music dictionary : Ts - Tz

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t.s.abbreviation of tasto solo (Italian: one key alone)
T.Sax.abbreviation of 'tenor saxophone'
Tsabouna(Greek islands) a Greek wind instrument over 2000 years old, made of goatskin. It is inflated from one end, and while the musician blows from the mouthpiece, he plays the chanter (limited to only 6 notes) located at the other end of the instrument. While resembling a bagpipe has no fixed drone
  • Tsabouna from which this extract has been taken
Tsalor(Thailand) a spike fiddle with a coconut shell as its body and a thin soundboard
TsambalRomanian hammered dulcimer
Tsambounasee tsabouna
Tsambunasee tsabouna
Tsamikos(Greek) dance performed in different styles in different Greek regions
Tsampounasee tsabouna
Tsapikapopular Malagasy dance rhythm from Fort Dauphin/Tulear, in the south
TschanggoKorean and Siberian drum
Tsar(French m.) czar
see czar
Tsarevitchsee czarevitch
Tsarinasee czarina
Tsaritsasee czaritza
tschech.abbreviation of tschechisch (German: Czech - tchèque (French))
Tscheche (m.), Tschechin (f.)(German) Czech
tschechisch(German) Czech
Tschechoslowakei (die)(German f.) Czechoslovakia
Tschinellen(German) Turkish cymbals
tschüs(German) (good)bye, cheerio
Tsevnitsasee kuvichky
Tshidzholoan African musical bow
Tsifteteli(Greek) a type of music bought over by refugees from Asia Minor in the 1920s, in its most popular form, Greek belly dance music
(Greek) dance often performed by gypsies in the Café-amans
(Greek) one of the dances performed by rebetes (vagabonds or underworld criminals)
Tsigane(French m./f.) (Hungarian) gipsy
Romanies are generally known in spoken French as gitans or tsiganes
a rhapsodic composition by the French composer Maurice Ravel. It was commissioned by and dedicated to Hungarian violinist Jelly d'Arányi, great-niece of the influential violin virtuoso Joseph Joachim. The original instrumentation was for violin with accompaniment by luthéal. The first performance took place in London on April 26, 1924
  • Tzigane from which this extract has been taken
tsigane(French) (Hungarian) gipsy
Tsii'edo'a'tlthe Apache name for this two-stringed bowed zither means 'wood that sings'. It is held against the chest or stomach and bowed like a European fiddle
Tsikadrahasee sikadraha
Tsimbourlekisee toumbeleki
Tsinidi'ni'(Apache) North-American bull roarer
TsimblJewish hammered-dulcimer
Tsmesissee tmesis
Tsuba(Japanese) the guard on the hilt of a (Japanese) sword
Tsugaru-jamisen(Japanese) an early 20th-century style of shamisen playing that is based on traditional Japanese folk songs and involves improvisation and virtuoso performance
Tsukeshime-daikoalso shime-daiko or shime, a Japanese taiko drum in which the drumheads are stretched over iron rings and sandwiched around a smaller body. The tsukeshime-daiko's rope is pulled tight before each use
Tsumenivory picks used to play the Japanese koto
Tsuzumithe hourglass-shaped tsuzumi was introduced from the Asian continent around the 7th-century and the name is derived from Sanskrit. There are two varieties, the smaller kotsuzumi and the larger otsuzumi, which are used in both noh and kabuki performances
Tswana musicthe Tswana are an African ethnic group, mostly in the nation of Botswana. Tswana music is unusual in its lack of drumming, and is heavily reliant on string instruments and singing
TTCabbrevation of toutes taxes comprises (French: tax included)
TTKreference to the catalogue of music by Anton Ferdinand Tietz (1742-1810), Tietz Tematiceskogo Kataloga, prepared by Natal'ja Valer'evna Gubkina
Ttsapikapopular Malagasy dance rhythm from Fort Dauphin/Tulear, in the south
Ttun-ttunsee chicotén
Tu(French) you (when referring to a parent, friend, child, spouse; otherwise vous)
(Italian) thou, you
Tuan(Malay) master (formerly a title of respect used by Malayans when addressing Europeans)
tuant (m.), tuante (f.)(French) exhausting
Tuareg healing musicthe Tuareg people of the western Sahara perform curing ceremonies in which dancing and strongly rhythmic music, said to attract spirits, help to restore harmony between the patient-participants and their spirits. Drumming and hand-clapping accompany women's songs, led in this example by a female spirit medium. The gutteral drone of the male singers, achieved by forcing the breath rhythmically through tightened throats, is a distinguishing feature of the curing ceremony music
Tu as beau dire, je ne te crois pas.(French) It doesn't matter what you say, I don't believe you
Tu as envie de...?(French) Do you feel like...?
Tubabbreviation of Tuba (German: tuba - tuba (French))
Tuba(Italian f.) trumpet, organ reed, tube (anatomy), tall hat
(Italian f., English, German f., French m., Spanish f.) the tuba recognised immediately by brass band, orchestra and military band enthusiasts has three family members. The Bb tenor tuba is the euphonium that plays such a major role in brass and wind bands but a very limited role in orchestral work. Orchestral bass tubas appear in four categories: the bass tuba in F and Eb, and the contrabass tuba in C and Bb. In Austrian and French orchestras tubas in F and Bb are used, the contrabass tuba in Bb being found primarily in opera orchestras. In some regions of Germany and in Scandinavia, the United Kingdom and the USA the C tuba with four valves is common as a kind of all-round instrument : it is played not only in the orchestra but also in chamber music and as a solo instrument. The bass and contrabass tubas are the largest and lowest-pitched brass instruments not only in the orchestra (where the tuba player sits together with the trombone section) but also in wind band and military music. Beside the tubas in Eb, C and low Bb, other instruments of the valved bugle horn family covering all pitches (e.g. cornet, flugelhorn, euphonium) are common in wind band and military music, whereas in modern orchestras the bass tuba is the only instrument of this kind in use
tubas are made in four different patterns, with a wide variety of sizes, bore profiles and valve mechanisms, and have a variety of names:
the oval formthe sousaphone (rounded, made of fiber-reinforced plastic with a forward-facing bell
the marching forman instrument that is hung over the shoulder
the round formthe helicon
the tuba formupright with bell facing upward
the extreme depths achieved by these instruments pose problems of tuning. As more valves become engaged so there becomes a tendency to fall out of tune. This problem was first addressed by adding tuning slides that were adjusted by the left hand. This method, though successful, was clumsy and it was David Blaikley in 1874 that introduced a compensating system that efficiently solved the problem. This system automatically brought into play the required additional length of tubing when certain combinations of keys were depressed
Tubain an organ, a powerful reed stop of the trumpet family of 8 ft. pitch, often on high wind pressure
Tuba(French m.) a snorkel
Tuba bassa(Italian f.) bass tuba, Basstuba (German f.), tuba basse (French m.), contrebasse à pistons (French f.), tuba baja (Spanish f.)
Tuba clariona 4 ft. reed stop of the tuba species, in an organ
Tuba contrabajo(Spanish fm) double-bass saxhorn, tuba contrabbasso (Italian f.), Kontrabasstuba (German f.), contrebasse à pistons (French f.), saxhorn contrebasse (French m.)
Tuba contrabbasso(Italian f.) double-bass saxhorn, Kontrabasstuba (German f.), contrebasse à pistons (French f.), saxhorn contrebasse (French m.), tuba contrabajo (Spanish m.), saxhorn contrabajo (Spanish m.)
Tuba curvaa brass instrument made in Paris in 1791 for the festivities following the French Revolution, that was modeled on the Roman trumpet and is regarded as a forerunner of the modern tuba. This instrument had a very powerful sound, no valves or keys and a range limited to the lowest naturals
Tuba majoran 8 ft. reed stop of the tuba species, operating at high wind-pressure, in an organ
Tuba mirabilisan extremely powerful 8 ft. reed stop of the tuba species, operating at high wind-pressure, in an organ
Tuba mutetuba mutes are cone shaped objects that fit in the bell of the tuba. They come in two main types: plywood and metal. When a composer requires the tuba played with the mute he or she using the marking 'mute', con sordina, mit Dämpfer or avec sourdine
Tubankpelisee bamaaya
Tubaphonelike a glockenspiel, although the bars are replaced by steel tubes, and the sound in somewhat less mellow. It was popular in the 1920s and 1930s in military bands, and features in Khachaturian's ballet Gayaneh for the Dance of the Young Maidens
tubare(Italian) to coo
Tubaspiel(German n.) tuba playing
Tuba ténor(French m.) Wagner tuba, tuba wagneriana (Italian f., Spanish f.), Wagner-Tuba (German f.), Waldhorn-Tuba (German f.), tuba Wagner (French m.), tuba wagnérien (French m.)
Tubatura(Italian f.) piping, system of pipes
Tuba, Wagnersee 'Wagner tuba'
Tuba Wagner(French m.) Wagner tuba, tuba wagneriana (Italian f., Spanish f.), Wagner-Tuba (German f.), Waldhorn-Tuba (German f.), tuba ténor (French m.), tuba wagnérien (French m.)
Tuba wagneriana(Italian f., Spanish f.) Wagner tuba, Wagner-Tuba (German f.), Waldhorn-Tuba (German f.), tuba ténor (French m.), tuba Wagner (French m.), tuba wagnérien (French m.)
Tuba wagnérien(French m.) Wagner tuba, tuba wagneriana (Italian f., Spanish f.) Wagner-Tuba (German f.), Waldhorn-Tuba (German f.), tuba Wagner (French m.), tuba ténor (French m.)
Tubaxa replacement for the very heavy contrabass saxophone, the tubax has been developed with a narrower bore. Although not a true saxophone, its bore shape leads to a more reasonable size and weight
Tubazione(Italian f.) piping, system of pipes
Tube(French m., English, German f.) a length of metal, plastic, etc. through which a liquid or gas may travel
Tuben(German f. pl.) plural of Tuba (German f.)
tubercolare(Italian) tubercular
Tubercolo(Italian m.) tubercle
Tubercolosi(Italian f.) tuberculosis
Tubercoloso(Italian m.) consumptive
tubercoloso(Italian) tuberculous
Tuberculose(French f.) tuberculosis
Tubería(Spanish f.) tubing
Tuberkulose(German f.) tuberculosis
Tubero(Italian m.) tuber
Tubes de cloches(French) tubular bells, Röhrenglocken, campane tubolari
Tube slidesee 'bottleneck slide'
Tube soundsee 'valve sound'
Tubetto(Italian m.) tube, staple
Tubicen(Latin) a tuba player
Tubist (m.), Tubistin (f.)(German) tuba player
Tubo(Italian m., Portuguese m., Spanish m.) pipe, tube, tuyau (French)
(Italian m.) chocalho
Tubo de órgano(Spanish m.) organ pipe
Tubo di ricambio(Italian m.) crook or shank of a brass instrument
Tubo di scarico(Italian m.) exhaust pipe
tubolare(Italian) tubular
Tubo piccolo(Italian m.) wing, tenor joint
Tubos(Spanish m. pl.) tubes, pipes
Tubos de lengüetería(Spanish m. pl.) reed pipes (in an organ), Zungenpfeifen (German)
Tubos de madera(Spanish m. pl.) wooden pipes (in an organ), Holzpfeifen (German)
Tubos labiales(Spanish m. pl.) flue pipes (in an organ)
Tubo sonoro(Italian m.) chocallo
Tubo sonoro di bambù(Italian m.) bamboo brasilene
Tubthumpto promote or draw attention to (from the ancient show business custom of actors wandering the streets banging on tubs to drum up business)
tubulaire(French) tubular
tubular(Spanish) tubular
Tubular bellstubes de cloches or cloches (French), Röhrenglocken or Glocken (German), campane tubolari or campane (Italian), campanas tubulares or campanas (Spanish)
a percussion instrument formed of a number of suspended metal tubes, of differing length and therefore producing notes of different pitch, which, when struck with a mallet, create a bell-like sound. The player uses small wooden mallets and its written range is usually from F3 to F5
Tubular chimeson some organs, similar to those in an orchestra, the range of the chimes is usually twenty-one notes from A below middle C. They may be played from one of the manuals or possibly from the pedal
Tubulure(French f.) tubing
Tubuw sepat(China) bamboo Jew's harp with metal reeds
Tuch(German n.) cloth (material), a cloth, a scarf, a shawl
tüchtig(German) competent, good (ample, plentiful), big (large), competently, well (pass an examination), hard (rain, snow)
tüchtig zulangen(German) to tuck in
Tüchtigkeit(German f.) competence
Tucidide(Italian m.) Thucydides
Tücke(German f.) malice
Tücken haben(German) to be temperamental, to be treacherous
Tucket(from Middle English, tukken, 'to beat a drum') also 'sennet', 'touch' or Tusch, a flourish or fanfare of trumpets usually with timpani
tückisch(German) malicious, maliciously, treacherous, treacherously
Tudora reference to the period in England during which the ruling monarchs came from the Tudor family (1485-1603). The Tudor period is largely synonymous with the early Renaissance in England
Tudor interludeshort tragedies, comedies, or history plays performed by either professional acting troupes or by students during the early sixteenth century
Tué (m.), Tuée (f.)(French) the person killed
tuer(French) to kill, to shoot (a ball), to exhaust
Tueur (m.), Tueuse (f.)(French) killer
Tuerie(French f.) slaughter
tuer le temps(French) to kill time
Tu es libre?(French) Are you free?
Tu es toujours dans mon chemin(French) You're always in my way
tue-tête, àsee à tue-tête
Tufaany porous stone
tufato(Italian) stuffy
tuffare(Italian) to plunge
tuffarsi(Italian) to plunge, to dive
Tuffata(Italian f.) plunge, dive, dip
Tuffo(Italian m.) dip, dive, plunge, plump, sudden heavy fall (of rain), throb, sudden emotion
Tufo(Italian m.) tufa
tüfteln (an)(German) to fiddle (with), to puzzle (over)
TugangayFilipino bamboo buzz stick
Tugend(German f.) virtue
tugendhaft(German) virtuous
Tugurio(Italian m.) hovel
Tuiau d'orguesee tuyau d'orgue
Tui gong(Chinese) on the erhu, the push bow or up bow
Tuilagesee kan ha diskan
Tuile(French f.) a tile, a stroke of bad luck (familiar)
Tukarampoet-saint of Maharashtra who lived in the 17th century AD and who composed thousands of devotional songs
Tuk bands(Barbados) after the emancipation of slaves, ensembles consisting of snare and bass drums, flute and triangle that may have been based on British fife-and-drum corps, formed to play music that used African polyrhythms and syncopation
T'ukkyong(Korea) a marble slab suspended on a frame, which is struck at the lower end with a horn mallet, is sounded at the end of courtly ceremonial pieces. The stone's thickness determines its pitch
Tula accordionalternative name for the garmon
Tu l'auras cherché!(French) You've been asking for it!
Tulipano(Italian m.) tulip
Tulipe(French f.) tulip
Tulle(English, Italian m.) a light-weight, very fine netting, which is often starched, made of various fibres, including silk, nylon, and rayon, that is most commonly used for veils, gowns (particularly wedding gowns) and ballet tutus
Tülle(German f.) a spout
Tulpe(German f.) a tulip
TulsidasHindi poet of Maharashtra who lived in the 17th century AD and who composed, among other works, Ramacharitamanasa, ('The Holy Pool of the Life of Rama'), retelling the epic story of the highest veneration by all Hindi-speaking Hindus
Tulumdouble chanter polyphonic bagpipe from Turkey and Azerbailan
Tumba(Curaçao) music for the muzik de zumbi class, which means it is African-derived, neither modern nor European. Tambú (sometimes called the 'Curaçao blues'), the predecessor of tumba, was first sung by slaves (mostly women) expressing pain and sadness, usually accompanied by the tambú drum, kachu (a cow's horn) and the agan (a piece of iron or ploughshare) or chapi (a hoe), along with clapping (usually only by the women in the audience). Previously, drums were outlawed for slaves, and the bastèl, a large calabash in a water barrel, was used instead. Although originally a two-part dance in 2/4 time (now in 6/8), which at the beginning of the twentieth century was the vehicle for songs of derision, the community, which once put its gossip into songs, has now fostered professional song writers
Tumbaor tumbadora, a Cuban version of the Congolese/Yoruba makuta drum, consisting (originally) of a hollowed, barrel-shaped log or hand-carved trunk of wood with a tacked-on rawhide head. Later, a system of tuneable hardware was added
the tumbadora is also referred to as the conga drum, and its predecessors include the tambores de conga, used in early comparsas
the drum ensembles used for tumba francesa are also called tumbas. The largest drum in the set is the premier and the rest are called bulá. The beat is carried with sticks on a wooden soundbox called the catá
Tumbadorasee tumba
Tumba francesaafter the Haitian revolution (1791), many refugees, including French planters and their slave, fled across the narrow Windward Passage to eastern Cuba, where they established coffee plantations in the highlands around Santiago de Cuba. In that city and in Guantánamo, some of their former slaves and their descendants, who had clung to their Afro-Haitian culture, established their own cabildo-like associations, known as tumba francesa (literally, 'French drum'). There they played Haitian-style drums and performed dances with names such as masón and yubá, combined their African roots with French salon dances, and sang in Creole
Tumbaóthe repeated pattern (rhythm or groove) played by the tumbadoras or drums
the standard timekeeping patterns performed by the bass and congas in popular dance styles such as the son, son montuno, guaracha and mambo
see montuno
tumbarse a la bartola(Spanish) to take it easy
Tumbia single stringed instrument from the region of Punjab, consisting of a dried, hardened gourd with a stick going through it, and a single string. The gourd is sliced and a parchment is stretched across the hole. The string is attached to a bridge, which rests on the parchment. Although the instrument is very simple, it still takes years of practice to master
Tumbling strainsee 'shout-and-fall'
Tu me casses les bonbons!(French) You're a pain in the neck! (familiar)
tumefare(Italian) to swell
tumefarsi(Italian) to swell
tuméfié(French) swollen
Tu me gâtes!(French) You're spoiling me!
Tu mets le doigt dans l'oeil.(French) You're fooling yourself.
Tumeur(French f.) tumour
Tumidezza(Italian f.) tumidity, inflation
tumido(Italian) tumid, swollen, inflated (figurative)
Tümmler(German m.) porpoise
Tumor(German m.) tumour
Tumore(Italian m.) tumour
Tümpel(German m.) pond
tumulare(Italian) to bury
Tumulo(Italian m.) tumulus, cairn, grave, barrow
Tumult(English, German m.) a commotion, a riot (disorder)
(English) uproar (especially of a disorderly crowd), din (especially of a disorderly crowd), conflict of emotion in the mind
Tumulte(French m.) commotion, turmoil (disorder)
Tumulto(Italian m.) tumult, uproar, turmoil, riot
Tumultuante(Italian m.) rioter
tumultuante(Italian) riotous
tumultuare(Italian) to start a riot, to start a tumult
tumultuario(Italian) tumultuary
tumultueux (m.), tumultueuse (f.)(French) turbulent
tumultuoso(Italian) tumultuous, vehement, agitated, riotous
Tumultuousnoisy, turbulent, violent
Tumulus (s.), Tumuli (pl.)(Latin) barrow (burial mound), ancient burial mound
TunGuatemalan drum
(German n.) actions
tun(German) to do, to take (step, walk, look, glance), to work (wonders), to put, to act
zu tun haben (German: to have things to do, to have work to do)
es zu tun haben mit (German: to have to deal with)
es mit dem Herzen zu tun haben (German: to have heart trouble)
tun als ob(German) to act as if
Tu n'as rien de mieux à faire?(French) Don't you have anything better to do?
Tünche(German f.) whitewash, veneer (figurative)
tünchen(German) to whitewash
Tundra(Lapp) one of the arctic, level, treeless plains which make up the greater part of northern Russia
Tunemelodia (Italian), Melodie (German), mélodie (French), melody, air (in its eighteenth-century sense)
songs have words, tunes do not
accordare (Italian), stimmen (German), accorder (French), afinar (Spanish), to adjust the pitch of an instrument to itself (for correct intonation) and to any other musician or ensemble, so that the instrument can be said to be 'in tune'
Tune deafnesssynonymous with 'tone deafness'
Tuned percussionpercussion instruments on which there may be a choice of several different notes, the pitch of any note is clearly defined: for example, antique cymbals, bell lyre, celeste, chimes, crotales, glockenspiel, marimba, orchestra bells, steel drums, timpani, vibraphone and xylophone
see 'mallet percussion'
Tu ne mâches pas tes mots(French) You don't mince words
Tune-o-matic bridgeused on guitars and attached to the instrument's body by posts. It has saddles that can be adjusted
Tunera performer who tunes musical instruments either during their manufacture (for example, someone who tunes recorders as part of the making process) or at locations where the instruments are based (for example, a piano tuner)
a machine, usually electronic, that can provide reference tones to assist someone who tunes an instrument or wishes to investigate the tuning of an instrument. The link below is to auto-tuning software for PC or Mac designed by Tatsuaki Kuroda initially developed to help shakuhachi makers
a term used for the tuning pegs or machine heads, on the headstock of a guitar, that are used to adjust the tuning of the strings
Tatsuaki Kuroda's software includes the following features:
sound color analyzer based on FFT with memory
multi purpose auto tuner
sound volume meter
fingering charts of shakuhachi (Tozan style, Kinko style and seven-holes), shinobue, noukan, ocarina, western flute, clarinet, trumpet, soprano sax., alto sax., tenor sax., trombone, horn (F), horn (B flat), recorder and oboe
sound generator
a legitimate musical (colloquial)
Tunerssee 'machine heads'
Tunesien(German n.) Tunisia
Tunesmithsongwriter (colloquial)
Tunga-tungasee cuarteto
Tungnaa skin covered lute from Tibet
Tung oilalso called China wood oil, tung oil is pressed from the seed of the Tung oil tree (Aleurites fordii), a deciduous shade tree native to China. It belongs to the Euphorbia Family (Euphorbiaceae) along with the candlenut tree (Aleurites molucanna), another species with seeds rich in unsaturated oils. For centuries tung oil has been used for paints and waterproof coatings, and as a component of caulk and mortar. It is an ingredient in ink and is commonly used for a lustrous finish on wood. Some woodworkers consider tung oil to be one of the best natural finishes for wood
Tungsoa Korean woodwind instrument which is held vertically. Its technique of blowing is similar to that for the danso
Tungsteno(Italian m.) tungsen (chemical element)
TungurSiberian frame drum
Tunica long or short, usually sleeveless, straight, tubular garment
Tunica(Italian f.) tunic
Tunicleitem of mass vestments: fringed tunic with split sides; worn under the dalmatic by a bishop or as an upper garment by a sub-deacon
Tuningaccordage (French), Stimmung (German), accordatura (Italian), afinación (Spanish)
see 'temperament'
the pitch to which various strings on a stringed instrument are to be set
Tuning conean instrument the shape of a hollow cone used for tuning the metal pipes of an organ
Tuning crooksee 'tuning wire'
Tuning driftamong gamelan makers and musicians it is well known that the pitch of bronze keys and gongs tends to rise at a decreasing rate during the first several decades following their manufacture. Thus, it is considered normal that a gamelan will require tuning (by filing away material and/or by hammering) in its first year, fifth year, fifteenth year, and thirtieth year. It is said that after approximately thirty years, the resulting "seasoned" bronze is no longer subject to change in pitch
if the ambient temperature in which wind and string instruments are played rises, the pitch of the wind-instruments rises and that of the string instruments falls
pianos left unattended over many months will tend to drop in pitch as the material of the strings 'relaxes' - other causes include changes in temperature and/or humidity and mechanical shocks that might disturb the seating of the tuning pins
see 'commatic drift'
Tuning forkan U-shaped steel device with a handle at its base and two tines, which when struck produces a relatively pure tone of definite pitch, used as a reference to help set or check pitch. Sir John Hawkins, writing in 1776, tells us that the tuning fork, originally called the 'pitch-fork', was invented in 1711, by John Shore (1662-1753), the king's sergeant-trumpeter. The German physicist E. F. F. Chladni (Wittenberg c.1800) was the first to systematically investigate the mode of vibration of the tuning fork with its nodal points. He and others tried to construct a musical instrument based on sets of tuning forks, which, however, were not widely accepted. J. H. Scheibler (Germany 1834) produced a set of 54 tuning forks covering the range from 220 Hz to 440 Hz, at intervals of 4 Hz while J. Lissajous (Paris) constructed a very elaborate tuning fork with a resonance box, which was intended to establish a proposed international standard for a'=435Hz. K. R. Koenig, a German physicist living in Paris, invented a tuning fork that through the use of clockwork could be kept in continuous vibration. H. Helmholtz, the German physiologist (Heidelberg 1863) used sets of electromagnetically powered tuning forks in his famous experiments on the sensations of tone. Indeed, until the invention of the electronic valve, tuning forks remained indispensible instruments for producing defined sinusoidal vibrations although tuning forks are flattened by heat and sharpened by cold. A tiny quartz tuning fork is used to 'mark' the passage of time in quartz digital watches
Tuning fork clockK. R. Koenig, a German physicist living in Paris, invented a tuning fork that through the use of clockwork could be kept in continuous vibration
Tuning fork tonometersee 'tonometer, tuning fork'
Tuning gaugefound on many modern kettledrums, a device that estimates the pitch of the drum either from the pressure on the counter hoop or from the distance the pedal has traveled. The gauge is preset, can only be a rough guide and needs to be recalibrated at frequent intervals. The player must use his or her ear to fine tune the instrument. The player must also be aware that a kettledrum struck fortissimo sounds flatter than one struck pianissimo, and that a drum struck fortissimo will initially sound flat but will rise in pitch as the sound dies away
Tuning hammeror 'tuning key', the metal key with mortised end used to turn the wrest pins (e.g. of a piano, harpsichord or clavichord) when tuning the instrument
Tuning keysee 'tuning hammer'
Tuning machinessee 'machine heads'
Tuning pegbischero (Italian), Wirbel (German m.), cheville (French f.), clavija (Spanish f.), a peg, usually of wood, or a pin, usually of steel, around which a string runs, and which, when turned, increases or decreases the tension in the string, which changes the string's pitch (more tension increases the pitch and vice-versa)
the pegs are usually found on the headstock of a guitar, although on some instruments, most notably Steinberger-style guitars, the tuning pegs are down at the bridge
Tuning pinor wrest pin, pirolo caviglia (Italian m.), Stimmnagel (German m. - tuning pin, wrest pin), cheville (French f.), clavija (Spanish f.)
on a piano, a metal pin inserted in the keyboard, made of a special alloy of fine steel, precision-sized, threaded and blued
Tuning slidea subsiduary tube on a wind instrument that can be extended or shortened to drop or raise the pitch of particular notes or of the instrument as a whole
Tuning, temperature andsee 'temperature and tuning'
Tuning theorythe semi-abstract study of musical tuning and musical pitch from a mathematical viewpoint, often as a basis for the mathematical study of harmony. Tuning theory uses the tools of topology and group theory as a basis for its analysis. One of the basic concepts of tuning theory is the idea of a pitch space
Tuning wirethat part of an organ reed-pipe by means of which the reed is tuned
Tunique(French f.) tunic
Tunisi(Italian f.) Tunis (capital of Tunisia)
Tunisía(Italian f.) Tunisia
Tunisie(French f.) Tunisia
Tunisien (m.), Tunisienne (f.)(French) Tunisian
tunisien (m.), tunisienne (f.)(French) Tunisian
Tunisino(Italian m.) Tunisian
tunisino(Italian) Tunisian
Tunke(German f.) a sauce
tunken(German) to dip (familiar)
Tunnel(French m., English, German m.) underground passage dug through a hill, under a road, or under water, particularly for a road or railway (although the same term is used for an underground passage dug by an animal)
Tunnel vaultcontinous vault of semicircular cross-section; also called barrel vault
Tunnel visionvision which is poor or lost outside the normal field of vision
inability to grasp the wider implications of a situation (colloquial)
Tunni(Guinea) a straight flute with two reed tubes tied together and attached to a hollow gourd
Tuntune(India) a single-stringed drone instrument with a single-headed drum as a resonator
  • Tuntune from which this extract has been taken
Tu n'y perds rien!(French) It's no great loss, You haven't missed anything.
tuo (m.), tua (f.), tuoi (, tue ( thy, your, thine, yours
TuohitorviKarelian wooden trumpet
tuonare(Italian) to thunder, to roar
Tuoni ecclesiastici(Italian m. pl.) the Church modes
Tuoni trasportati(Italian m. pl.) the transposed modes
Tuono(Italian m.) thunder, roar, the interval of a tone, a sound, a tune
Tuono corista(Italian m.) a sixteenth/seventeenth century Italian pitch believed to lie between a'=408 Hz and a'=409 Hz
Tuorbe(French) theorbo
Tuorlo(Italian m.) yolk (of an egg)
Tupansee tapan
Tu parles!(French) You must be joking!
Tu penses toujours au pire.(French) You always assume the worst.
Tu perds la raison?(French) Are you out of your mind?
Tupfen(German m.) a spot
tupfen(German) to dab
tupfen an(German) to touch
tupfen auf(German) to touch
Tupfer(German m.) a spot, a swab (medical)
Tupletgruppo irregolare (Italian), a non-standard subdivision of a beat or part of a beat (according to the time signature) indicated by a beam or bracket and a small number indicating the total number of subdivisions. For example, a triplet of three quavers (eighth notes) is equal in total duration to one crotchet (quarter note)
Tür(German f.) a door
Turabuchi(Italian m.) stop-gap (figurative)
Turacciolo(Italian m.) cork, stopper
Turali(Malaysia) a transverse nose flute
  • Turali from which this extract has been taken
turare(Italian) to plug, to stop, to cork, to bung
Turba(Italian f.) crowd, mob, rabble
Turba (s.), Turbae (pl.)(Latin, literally 'crowd') a term used in the Passion of the Gospels indicating that the part is to be spoken or sung by a group or crowd
turbabile(Italian) easily disturbed
Turbamento(Italian m.) perturbation, uneasiness, excitement, confusion, commotion
Turban(French m., English, German m.) a man's headdress of fabric wound round a cap or the head, a woman's hat that resembles this
Turbante(Italian m.) turban
turbare(Italian) to trouble, to disturb, to confuse
turbarsi(Italian) to become agitated, to become uneasy, to become peterbed, to grow murky, to grow gloomy
turbato(Italian) disturbed, uneasy, agitated, disturbed
Turbid(of a liquid or colour) muddy, thick, not clear
(of a style) confused, disordered
turbid should not be confused with turgid which means swollen, inflated or pompous
Turbiditythe property of being turbid
Turbinà(Italian f.) turbine
Turbinà a vapore(Italian f.) steam-turbine
turbinare(Italian) to whirl, to eddy
Turbine(French f., English, German f.) a rotary motor driven by a flow of water, steam, gas, wind, etc.
(Italian m.) whirlwind, hurricane
Turbinio(Italian m.) whirling, eddying, turmoil, storm, restless throng
turbinoso(Italian) stormy, tumultuous, eddying, whirling
Turbo-folka musical sub-genre that originated in the Balkans during early 1990s. Becoming prominent during Milosevic era, it rose to be the dominant form of musical entertainment throughout the 1990s. Though it is closely associated with Serbia, it continues to be very popular in Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia, Montenegro, and even Bulgaria and Slovenia. Like commercial folk (novokomponovana muzika), which was extremely popular in the 1970s and 1980s, turbo-folk is a blend of Roma music, Middle Eastern beats, Turkish & Greek pop music, and Serbian brass bands on one side, as well as rock and roll and contemporary electronic dance music on the other
  • Turbo-folk from which these details have been taken
turbolento(Italian) turbulent, unruly, restless, troubled, bisterous
Turbolenza(Italian f.) turbulence
Turbulence(English, French f.) a turbulent state
Turbulent(English, German) disturbed, in commotion, restless, riotous
turbulent (m.), turbulente (f.)(French) boisterous, turbulent
Turbulenz(German f.) turbulence
Turc(French m.) Turkish (the language)
Turc (m.), Turque (f.)(French) a Turk
turc (m.), turque (f.)(French) Turkish
turca, alla(Italian) in a Turkish style
Turcasso(Italian m.) quiver (for arrows)
Turchese(Italian f.) turquoise
Turchia(Italian f.) Turkey
Turchinetto(Italian m.) washerwoman's blue
turchiniccio(Italian) bluish
Turchino(Italian m.) deep blue, dark blue
turchino(Italian) deep blue, dark blue
Turco (s.), Turchi (pl.)(Italian m.) Turk, Turkish (also language)
turco (s.), turchi (pl.)(Italian) Turkish
Turcofilo(Italian m.) Turkophil
turcofilo(Italian) Turkophil
Turcofobo(Italian m.) Turkophobe
turcofobo(Italian) Turkophobe
Turcomanno(Italian m.) Turkoman
turchesco(Italian) in a Turkish style
Turdans (s.), Turdanser (pl.)(Norway) a choreographed figure folk dance
Turena, (la)(Italian f.) Touraine
Turfiste(French m./f.) a racegoer (horseracing)
turgescente(Italian) turgescent, turgid, swollen
Turgidswollen, inflated
(of language) pompous, bombastic
turgid is sometimes confused with turbid which means muddy, unclear or confused
Turgidezza(Italian f.) turgidity, pompousness (figurative)
Turgiditythe property of being turgid
turgido(Italian) turgid, pompous (figurative), bombastic, inflated (also figurative)
Turibolo(Italian m.) censer, thurible
Turin shrouda cloth reputed to be the shroud in which Christ was wrapped after the crucifixion; modern scientific dating indicates that it is of medieval date
turismo(Italian) touring
Turista (s.), Turisti (pl.)(Italian m./f.) tourist
turistico (s.), turistici (pl.)(Italian) touring, tourist
Türke (m.), Türkin (f.)(German) a Turk
Türkei, (die)(German) Turkey (country)
TurkelonyMabel Dolmetsch has suggested that the dance name 'Turkelony' is a corruption of the Italian tordiglione
Turkey trot, thea dance made popular in the early 1900s. The Turkey Trot was done to fast ragtime music popular in the decade from 1900 to 1910 such as Scott Joplin's Maple Leaf Rag. It lost favor to the Foxtrot in 1914
türkis(German) truquoise
türkisch(German) Turkish
türkische Becken(German n. pl.) Turkish cymbals
türkischer Halbmond-Sternsee chapeau chinois
Turkish centsee Türk sent
Turkish classical musicsee 'Ottoman classical music'
Turkish crescentalso Turkish jingle, Chinese pavilion, Jingling Johnny or Mohamed's Banner
see chapeau chinois
Turkish drumbass drum
Turkish Five, Thesee 'The Turkish Five'
Turkish folk music
music accompanied by words
Kosmafree-form folk songs about love or nature
Semaifolk song in Semai poetic form
Mania traditional Turkish quatrain form
Uzun Havalong melody
Bozlaka folk song form
Agita lament
Mayaa variety of Turkish folksong
Bogaz Havasithroat tune
Teke Zorlatmasi 
Tekerlemea playful form in folk narrative
these are divided into free-forms or improvisations with no obligatory metrical or rhythmic form, known as Uzun Hava, and those which no have a set metrical or rhythmic structure, known as Kirik Havalar, meaning 'broken melodies'. Both can also be employed at the same time. Music generally played without words, and dance tunes, go by the names Halay, Bengi, Karsilama, Zeybek, Horon, Bar etc.
Turkish folk music scalesalthough Turkish folk music melodies possess the same note and scale modules as traditional Ottoman classical music, the melodies known as Makam (similar to the medieval concept of mode) in Turkish folk music can be known by different names depending on the region, such as: Besiri, Garip, Kerem, Misket, Müstezad etc.
Turkish hip hop
Turkish jinglealso Turkish crescent, Chinese pavilion, Jingling Johnny or Mohamed's Banner
see chapeau chinois
Turkish musicwhen used in its Western, rather than indigenous or 'world-music' sense, Turkish music generally refers to 'Janissary music'
Turkish musical instruments
Turkish religious musicin the framework of music, the forms of music that accompanied or assisted such Islamic obligations as circumcision, fasting and the call to prayer, and known as Mosque Music or Dervish Lodge Music depending on where it was played, can all be considered under the single heading of Religious Music. Forms such as tilavet (reading the Kuran), the ezan (the call to prayer), and the temcid (a call praising Allah chanted by the muezzin immediately after the morning call to prayer during the months of Rajab, Saban and Ramadan) all fall under the category of mosque music. During the religious dancing or ceremonies practiced by a number of religious sects, especially the dervishes (Mevevi) and Bektasi, come under the general heading of Mystical Music
Turkish styleinspired by Greek antiquity, French musicians of the 17th-century looked to Turkish culture as a 'living model' of Greek musical ideas. Among the similarities of Turkish music to Greek music are monophonic and heterophonic texture, tetrachordal constructions, and microtonal tunings. Turkish effects also provided a significant amount of exoticism and novelty, which were sought by musicians and audiences. Turkish art songs, such as those composed by Süleyman Celebi, inspired French attempts at transcription of Turkish music in the 17th-century, and several aspects of Turkish military music and Janissary bands influenced composition at the court of Louis XIV. In fact, the French tradition of using drum signals to assemble troops was borrowed from the Turkish military tradition. The Sun King went so far as to appoint Lully as director of military music in order for his martial ensembles to compete with Janissary bands. Turkey was also used as a model of ancient music practices in the Parallèle of Charles Perrault. During the Classical period, elements of Turkish music were also incorporated into Western music. For example, Turkish marches in Beethoven's symphonies, and Mozart's Rondo alla Turca. Operas were set in and incorporated Turkish or Middle-Eastern elements (for example, Mozart's Die Entfuhrung aus dem Serail, Weber's Abu Hasan and Rossini's Il Turco in Italia)
Türk sent(German, 'Turkish cent') 1/10600 part of an octave. The tuning of Turkish classical music is Pythagorean which lends itself well to be approximated by 53-tone equal temperament. The 'comma' plays an important role in this music and the smallest step of 53-tET is in between and approximately the same as the syntonic and Pythagorean comma. The Turkish theorist Ekrem Karadeniz has made a not very useful further subdivision into 200 parts, making 10600 to the octave. The notation systems of Arel, Ezgi and Yektâ Bey have special accidentals for the 1/53 octave comma and multiples of it
Turkse trom(Dutch) Turkish drum, bass drum
turlupinare(Italian) to fool, to swindle, to cheat
Turlurette(French) a species of guitar
Turlutainesee serinette
Turlute(Quebecois, probably from the Breton tuilage) closely related to reel a bouche, in which percussive foot-stamping is a regular accompaniment to dance tunes sung by mouth
Turm(German m.) a tower, a rook (chess), a castle (chess)
Türmchen(German n.) a turret
türmen(German) to pile, to pile up, to escape (familiar)
Turmglockenspiel(German n.) carillon
Turmmusik(German f.) music played from the tower of a church, town hall, etc. by town musicians (for example, Stadtpfeifer), usually in 17th-century Germany
Turmspitze(German f.) a spire (on a church), broach (used to cut a slot in wood, metal, etc.)
Turnalso called a volta, a turn is a sudden change in thought, direction, or emotion at the conclusion of the sonnet. This invisible turn is followed by a couplet called a gemel (in English sonnets) or a sestet (in Italian sonnets)
a brief theatrical act or stage appearance
a basic figure in contradance of which there are two forms:
turn aloneeach person turns around in place. When in the center of a line of four it is polite to turn towards the person on the end. This often follows "Down the Hall Four In Line"
turn as a couplein this figure a couple with hands joined turns around in such a way that the ladies remain on the same side of their gent, normally the right hand side. The California Twirl is commonly used to turn as a couple
a musical ornament or embellishment
  • Turns where the ornament is described in detail
  • Turn from which information about the contradance has been taken
Turnaroundin jazz, the technique uses a set of chords played at the end of one section to provide a smooth transition into the next section. Turnarounds are quite familiar during changes from the chorus to the verse in any jazz setting. In the standard A-A-B-A form the turnaround would occur between sections B and A
no longer active (a project put into "turnaround" has been abandoned by one studio and may be shopped to another)
Turnê(Portuguese) gig (a colloquial term for a musical performance or concert)
Turnen(German n.) gymnastics, physical education, gym (familiar)
turnen(German) to do gymnastics
Turner (m.), Turnerin (f.)(German) a gymnast
Turnhalle(German f.) a gymnasium
Turnier(German n.) a tournament, a show (equestrian)
Turno(Italian m.) turn, rotation
Turn-outin dance, this is the ability of the dancer to turn his or her feet and legs out from the hip joints to a 90-degree position. This turn-out, or en-dehors, is one of the essential principles of the classical dance, giving the dancer freedom of movement in every direction
Turn (page) overvolti (Italian), wenden (German), tournez (French)
Turn (page) over quicklyvolti subito (Italian), schnell wenden (German), tournez vivement (French)
Turnschuhe(German m. pl.) gym shoes
Turnsolea plant cultivated primarily for its use as a purple dye
Turntablesynonymous with 'record player', a device for playing vinyl discs. The skillful use of turntables by DJs to mix and scratch records has given rise to the term 'turntablism' and has lead to professional CD players with the same capability
Turntablisma subgenre of hip hop, emphasising manipulation of a vinyl record on a disc record. One who engages in turntablism is a 'turntablist'
Turn the rhythm aroundchanging the rhythm of a piece of music over several bars to establish a new meter
Turn with a line through itsee 'half mordent'
turpe(Italian) disgraceful, base, filthy, indecent
Turpentinealso called spirit of turpentine, oil of turpentine, wood turpentine, gum turpentine, turpentine is a fluid obtained by the distillation of resin obtained from trees, mainly pine trees. It is composed of terpenes, mainly the monoterpenes alpha-pinene and beta-pinene. It is sometimes known colloquially as turps, but this more often refers to turpentine substitute (or mineral turpentine)
Turpiloquio(Italian m.) coarse language
Turpitudine(Italian f.) turpitude, baseness
turque(French) Turkish, in the sense of 'Janissary music'
Turquerie(French) in art, a picture with a pseudo-Turkish subject
Turquie(French f.) Turkey (the country)
turquoise(French, English) of a greenish-blue colour
turrito(Italian) turreted
Türschwelle(German f.) a doorstep, the threshold
Tusch(German m.) also 'sennet, 'tucket' or 'Tusch', a fanfare or flourish
Tusche(German f.) drawing ink, watercolour (paint)
tuscheln(German) to whisper
Tuschzeichnung(German f.) pen-and-ink drawing
Tusselfløyte(literally 'country flute') a Norwegian traditional recorder-like folk pipe, similar to the sjøfløyte (literally 'sea flute')
see sjøfløyte
Tussenspel(Dutch) interlude
Tussenstuk(Dutch) release, channel
Tusut(Arabic) mentioned in 1406, glasses filled with more or less water so as to alter the pitch of the sounds obtained by striking them with sticks
Tuta(Italian f.) (workman's) overall
Tüte(German f.) a bag, a packet (for exmaple, in the post), a cornet (for ice cream)
Tutela(Italian f.) tutelage, guardianship, wardship, protection
tutela(Italian) tutelar, tutelary, guardian
tutelare(Italian) to protect, to defend
Tutelle(French f.) guardianship (legal), protection (figurative)
tuten(German) to hoot, to sound its hooter (ship), to sound (a siren)
Tu te rends compte?(French) Can you imagine?
Tu t'es levé du pied gauche?(French) Did you get up on the wrong side of the bed?
Tuteur(French m.) a stake (a pole)
Tuteur (m.), Tutrice (f.)(French) guardian (legal)
tut nur so, er(German) he's just pretending
Tutoiement(French m.) the use of the familiar tu
Tutore (m.) Tutrice (f.)(Italian) guardian
Tutore dativo(Italian m.) guardian appointed by the court or by a father in his will
tutorio(Italian) tutelar, tutorial
tutoyer(French) to address someone in a familiar manner (using tu rather than vous)
tuttasee tutto
tutta forza(Italian) full power, all the power possible, as loud as possible, with the utmost force
tutta la forza(Italian) full power, all the power possible, as loud as possible, with the utmost force
tutt'al più(Italian) at the most
tutt'altro che(Italian) all but
tutta tremante per l'emozione(Italian) shaking all over with emotion
tuttavia(Italian) still, yet, nevertheless, all the same (colloquial)
tutte(Italian plural of tutta
tutte due(Italian) both
tutte (le) corde(Italian, literally, 'all the strings') release the una corde pedal
title of a piano work, composed in 1994, by the American composer Milton Babbitt
tutte tre(Italian) all three
Tutti(English, German n.) in an organ, a piston that brings on full organ, usually reversible
Tutti(Italian plural of tutto, all (in music, a passage to be rendered by all the performers)
usually used in an orchestral or choral score when the orchestra or all of the voices come in at the same time. Also seen in music of the Baroque era, where a number of instruments play the same part, and, after one instrument has broken off to play solo, where tutti is marked, they all play together again
Tutti frutti(Italian a confection made with various kinds of fruit or flavoured with a variety of fruit flavouring
a conglomeration of different ideas or objects
tutti gli interessati(Italian) all concern
Tuttingparticularly in 'funk' and 'electronic' dance, tutting is an abstract, interpretive dance style that exploits the body's ability to create geometric positions and movements, predominately with the use of right angles. It is performed with minute attention to the musical rhythm, typically by altering positions in a stop-and-go fashion
  • Tutting from which this extract has been taken
tutti unisoni(Italian all in unison
tutto(Italian) quite, very, thoroughly, entirely, wholly, all, completely, fully, wide, stark (naked), bolt (upright), just
tutto (m.s.), tutti (, tutta (f.s.), tutte ( all, the whole, everything
Tutto (m.s.), Tutti (, Tutta (f.s.), Tutte (, literally 'all') all the performers, everybody, everyone
in choral works tutti means the chorus as opposed to the soloist(s), or full chorus as opposed to the semi-chorus. In orchestral works the plural indicates that the whole of the orchestra or band is to play
tutto andare(Italian) at full speed
tutto a prova(Italian) perfectly safe
tutto arco(Italian) the the whole length of the bow
tuttoche(Italian) though, although
tuttodi(Italian) always, continually
tutto d'un pezzo(Italian) all of a piece, of sterling character (figurative)
tutto d'un tratto(Italian) all of a sudden, all at once
tutto insieme(Italian) at one go
tutto punto(Italian) a sixteenth/seventeenth-century Italian pitch (believed to lie between a'=440 Hz and a'=430 Hz) probably a compromise between the other two standards, mezzo punto and chorista
tuttora(Italian) still, always
tutto spiano(Italian) without interruption, profusely, abundantly
the short classical ballet skirt made of many layers of tarlatan or net. The romantic tutu is the long skirt reaching below the calf. There are several types of ballet tutu:
Romantic Tututhree quarter length bell shaped skirt made of tulle with a fitted bodice and cap sleeves. The romantic tutu is free flowing to emphasise lightness and ethereal quality of the romantic ballets
Classical Tutu (bell)short, stiff tulle skirt with a slight bell shape and fitted bodice. It extends outwards from the hips and uses a wired hoop
Classical Tutu (plate)short, stiff tulle skirt that extends outwards (from the hips), and has a fitted bodice. The pancake design has wire spokes to keep the material stiff where as the powder puff design uses wire hoops
Balanchine/Karinska Tutusimilar to the bell and powder puff - plate tutu with the exception that no hoops are used and with fewer layers of netting. The skirt is loosely tacked to give a softer, fuller appearance
  • Ballet tutu from which the information in this table has been taken
Tuva singingsee 'throat-singing'
tuve el agrado de verla(Spanish) I had the pleasure of seeing her
tuvo la amabilidad de invitarnos(Spanish) she was kind enough to invite us
Tuyau (s.), Tuyaux (pl.)(French m.) pipe (organ pipe, etc.), a tip (familiar - a piece of information)
Tuyau à anche(French m.) reed pipe
Tuyau à bouche(French m.) flue pipe, labial pipe, flute pipe
Tuyau d'arrosage(French m.) a hose-pipe
Tuyau d'orgue(French m.) an organ pipe
tuyauter(French) to give a tip to (familiar)
Tuyauterie(French f.) piping
Tuyère(French) a nozzle through which a blast (of air, oxygen, etc.) is forced into a furnace
TVAabbreviation of taxe sur la valeur ajoutée or taxe à la valeur ajoutée (French: value added tax, VAT)
tva(Swedish) two
Tvåtakt(Swedish) duple meter
TVWVor T, the catalogue prepared by Werner Menke of the vocal works of Georg Phillip Telemann (1681-1767)
twaalf(Dutch) twelve
Twaalftoonstelsel(Dutch) twelve-tone music
Twang coresee 'alternative country'
twee(Dutch) two
Tweeda soft thick fabric, woven from contrasting woollen yarns, a popular fabric for coats and suits for both men and women. It owes its name to the traditional woollen mills along the Tweed river in Scotland
tweede(Dutch) second
tweedelige Lied(Dutch) two-part form, binary form
tweedelige Maatsoort(Dutch) duple time
tweedelige Vorm(Dutch) two-part form, binary form
twee-en-dertigste Noot
demisemiquaver(Dutch) a demisemiquaver or thirty-second note, a note one thirty-second the time value of a semibreve or whole note
twee-en-dertigste Rust
demisemiquaver rest(Dutch) a demisemiquaver rest or thirty-second rest, a rest one thirty-second the time value of a semibreve rest or whole rest
Twee popa type of indie rock that is known for simple, sweet melodies and lyrics, often with jangling guitars
  • Twee pop from which this extract has been taken
tweestemmig(Dutch) for 2 voices (parts)
Tweetera loudspeaker designed to produce high frequencies, typically from around 2,000 hertz to 20,000 hertz (generally considered to be the upper limit of the human hearing). A few tweeters can manage response up to an octave or more higher (30 to 45 kHz). The name is derived from the high pitched sounds made by some birds, especially in contrast to the low woofs made by many dogs after which low frequency drivers are named (woofers)
  • Tweeter from which this extract has been taken
Twelfthan interval comprising an octave and a fifth
in an organ, a mutation stop of 2 2/3 ft. pitch, usually made of principal pipes
Twelve bar blues(English, Twelve-Bar-Blues (German m.) a chord progression, typical of blues and later, blues-influenced, music. In addition to the harmonic formulae the twelve bar blues uses a rhythmic scheme of twelve 4/4 bars to the verse with swing or shuffle (and thus may be notated in 12/8)
Twelve notesee 'twelve tone'
Twelve note (music)see 'serial music'
Twelve-note rowsee 'twelve-tone row'
Twelve-note scaleor in the US, 'twelve-tone scale', a chromatic scale where each note is of equal importance
Twelve-string guitaran acoustic or electric guitar with twelve strings, which produces a richer, more ringing tone than a standard six string guitar. The strings are placed in courses of two strings each that are usually played together. The two strings in each bass course are normally tuned an octave apart, while each pair of strings in the treble courses is tuned in unison. The tuning of the second string in the third course (G) varies: some players use a unison string which is less prone to breakage, others prefer the distinctive high-pitched, bell-like quality an octave string makes in this position. Until recently, twelve-string guitars were nearly universally tuned lower than the traditional E-A-D-G-B-E
Twelve tone (music)see 'serial music'
Twelve-tone rowa specific succession of all twelve pitch-class numbers that provide the basis for composing a piece
an ordered set of pitch classes in which a precise series of musical intervals (various distances between notes) or their inversions is maintained throughout a piece, occurring in various transformations
Twelve-tone scalesee 'twelve-note scale'
Twentieth-century dancethe study of twentieth-century dancing is already under way using the same methods that have been applied to earlier periods. The written sources are, in principle, far more abundant and detailed (not only instruction manuals, but newspapers, magazines, posters, programmes), but are still, in practice, frustratingly difficult to locate. We have recorded music (on wax, shellac, vinyl, magnetic tape, CD, and digital media), but it is the invention of moving pictures, captured on photographic film or video, that has revolutionised our ability to study the actual movements of many dancers in the twentieth-century. Nevertheless, these are not universally available and do not always give the complete picture, so established methods of historical research are still required
Twentieth-century music
Twice-accented octavesee 'octave'
Twice as fastdouble speed, doppio movimento (Italian), doppel so schnell (German), double mouvement (French), le double plus rapide (French)
Twice-marked octavesee 'octave'
TwienshinsKpanlogo (Ghana) hand drums
Twined stringsalso called twisted or braided strings, twined strings are made of two wires wrapped around each other, much like the traditional hitch-pin loops but extending the full speaking length of the string. Strings of this type are known to have been used on wire-strung plucked instruments like citterns, pandoras and orpharions
Twin guitaror twin lead or harmony lead, a way of using two (or more) lead guitars to create a distinctive harmonic sound. One guitar plays a melodic line and the other plays harmonies on top of the first. Because the melodic lines are similar and familiar but still different you could say that the lines are "twins", hence the name twin guitar
see 'ancient form of weaving'
  • Twin guitar from which the first extract has been taken
twintig(Dutch) twenty
twintigste eeuwse Muziek(Dutch) 20th-century music (or, generally, contemporary music)
Twirl to swapin contradance, a generic term for a number of dance moves which begin with a couple holding hands; they raise their joined hands, and the lady walks under them while the gent passes behind her, to trade places. There are a number of variants of this, depending on facing and on which hand is joined
  • Twirl to swap from which this information has been taken and where the variants are explained
Twisted perspectivea convention of representation in which part of a figure is shown in profile and another part of the same figure is shown frontally
Twisted stringssee 'twined strings'
Twist endinganother term for an O. Henry ending
Twodue (Italian), Zwei (German), deux (French)
Two-beatmusic in which the first and third beats of each four-beat bar (measure) are accentuated, usually by the rhythm section, for example, in marches
Twofersin the theatre, etc., coupons that discount admission price to "two for" the price of one
Two-five-one progressionthat is II-V-I or, more properly, ii-V7-I, the most common progression in jazz. The II chord is always minor and the V chord is always a dominant 7th. The roots of the three chords in this progression lie successively more anticlockwise on the cycle of fifths. Thus, in the key of C the three roots are D, G and C
Two-handed pizzicatoindicated by the markings m.s. and m.d. (for mano sinistra, left hand, and mano destra, right hand), a single string is plucked alternately in rapid succession by the left and right hands
Two-handed tappinga playing style, associated with electric bass guitars, where both hands play notes by tapping the string to the fret. This makes it possible to play contrapuntally, or to play complicated chords and arpeggios
Two-handera play or movie with two characters
Two-hand hammer-onsee 'tapping'
Two Ladies Changeone of the two-couple figures danced in a circle of four people traditionally associated with square dancing
Two-part formsee 'binary form'
Twosa set of two-bar phrases
in jazz, when different players alternate playing two-bar phrases, this is called 'trading twos'
Two-stepa number of American dance styles, some developed in the 1880s to be danced to Sousa marches
Two-voice frameworka term used by Hindemith for a structural outline of the bass line and the most important upper voice, similar to Schenker's Ursatz
two voices, forsee 'for two voices'
Two-walla theatre rental contract where the host property and artist share expenses and share revenue, expecting to recoup from the success of the show
TWVreference to the catalogue of the music of Georg Phillip Telemann (1681-1767) prepared by Kassel (WV is an abbreviation of Werke-Verzeichnis) and, of the non-vocal works, by Martin Ruhnke
Txalapartaan ancient Basque and Navarran percussion instrument, the txalaparta is made of one or more planks of wood or steel bars, which the players strike using batons made of wood or iron. One player keeps the basic rhythm while the other fills the gap, creating a rhythmic counterpoint
TxanbelaBasque double-reed instrument
Txirulaa small wooden flute with a metal mouthpiece, a miniature txistu, commonly used throughout the French part of the Basque country
Txistutraditional Basque three-holed pipe with a metal mouthpiece, also known as chistu often played to the accompaniment of a tamboril or drum, both instruments played simultaneously by a single player
Tysee ty ba
Tyamko(Nepal) a frame drum that features in a Panche Baja ensemble
Ty baor ty, a derivative of the ancient lute, with a pear shaped resonator that becomes narrow toward its upper end to form the neck. It has 4 strings of braided silk
Tyche(in Greek mythology) the goddess of fortune, identified with Roman goddess Fortuna
Tycoon(Japanese) the title by which the shogun of Japan was described to foreigners, any person who has achieved great power in the fields of industry or commerce
Tymbalesee timbale
Tymbelekisee toumbeleki
Tymbreslittle bells used to hang upon royal ermine robes
Tympan(French m.) eardrum
(archaic) drum
in printing, a sheet or blanket that holds the paper in place on a press. It also buffers the paper from the platen or scrapper of a lithography press
Tympanista kettle-drum player
Tympanista(Italian) a kettle-drum player
Tympanosee timpano
Tympanograma means of measuring the functional integrity of the eardrum and middle ear anatomy. Air pressure in the canal is varied above and below atmospheric level in the ear canal. The air pressure changes cause the eardrum, middle ear bones and associated muscles to react in specific ways. Depending on the resulting pattern, it indicates various disorders such as fluid (otitis media), discontinuity of the ossicular chain, perforated eardrum and Eustachian tube dysfunction
the Fistula Test is a special application of the tympanogram to test for certain causes of dizziness. Pressure is placed against the eardrum and decreased slowly. A positive response may be constituent with a perilymph fistula link which is an abnormal opening in the inner ear associated with dizziness and fluctuating hearing loss
Tympanon(ancient Greece) a small drum carried in the hand such as shown often in pictures of Maenads in the train of Dionysus
(French m.) also called timpanon or salterio tedesco, the dulcimer
Tympanum (s.), Tympana (pl.)(Latin, from Greek) the ear-drum
(Latin, from Greek) the space between the cornices of a pediment, the space between the top of a square doorway and the head of a surrounding arch
Tympanum (s.), Tympani (pl.)orchestral kettledrum
Tyngeda magical taboo or restriction placed on a hero in Welsh literature, the Welsh equivalent to the Irish geasa
Typ(German m.) a type, a bloke (familiar)
Type(French m.) model, features, bloke (familiar), guy (familiar)
(German f.) a type, a character (person)
an earlier figure, event, or symbol in the Old Testament thought to prefigure a coming antitype (corresponding figure, event, or symbol) in the New Testament
type(French) typical
Type I errorsee 'type one error'
Type II errorsee 'type two error'
Typecastwhen an actor becomes associated with only one type of role or character, often as a result of his or her physical appearance
Type charactera literary character with traits commonly associated with a particular class of people
Typefacein typography, a typeface consists of a coordinated set of glyphs designed with stylistic unity. A typeface usually comprises an alphabet of letters, numerals, and punctuation marks. A typeface may also include ideograms and symbols, or consist entirely of them, for example, mathematical or map-making symbols. The term typeface is often conflated with font, a term which, historically, had a number of distinct meanings prior to the advent of desktop publishing; these terms are now effectively synonymous when discussing digital typography
  • Typeface from which this extract has been taken
type même de, le(French) a classic example of
Typenbezeichnung(Germanf.) part number
Type one erroror Type I error, the error in testing a hypothesis of rejecting a hypothesis when it is true
Type two erroror Type II error, the error in testing a hypothesis of failing to reject a hypothesis when it is false
Typhoïde(French f.) typhoid (fever)
Typhon(French m.) a typhoon
Typhoon(Chinese) a great wind, a hurricane, a violent cyclonic storm frequent in the China seas between July and October
Typhus(French m., German m.) typhus
Typicon (s.), Typica (pl.)(Greek) where the order of services or prayer in the Eastern Orthodox Churches is set forth, and which provides the order of church rites for all services, special prayers, and church celebrations for the whole year. The two main sources of the Typicon are the ancient Ordo of St. Sabas monastery in Palestine (the 'Jerusalem Ordo'), and the later Studite monastery in Constantinople. These monastic centres were places where the existing practices were complied and synthesized and codified into a more standardized form. The Studite Ordo is very similar in structure to the Jerusalem Ordo, and is a later synthesis that took place in the Byzantine capital. It is particularly notable for its hymnography (especially the development of the Lenten Triodion), harmonizing the more ancient Ordos, and some unique structural elements
typique(French) typical
typiquement(French) typically
typisch(German) typical, typically
typisch für(German) typical of
Typographeum(Latin) press (printing)
Typographia(Latin) press (printing)
Typological justification
in printing and typing, the placement of letters and spacing so that the end or beginning of each line is perfectly aligned with one or more margins on that page
left-justified marginthe text on the left-hand side is aligned perfectly with the left margin and a "ragged right" on the right-hand margin, where a varying amount of blank space finishes each line
right-justified marginthe text on the right-hand-side is aligned perfectly with the right margin and a "ragged left" on the left-hand-side where a varying amount of blank space appears before each line
perfectly justified text
fully justified text
both the left- and right- hand edges of the text are perfectly aligned with the margins. This arrangement becomes possible only by slightly altering the spacing between every word and every letter in the line or by making minute adjustments in the font size from line to line
Typographie(German f.) typography
Typogravurealso known as 'relief halftone', an early photo reproductive process, developed in France around 1890, in which a halftone image could be printed. The printing plate was cast from a photosensitive gelatin relief, formed when exposed to sunlight through a negative and then washed out. The cast contained many raised peaks of varying sizes from where the gelatin was washed away in relationship to the amount of exposure it received. These peaks could be rolled with ink in the letterpress manner, creating a series of dots that gave the illusion of continuous tone. This process was abandoned in favour of simpler halftone screen techniques as they became available
Typological classificationin linguistics, this schema is a "grouping of languages based on structural similarities and differences rather than genetic relations"
Typological criticisma type of literary analysis of medieval or patristic texts in which critics read characters, objects, or events according to established interpretations of similar characters, objects, or events in biblical literature
Typologya mode of biblical interpretation introduced by Saint Paul and developed by Patristic writers as a means of reconciling the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament) and the New Testament
Typus(German m.) type
Tyran(French m.) a tyrant
Tyrann(German m.) a tyrant
Tyrannei(German f.) tyranny
Tyrannie(French f.) tyranny
tyrannique(French) tyrannical
tyrannisch(German) tyrannical
tyranniser(French) to oppress, to tyrannise
tyrannisieren(German) to tyrannise
Tyroin general, someone new to a field or activity
Tyrolean harpaingle-action pedal harps used in the Tyrolean area of Austria and also Bavaria. Their soundboxes have a curved "banana" shape, and the single action enables semitone changes of the same nature as lever harps. The folk music of these countries is full of polkas, marches, waltzes and other dances. The single-action pedal harp is well suited to play this kind of music, solo or in ensembles
Tyrolervals(Danish, literally 'Tyrolean waltz') a dignified individual partner dance, a common chorus figure in Danish folk dances
Tyrolien (m.), Tyrolienne (f.)a quick triple-time dance form
the feminine form often refers specifically to an early 19th-century style of ballet music or to songs and dances peculiar to the Tyrol and the Tyrolese people
Tyronian nota(Latin plural form, notae Tironianae) taken from a system of shorthand said to have been invented by Cicero's scribe Marcus Tullius Tiro. while modern English authors use an ampersand (&) as an abbreviation for the word and, medieval writers would use a nota tyronian to represent the Latin word et (modern English and). The nota looks a bit like the modern arabic number 7
Tysonafter Alan Tyson, the cataloguer of the works without opus numbers by Muzio Clementi (1752-1832)
tyve(Danish. Norwegian) twenty
Tyveka brand of flashspun high-density polyethylene fibers, a synthetic material; the name is a registered trademark of DuPont. The material is very strong; it is difficult to tear but can easily be cut with scissors or any other sharp object. Water vapour can pass through Tyvek (highly breathable), but not liquid water, so the material lends itself to a variety of applications: medical packaging, envelopes, car covers, air and water intrusion barriers (housewrap) under house siding, labels, wristbands, mycology, and graphics
  • Tyvek from which this information has been taken
tyvende(Danish, Norwegian) twentieth
Tzelitzelim(Hebrew) cymbals, possibly hand-cymbals (Psalms 150:5)
Tzicahuiztlipre-Hispanic Mexican scrapers made from human bones
Tzigane(French m./f.) gipsy
a composition having gypsy influences or flavour
Tzigano(Italian m.) gypsy, Tzigane (French)
tzigano(Italian) gypsy (gypsy-like)
TzourasGreek six-stringed long-necked lute, similar to, but smaller than a bouzouki, in size lying between the baglama and the bouzouki
Tz'Ua genre of Chinese poetry invented during the T'ang period (618-907 AD). It was akin to a song libretto with a tonal pattern similar to the lu-shih, but with irregular meter