd and a major 6th and 7th (for example, a II chord), generally used for the tonic (I) or home chord in minor keys
Tonic pedalan organ point or pedal point on the keynote
Tonic sectiona part of a composition that is writtern in the 'home key', the key of the work (i.e. the key in which it started), with a cadence to the tonic of that key
Tonic seventh chorda four-note chord built in thirds on the first degree of a scale, I
Tonic sol-faa technique of teaching music based upon the 'movable do' system
Tonic triadtriad built on the first degree of the scale
tonificar(Spanish) to tone (muscles, skin)
tonificar los músculos(Spanish) to tone up (muscles)
Toni ficti(Latin) the transposed ecclesiastical tones, or modes
tonifier(French) to tone up
Tonigkeit(German f.) tone quality
Tonika(German f., Danish, Swedish) tonic, keynote
Tonika-Do-Methode(German f.) 'moveable do' solfeggio
Toningthe addition of a metal into a photo emulsion to change the colour of a photograph. Toning is done before or after the fixing procedure. Photographs were often exposed to look dark as toning would lighten the image. Gold was the first metal to be used for toning, which also increases contrast and moves the colour balance toward a cooler blue. Selenium increases the range and richness of tones, sometimes producing silvery highlights with rich purple shadows. Toning gelatin silver prints changes their chemical composition by depositing various compounds on their surface resulting in shades that cover the spectrum
Tonique(French f.) tonal centre, tonic
tonique(French) tonic
tonisch(German) pertaining to the tonic
tonisches Symbol des Kreuzes(German n.) 'sounding' symbol of the cross, religio-musical symbolism that originated with Franz Liszt (1811-1886) but later influenced Richard Wagner (1813-1883), Anton Bruckner (1824-1896) and Gustav Mahler (1860-1911)
Tonitruone(Italian) a sheet of metal used to simulate the sound of thunder
Tonkopf(German m.) magnetic head
Tonkori(Japan) a tube zither placed on the knee with the peg box uppermost and plucked with the fingers of both hands
  • Tonkori from which this extract has been taken
Tonkunde(German m.) the science of music
Tonkunst(German f.) (the art of) music
Tonkünstler(German m.) musician
Tonkünstler-Societätfounded by Florian Gassmann in Vienna in 1771, the concerts of the Tonkünstler-Societät were held at Easter and Christmas to raise money for the widows and orphans of musicians. The programmes usually included one or more vocal items although concertos and symphonies by Viennese composers were played too. Beethoven made his public debut as a pianist and composer at the March 1795 concert of the society
Tonlage(German f.) range, compass, register
tonlängd(Swedish) duration
Tonlehre(German f.) acoustics
Tonleiter(German f.) (musical) scale, gamut
Tonleitern der Pentatonik, Die(German f.) pentatonic (five note) scales
Tonleitern der Heptatonik, Die(German f.) heptatonic (seven note) scales
Tonleitern der Hexatonik, Die(German f.) hexatonic (six note) scales
Tonleitern musikalisch zu spielen(German) to play scales in a musical way
Tonleiterstufe(German f.) degree of the scale
tonlos(German) toneless, tonelessly
Tonmalerei(German f.) tone painting, word painting
Ton majeur(French m.) major key
Tonmalerei(German f.) programme music, tone-painting, musical imagery
Tonmass(German n.) time, i.e. the duration of a beat
Tonmeister (m.), Tonmeisterin (f.)(German) a sound engineer
Tonmesser(German n.) a monochord or sonometer
or 'reed tonmesser', a reed instrument closely related to the harmonium or the symphonion, re-named the concertina in 1833 by its inventor Sir Charles Wheatstone. It was designed to study the non-musical intervals of sounds between 256 and 512 hz. It has 64 brass reeds each producing a note controlled by the 64 stops on the front of the instrument. When a stop is pulled out the air from the belows passes through the windchest , which increases the pressure when squeezed. This air at pressure then blows over the brass reed causing it to vibrate. Many of these instruments were built by Anton Appunn and C. Appunn & Söhne, Hanau, Germany
Ton mineur(French m.) minor key
Tonmischpult(German n.) sound mixer
Ton naturele(French m.) a key without sharps or flats, i.e. C major and A minor
Toning(in gilding) the application of pigment and/or other materials to a gilded surface. Toning can also include the removal of gold from a gilded surface. It literally means toning down the brilliance of a gilded surface. Toning is usually employed to replicate age. Toning is also employed as a final step in the restoration of gilding to replicate the original patination of the object
Tonne(French f.) a metric ton (a unit of weight)
(German f.) a bin, a barrel (cask), a metric ton (a unit of weight)
Tonneau (s.), Tonneaux (pl.)(French m.) the rear part of a motor-car, the back seat of a motor-car, a barrel (for storage), a somersault
Tonnelle(French f.) a bower
tonner(French) to thunder
Tonnerre(French m.) thunder
Tonnetz(German, literally 'tone-network') a conceptual lattice diagram discovered by Leonhard Euler in 1739 that shows a two-dimensional tonal pitch space created by the network of relationships between musical pitches in just intonation. The space was rediscovered in 1866 by Artur von Oettingen. The influential musicologist Hugo Riemann explored the capacity of the space to chart harmonic motion between chords and modulation between keys. Recent research (by music psychologist Carol Krumhansl, music theorist David Lewin, and others) substitutes equal temperament and enharmonic equivalence for just intonation, and explores the group-theoretic and topological aspects of the space
  • Tonnetz from which this extract has been taken
Tono (s.), Toni (pl.)(Italian m.) tone, key, mode, voice, melody, sound, ton (French)
the titles to many Italian and Spanish pieces include a reference to the tono in which the work is written. The classification of the 8 toni, dates back to Cicero, who described their alignment with specific planets and heavenly bodies, and their character. Occasionally the piece retains the inherent characteristics of a tono but has been transposed, either up or down one tone:
modetonefinalruling planetcharacteristics and effects
Doriantone 1DSunhappy as well as serious, modest; disperses laziness, the sadness of the heart and heavy sleep
Hypodoriantone 2DMoonmoves to tears of sadness, induces sleep/dreams, laziness
Phrygiantone 3EMarsinflames the heart to anger; terrible and frightening; provokes pride and lies
Hypophrygiantone 4EMercurymoves to both sadness and happiness, to meekness
Lydiantone 5FJupitermoves to happiness; very benevolent influences favouring human nature; purifies foul air
Hypolydiantone 6FVenusbenign influences, promoting tenderness, devotion, piety and love of God
Mixolydiantone 7GSaturnmelancholic, induces a love of solitude, thoughtful but inconstant; can make sad, and move to weeping, and to internal unrest
Hypomixolydiantone 8Gall planets and starsserious, pours spiritual joy into the soul and fervent yearning for the things eternal and a view of our Creator
Tono (s.), Tonos (pl.)(Spanish m.) song, key, tone (musical interval), tone (quality of sound, quality of voice), melody, sound, tune, tone (mood, style)
Tono corista(Italian m.) also tuono chorista or tuono corista, a pitch one whole tone below Cornet-ton (a'=465Hz) - therefore about a'=413Hz.
Tono de marcar(Spanish m.) dialing tone (telephone)
Tono de timbrar(Spanish m.) ringing tone (telephone)
Tono de voz(Spanish m.) tone of voice
Tono divino(Spanish m.) sacred song
Tono humano(Spanish m.) a secular Castilian-language texted work performed in the context of theatrical productions and as chamber music. As a genre, the tono humano is a vocal composition of one or more voices, usually with a structure that is based on a combination of estribillo (refrain) and coplas (verses)
Tonoi(Greek) plural of 'tonos'
Tono internacional(Spanish m.) or tono francés, diapasón normal
Tono intero(Italian m.) whole tone, the interval of a major second
Tono maggiore(Italian m.) in Zarlino's natural scale, the major tone, the difference between a perfect fifth (3:2) and a perfect fourth (4:3), thus (9:8)
(Italian m.) major key
Tono medio(Italian m.) meantone
Tonometeror 'tuning fork tonometer', a device invented by the German physicist Johann Heinrich Scheibler (1777-1837) which was one of the first accurate methods for measuring musical pitch. It consisted of 52 forks tuned from A 219 2/3 to A 439 1/2 at 69 degrees Fahrenheit. The device and his amazingly accurate method of measuring beats were described in Scheibler's book The Physical and Musical Tonometer. Rudolph Koenig manufactured scientific instruments in Koenigsburg (1858-1901), including tonometers which he calibrated in 4hz increments. He displayed and sold one of these at the 1876 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia, USA
Tono minore(Italian m.) in Zarlino's natural scale, the minor tone (10:9)
(Italian m.) minor key
Tono poco amigable(Spanish m.) rather unfriendly manner
Tono relativo(Italian m.) relative key
Tonos (s.), Tonoi (pl.)(Greek) a term with various meanings in the tradition of ancient Greek music theory. It could refer to a pitch, tasis, a note, phthongos, the size of an interval, diastema, or a 'scalar mode' tropos sustematikos. The last two definitions came to be synonymous as a reference to the pitch of the musical system
Aristoxenus compared the disagreements about the number and pitch of the tonoi to the disparities between the calendars of Corinth and Athens. Cleonides (author of uncertain date, between 2nd and 4th centuries AD) summarized Aristoxenus: the word tonos, he wrote, has four meanings - note, interval, region of the voice, and pitch. Aristoxenus recognized 13 tonoi; Alypius (ca. 3rd- or 4th-century) gave tables of notation for 15. Ptolemy cast out all but seven of the tonoi based on the belief that height of pitch (register) was not the only important source of variety and expression in music and that the arrangement of intervals within a vocal register was more important
Tono sinfónico(Spanish m.) pitch standard from the 19th century, a' (or A4 or la3)=452Hz.
Tonotechnie(French) the art of marking the notes on the cylinder of a barrel organ
Ton patalaBurmese iron xylophone
Ton pythagoricien(French m.) major tone, the just major second, the Pythagorean interval equivalent to the frequency ratio of 9:8
Tonqualität(German f.) tone quality
Tonrad(German n.) tone wheel
Tonreihe(German f.) note-row, tone-row (serial music)
Ton ronflant(French m.) growling note, Schnarrender Ton (German m.)
Tons(French m. pl.) plural form of ton
Tonsatz(German m.) a composition, compositional technique, a musical phrase
tonsätz(German) multivoice
Tonsätze(German pl.) a multivoice work
Tons boucés(French m. pl.) stopped notes on a horn
Tonschluss(German m.) a cadence
Tonschlüssel(German m.) key, keynote
Tonschrift(German f.) musical notes, pitch notation
Tons d'église(French m. pl.) the church modes
Tons de la trompette(French m. pl.) the crooks used to alter the pitch or key of the trumpet
Tons du cor(French m. pl.) the crooks used to alter the pitch or key of the horn
Tonsetzer(German m., literally 'note setter') a composer
however the term is less flattering than Tondichter
Tonsetzkunst(German f.) the art of musical composition
Tonsetzung(German f.) a musical composition
Tonsignet(German n.) a jingle
Tonsileither of two small organs, one on each side of the root of the tongue
Tonsilbe(German) accented syllable
Tonsillectomysurgical removal of the tonsils
Tonsillitisinflammation of the tonsils
Tons naturels(French m. pl.) the natural notes on a brass instrument
Tonsorialof a hairdresser or hairdressing (usually jocular)
Tons ouverts(French m.) the natural notes on a brass instrument
Tonspur(German f.) or Soundtrack (German m.), soundtrack
Tonstärke(German f.) intensity of sound
Tonstück(German m.) a musical composition
Tonstufe(German f.) scale degree, a step of the stave
Tonsureshaving of the crown of the head or the entire head, especially of a person entering the priesthood or a monastic order
bare patch made by shaving of the crown of the head or the entire head
give a tonsure to (usually a person entering the priesthood or a monastic order)
Tonsymbolik(German f.) tonal symbolism
Tonsystem(German n.) a tonal system, the science of harmony, a musical scale
Tonte(French f.) mowing (a meadow), shearing (sheep)
Tonton(French m.) uncle (familiar)
Tontraube(German f.) tone cluster
Tontrom(Dutch) barrel-shaped drum
Tonumfang(German m.) compass
Tonus(Latin) mode, tone, sound
(French m.) energy
(Latin) in music, an interval of a major 2nd
Gregorian tone or plainchant recitation formula, of which there were many, one for each of the modes and several more besides
Tonus contrarius(Latin, literally 'contrary melody' or 'counterpoint') apparently in reference to highly ornamented and harmonically daring chorale variations that Bach composed after his return from hearing Buxtehude's Abendmusik
Tonus currens(Latin) the reciting note, the repercussion note, Reperkussionston (German)
Tonus peregrinus(Latin, literally 'wandering note') a Medieval term for an 'irregular' psalm note, i.e. a psalm in which the tenor changes in pitch, that is, there are two different reciting notes
Tonverhalt(German) rhythm
Tonverschmelzung(German f.) tonal fusion, a theory propounded by Carl Friedrich Stumpf (1848-1936), based on the tendency of certasin combinations of tones to be perceived as a single sound image, the intervals most strongly demonstrating this effect being the unsion, the octave and the perfect fifth
Tonverstärker(German m.) sound amplifier
Tonwerkzeug(German n,) a natural or artificial musical instrument, i.e. the human voice, a violin, flute, trumpet, etc.
Tonwertverlauf(German) in music, a scale passage
Tonwissenschaft(German) the science of music
Tonzeichen(German n.) any sign used in musical notation
tonzentrale Einführung(German f.) or tonzentrale Modulation (German f.), common-note modulation (UK), common-tone modulation (US)
[entry by Michael Zapf]
tonzentrale Modulation(German f.) or tonzentrale Einführung (German f.), common-note modulation (UK), common-tone modulation (US)
[entry by Michael Zapf]
Toogtredivtedelsnode
demisemiquaver(Danish) a demisemiquaver or thirty-second note, a note one thirty-second the time value of a semibreve or whole note
Toogtredivtedelspause
demisemiquaver rest(Danish) a demisemiquaver rest or thirty-second rest, a rest one thirty-second the time value of a semibreve rest or whole rest
Too muchmore than is required, troppo (Italian), zu viel (German), trop (French)
Toon(Dutch) note, tone
(English, colloquial) cartoon (film)
tooneelstuk(Dutch) play
Toonhoogte(Dutch) pitch
Toon kleiner dan een halve toon(Dutch, literally 'note of less than a semitone') microtone
Toonaard(Dutch) key
toondemper(Dutch) damper, mute
Toondichter(Dutch) composer
Toonhoogte(Dutch) pitch
toonika(Finnish) tonic
Toonkleur(Dutch) timbre
Toonkunstenaar(Dutch) musician
Toonladder(Dutch) gamut, scale
Toonladdertrappen(Dutch) scale degrees
toonloze Stem(Dutch) toneless voice
Toonregeling(Dutch) tone control
Toonsafstand(Dutch) interval
Toonschaal(Dutch) gamut, scale
Toonsoort (voortekens)(Dutch) key signature
toonzetten(Dutch) to set to music
Toonzetting(Dutch) musical composition, musical setting
Topthe point, in jazz, from where a chorus starts (i.e. the beginning of a tune, which will be after the intro, when there is one, or from where the band starts when 'right on it')
(French m.) stroke (as on the stroke of midnight)
the first beat of the first measure, hence 'let's go from the top' meaning 'let's go from the beginning'
TopanKosovar Albanian percussion instrument, a short wooden cylinder covered at each open end with leather-stretched with rope that is played with two wooden drumsticks
Top CC, two octaves above 'middle C'
see 'octave'
Topee(Hindi) a sun-helmet, an insulated hat designed to protect the wearer against sunstroke
Topf(German m.) a pot, a (cooking) pan
Topfen(German m.) a curd cheese
Töpfer, Töpferin(German) a potter
Töpferei(German f.) pottery (where pots are made)
Töpferwaren(German f. pl.) pottery (pots, etc.)
Topflappen(German m.) an oven-cloth
Topfpflanze(German) a potted plant
Toph(Hebrew) tambourine or drums (Genesis 31:27)
Topical songa song that comments on current political and social events. Typically, these songs offer a mix of narrative and commentary
Toplineto star, to be billed above the title of a show or film
Toplinera star of a particular show or film
Topo(French m.) atalk (familiar), an oral report
Topoi (s.), Topos (pl.)(Greek) or 'phrasing referent', a short, distinct and often memorable rhythmic figure of modest duration, that serves as a point of temporal reference in ensemble playing
Toponyma place-name
Topos(Greek) in linguistics, a figure of speech which has become stereotyped, a rhetorical cliché
Toquade(French f.) a craze, an infatuation (for a person)
Toque(French) a woman's headdress resembling a low turban of twisted silk or other rich material, a fur hat, a (jockey's) cap, a chef's hat
(Portuguese) touch
flamenco guitar
flamenco interpretation on the guitar
a specific flamenco form
santería, a religion that developed amongst the African slaves brought to Cuba, influenced Cuba's music, as percussion is an inherent part of the religion. Each orisha, or deity, is associated with colours, emotions, Roman Catholic saints and drum patterns called toques
toqué (m.), toquée (f.)(French) 'cracked', dotty, irresponsible, crazy
Toque compásguitar playing which involves fixed rhythmic beat patterns
Toque libreguitar playing in a free form rhythmic style
Tor(German m.) a fool
(German n.) a gate, a gateway, a goal (in sport)
Toraja dances
Toraja songs
Torbanor teorban, an Eastern European musical instrument that combined features of the Baroque lute with those of the psaltery. It was invented in about 1700, probably influenced by the central European type of the theorbo known as angélique which Cossack mercenaries would have encountered in the Thirty Years War (1618-1648)
  • Torban from which this extract has been taken
Torbellino(Ecuador) a folk music genre, part of the country's Afro-Ecuadorian tradition
Torbogen(German m.) an archway
Torche(French f.) a torch
torcher(French) to wipe (familiar)
Torchère(French f.) a tall ornamental candlestick or lamp-stand
Torchon(French m.) a dish-cloth, a duster, a tea-towl, a dish-towel, a coarse bobbin-lace of loose mixture, a kind of rough paper used for water-colour painting
Torch songa song describing an unrequited love, derived from the expression 'to carry a torch' for someone
Torculussee 'neume notation'
Torculus respinussee 'neume notation'
Tordiglione(Italian) tordion
Tordiglióne(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) a kind of dance in Spaine
Tordiona lively basse-dance of the 16th-century that resembles the galliard
tordre(French) to twist, to wring
tordu(French) twisted, bent, warped
Toréa religious rhythm of the Fulni-o Indians in Brazil, where messages for protection are sent to the ancestors
Toreador(Spanish m.) a bull-fighter (originally, a bull-fighter on horse-back - the term is no longer in use)
Torero(Spanish m.) a bull-fighter (originally, a bull fighter on foot - the term is applied generally to all types of bull-fighter)
Torf(German m.) peat
Torheit(German f.) folly
Torhüter(German m.) a goalkeeper
töricht(German) foolish, foolishly
torkeln(German) to stagger
Tornada, Tornadasa refrain from a Catalonian folk song
see vers
see envoi or envoy
(Spanish) melody, tune
a term widely used in Spanish speaking Latin-America and Brazil to refer to a song with guitar accompaniment, in a major key and at a slow tempo
Tornade(French f.) a tornado
tornare(Italian) to return
tornando(Italian) returning
tornando al primo tempo(Italian) return to the original tempo
tornando al tempo(Italian) return to the former tempo
tornando come prima(Italian) return to the original tempo
Tornister(German m.) a knapsach, a satchel
Töröksíp(Hungarian, literally 'Turkish pipe') an oboe-like double-reeded pipe made of maple, that was introduced into Hungary by the Turks. Instruments of this type are known to all Asiatic people, from Tibet to Japan. The töröksíp was a military shawm, but it could be found together with the bass drum in dances from Transylvania in the 17th- and 18th-centuries
Torpeur(French f.) a lethargy
Torpfosten(German m.) a goal-post
Torque(French) a collar or bracklet made of a twisted strip of precious metal (associated particularly with Celtic peoples)
in science, a rotary force
Torráslively dance from the province Ciudad Real, Spain, in which the dancers line up in rows
torréfier(French) to roast
Torrent(French m.) a torrent
torrentiel (m.), torrentielle (f.)(French) torrential
torride(French) torrid
Torsade(French f.) a twist
Torse(French m.) chest, torso
Torso (s.), Torsi (pl.)(Italian) the trunk of the human body from neck to hip
(Italian) (og a work of literature, etc.) of which the main part but not the whole is extant
Tort(French m.) a wrong
Torte(German f.) a gateau, a flan
Torticolis(French m.) a stiff neck
Torticollis(Latin) in medicine, a rheumatic affection of the muscles of the neck resulting in the permanent twisting of the head to one side
Tortilla(Spanish) a thin round cake made of maize-flour
tortiller(French) to twist, to twirl
Tortillon(French) a stump of paper rolled into the form of a pointed cylinder, used for shading chalk and pencil drawings
Tortionnaire(French m.) a torturer
Tortue(French f.) a tortoise, a turtle
tortueux (m.), tortueuse (f.)(French) tortuous (explanation), twisting (path)
Tortur(German) torture
torturer(French) to torture
torvo(Italian) grim
Torwart(German m.) a goalkeeper
To-sangaku(Japanese) see togaku
tosen(German) to roar, to rage
tossire(Italian) to cough
Tossisce(Italian) coughs
tostamente(Italian) quickly, rapidly
tostissimamente(Italian) extremely rapidly, very promptly
tostissimo(Italian) very rapid, very prompt
tosto(Italian) quick, rapid, swift, at once
tot(German) dead
tôt(French) early
total(French) to conclude (familiar), in short
(German) total, totally
totalement(French) totally
Total harmonic distortionor THD, a measurement of the harmonic distortion present in a signal, defined as the ratio of the sum of the powers of all harmonic components to the power of the fundamental frequency. Lesser THD allows the components in a loudspeaker, amplifier or microphone or other equipment to produce a more accurate reproduction by reducing harmonics added by electronics and audio media
totaliser(French) to total
totalitär(German) totalitarian
totalitaire(French) totalitarian
Totalité(French f.) entirety
totalité de, la(French) all of
Totalschaden(German m.) a write-off
Total serialismor integral serialism, complex, totally controlled music where the twelve-tone principle is extended to elements of music other than pitch, for example, rhythm. Pierre Boulez (a student of Messiaen's) and Milton Babbitt developed Total Serialism separately, and created enormously complicated mathematical systems to generate matrices for the integration of events
Tote (m.), Toter (f.)(German) a dead man (m.), a dead woman (f.), a fatality
Totem(Algonquin) the hereditary emblem (often an animal) of a tribe or clan particularly of American Indians
Totemismin its most specific sense, the term applies to the religious practices of the Native American Ojibiwa tribe, i.e., a religious belief in which a family or a clan would be watched over assisted by a totem-spirit. Today, anthropologists and scholars of comparative religion apply the term generally to such beliefs among Native American tribes and find analogues in Western and Eastern Europe, Africa, Australia and the Arctic Circle
Totem-polepole on which totems are carved or hung
töten(German) to kill
Toten, die(German m. pl.) the dead
tötenblaß(German) deathly pale
Totengräber(German m.) a grave-digger
Totenkopf(German m.) a skull
toten Punkt haben, einen(German) to be at a low ebb (figurative, meaning to be extremely exhausted and/or very depressed)
Totenmesse(German f.) requiem mass
Totenschein(German m.) a death certificate
Totenstille(German f.) a deathly silence
Totentanz(German m.) (in French, Danse Macabre) the Dance of Death, an allegorical representation of Death leading all conditions of men to the grave
Totentanzorgelinstalled in 1477 on the eastern side of the crossed nave of Marien zu Lübeck (German: St Mary's of Lübeck) and so named because of the Totentanzkapelle (Death dance chapel), which was already established to serve and hold requiems. After the Church Reformation it was used for prayers and for Holy Communion services. In 1549 and 1558 Jakob Scherer added to the organ among other things, a Rückpositiv and in 1621 it received chest work. In addition, extensive repair work was completed by Friedrich Stellwagen during 1653-55, though afterwards only smaller modifications were made to the organ. By this point the organ itself had accumulated various worldwide interest, along with the Arp-Schnitger-Orgel in St Jacob's of Hamburg and the Klein Orgel (small organ) in the St Jacob's Church of Lübeck. In 1937 it was restored with the primary goal to bring it to a condition of how it would have been in the 16th and 17th century. The organ was played upon by Dieterich Buxtehude (c.1637-1707) and, due to requests asking for it to be examined when it needed repair, most probably by Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750). It was destroyed by incendiaries on the night of Palm Sunday over the period 28-29 March, 1942
totfahren(German) to run over and kill
totgeboren(German) stillborn
T'otherthe other (colloquial or jocular)
tot het einde(Dutch) to the end
toties quoties(Latin) as often as occasion demands, repeatedly
Toto(German n./m.) football pools
toto caelo(Latin) diametrically (opposed)
Totodzismall open-bottom barrel drum from Ghana
Totoschein(German) football pools coupon
tôt ou tard(French) sooner or later
totschießen(German) to shoot dead
Totschlag(German m.) manslaughter
totschlagen(German) to kill
totschweigen(German) to hush up (figurative)
Totterto stand or walk unsteadily or feebly, to shake as if about to collapse
Totting-upadding up separate items (on a bill, etc.)
Tötung(German f.) a killing
fahrlässige Tötung (German: manslaughter)
Toubib(French m.) a doctor (familiar)
Toucantropical American fruit-eating bird with an immense beak
Touchtasto (Italian), Anschlag (German), toucher (French)
the art of depressing, striking, releasing, etc. the keys of a keyboard instrument to produce the required sound quality
the amount of force the needs to be applied to a key on a keyboard instrument due to the mechanism's inherent resistance which is characterised by describing the touch as being 'heavy', light', elastic', etc. Some electronic keyboards have touch-control allowing the player to vary this resistance
like 'tucket' of Tusch, a fanfare for trumpets and timpani
"He (Chambonnières) had a delicacy of hand that others lacked, in a such a way that if he played a chord and someone else imitated him in doing exactly the same, one perceived nonetheless a great difference - and the reason is, as I have said, that he had a different manner of approaching the keyboard and of placing his fingers on the keys that was unknown to others".
Jean Le Gallois: Lettre de M. Gallois à Mme. Regnault de Solier touchant la musique, (Paris, 1680)
"Touch is not (only) a question of articulation, of going from one note to another; it is a method of going from one rhetorical gesture to another. That depends on time and the blending and building up of resonance - how long one holds the notes further than their written value and which notes one chooses to blend them with, by putting things together under the same harmony or things that are not in the same harmony. One can only do it by listening to the instrument. The Flemish-style harpsichord, in particular the noble and luxurious instruments by Ruckers and Couchet valued by Chambonnières, has a ring, a very long sustaining quality that allows one to blend things in a way that short scaled, earlier instruments do not encourage. Resonance is something that changed the technique of the harpsichord, allowing it to win out over the lute. This is what composers were looking for - the absolute maximum of resonance".
ref. Capriccio Stravagante - Skip Sempé
touchant (m.), touchante (f.)(French) touching (moving)
Touche(French f.) Griffbrett (German n.), Fingerbrett (German n.), tastiera (Italian f.), fingerboard, fretboard
(French f.) the 'key' on a keyboard instrument
(French f.) in the 16th-century, 'a fret'
(French f.) touch (of paint)
touché(French) admitting that a thrust in argument has hit its mark
Touche-à-tout(French m.) a meddler, a busybody
Touche blanche(French f.) on a keyboard, a white key (on a traditional keyboard, synonymous with touche diatonique)
Touche chromatique(French f.) on a traditional piano keyboard, the black key (or touche noire)
touche de, une(French) a touch of
Touche de la guitare(French f.) guitar fingerboard
Touche diatonique(French f.) on a traditional piano keyboard, the black key (or touche blanche)
touche mélodieuse(French) in a singing style, with a singing tone
Touche noire(French f.) on a keyboard, a black key (on a traditional keyboard, synonymous with touche chromatique)
Toucher(Dutch, French m.) touch (the sense of)
toucher(French, literally 'to play') to play, to touch, to move, to get in touch with, to hit (the target), to draw (money), to cash (a cheque), to affect (to concern)
toucher à(French) to touch, to touch on (question), to approach (the end)
toucher un chèque(French) to cash a check
Touches(French f. pl.) the 'keys' of a keyboard instrument
the frets of a guitar, lute, viol, etc.
Touches bloquées(French f. pl., literally 'blocked keys.) the title given to one of György Ligeti's piano etudes (book I, no. 3), the term is also often given to a piano technique Ligeti employed in that work, among others, that involved silently-held notes in one hand with the other hand rapidly playing over both the held and unheld keys. The sounding notes in the rapidly-moving hand comprise an often complicated rhythm that is difficult to play in any other way. The technique is also utilized in Ligeti's Three Pieces for Two Pianos no. 2
[entry provided by Brandon Hendrix]
Touches mélodieuses(French f. pl.) in a singing style, cantabile
Touchettesthe frets of a guitar, mandoline, etc.
Touch guitarstyle similar to 'tapping', where the pick hand is used to play lead while rhythm is played simultaneously with the fret hand
Touffe(French f.) a tuft, a clump (of plants)
touffu(French) thick, bushy, complex (figurative)
Tou gamou tragoudi(Greek) Cretan wedding song
Touguansee guanzi
toujours(French) always, still, anyhow
toujours de l'audace(French) audacity always pays
toujours la politesse(French) politeness always pays
toujours perdrix(French, literally 'always partridge') too much of a good thing
Touloulou(French, Pyrenees) the local name of the rhombe or bull-roarer
Toumeleki(Greek) a small drum, made of metal or clay, cylindrical in shape shape, with one side is open and the other covered with a leather membrane. It is called tymbeleki in Evroa, tsimbourleki in Thessaly, tarabouka in Lesvos and is similar to the Turkish and North African darbooka and the Greek doumbeleki
Toupee(anglicized French) toupet
Toupet(French m.) or toupée, a patch of false hair to cover a bald spot on the scalp, cheek (familiar), nerve
(German n.) a toupee
Toupie(French f.) a top (toy)
toupieren(German) to back-comb (hair)
Touquet(French m.) toccata
Tour(French m.) a tower, a tower block, a rook (in chess)
(French m.) a turn (movement), volta (Italian f., Portuguese f.)
(French m.) a trip (excursion), a walk, a drive (in a car), a trick, circumference, a lathe (machine)
(French m.) or tour sur place, in ballet, a full turn of the body on the point of the toe with the toe of the free leg at the knee of the other, a pirouette
(German f.) a tour (journey), a trip, a drive (in a car), a ride, a distance, a revolution (engineering), a way (familiar)
Tourbe(French f.) peat
Tourbillon(French) or tourbillion (anglicized French), a whirlwind, a waterspout, a whirlpool, a vortex, an unceasing round (of gaiety, etc.), whirl (figurative), swirl (figurative)
tourbilloner(French) to whirl, to swirl
Tour de chant(French m.) an entertainment given by a singer, a performance of characteristic songs, song recital
in French baroque music, an ornamental form comprising a mordent followed by a trill
Tour de contrôle(French m.) control tower (airport)
Tour de force (s.), Tours de force (pl.)(French m.) in dance, an arresting, vital step
in dance, a feat of technical skill such as a series of brilliant pirouettes or a combination of outstanding jumps and beats
on an instrument or with a voice, a bravura display of great technical prowess and emotional power
commonly, the implication is that the performance is more concerned with display than any other merit
Tour de gosier(French m.) turn (a musical ornament)
Tour de passe-passe(French m.) a sleight of hand
Tour de piste(French m.) a lap
Tour de promenade(French m.) see promenade, tour de
tour de rôle, à(French) in turn
Tour de taille(French) waist measurement, waistline
Tour d'horizon(French m.) a (general) survey
Tourdion(French) tordion
Tourelle(French f.) a turret
Tour en l'air(French m., literally 'turn in the air') volta no ar (Portuguese), in dance, this is essentially a male dancer's step although contemporary choreographers use this tour for girls. lt is a turn in the air in which the dancer rises straight into the air from a demi-plié, makes a complete turn and lands in the fifth position with the feet reversed. The turn may be single, double or triple according to the ability of the dancer. The arms assist and the head must spot as in pirouettes. Tour en l'air may also be finished in various poses such as attitude, arabesque, grande seconde or on one knee. It may also be done in a series
Tourisme(French m.) tourism
Tourismus(German m.) tourism
Tourist(English, German m.) one who goes on a tour
Touriste(French m./f.) a tourist
touristique(French) touristic, scenic
Tourment(French m.) torment
tourmenté(French) distressingly or anxiously, restlessly, breathlessly, agitatedly, affannosamente (Italian), con angustia (Italian), con affanno (Italian), affannoso (Italian), anxious, with anxiety, bangend (German), anxieusement (French)
tourmenter(French) to torment
Tournage(French m.) shooting (cinema)
Tournant(French m.) a bend, a turning-point (figurative)
tournant (m.), tournante (f.)(French) revolving
tournant, en(French, literally 'turning') in dance, a term indicating that the body is to turn while executing a given step, as, for example, in assemblé en tournant
tourné(French) turned, shaped into barrel- or large olive-shapes
Tourne-disque(French m.) a record-player
Tournedos(French) a small fillet steak
Tournee(German f.) a tour
Tournée(French f.) round (voyage, drinks), a (theatrical) tour
tourner(French) to turn, to shoot (a film), to make (a film), to spin, to run (a motor)
tourner au froid(French) to turn cold
tourner autour de(French) to go round, to hang around (a person, etc.), to revolve round, to centre on (question)
tourner de l'oeil(French) to faint
tourner en dérision(French) to mock
tourner en ridicule(French) to ridicule
tourner le dos à(French) to turn one's back on
tourner mal(French) to turn out badly
tourner sept fois sa langue dans sa bouche avant de parler(French) to think long and hard before speaking
tourner sur la droite(French) to turn right
tourner sur la gauche(French) to turn left
tourner sur l'église(French) to turn toward the church
tourner vers la droite(French) to turn to the right
tourner vers la gauche(French) to turn to the left
Tournesol(French m.) a sunflower
Tourneur de pages (m.), Tourneuse de pages (f.)(French) page turner
Tournevis(French m.) a screwdriver
Tourneya musical piece created for a tournament, especially popular in 17th-century Italy and France, as part of weddings and other festive occasions
Tournez vivement(French) turn over quickly, volti subito
Tourniquet(French) any device for stopping the flow of blood, either before or after the event, a turnstile
Tournoi(French m.) a tournament
tournoyer(French) to whirl
Tournure(French f.) manner or bearing (especially a manner suited to polite society), a turn of phrase, a turn
Tour sur place(French m.) or tour, in ballet, a full turn of the body on the point of the toe with the toe of the free leg at the knee of the other, a pirouette
Tourte(French f.) a pie
Tourterelle(French f.) a turtle-dove
tous, toutes(French) all
tous ces gens(French) all these people
tous les deux (m.), toutes les deux (f.)(French) both of them
tous les deux jours(French) every other day
tous les enfants(French) all the children
Tous les goûts sont dans la nature.(French) It takes all kinds (to make a world).
tous les jours(French) every day
tous les mois(French) every month
tous les trois(French) all three (of them)
Toussaint, la(French f.) All Saints' Day
tousser(French) to cough
Tout(French m.) whole
(English) any person who solicits business or employment in an importune manner (generally equivalent to a 'solicitor' in American English, or a 'spruiker' in Australian English). A ticket tout is someone who engages in ticket resale for more than the face value of the ticket (though a ticket reseller is known as a 'scalper' rather than a 'solicitor' in North American and Australian parlance)
tout, toute, tous, toutes(French) all, any, entirely
(French) very, quite
tout à coup(French) suddenly, all of a sudden, a sudden (blow, noise, surprise, etc.)
tout à fait(French) completely, quite
tout à fait exact(French) dead right
tout à fait juste(French) dead right
Tout-à-l'égout(French m.) main drainage
tout à l'heure(French) in a moment, a moment ago
tout au bout(French) right at the end
tout au début(French) right at the start, right at the beginning
tout au long de(French) throughout
tout au moins(French) at least
tout au plus(French) at most, at the very most
tout autour(French) all around
tout bonnement(French) quite simply
tout ce que(French) all that
tout comprendre, c'est tout pardonner(French) to understand everything is to forgive everything
tout compris(French) (all) inclusive
tout confort(French) with all mod cons
tout court(French) without anything added (to the word or phrase cited)
there is an implication that some additional phrase is required for accuracy or courtesy
tout de même(French) all the same
Tout dépend de(French) It all depends on
tout de suite(French) right away, straight away, all at once, immediately (originally, consecutively)
tout droit(French) straight ahead
tout d'un coup(French) all of a sudden, suddenly
toute cette tristesse(French) all this sadness
toute la journée(French) all day
toute ma famille(French) my whole family
tout enfant(French) every child
toutes ces idées(French) all of these ideas
Tout est bien qui finit bien.(French) All's well that ends well.
toutefois(French) however
toute la journée(French) the whole day
toute la machine(French) the entire mechanism
toute la nuit(French) the whole night
tout en chantant(French) while singing
tout en marchant(French) while walking
tout ensemble(French) the whole (of something), the general effect (of a work of art, etc.), all together
tout entier(French) whole
tout juste(French) only just, barely
Tout laisse à penser que...(French) There is every indication that...
tout laisser en plan(French) to drop everything
tout l'archet(French) whole bow (that is, the whole length of the bow)
tout le bazar(French) the whole lot
tout le contraire(French) quite the opposite
tout le long de(French) throughout
tout le monde(French) everyone
tout le pays(French) the whole country
tout le temps(French) all the time
tout neuf(French) brand-new
tout nu(French) stark naked
tout premier, le(French) the very first
tout près(French) nearby
tout-puissant (m.), toute-puissante (f.)(French) omnipotent, all-powerful
Tout se paie(French) Everything has its price
tout seul(French) alone
Tout soldat a dans son sac son batôn de maréchal.(French) The sky is the limit. (colloquial)
tout un paquet(French) the whole packet
Tout va le mieux du monde.(French) Everything is going beautifully.
Tout vient à point à qui sait attendre.(French) All things come to those who wait.
Toux(French f.) a cough
Tower music(English) Turmmusik
Tower sonatasor Turmmusik, compositions for a small group of wind instruments that were played from church steeples and towers
Township jivesee mbaqanga
Toxicomane(French m./f.) a drug addict
Toxine(French f.) toxin
toxique(French) toxic
Toyalternative spelling of 'toy'
Toyea light piece for virginals from the 16th- and early 17th-centuries
Toynbee Hallestablished in 1888, the first of the University Settlement houses, set up by Canon Barnet to bring middle-class students in touch with working class communities and carry out social relief work. Among the students that passed through its doors were C.R. Ashbee. William Beveridge and Clement Attlee

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