music dictionary : Ae - Af

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AEabbreviation of 'acoustic emission', 'adult education'
ae.abbreviation of aetatis (Latin) 'at the age of', 'aged'
AEAabbreviation of 'acoustic emission analysis'
AEdabbreviation of 'Associate in Education'
Aedilesthe Roman censors under the early Emperors who were required to approve or reject any play or musical work intended for public performance
Aeduior Haedui, Gallic people, occupying in the 1st century BC a part of what later became Burgundy
a efecto de(Spanish) with the purpose of
a efectos de(Spanish) with the object of, with the purpose of
a efectos de jubilación(Spanish) pensionable
AEFMabbreviation of Association européenne des festivals de musique (French: European Association of Music Festivals)
a.e.g.abbreviation of 'all edges gilt', a term used in bookbinding
à égalité(French) equal
Aegean Bronze-Age music
there is no music surviving from this period but there is a wealth of archeological evidence that instruments were played during the Bronze-Age, from its dawning on the Cycladic Isles in the third millennium BC to its later flowering in Minoan Crete and then in the Mycenaean centres and finally to its mysterious disappearance in the twelfth century BC
Cycladic culture (Crete)in the Aegean sea (eastern Mediterranean Sea), north of Crete lies a group of small islands known as the Cyclades. On one of these, the island of Keros, two marble statues from the late Neolithic culture called Early Cycladic culture (2900 BC-2000 BC) were discovered together in a single grave in the nineteenth century. They depict a standing double flute player and a sitting musician playing a triangular-shaped lyre or harp. The harpist is approximately 23 cm (nine inches) high and dates to around 2700-2500 BC. The meaning of these and many other figures is not known; perhaps they were used to ward off evil spirits or had religious significance or served as toys or depicted figures from mythology
Minoan culture (Crete)while very little Minoan culture remains for us - no writings, music, or religious texts - we do have Minoan art which includes painting, pottery and frescoes
Mycenaean culture (mainland Greece)
Aegis(Latin, from the Greek) shield, protection, patronage
a reference to the shield of Zeus which was made by Hephaestus the god of fire and covered with the skin of the goat Amalthea who had suckled Zeus as an infant. Hence, 'under the aegis of' meaning 'under the protection of'
Aegrotat(Latin, literally 'he is ill') a certificate leading to an unclassed degree awarded to an undergraduate who is too ill to attend University examinations
aehnlich(German) similar, like
[corrected by Isabel Sterner]
a elección(Spanish) ad libitum
a ella le toca(Spanish) it's her turn, it's her move
a ellas les toca(Spanish) it's their turn, it's their move
a él le toca(Spanish) it's his turn, it's his move
a ello(Spanish) thereto
a ellos les toca(Spanish) it's their turn, it's their move
a empellones(Spanish) by force, pushing violently
a empujones(Spanish) by force, by fits and starts, in jerks, roughly, brusquely
AEnabbreviation of 'Associate in English'
aendern(German) ändern
Aenderung(German) Änderung
aendrede(Danish) revised
aengstlich(German) anxiously
à en-tête(French) headed
Æolaa deluxe 8-sided model of the standard 6-sided concertina, produced by C. Wheatstone & Co. from about 1900. Before the 8-sided model, the name was used by Wheatstone for a deluxe 6-sided model (1890-1900)
[information supplied by Jim Lucas]
Æolian attachmenta device often attached to a pianoforte, which prolongs the vibrations, increases the volume of sound, etc., by forcing a stream of air upon the strings
Æolian harp(named for Aeolus, the Greek god of the four winds) a box across which lie strings of various thicknesses, stretched and tuned in unison, which when placed in a window and the strings are excited by the wind, emits chords of harmonics, believed to have originiated in India and China
Æolian lyrealternative name for the Æolian harp
Æolian mode(Aeolian or Æolian, of or pertaining to Æolia or Æolis, in Asia Minor, colonized by the Greeks, or to its inhabitants) or 'Aeolian mode', the fifth Authentic mode of the ancient Greeks
the authentic mode on A
aeolian mode
a mode consisting of the rising interval sequence T-S-T-T-S-T-T (T=tone or whole-step, S=semitone or half-step), equivalent to the natural-minor mode
Æolian pianosee Aeolsklavier
Æolian pipeone of a group of 'violin' or 'string' pipes with a delicate, bright tone, found on many German Orchestrions
Æolian twinsa term suggested by Ger Tillekens, for major-minor relatives, that is analogous to 'Dorian twins'
Æolidiconor Æolodion, the earliest 'accordion-like' instrument, constructed in 1800 by J. T. Eschenbach of Hamburg, which was a bellows-blown keyboard instrument with free reeds. This was followed by numerous other free reed instruments, all with exotic names: Melodeon, Aerophone, Physharmonica, Uranion, Terpodion, Organo-Violine, Æoline, Melophone, Orgue-Expressif, Seraphine, etc. They varied in size and shape, from foot-bellows blown to hand-bellows blown, sometimes with wooden reeds vibrated by a metal roller or vice versa, some purely melodic to be attached to and used with a pianoforte, and from this assortment eventually emerged the foot-blown harmonium or 'reed organ', the hand-operated accordion and concertina, and the mouth-blown harmonica or 'mouth-organ'
Æolinaa chord harmonica, on which one can play chords in a limited number of keys (for example, C, D, and G), is the precursor of the modern harmonica
Æolinea reed stop in an organ, in imitation of the Æolian harp
Æoline bellswind chimes in the shape of bells, each being tuned to a different pitch
Æoline reeda soft-string organ stop
Aeolische mode(Dutch) Æolian mode
Æolodiconsee Æolidicon
Æolodionsee Æolidicon
Æolomelodiconalso called Choralion or Choraleon (for 'hymn accompaniment'), a small free-reed organ invented by Hoffmann, and built in Warsaw in 1825, on which the player could modify both the character and the volume of its sound
Æolopantalona combination of the Æolomelodicon and the piano, invented in 1825 by Dlugosz of Warsaw, and played on in recitals by the young Chopin
Æolophona free-reed organ manufactured by Day and Münch (c.1830), with a range of six octaves and fitted with three pedals, one for operating the bellows, the others for regulating the swell
(German) or Windmaschine, wind machine
Aeolsklavier(German n.) an obsolete keyboard wind instrument invented in 1825 by Schortmann of Buttelstädt, with wooden reeds, which produced a soft pleasing tone
Æolus modus(Latin) Æolian mode
à épisodes(French) serialized
aequal(German from Latin) a term signifying 'of eight feet', and is applied to organ stops
Aequalstimmen(German f. pl.) the 8 ft., pipes in an organ
(German f. pl.) equal voices
Æquisonans(Latin) unison, of the same, or like, sound
Æquisonant(Latin) unison of the same, or like, sound
Æquisonus(Latin) unison of the same, or like, sound
Æquivagans(Latin) a term used to signify that all the parts in a passage of music deviate from the natural order of the bar as the same time
Æquo animo(Latin) quietly, with serenity
AERAabbreviation of 'Associated Engaver, Royal Academy'
Áere(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) a tune or aire of a song or ditty
aéré(French), aereo (Italian) arioso (Italian), airy, luftig (German)
aereo(Italian) arioso (Italian), airy, luftig (German), aéré (French), aéreo (Spanish)
aéreo(Spanish) air, aeril (photograph), overhead (wires), flimsy (figurative)
aérer(French) to lighten (text)
Aérobic(French) aerobics
Aerobica(Italian f.) aerobics
Aeróbica(Spanish f.) aerobics
Aerobic dancea form of dance exercise
aerobico(Italian) aerobic
Aerodeslizador(Spanish m.) hovercraft
Aerodinámica(Spanish f.) aerodynamics
aerodinámico (m.), aerodinámica (f.)(Spanish) aerodynamic
Aeródromo(Spanish m.) aerodrome
aerodynamisch(German) aerodynamic
aeroespacial(Spanish) aerospace
Aerofaro(Spanish m.) beacon
Aerofono (s.), Aerofoni (pl.)(Italian m.) aerophone
Aerofono ad ancia doppia(Italian m.) double-reed aerophone
Aerofono ad ancia libera(Italian m.) free-reed aerophone
Aerofono ad ancia semplice(Italian m.) single-reed aerophone
Aerofono con tastiera e leve(Italian m.) keyed aerophone
Aerofono senza tastiera e leve(Italian m.) unkeyed aerophone
Aérogramme(French) airmail letter, aerogram (in the US)
Aerolito(Spanish m.) meteorite
Aeronauta(Spanish m./f.) aeronaut
Aeronáutica(Spanish f.) aeronautics
aeronáutico (m.), aeronáutica (f.)(Spanish) aeronautical
Aeronautik(German f.) aeronautics
aeronautisch(German) aeronautical, aeronautically, aeronautic
Aeronave(Spanish f.) airship
Aerophagie(German f.) aerophagy, aerophagia
Aerophagiaor aerophagy, a condition that occurs when a person swallows too much air, which goes to the stomach. It causes abdominal bloating, frequent belching and may cause pain
Aerophon(German n.) aerophone
see 'Aerophor'
Aerophone(from two Greek words for air, aeros and sound, phone) in the Sachs-Hornbostel hierarchical scheme for classifying musical instruments, aerophones are instruments such as flutes, whistles, organ pipes and horns that produces sound by using air as the primary mechanism for generating vibrations
Aerophoror Aerophon, an instrument invented by B. Samuels in 1912, which supplements the air from a wind-instrument player by that from a small foot-operated bellows placed on the floor which the player utilizes when long-held notes, or extended melodies require an air capacity beyond that of the player alone
Aeroplane waltzone of the most popular dances in its time that was often used in connection with the Hesitation waltz. Joan Sawyer helped make this dance popular in the early 1910s and is a very pretty dance for children. The Aeroplane waltz was dedicated to a Mr. Wm. P. Baltz, Philadelphia, PA. and was originally danced to Come Josephine in my Flying Machine, but can be any 3/4 tempo waltz with dancers in tango dance position
Aeropuerto(Spanish m.) airport
Aerosol(English, German n., Spanish m.) pressurized container releasing a substance as a fine spray, system of minute particles suspended in gas (for example, fog or smoke)
Aes.abbreviation of Aesop, (sixth century BC, Greek author of fables)
AESabbreviation of 'Audio Engineering Society'
a esa edad(Spanish) at that age
a esa razón(Spanish) to that matter
a esas alturas ya no me importaba(Spanish) by that stage I didn't mind
a esa velocidad(Spanish) at that speed
a escala nacional(Spanish) at a national scale, nation-wide, nationwide
a escape(Spanish) at breakneck speed
a escobazos(Spanish) with a broom
a escondidas(Spanish) in secret, behind one's back, on the quiet, on the sly, under the counter, under the table, furtively
a escondidas de(Spanish) behind, without the knowledge of
a escondidas de ellas(Spanish) behind their back
a escondidas de ellos(Spanish) behind their back
a escondidas mías(Spanish) behind my back, at my back
a escondidas suyas(Spanish) behind your back, behind their back
a escopetazos(Spanish) with a shotgun
a escuadra(Spanish) at right angles
a ese entonces(Spanish) by that time, by the time
a ese lugar(Spanish) to that place, thereto, thereunto
a ese motivo(Spanish) to that matter, to that reason, thereto, thereunto
a ese paso(Spanish) at that rate, at that speed, at this rate
a ese respecto(Spanish) in that regard, in that connection, in that respect
a ese ritmo(Spanish) at that rate, at this rate
a eso(Spanish) thereto, thereunto
a eso de(Spanish) at about, around, about, at the approximate time of, at approximately
Aesopa deformed Phrygian slave (c.620-560 BCE) who is the traditional author of a collection of animal fables. Many of the fables predate him and are found on Egyptian papyri dating almost 1000 years earlier
a eso quiero llegar(Spanish) that's what I'm driving at, that's the point I'm trying to make, that's what I'm trying to say, that's what I mean
a espaldas(Spanish) behind someone's back
a espaldas de(Spanish) behind
a espaldas de él(Spanish) behind his back, at his back, behind him
a espaldas de ella(Spanish) behind her back, at her back, behind her
a espaldas de ellas(Spanish) behind their back, at their back, at their backs
a espaldas de ellos(Spanish) behind their back, at their back, at their backs
a espaldas de usted(Spanish) behind your back, at your back
a espaldas mías(Spanish) behind my back, behind me, hidden from me
a espaldas nuestras(Spanish) behind our back
a espaldas suyas(Spanish) behind your back, at your back, behind you, at his back, at her back, behind your back, behind their back
a espaldas tuyas(Spanish) behind your back, behind you
a espaldas vuestras(Spanish) behind your back
a espetaperro(Spanish) at breakneck speed, like a bat out of hell
a esta distancia(Spanish) at this distance
a esta hora(Spanish) by this time, at this time, at this hour, by now
a estas alturas(Spanish) at this stage, by that stage, by now, till now, this late on, at this point, at this advanced stage, at this juncture, at this time of day
a estas alturas del año(Spanish) this late on in the year
¡a estas alturas me vienes con eso!(Spanish) you wait till now to bring this to me!
a estas alturas ya deberías conocerlo(Spanish) you should know him by now
a esta sazón(Spanish) at this juncture
a estas fechas(Spanish) by now, by this time
a estas horas(Spanish) at this time, now, by now
a esta velocidad(Spanish) at this speed
a este efecto(Spanish) for that purpose, to that end
a este fin(Spanish) to this end, hereto
a este paso(Spanish) at this rate, at this speed
a este respecto(Spanish) in this respect, in this regard
a este ritmo(Spanish) at this rate
a este tono(Spanish) in this way
a este tren(Spanish) at this rate (colloquial)
aesth.abbreviation of 'aesthetics'
Aesthesiophysiologythe physiology of sensation and the sense organs
Aesthetic distancean effect of tone, diction, and presentation in poetry creating a sense of an experience removed from irrelevant or accidental events
Aesthetic Institution
J. P. Greaves developed his ideas on sacred socialism at 49 Burton St., Bloomsbury, London whilst gathering a group of followers together through meetings at his house and writing articles for the Monthly Magazine
Æstheticismthe belief that the pursuit of beauty is the most important goal, and that it is the artist's duty to orchestrate selected elements from nature into a composition that, like music, exists for its own sake, without regard to moral or didactic issues. This belief developed from the view held by the influential German philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) that art can be judged only by its own criteria and not by anything external to it. Flourishing in the nineteenth century, it carries now the connotation of decadence or preciousness. Also spelled 'estheticism'. It is often associated with the fin de siècle circle of writer Oscar Wilde (English, born Ireland, 1854-1900), painter James Abbott McNeill Whistler (American, 1834-1903), and illustrator Aubrey Beardsley (English, 1872-1898) but among its most severe critics were John Ruskin (1819-1900) and William Morris (1834-1896)
"l'art pour l'art" (art for art's sake) Théophile Gautier (1811-1872) French writer
"I have one aim - the grotesque. If I am not grotesque I am nothing" Aubrey Beardsley (1872-1898) English illustrator
Æsthetic judgmentbeauty is an important part of our lives. Ugliness too. It is no surprise then that philosophers since antiquity have been interested in our experiences of and judgments about beauty and ugliness. They have tried to understand the nature of these experiences and judgments, and they have also wanted to know whether these experiences and judgments were legitimate. Both these projects took a sharpened form in the twentieth century, when this part of our lives came under a sustained attack in both European and later in American intellectual circles. Much of the discourse about beauty since the eighteenth century had deployed a notion of the 'aesthetic', and so that notion in particular came in for criticism. Perhaps this disdain for the aesthetic has roots in a broader cultural Puritanism, which fears the connection between the aesthetic and pleasure. Even to suggest, in the recent climate, that an artwork might be pleasurable, as opposed to cognitively, morally or politically beneficial, is to court derision. The twentieth century has not been kind to the notions of beauty or the aesthetic. Nevertheless, there are some thinkers who are unperturbed by the relatively recent turn against these ideas. These thinkers - philosophers, as well as others in the study of particular arts - have persevered in thinking about beauty and the aesthetic, despite the unfashionableness of these topics
Æsthetic responsean emotional response one may experience while listening to music because of perceptions of interacting musical elements which create unity and variety, tensions and resolutions
Æstheticsthe philosophy of art, the theory of taste
the science of the beautiful, expressive, sublime or pleasurable in art
in music, the field of study that follows upon questions such as 'What is music?', 'Does music express emotions?', 'Is music a language?', and so on
Æsthetics of musicthe study of the relationship of music to the human senses and intellect
[definition taken from Harvard Dictionary of Music by Willi Apel]
Æsthetic valuethe value (worth) a thing or event has due to its capacity to evoke pleasure that is recognized as arising from features in the object traditionally considered worthy of attention
Aestivateor 'estivate', sleep during summer
a estratos(Spanish) layered
aet.abbreviation of aetatis (Latin: at the age of, aged)
Aetatis (suae)(Latin) aged ... (always followed by a number)
Aetiological talemyths and stories both serious and fanciful, that offer reasons for why certain things exist (or have existed in the past) and for their properties and/or behaviour
Aeuiaabbreviated form of Alleluia, used occasionally in manuscripts of Gregorian chant
aeussere Stimmen(German also äussere Stimmen or äußere Stimmen, the outer parts
[corrected by Michael Zapf]
aeusserst(German) also äusserst or äußerst, extremely
aeusserst rasch(German) also äusserst rasch, äußerst rasch, extremely quick
Aeviaabbreviated form of Alleluia, used occasionally in manuscripts of Gregorian chant
a excepción de(Spanish) with the exception of, aside from, exception made of, other than
a expensas de(Spanish) at the expense of, at the expenses of
a expensas de ellas(Spanish) at their expense
a expensas de ellos(Spanish) at their expense
a expensas de otros(Spanish) at the expense of others, at other people's expense, at someone else's expense
a expensas mías(Spanish) at my expense
a expensas nuestras(Spanish) at our expense
a expensas suyas(Spanish) at your expense, at his expense, at her expense
a expensas tuyas(Spanish) at your expense
a expensas vuestras(Spanish) at your expense
AFabbreviation of Académie Française (French literary academy)
abbreviation of 'audiofrequency' or 'autofocus'
a.f.abbreviation of anno futuro (Latin: next year)
A/Fabbreviation of 'as found' (a term used in auction catalogues)
AFAabbreviation of 'Associate in Fine Art'
Afabilidad(Spanish f.) affability
afable(Spanish) affable
a falta de(Spanish) for lack of, for want of, in default of, in the absence of, failing
a falta de mejor expresión(Spanish) for want of a better expression, for lack of a better expression
a falta de pan buenas son cemitas(Spanish) beggars can't be choosers
a falta de pan buenas son las tortas(Spanish) half a loaf is better than none, we'll just have to make do
a falta de pan buenas son tortas(Spanish) half a loaf is better than none, we'll just have to make do
a falta de pan las tortas son buenas(Spanish) we'll just have to make do
a falta de pan tortillas(Spanish) half a loaf is better than none
a falta de una mejor expresión(Spanish) for lack of a better expression, for want of a better expression, lacking a better expression
a falta de una mejor forma de expresarlo(Spanish) for lack of a better expression, for want of a better expression, lacking a better expression
afamado (m.), afamada (f.)(Spanish) famous, well-known
Afán(Spanish m.) hard work, thirst (eagerness), desire, eagerness, zeal, effort, hurry (Colombia)
afanado (m.), afanada (f.)(Spanish m.) busy (person), in a hurry (Colombia, Peru)
afanar(Spanish) to pinch (familiar: steal), to nick (familiar: steal), to lift (familiar: steal)
afanar la cartera(Spanish) to pinch his wallet, to nick his wallet, to lift his wallet
afanarse(Spanish) to strive, to toil
afanarse en(Spanish) to toil at
afanarse en hacer ...(Spanish) to strive to do ... (something)
afanarse por hacer ...(Spanish) to strive to do ... (something)
afanarse por triunfar(Spanish) to strive to succeed, to one's best to succeed
Afán de agradar(Spanish m.) eagerness to please
Afán de aprender(Spanish m.) eagerness to learn
Afán de aventuras(Spanish m.) thirst for adventure
Afán de hacer ...(Spanish m.) eagerness to do ... (something)
a fanegadas(Spanish) in great abundance, abundantly, plentifully
afanoso (m.), afanosa (f.)(Spanish) laborious, keen, eager, hard, tough
afastado(Portuguese) degagé (French)
a favor(Spanish) in favour, pro
a favor de(Spanish) in favour of, for the benefit of, in favour of, in support of, on the side of
a favor de él(Spanish) on his behalf, in his favour
a favor de ella(Spanish) on her behalf, in her favour
a favor de ellas(Spanish) on their behalf, in their favour
a favor de ellos(Spanish) on their behalf, in their favour
a favor de nosotros(Spanish) on our behalf, in our favour
a favor de usted(Spanish) on your behalf
a favor del viento(Spanish) downwind, before the wind, on the wind
a favor mío(Spanish) on my behalf, in my favour
a favor nuestro(Spanish) on our behalf, in our favour
a favor suyo(Spanish) in his favour, on her behalf, in her favour, on his behalf, on your behalf, in your favour, on their behalf
a favor tuyo(Spanish) on your behalf, in your favour
a favor vuestro(Spanish) on your behalf, in your favour
a favor y en contra(Spanish) pro and con
a favor y en contra de(Spanish) for and against
Afdeling(Danish, Dutch) part, volume
a fe(Spanish) in truth, truly
Afeamiento(Spanish m.) disfigurement
afear(Spanish) to disfigure, to spoil, to make ugly, to make ... look ugly (somebody), to make ... look awful (somebody), to censure, to criticize
afearse(Spanish) to lose one's looks
Afección(Spanish f.) disease, (medical) condition, affliction (archaic)
Afectación(Spanish f.) affectation
Afectado (m.), Afectada (f.)(Spanish) affected (those affected by a disaster, disease, sadness, etc.)
afectado (m.), afectada (f.)(Spanish) affected (upset, had an affect on)
afectar(Spanish) to affect (person, illness, sadness), to sadden, to feign
afectísimo (m.), afectísima (f.)(Spanish) affectionate
afectísimo amigo(Spanish) my dear friend (in a card)
Afectividad(Spanish f.) emotional nature
afectivo (m.), afectiva (f.)(Spanish) sensitive, emotional, affective
Afecto(Spanish m.) affection
afecto (m.), afecta (f.)(Spanish) sympathetic
Afectuosidad(Spanish f.) affection
afectuoso (m.), afectuosa (f.)(Spanish) affectionate
a fe de(Spanish) on the word of
Afeitado(Spanish m.) shave
Afeitadora(Spanish f.) electric razor
afeitar(Spanish) to shave
afeitarse(Spanish) to (have a) shave
afelpado (m.), afelpada (f.)(Spanish) velvety
a fe mía(Spanish) on my word of honour, for the life of me, on my word, upon my faith, upon my honour
Afeminado(Spanish m.) effeminate person
afeminado (m.), afeminada (f.)(Spanish) effeminate
Afeminamiento(Spanish m.) effeminacy
afeminarse(Spanish) to become effeminate
aferrar(Spanish) to grasp
aff.abbreviation of 'affiliate', 'affiliated' or 'affix'
affabile(Italian) in a gentle pleasant manner, in an affable (elegant or courteous) manner, leutselig (German), freundlich (German), gefällig (German), angenehm (German), affable (French)
Affabilità(Italian f.) affability, with ease and freedom, with elegance, in a pleasing and agreeable manner
affabilmente(Italian) with ease and freedom, with elegance, in a pleasing and agreeable manner
affable(French) affabile (Italian), in a gentle pleasing manner, in an affable manner, elegant, leutselig (German)
affaccendarsi a(Italian) to busy oneself with
affacciarsi alla finestra(Italian) to appear at the window
affaiblissant(French) weakening, diminuendo, a steady softening (in volume)
affaiblissement(French m.) weakening, softening
Affaire(French f.) matter, affair, deal (transaction), business (firm), case (legal)
affairé (m.), affairée (f.)(French) busy, preoccupied
Affaire de coeur(French f.) a love affair
Affaire d'honneur(French f.) a matter of honour, a duel
Affaissement(French m.) subsidence
affanare(Italian) to leave breathless
affanarsi(Italian) to get worked up
affanato(Italian, literally 'breathless') alternative spelling of affannato, for example found in Skryabin, Preludes (4), op.48 no. 3 (Capricciosamente affanato)
affannato(Italian) in a distressed or anxious manner, anguished, breathless, panting, agitated, sad, mournful, excited, hurried, atemlos (German), bekümmert (German), betrübt (German), essouflé (French)
Affano(Italian m.) breathlessness, worry (figurative)
affannosamente(Italian) distressingly or anxiously, restlessly, breathlessly, agitatedly, excitedly, hurriedly, con angustia (Italian), con affanno (Italian), affannoso (Italian), anxious, with anxiety, bangend (German), tourmenté (French), anxieusement (French)
affannoso(Italian) con angustia (Italian), con affanno (Italian), languishing, distressed, anguished, restless, mournful, anxious, sad, sadly, bangend (German), anxieusement (French)
affanosamente(Italian) alternative spelling of affannosamente
affanoso(Italian) alternative spelling of affannoso
Affare(Italian m.) matter, transaction, deal
Affäre (s.), Affären (pl.)(German f.) affair (especially amorous), fling (colloquial), scandal, episode, incident
Affari(Italian business
Affarista(Italian m./f.) speculator
affascinante(Italian) fascinating
affascinare(Italian) to charm, to bewitch, to fascinate
affastellare(Italian) to tie up in bundles
affato(Italian) completely
Affe (s.), Affen (pl.)(German m.) monkey, ape
Affectation(French f.) assignment, appointment, posting
affecté(French) manierato (Italian), affettato (Italian), affected, mannered, geziert (German), affektiert (German), maniéré (French)
affecter(French) to assign, to appoint, to post
affectif (m.), affective (f.)(French) emotional
Affectionaffettuoso (Italian), mit Gefühl (German), avec sentiment (French)
a persistent emotional state of mind, such as wonder, fear, joy, rage
(French) ailment
affectionner(French) to be fond of
Affections, doctrine ofin German Affektenlehre
Behind the traits that mark music as baroque, then, are their reason for being: the passions, or as they were more often called then, the affections. Affections are not the same as emotions. A sixteenth-century poetic-critic, Lorenzo Giacomini, defined an affection as "a spiritual movement or operation of the mind in which it is attracted or repelled by an object it has come to know." He described it as a result of an imbalance in the animal spirits and vapors that flow continually throughout the body. An abundance of thin and agile spirits disposes a person to joyous affections, while torpid and impure vapors prepare the way for sorrow and fear. External and internal sensations stimulate the bodily mechanism to alter the state of the spirits. This activity is felt as a 'movement of the affections,' and the resulting state of imbalance is the affection. Once this state is reached, the body and mind tend to remain in the same affection until some new stimulus produces an alteration of the combination of vapors. Affection and passion are two terms for the same process, the former describing it from the point of view of the body, the latter from the standpoint of the mind. The alteration of the blood and spirits affects the body, while the mind passively suffers the disturbance
quotation written by the musicologist Claude V. Palisca (In Baroque Music, 2d ed., Prentice-Hall, 1981)
Affectueusement(French m.) affection, emotion
affectueusement(French) lovingly, affectionately, fondly, with affect (i.e. with emotion), con affetto (Italian), affettuoso (Italian), affetto (Italian), affettuosamente (Italian), in herzlicher Weise (German), tendrement (French)
affectueux (m.), affectueuse (f.)(French) with warmth, very expressively, with tenderness, with passion, with emotion, pathetic, tenderly, affectionate, tender, expressive, affettuoso (Italian), affettuoso (Italian), gemütsbewegend (German)
Affekt(German m.) fervour, affect, feeling, emotion
Affektenlehre(German f.) in musical aesthetics, doctrine of the affections, a theory in musical aesthetics popular in the Baroque era (1600-1750) but which fell out of favour in the 19th century. It derived from ancient theories of rhetoric and was widely accepted by late-Baroque German theorists and composers, for example, in the writings of John Mattheson (1681-1764) Der vollkommene Capellmeister (1739), Johann Joachim Quantz (1697-1773), Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg (1718-1795) and Johann David Heinichen (1683-1729). The essential idea is that just one unified and "rationalised" Affekt should be aimed at by any single piece or movement of music, and that to attempt more was to risk confusion and disorder
(German f.) in psychology, the theory of emotions, a term applied specifically to the theory developed by Philipp Lersch (1898-1972)
Affekthandlung(German f.) emotional act
affektieren(German) to affect
affektiert(German) manierato (Italian), affettato (Italian), affected, mannered, geziert (German), affecté (French), maniéré (French)
(German) affectedly, mincingly, finicky, lackadaisically, mouthed, smirkingly, drawling, la-di-da
affektierte Manieren(German pl.) affected manners
affektierte Person(German f.) affected person
affektierter Stil(German m.) affected style
affektiertes Benehmen(German n.) affected behaviour
affektiertes gedehntes Sprechen(German n.) affected drawl
affektiertes Verhalten(German n.) la-di-da behaviour
Affektiertheit(German f.) artificialness, affectation, preciosity, affectedness
affektiert sprechen(German) to drawl
Affektion(German f.) affection
affektioniert(German) affectionate
affektiv(German) affectively, affective
Affektlosigkeit(German f.) emotionlessness
Affekttheorie(German f.) doctrine of affections
affektvoll(German) full of fervour
affenartig(German) apelike, simian
affengeil(German) awesome (US) (colloquial)
affengleich(German) ape-like
Affenhitze(German f.) awful heat, real scorcher (colloquial)
Affenkäfig(German m.) monkey cage, turmoil (figurative), rumpus (figurative)
Affenkasten(German m.) turmoil, rumpus
Affenkomödie(German f.) antics, buffoonery, turmoil, rumpus
Affenliebe(German f.) doting love
Affenschande(German f.) crying shame, beastly shame (colloquial)
Affenspektakel(German n.) hullabaloo (slang)
Affenstall(German m.) turmoil, rumpus
Affentest(German m.) random test
Affentheater(German n.) charade, farce (ridiculous business), crazy business (colloquial)
Affenzirkus(German m.) three-ring circus (US) (figurative)
affermare(Italian) to affirm, to assert
Affermazione(Italian f.) affirmation, assertion, achievement (success)
afferrare(Italian) to seize, to grasp
afferrare a volo(Italian) to be quick on the uptake
affettoabbreviation of affettuoso (Italian: expressively, passionately)
affettato(Italian) manierato (Italian), affected, mannered, geziert (German), affektiert (German), affecté (French), maniéré (French)
Affetto (s.), Affetti (pl.)(Italian m.) feeling, affection, emotion, pathos, tenderness, Gemütsbeweung (German f.)
(Italian m.) an ornament found in early sonatas for violin denoting a tremolo or arpeggio
the term appears as the title of various publications that appeared at the beginning of the seventeenth century, probably to emphasize the emotional character of the music
affettuosamente(Italian) affectionately, tenderly, pathetically, with affect (i.e. with emotion), con affetto (Italian), in herzlicher Weise (German), ausdrucksvoll (German), affectueusement (French), tendrement (French)
affettuoso (m.), affettuosa (f.)(Italian, literally 'with feeling') con affetto (Italian), with warmth, very expressively, with tenderness, with passion, with emotion, with affect (i.e. with emotion), with pathos, with tenderness, gemütsbewegend (German), mit innerer Bewegung (German), affectueux (French)
in the 17th- and 18th-centuries, for example, in the music of François Couperin (1668-1733) and Jean-Marie Leclair (1697-1764), affettuoso was a tempo indication somewhat quicker than adagio but slower than andante
affezionarsi(Italian) to grow fond of
affezionato a(Italian) devoted to
Affezione(Italian f.) affection, ailment
affiancare(Italian) to put side by side, to support (figurative)
Affianta person who makes an affidavit
affiatamento(Italian) (domestic) harmony
affiatarsi(Italian) to get on well together
Affichage(French m.) billposting, (electronic) display
Affiche(French f.) (public) notice, poster, playbill (a term generally applied to a notice fixed or attached to a wall, etc.)
affiché (m.), affichée (f.)(French) conspicuous, notorious (specifically in one's relationship with another person)
Affiche de comédie(French f.) playbill
Affiche de théâtre(French f.) playbill
afficher(French) to put up (notice), to announce (an event), to display, to flaunt, to parade, to exhibit
Affichette(French f.) small public notice, small poster, small playbill
Afficheur(French m., German m.) bill-poster, billsticker
affichieren(German) to post (advertisements on wall, hoarding, etc.), to display placards
Affichiste(French m./f.) a designer of playbills, posters, etc.
Affidamento(Italian m.) confidence
affidare(Italian) to entrust
Affidavit(Latin) a sworn statement that can be used as evidence in court
Affidé (m.), Affidée (f.)(French) a confederate, an accomplice, a henchman
affievolendo(Italian) weakening, indebolendo (Italian), abschwächend (German), schwächer werden (German), en affaiblissant (French)
affievolirsi(Italian) to grow weak
affig(German) affected, vain, arty, apish, apishly, silly
affiger(German) sillier
affiggere(Italian) to affix
Affigkeit(German f.) foppishness
affigste(German) silliest
affilé (m.), affilée (f.)(French) sharp (knife, etc.), keen (intelligence)
affiler(French) to sharpen, to whet, to hone
affiliare(Italian) to affiliate
affiliarsi(Italian) to become affiliated to
Affiloir(French m.) a sharpener, a whetstone, a steel (for sharpening knives)
Äffin(German f.) female monkey, female ape
Affinage(French m.) refining (metal), fining (glass), maturing (cheese)
affinché(Italian) so that, in order that
affine(Italian) similar
Affinement(French m.) refinement (manners, etc.)
affiner(French) to refine (metal), to refine (thoughts, etc.), to polish (style), to sharpen (mind), to make keener (mind)
Affinità(Italian f.) affinity
Affinität(German f.) attraction, liking, affinity
Affinité(French f.) affinity
Affinity, keys of
or 'relative keys', in a musical work, the relationship between the primitive or principal key (in which, generally, the works begins and ends) and those keys to which, during its progress, the work may modulate. We give two examples below:
primitive keyC majorA minor
first relative keyD minorC major
second relative keyE minorD minor
third relative keyF majorE minor
fourth relative keyG majorF major
fifth relative keyA minorG major
affiorare(Italian) to emerge, to come to light
affirmatif (m.), affirmative (f.)(French) assertive, affirmative, positive
Affirmation(French f.) assertion, affirmation
affirmativ(German) assertive
affirmieren(German) to affirm
äffisch(German) apish
Affittacamere(Italian m./f.) landlord, landlady
Affitto(Italian m.) rent (payment)
affizieren(German) to affect
affiziert(German) affected, irritated
Afflatus(Latin, literally 'breathing on') poetic or prophetic inspiration
affligé(French) distressed
affligé de(French) afflicted with
affliger(French) to grieve
affliggere(Italian) to torment
afflitto(Italian) distressed, afflicted, sad, melancholy, betrübt (German), traurig (German)
Affixationthe process of making words by adding an affix to a previously existing base word or stem. For instance, the affix -ly can be added to the base word (or stem) quick to create the word quickly
Afflizione(Italian f.) distress, affliction (figurative)
afflizione, con(Italian) or con accoramento (Italian), sorrowfully, with affliction, with grief, mit Betrübnis (German), trübselig (German), attristé (French)
Affluence(French f.) crowd, crowds
Affluenza(Italian f.) crowd
Affolement(French m.) panic
affoler(French) to throw into a panic
affollarsi(Italian) to crowd
affollato(Italian) crowded
affrancare(Italian) to stamp (a letter)
Affrancatura(Italian f.) postage
affranchir(French) to stamp, to frank (with a machine), to emancipate, to free (figurative)
Affranchissement(French m.) postage (rate, tariff)
affranto(Italian) worn out (exhausted)
Affresco(Italian m.) fresco
affréter(French) to charter
affrettando(Italian, literally 'becoming agitated') accelerating, hurrying, pressing (onwards), in a quickening tempo, stringendo (Italian), accelerando (Italian), beschleunigend (German), eilend (German)
affrettando e rubando il tempo(Italian) perform with increasing speed, dwelling on the accented notes
affrettare(Italian) to hurry, to speed up
affrettarsi(Italian) to hurry
affrettatamente(Italian) in a hurrying manner
affrettate(Italian) hurrying, quickening, accelerating the time
affrettato(Italian) hasty, hurried, hastening the tempo, piu mosso (Italian), rasch (German), beschleunigt (German), schneller (German)
affrettioso(Italian) quick, hurried, accelerated
affretto(Italian) abbreviated form of affrettando
affrettoso(Italian) hurried, hurrying, pressing, in a quickening tempo, hastening the tempo
affrettuoso(Italian) hurried
affreusement(French) hideously, awfully
affreux (m.), affreuse (f.)(French) hideous, awful
Affricativeor affricate, a sound stop with a fricative release. Affricatives involve a stop plus a movment through a fricative position (i.e., the blade of the tongue initially moves up in the position of a stop, but then move through a fricative or spirant position rather than remaining in the "stop" position).The affricatives include two different sounds. The first sound is found in judge, gem, soldier, and spinach. The second affricative sound is that sound found in church, butcher, itch, niche, and cello
affriolant (m.), affriolante (f.)(French) enticing
Affront(English, German m.) insult, slight
affrontare(Italian) to face, to confront, to meet
Affront gegen(German m.) slight against
afftabbreviation of 'affidavit' (a sworn statement)
affusolare(Italian) to taper (off)
affusolato(Italian) tapering
Afgano (m.), Afgana (f.)(Spanish) Afghan
afgano (m.), afgana (f.)(Spanish) Afghan
afgezaagd(Dutch) trite, unimportant
Afhanling(Danish) essay
Afianzamiento(Spanish m.) strengthening (reinforcing), guarantee
afianzarse(Spanish) to become established
Afición(Spanish f.) liking, fans (collectively), the term is often applied to an informed interest in bull-fighting
Aficionado (m.), Aficionada (f.)(Spanish) an enthusiastic follower or amateur participant, a fan (individual)
Aficionado a la música(Spanish m.) music lover, music fan
aficionado (m.), aficionada (f.)(Spanish) keen, fond
aficionado a (m.), aficionada a (f.)(Spanish) keen on, fond of
Aficionar(Spanish) to make fond
Aficionarse(Spanish) to take a liking to
Afilador (m.), Afiladora (f.)(Spanish) knife-grinder
Afiladura(Spanish f.) sharpening
afilar(Spanish) to sharpen
afilarse(Spanish) to get sharp, to grow thin
Afiliación(Spanish f.) affiliation
afiliado (m.), afiliada (f.)(Spanish) affiliated
afiliarse(Spanish) to become a member
afiliarse a(Spanish) to become a member of
afiligranado (m.), afiligranada (f.)(Spanish) filigreed, delicate (figurative)
Afillá(Spanish) a quality of flamenco voice which is both hoarse and earthy
afin(Spanish) similar, adjacent (near), related (people)
Afinação(Portuguese) pitch
Afinación(Spanish f.) tuning (of a musical instrument, for example the notes to which the strings of a guitar or violin are tuned), accordage (French)
(Spanish f.) refining, tuning (of a car engine)
Afinación científicasee afinación filosófica
Afinación de cámara(Spanish f.) standard pitch, a' (A4 or la3)=444Hz. (from the nineteenth century)
Afinación estándar(Spanish f.) standard pitch, a' (A4 or la3)=440Hz. (set by ISO 16 (1975))
Afinación filosófica(Spanish f.) or afinación científica, philosophical or scientific pitch, a' (A4 or la3)=430.54Hz. (from the nineteenth century)
afinado (m.), afinada (f.)(Spanish) in tune, finished
Afinador (m.), Afinadora (Spanish f.)(Portuguese m., Spanish) tuner
a final de(Spanish) at the end of, at the end of the
a final de cuentas(Spanish) after all is said and done, when it comes down to it
a finales de(Spanish) about the end of, by the end of, late in, toward the end of
a finales de año(Spanish) at the end of the year
a finales de los(Spanish) in the late
a finales de siglo(Spanish) at the end of the century
a finales del año calendario(Spanish) by the end of the fiscal year, by the end of fiscal year
a finales del siglo(Spanish) at the end of the century
afinar(Spanish) to tune (car, musical instrument, chord), accorder (French), accordare (Italian), stimmen (German)
(Spanish) to be in tune, to refine, to sharpen, to finish
afinarse(Spanish) to become more refined
afincarse(Spanish) to settle
a fin de(Spanish) at the end of the, at the end of, in order to, so as to
a fin de año(Spanish) by the end of the year, at the end of the year
a fin de cuentas(Spanish) when it comes down to it, at last, finally, after all, after all is said and done, at the end, in the last analysis, to sum it all, when all is said and done, when you come right down to it, ultimately
a fin de qué(Spanish) why
a fines(Spanish) at the end
a fines de(Spanish) at the end of, about the end of, around the end of, toward the end of, in order to, so as to
a fines de este año(Spanish) late this year
a fines del año calendario(Spanish) by the end of the fiscal year, by the end of fiscal year
Afinidad(Spanish f.) affinity, relationship (parental)
a fior di labbra(Italian) sung or spoken very lightly and softly
Afirmación(Spanish f.) affirmation
afirmar(Spanish) to make firm, to affirm
afirmarse(Spanish) to confirm, to steady oneself
afirmativo (m.), afirmativa (f.)(Spanish) affirmative
AF-Kamera(German f.) autofocus camera
Aflabbrevation of Alt-Flöte (German: alto flute - flûte alto (French))
A flat
note A flat
the flattened sixth note of the scale of C major, which in 'fixed do' solfeggio is called le
A flat major
key of A flat majorthe key of 'A flat major'
scale of A flat major
the scale of 'A flat major'
A flat minor
key of A flat minorthe key of 'A flat minor'
à fleur d'eau(French) just at water-level
Aflevering(Dutch) issue (of a magazine)
Aflicción(Spanish f.) afflication
aflictivo (m.), aflictiva (f.)(Spanish) distressing
Afligido (m.), Afligada (f.)(Spanish) afflicted (person)
afligido (m.), afligada (f.)(Spanish) distressed
afligir(Spanish) to distress
afligirse(Spanish) to grieve
Aflojamiento(Spanish m.) loosening
aflojar(Spanish) to loosen, to ease (relax), to let up
Afloramiento(Spanish m.) outcrop
aflorar(Spanish) to appear on the surface
a flor de(Spanish) flush with, on the surface of
a flor de agua(Spanish) at water level, awash, between wind and water, near the water's surface, on water's surface
a flor de la tierra(Spanish) near the earth's surface, on the earth's surface
a flor de labio(Spanish) on the tip of one's tongue
a flor de piel(Spanish) skin-deep
a flor de suelo(Spanish) on the surface
a flor de tierra(Spanish) on the surface, at ground level
a flote(Spanish) afloat
Afluencia(Spanish f.) flow
Afluente(Spanish m.) tributary
afluente(Spanish) flowing
afluir(Spanish) to flow
afluir a(Spanish) to flow into
AFMabbreviation of 'American Federation of Musicians'
abbreviation of 'audiofrequency modulation' (used in telcommunications)
afmo.abbreviation of afectisimo (Spanish: very affectionately - used when writing a letter)
AFNILabbreviation of Agence francophone pour la numérotation internationale du livre (French: the French agency for International Standard Book Numbers, ISBN)
A Fofasee A Chufa
à fond (perdu)(French) to the bottom, thoroughly
a fondo(Spanish) in depth, deeply, inside out, thoroughly, to the bone, to the hilt
Afonia(Spanish f.) hoarseness
afónico (m.), afónica (f.)(Spanish) hoarse
afono(Italian) voiceless
Aforisma(Italian m.) aphorism
Aforismo(Spanish m.) aphorism
Aforo(Spanish m.) capacity
a fortiori(Latin) with yet stronger reason, all the more
afortunado (m.), afortunada (f.)(Spanish) fortunate, lucky
Afoxéin Brazil, afoxé came to be associated with a Candomblé religious procession and rhythm performed during carnival in Salvador, Bahia, by the bloco afros and in ceremonies for the orixas. The instrumentation is like a reduced samba batucada, and the rhythm is somewhat similar to samba
Afoxêan Afro-Brazilian gourd instrument covered with a net of seeds, in which the sound is made by agitating the net to create friction against the gourd
afrancesado (m.), afrancesadora (f.)(Spanish) francophile
Afrenta(Spanish f.) insult, disgrace
afrentar(Spanish) to insult
afrentoso (m.), afrentosa (f.)(Spanish) insulting
África(Spanish f.) Africa
África del Sur(Spanish f.) South Africa
Africain (m.), Africaine (f.)(French) African
africain (m.), africaine (f.)(French) African
Africaine. L(French f.' literally 'The African Woman') an opera in five acts by the German-born French composer Giacomo Meyerbeer (1791-1864) which because of frequent interruptions, although begun in 1837, was not completed until 1864. Meyerbeer died while supervising rehearsals for the first performance in Paris
African-American folk songsee 'spiritual'
African American musicalso called 'black music' or 'race music', an umbrella term given to a range of musical genres emerging from or influenced by the culture of African Americans, who have long constituted a large ethnic minority of the population of the United States
African-American spiritualsee 'spiritual'
African American Vernacular Englishsee 'black vernacular'
African hip-hop
African musicmusic of the societies that have flourished on the second largest continent, comprising 20 per cent of the total land surface of the earth. This field of study wilmay also include the fusion of these cultures with those of the West, Asia and the Americas
africano(Spanish m.) African
Africano (m.), Africana (f.)(Italian, Spanish) African
africano (m.), africana (f.)(Italian, Spanish) African
African Sanctusa 1972 choral Mass and is the best-known work of British composer and ethnomusicologist David Fanshawe (b.1942)
Afrika(German n.) Africa
Afrikaansan Indo-European language, derived from Dutch and thus classified as Low Franconian West Germanic
Afrikaner (m.), Afrikanerin (f.)(German) African
afrikanisch(German) African
Afrikanistik(German f.) African studies
Afrika südlich der Sahara(German n.) sub-Saharan Africa
Afrique(French f.) Africa
Afrique du Sud(French f.) South Africa
Afroa rhythmic style combining adaptations of sacred Batá drum rhythms popularized in Cuba in the 1940s, and often used to interpret lullabies
Afro-Americana term to describe the traditions of music and dance brought by enslaved Africans to the American continent that inform more modern generes including tap-dancing, jazz and jive
afro-amerikanischer Mann(German m.) soul brother
Afro-Asiatica family of languages separate from Indo-European languages. The two main branches of Afro-Asiatic are Hamitic and Semitic
Afrobeat(Nigeria) a term coined by Fela Anikulapo Kuti for the unique musical hybrid he created fusing elements of Yoruba music with jazz, funk and big band
Afrocentrisma belief that African cultural heritage must be more greatly represented in humanities curricula. Types of Afrocentrism vary widely, from straightforward demonstrations of black pride to claims that classic Greek philosophy was plagiarized from lost black sources and that the ancient Egyptians were actually black Africans. The term is most closely associated with the academic books of Molefi Kete Asante
Afro-Cuban jazza variety of Latin jazz, Afro-Cuban Latin Jazz includes salsa, merengue, songo, son, mambo and cha cha cha
Afro-Cuban music
Afrodisíaco(Spanish m.) aphrodisiac
Afrodisíaco(Spanish m.) aphrodisiac
afrodisiaco (m.), afrodisiaca (f.)(Spanish) aphrodisiac
afrodisiaco (m.), afrodisiaca (f.)(Spanish) aphrodisiac
Afro-Frisur(German f.) Afro hairdo
Afro-jujua style of Nigerian popular music, a mixture of fuji music and Afrobeat
afro-karibischer Abstammung(German f.) of Afro-Caribbean origin
afrokubanischer Jazz(German m.) Afro-Cuban jazz
Afromain Malawi in the 1970s, a fusion of American rock-and-roll, soul and funk
afrontar(Spanish) to bring face to face, to face, to confront
afrontar las consecuencias(Spanish) to face the consequences, to face the music (colloquial)
a fronte praecipitium a tergo lupi(Latin) a precipice in front, wolves behind (literally 'between a rock and a hard place')
Afro-Peruvian musicthe result of an intermingling of native Peruvian music with the African traditions, rhythms, and roots from the black slaves who, after emancipation, finally settled along the southern coast of the country
Afro-rocka style of music which relies heavily on the use of Western string instruments (electric guitars and bass) and guitar effects played with a rock feel, but played in an african plucked style. The additional use of percussion helps refine and identify the music as African, while the vocal style is rock
Afro-soulthat distinct blend of 'African Grooves' and American-style Soul music that can be heard in Nigeria's urban centres
Afroxésee afoxé
Afrozentrismus(German m.) afrocentrism
AFRSabbreviation of 'Armed Forces Radio Service'
AFR&TSabbreviation of 'Armed Forces Radio & Television Service'
afsdabbreviation of 'aforesaid'
afsluitersee 'cancel'
Afspringende wisselnoot(Dutch) changing note
aft(s)abbreviation of 'after', 'afternoon', 'afterpiece(s)'
Aftab-e-Mousiquia title of honour conferred on an eminent musician of the Hindustani classical music tradition
After-beatan accent placed on any beat in a bar (measure) other than the first, for example, up beat, off beat, back beat
the ending of a modern trill, consisting of the lower auxiliary and the principal note
Aftermieter(German m.) subtenant
Afternoon of the faun, thesee Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune
After notean unaccented appoggiatura
the unaccented note of a pair of notes
Afterpiecea short, usually humorous one-act playlet following the main attraction, the full-length play, and concluding the theatrical evening
in the early days of the minstrel show, the 'afterpiece' was often a skit set on a Southern plantation that usually included song-and-dance numbers and featured Sambo- and Mammy-type characters in slapstick situations
Aftershave(German n.) aftershave (lotion)
Aftershave-Lotion(German f.) aftershave lotion
Aftershavelotion(German f.) aftershave lotion
After-Show-Party(German f.) after-show party
After-strikinga note or chord in the bass register that accompanies a melody but which is played after the melody note to which it is related
Aftertouch(English, German m.) the pressure applied to a synthesizer keyboard after the key is depressed
aftnabbreviation of 'afternoon'
Aftryk(Danish) edition
Afucheor cabaca, a Brazilian shaker comprised of a dried hollow gourd, or cylinder, with a serrated surface and handle over which a net of metal beads hang loosely. The beads are moved around the cylinder creating its characteristic sound
a fuego lento(Spanish) slowly, little by little
a fuego moderado(Spanish) at a moderate heat
a fuego vivo(Spanish) over a high flame
a fuego y sangre(Spanish) mercilessly
afuera(Spanish) out, outside
¡afuera!(Spanish) out of the way!
Afueras(Spanish outskirts
a fuer de(Spanish) in the manner of
a fuercioris(Spanish) by force
a fuero(Spanish) according to custom
a fuero de(Spanish) in the manner of
a fuerza(Spanish) by force
a fuerza de(Spanish) as a result of, by means of, by dint of, by force of
a fuerza de brazos(Spanish) by hard work
a fuerza de ir todo mal comienza por ir todo bien(Spanish) every cloud has a silver lining
a fuerza de la costumbre(Spanish) through force of habit
a fuerza de mucho trabajo(Spanish) through much hard work
a fuerza viva(Spanish) by sheer force, by sheer strength
afzonderlijk(Dutch) single, separate