music dictionary : Ar - Ar  

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ar.abbreviation of 'arrival', 'arrives', 'arrived'
ARabbreviation of 'accomplishment ratio', 'achievement ratio', argentum (Latin: silver), 'aspect ratio', accusé de réception (French: return receipt requested), avis de réception (French: acknowledgement of receipt)
A.R.abbreviation of anno regni (Latin: in the year of the reign), aller-retour (French: round trip)
A & Racronym for 'artist and repertoire', the record label department in charge of finding, developing, and signing new bands or artists
Ar(German m./n.) are (a unit of surface area equivalent to 100 square metres)
Ar.abbreviation of 'Arabia','Arabic', Arabian', 'Aramaic'
År(Danish, Norwegian, Swedish) year [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
Ara(German m.) macaw
(Spanish f.) altar, altar stone
in Spanish, ara is a feminine noun taking the masculine article in the singular
Ära(German f.) era, age (period of time)
Arab.abbreviation of 'Arabia', 'Arabian', 'Arabic'
Arabe(French m.) Arabic (language)
Arabe(French m./f.) Arab
Árabe(Spanish m./f.) Arab, Moor
Árabe(Spanish m.) Arab (language), Arabic
arabe(French) Arab, Arabic, Arabian
árabe(Spanish) Arab, Arabic, Arabian, Moorish
Araber(German m.) Arab (horse), Arabian horse, Arabian (horse)
Araber (m.), Araberin (f.), Arber (pl.), Araberinnen ( Arab
Arabesco(Spanish m., Portuguese m., Italian m.) arabesque
arabesco(Spanish, Portuguese, Italian) in the Arabic style (although used more generally to mean 'in a decorated or ornamental style', in a curvilinear non-representational manner)
Arabesk(English, German n.) popular Turkish music of Arabic rather than Turkish origin
Arabeske(German f.) arabesque
Arabesken-(German) arabesque (prefix)
Arabesque(French f., English) arabesco (Spanish m., Portuguese m., Italian m.), Arabeske (German f.)
(English, French f. from the French, literally 'Arabic decoration') florid (i.e. decorated) figure or composition
ornamental passage, a variation on a theme
one of the basic poses in ballet, arabesque takes its name from a form of Moorish ornament. In ballet it is a position of the body, in profile, supported on one leg, which can be straight or demi-plié, with the other leg extended behind and at right angles to it, and the arms held in various harmonious positions creating the longest possible line from the fingertips to the toes. The shoulders must be held square to the line of direction. The forms of arabesque are varied to infinity. The Cecchetti method uses five principal arabesques; the Russian School (Vaganova), four; and the French School, two. Arabesques are generally used to conclude a phrase of steps, both in the slow movements of adagio and the brisk, gay movements of allégro
  • Arabesques from which this information has been taken
Arabesque fondue(French f.) an arabesque performed with the leg on which the body is supported bent instead of straight
Arabesque penchée(French f.) an arabesque performed with the body bent forwards instead of vertical
Arabia(English, Spanish f.) or Arabian Peninsula, a peninsula of southwest Asia between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf
Arabian bird, Thethe phoenix, from which, 'a marvellous or unique person'
Arabian Nights Entertainments, Theor 'One Thousand and One Nights', a series of stories told nightly by Scheherazade, bride of Sultan Shahryah, to stave off her execution. The collection of stories was collected over thousands of years by various authors, translators and scholars in various countries. These collections of tales trace their roots back to ancient Arabia and Yemen, ancient India, ancient Asia Minor, ancient Persia, ancient Egypt, ancient Mesopotamian Mythology, ancient Syria, and medieval Arabic folk stories from the Caliphate era. Though an original manuscript has never been found, several versions date the collection's genesis to somewhere between AD 800-900
a rabiar(Spanish) tremendously, enormously, exceedingly
Arabia Saudí(Spanish f.) Saudi Arabia
Arabia saudita(Spanish f.) Saudi Arabia
Arabia Saudita, l'(Italian f.) Saudi Arabia
Arabic musicduring the polytheistic, pre-Islamic tribal period that Arabs call the jâhiliyah, there were two kinds of music: nomadic, a rudimentary, rhythmic style called huda, sung by Bedouin camel drivers; and sedentary, a virtuosic style performed by female slaves called qiyân (singular: qayna). These singing, wine-pouring courtesans had long been a fixture in the Mediterranean world. They were common in the households of the wealthy, but more of them worked for hire, entertaining passing customers all across the Arabian peninsula during the jâhiliyah, and especially in the slave-market cities, most prominently Medina. The poetic singing of the jâhiliyah functioned as both history and sorcery. These recitations, writes Zoltán Falvy, "became the literary language of Arabic, to which the Koran gave its authority when Islam was founded". Already from this pre-Islamic period of Arabic poetry, there are references to competitions in verse between dueling poets
strictly speaking, there is no such thing as "Islamic music". Tajwid, or the rhythmic chanting of the Koran, is not considered music by Muslims, though to a non-Muslim ear it sounds musical. There is no direct prohibition of, or endorsement of, music in the Koran. But there have consistently been various orthodox Muslim opinions against music as a forbidden pleasure, which in their severe forms constitute the most anti-musical posture in world history
there was, however, much music in the Muslim world, and there was a highly developed aesthetic awareness of music as an art form. The conquests of jihad brought under one banner a musical give-and-take that had already been going on for millennia in the eastern Mediterranean, Persia, Mesopotamia, and Arabia, held together by a theoretical framework that was essentially Greek. Along with music in the Muslim world there was much dancing
Arabic numeralsthe numbers 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 are so called because they were introduced into Europe by the Arabs, who brought them from India. Although familiar in Europe by the twelfth century, they did not generally supersede the Roman numberals (I, II, III, etc.) until the sixteenth century
Arabic scale
arabic scale
although there are many 'arabic' scale, this arabic scale (the scale most commonly given this name) is the fifth mode of the harmonic minor scale
Arabien(German n.) Arabia
Arabie Séoudite(French f.) Saudi Arabia
arábigo (m.), arábiga (f.)(Spanish) Arabic. Arabian (peninsula)
Arabisch(German n.) Arabic
arabisch(German) Arabic, Arab, Arabian, arabesque
arabisch bevölkert(German) Arab-populated
Arabische Halbinsel(German f.) Arabian Peninsula
Arabische Liga(German f.) Arab League
arabische Schrift(German f.) Arabic script
arabisches Kind(German n.) Arab child
Arabisches Meer(German n.) Arabian Sea
Arabisches Pferd(German n.) Arabian horse
arabische Staaten(German pl.) Arab countries
arabisches Wort(German n.) Arabic word
arabisches Zahlensystem(German n.) algorism (the Arabic, or decimal, system of numeration)
arabische Trommel(German f.) darabukka
arabische Welt(German f.) Arab world
Arabische Wüste(German f.) Arabian Desert
arabische Zahl (s.), arabische Zahlen (pl.)(German f.) Arabic numeral, Arabic numeral, Arabic figure
arabische Zeichen(German pl.) Arabic characters
arabische Ziffern(German pl.) Arabic numerals, Arabic figures
arabischsprachig(German) Arabic-speaking
Arabischwörterbuch(German n.) Arabic dictionary
arabisieren(German) to Arabise
Arabist (m.), Arabistin (f.)(German) Arabist
Arabistik(German f.) Arabic studies
Arabo(Italian m.) Arabic (language)
Arabo (m.), Araba (f.)(Italian) Arab
arabo (m.), araba (f.)(Italian) Arabic
Arab tone systemthe modern Arab tone system, or system of musical tuning, is based upon the theoretical division of the octave into twenty-four equal divisions or 24-tone equal temperament, the distance between each successive note being a quarter tone (50 cents). Each note has its own name not repeated in different octaves (lacking octave equivalency). The lowest note is named yakah and is determined by the lowest pitch in the range of the singer. The next higher octave is nawa and the second tuti. However, from these twenty-four notes seven are selected to produce a scale and thus the interval of a quarter tone is never used and the three-quarter tone or 'medium second' should be considered the characteristic interval
a rachas(Spanish) by fits and starts, fitfully, intermittently
a rachas de furia(Spanish) apoplectically, fitfully
Arachniden(German pl.) arachnids
Arachnidsany of various arthropods of the class Arachnida, such as spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks, characterised by four pairs of segmented legs
Arachnoiden(German pl.) arachnids
Arachnologe (m.), Arachnologin (f.)(German) arachnologist
Arachnologie(German f.) arachnology (the study of members of the class Arachnida such as spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks)
Arachnophobiaa fear of spiders
Arachnophobie(German f.) arachnophobia
ARADabbreviation of 'Associated of the Royal Academy of Dancing'
Arada(Spanish) a folk song associated with ploughing
Arado(Spanish m.) plough
Arador(Spanish m.) ploughman
Aragón(Spanish m., German n.) Aragón, in Spanish and Aragonese, Aragó, in Catalan, is an autonomous community in the centre of north-eastern Spain
Aragonaise(French) a dance associated with Aragon in Spain
Aragonés(Spanish m.) Aragonese
aragonés(Spanish) Aragonese
Aragonesa(Spanish) a dance associated with Aragon in Spain
Aragonesisch(German n.) Aragonese
Aragonien(German n.) Aragon
aragonisch(German) Aragonese, Aragonian
Aragotoa style of kabuki acting that uses exaggerated, dynamic kata (forms or movements) and speech
a rais(Spanish) barefoot, on the floor
a raíz de(Spanish) because of, as a result of, in the wake of
a raja tabla(Spanish) at any cost, by all means
a rajatabla(Spanish) at any cost, come what may, regardless, to the letter, rigorously, strictly
Arak(English, German m., from Arabic araq, 'juice') also arrack or araq, a strong spirit distilled from the sap of the palm-tree or from rice and sugar
Araldo(Italian m.) herald
Aralsee(German m.) Aral Sea or Lake Aral, a lake to the east of the Caspian Sea lying between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan
ARAMabbreviation of 'Associated of the Royal Academy of Music'
aram.abbreviation of 'Aramaic'
Aramaica Chaldean Northwest Semitic language closely related to Classical Hebrew. The earliest Aramaic inscriptions date from the ninth and tenth centuries BC
Aramäisch(German n.) Aramaic
aramäisch(German) Aramaic
Aramaistik(German f.) Aramaic studies
Araña(Spanish f.) spider, chandelier
arañar(Spanish) to scratch
Arañazo(Spanish m.) scratch
Arancel(Spanish m.) tariff, (customs) duty
arancelario (m.), arancelaria (f.)(Spanish) customs, tariff
Aranceto(Italian m.) orange grove
Arancia(Italian f.) orange
Arancio(Italian m.) orange-tree, orange (colour)
Arándano(Spanish m.) blueberry, bilberry
Arandela(Spanish f.) washer (engineering)
Araneseone of a pair of small related languages, Catalan and Aranese, both subdialects of Occitan
Aranesisch(German n.) Aranese
Aranzini(German n.) candied orange peel
Aräometer(German n.) hydrometer, areometer (instruments used to measure the specific gravity, or relative density, of liquids)
Araq(Arabic) arak, arrak
Ärar(German n.) state property
arar(Spanish) to plough
Arará(Arará is derived from the Dahomean city of Allada) Dahomean ritual/ceremonial drums brought to the Oriente province of Cuba by the Haitian émigrés following the Haitian slave rebellion of 1791
the term, along with Rada (found in Haiti) and Arrada (on the tiny island of Carriacou in the Grenadines), is also applied to Dahomean styles of drumming. One characteristic of arará music is the use of hand clapping and body percussion
ärarisch(German) belonging to the state
a ras(Spanish) at the same level, level, flush
a ras de(Spanish) level with, flush with
a ras de tierra(Spanish) at ground level, on ground level
a rastra(Spanish) unwillingly, reluctantly
a rastras(Spanish) reluctantly, unwillingly, grudgingly
a ratos(Spanish) from time to time, at times, occasionally, sometimes, at intervals, betweentimes, betweenwhiles, in snatches
a ratos perdidos(Spanish) at odd moments, in idle moments, in (one's) spare time
Araucanianor Mapuche, the indigenous inhabitants of Central and Southern Chile and Southern Argentina. They were known as Araucanians (Araucanos) by the Spaniards
Araucano (m.), Araucana (f.)(Spanish) Araucanian
araucano (m.), araucana (f.)(Spanish) Araucanian
a raudales(Spanish) in great quantity, at full flow, in floods, in great quantities, in torrents
Araukaner(German pl.) Araucanians, Araucanos
Araukarie(German f.) monkey puzzle (tree) (Araucaria araucana)
Aravanamuttusee duffmuttu
a raya(Spanish) under strict control, at bay, in check
a rayas(Spanish) with stripes, pinstripe, striped
a razón de(Spanish) at the rate of
a razón de qué(Spanish) why on earth, why
Arazzo(Italian m.) tapestry
arb.abbreviation of 'arbiter', 'arbitrary', arbitrator'
Arbalesta crossbow with a steel box stave
Arbaleste(German f.) arbalest
Arbalestenschütze(German m.) arbalest
Arban Method La grande méthode complète de cornet à piston et de saxhorn par Arban, a complete pedagogical method for students of trumpet, cornet, and other valved brass instruments. The original edition was published by Jean-Baptiste Arban in 1864 and it has never been out of print since. The Arban Method is considered by many to be "the brass bible" or "the trumpeter's bible"
Arbeausee Orchesography
Arbeit(Norwegian) work
Arbeit(German f.) work, employment, (assigned) job, task, written test, treatise, workmanship, chore, activity, business, duty (task), (research (paper), labour (work)
Arbeit allein macht auch nicht glücklich.(German) All work and no play (makes Jack a dull boy)
Arbeit am Fertigungsband(German f.) production line work
Arbeit am Montageband(German f.) assembly line work
Arbeit annehmen(German) to take employment
Arbeit aufgeben(German) to quit
Arbeit aufnehmen(German) to take up employment
Arbeit beschaffen(German) to procure employment
Arbeit bieten(German) to provide labour
Arbeit delegieren(German) to delegate work
Arbeit dem Nichtstun vorziehen(German) to prefer working to doing nothing
Arbeit des Gehirns(German f.) cerebration (thinking, the process of using your mind to consider something carefully)
Arbeit des Schmieds(German f.) blacksmith's work
Arbeit die sich bezahlt macht(German f.) a job that pays well
Arbeit einer Frau(German f.) a woman's job
Arbeit einer Sekretärin(German f.) secretary's work
Arbeit eines ganzen Tages(German f.) a whole day's work
Arbeit eines Mannes(German f.) man's work
Arbeit eines Tages(German f.) day's work
Arbeiten (s.), Arbeiten (pl.)(German n.) pursuit, operation, workings (plural form)
arbeiten(German) to work, to make, to run, to labour, to function, to carry on a job, to operate, to act
arbeitend(German) active, working, labouring, tasking
arbeitende Bevölkerung(German f.) working population
Arbeiten in Höhen(German n.) working at heights
Arbeiten in Schichten(German n.) shift working
arbeiten lassen(German) to employ
Arbeiten nach außerhalb vergeben(German) to outsource
Arbeiten von zu Hause aus(German n.) working from home
arbeiten wie ein Pferd(German) to work like a Trojan
Arbeiter (m.), Arbeiterin (f.), Arbeiter (pl.)(German) worker, labourer, blue-colar worker, working man (m.), working woman (f.), operative, manual worker, hand (worker), workman (m.), toiler, jobber, autoworker (in a car plant), workmen (plural form), workers (plural form), shop floor (plural form: the workers)
Arbeiterangebot(German n.) labour supply
Arbeiteraufstand(German m.) workers' rebellion
Arbeiterbewegung(German f.) labour movement, labour organization
Arbeiterbiene(German f.) worker bee
Arbeiterbildungsheim(German n.) institution for the education of workers
Arbeiterdichter(German m.) worker poet, worker writer, poet of the working class
Arbeiterdirektor(German m.) worker director
Arbeiter einstellen(German) to take on workers
Arbeiter entlassen(German) to lay off workers
Arbeiterfamilie(German f.) working-class family
arbeiterfeindlich(German) anti-working-class
Arbeiterfragen(German pl.) labour problems
Arbeiterführer(German m.) labour leader
Arbeiterfürsorge(German f.) labour welfare
Arbeitergemeinde(German f.) working class community
Arbeitergewerkschaft(German f.) blue-collar union
Arbeitergruppen(German pl.) groups of workers
Arbeiterhäuser(German pl.) workers' dwellings, workers' houses
Arbeiterjugend(German f.) young workers
Arbeiterkammer(German f. - Austria) official representation of employees
Arbeiterkampflied(German n.) socialist workers' song
Arbeiterkinder(German pl.) working-class children
Arbeiterklasse(German f.) working class, lower classes
Arbeiterlied(German n.) workers' song
Arbeiterlieder(German pl.) songs of the working class, songs of the labour movement
Arbeiterliteratur(German f.) working class literature
Arbeitermilieu(German n.) working-class environment
Arbeiterorganisation(German f.) labour organization
Arbeiterpriester(German m.) worker priest
Arbeiterproteste(German pl.) workers' protests
Arbeiterrevolte(German f.) workers' revolt
Arbeiterrotte(German f.) gang of workmen
Arbeiterschaft(German f.) workers (collectively), workmen, workmanship, working classes, labour force, body of workers, workforce
Arbeiterseelsorge(German f.) (pastoral) ministry to workers
Arbeiterselbstverwaltung(German f.) workers' control, self-management, workers' self-management
Arbeitersiedlung(German f.) working-class housing estate
Arbeitersohn(German m.) son of a working class family
Arbeiterstadt(German f.) working-class town, blue-collar town
Arbeiterstand(German m.) working class
Arbeiterstunde(German f.) man-hour
Arbeiter suchen(German) to advertise for workers
Arbeitertochter(German f.) daughter of a working class family
Arbeiterunruhen(German pl.) unrest amongst the workers, labour unrest, labour troubles, industrial unrest
Arbeiterviertel(German n.) working class quarter
Arbeiterwechsel(German m.) labour turnover
Arbeiterzeitung(German f.) official organ of the Austrian Socialist / Social Democratic Party, newspaper of the labour movement
Arbeitest du schon wieder daran?(German) Are you at it again?
arbeitet(German) operates, works, acts
arbeitet aus(German) elaborates
arbeitete(German) worked, laboured
arbeitete ein(German) coached
arbeitete um(German) reworked
arbeitete zusammen(German) cooperated
arbeitet sich hindurch(German) wades
arbeitet um(German) reworks
arbeitet zusammen(German) cooperates, collaborates
Arbeit für einen Mann(German f.) a man's job
Arbeit für Lohn(German f.) wage-working
Arbeitgeber (s.), Arbeitgeberin (f.), Arbeitgeber (pl.)(German m.) employer, taskmaster
Arbeitgeber-Arbeitnehmer-Beziehungen(German pl.) industrial relations
arbeitgeberfeindlich(German) anti-employer, antiemployer
Arbeitgebergruppe(German f.) employers group
Arbeitgeberschaft(German f.) employers
Arbeitgeberverband(German m.) federation of employers, employers' association, employers' federation
Arbeitgebervereinigung(German f.) employers' federation
Arbeit haben(German) to have a job
Arbeit haben(German) to be in work
Arbeit im Freien(German f.) outdoor job, outside work
Arbeit im Haus(German f.) indoor work
Arbeit in der Molkerei(German f.) dairywork
Arbeit macht frei(German) Work Brings Freedom (sign placed over the gates of Auschwitz)
Arbeit {f} mit sicherem Lohn(German f.) job with a steady wage
Arbeit mit Vergnügen verbinden(German) to mix work and pleasure
Arbeitnehmer (m.), Arbeitnehmerin (f.), Arbeitnehmer (pl.)(German m.) employee, jobholder
Arbeitnehmerdirektor(German m.) worker director
Arbeitnehmererfindung(German f.) employee's invention, employee invention
arbeitnehmerfeindlich(German) anti-employee, antiemployee
Arbeitnehmerfreizügigkeit(German f.) free movement of workers
arbeitnehmerfreundlich(German) employee-friendly
Arbeitnehmer im öffentlichen Dienst(German m.) public servant
Arbeitnehmerorganisation(German f.) workers' organization
Arbeitnehmerrechte(German pl.) employees' rights, employment rights
Arbeitnehmerschaft(German f.) workforce, work force
Arbeitnehmerschutz(German m. - Austria) occupational health and safety
Arbeitnehmerüberlassung(German f.) employer assignment
Arbeitnehmerüberlassungsfirma(German f.) temporary employment agency
Arbeitnehmerüberlassungsunternehmen(German n.) temporary employment agency
Arbeitnehmervertreter (m.), Arbeitnehmervertreterin (f.), Arbeitnehmervertreter (pl.)(German) labour representative, employee representative
Arbeitnehmervertretung(German f.) workers' representation, employee union representation
Arbeit ohne Erlaubnis(German f.) illicit work
Arbeits-(German) occupational, work, working (prefix)
Arbeitsablauf(German m.) work sequence, cycle of work, flow of work, work flow, operation, workflow, sequence of operations, job sequence, processing, operating sequence
Arbeitsablaufdiagramm(German n.) flow sheet, process chart, flow chart
Arbeitsablaufplan(German m.) job schedule
Arbeitsablaufstudie(German f.) time and motion study
Arbeitsabstand(German m.) working distance
Arbeitsaffäre(German f.) fling at work
Arbeitsagentur(German f.) Job Centre, employment agency
Arbeitsalter(German n.) working age
arbeitsam(German) industrious, painstaking, ploddingly, hardworking, plodding, laborious, industriously
Arbeitsameise(German f.) worker (ant)
arbeitsamer(German) more industrious
Arbeitsamkeit(German f.) industriousness
arbeitsamste(German) most industrious
Arbeitsamt(German n.) employment exchange, unemployment office, labour bureau, employment office, employment agency, labour exchange (dated), job centre
Arbeitsanalyse(German f.) job study
Arbeitsanfall(German m.) volume of work
Arbeitsanforderung(German f.) job specification
Arbeitsanleitung(German f.) instruction sheet
Arbeitsanreicherung(German f.) job enrichment
Arbeitsanreiz(German m.) incentive to work
Arbeitsantritt(German m.) commencement of work
Arbeitsanweisung (s.), Arbeitsanweisungen (pl.)(German f.) manufacturing procedure, operating instruction
Arbeitsanzug(German m.) work clothing, dungaree, uniform, working clothes, fatigues
Arbeitsanzüge(German pl.) dungarees
Arbeitsart(German f.) kind of work, occupation
Arbeitsauffassung(German f.) attitude to work
Arbeitsaufgabe(German f.) job assignment
Arbeitsaufnahme(German f.) beginning of work
Arbeitsaufteilung(German f.) work-sharing
Arbeitsauftragsverwaltung(German f.) job management
Arbeitsaufwand(German m.) effort, amount of work
arbeitsaufwendig(German) laborious
Arbeitsausfall(German m.) absenteeism, stoppage
Arbeitsausführung(German f.) workmanship
Arbeitsband(German n.) work tape, scratch tape
Arbeitsbeanspruchung(German f.) workload
arbeitsbedingt(German) work-related (health problems)
Arbeitsbedingung (s.), Arbeitsbedingungen (pl.)(German f.) working condition, operating condition, labour condition, condition of work, condition of employment
Arbeitsbefriedigung(German f.) job satisfaction
Arbeitsbelastung(German f.) work load
Arbeitsberatung für Jugendliche(German f.) youth employment service
Arbeitsbereich(German m.) working area, work space, field of activity, area of operations, task assignment, service area, workstream, workspace, scope of work
Arbeitsbereicherung(German f.) job enrichment
arbeitsbereit(German) ready to work, ready for work
Arbeitsbereitstellung(German f.) provision of employment
Arbeitsbericht(German m.) progress report
Arbeitsbeschaffungsmaßnahme (s.), Arbeitsbeschaffungsmaßnahmen (pl.)(German f.) employment-creation measure, job-creation measure, job creation scheme
Arbeitsbeschaffungsprogramm(German n.) work-creation scheme, employment-creation programme, job-creation program, employment-creation scheme, job-creation scheme
Arbeitsbescheinigung (s.), Arbeitsbescheinigungen (pl.)(German f.) certificate of employment
Arbeitsbeschreibung(German f.) job specification
Arbeitsbestverfahren(German n.) standard method
Arbeitsbewilligung(German f.) permit to work, work permit
Arbeitsbeziehung (s.), Arbeitsbeziehungen (pl.)(German f.) working relationship, labour relations (plural form), industrial relations (plural form)
Arbeitsblatt(German n.) worksheet, work sheet, handout, spreadsheet
Arbeitsbock(German m.) trestle (sawhorse)
Arbeitsbreite(German f.) working width
Arbeitsbuch(German n.) jotter, exercise book, time book
Arbeitsbühne(German f.) working platform
Arbeitsdatenträger(German m.) work volume
Arbeitsdienst(German m.) fatigue duty
Arbeitsdirektor(German m.) labour director
Arbeitsdruck(German m.) working pressure, pressure of work, operating pressure
Arbeitseifer(German m.) enthusiasm for one's work, zeal
Arbeitseignung(German f.) aptitude for work
Arbeitseinkommen(German n.) earned income
Arbeitseinsatz(German m.) employment of labour, fatigue duty, work effort
Arbeitseinstellung(German f.) work habits, stoppage of work, work stoppage, walkout, attitude to work, cessation of work
Arbeitsentgelt(German n.) remuneration, wage
Arbeitserfahrung(German f.) work experience
Arbeitsergebnis(German n.) output
Arbeitserlaubnis(German f.) work permit, employment permit
Arbeitsertrag(German m.) output
Arbeitsesel(German m.) drudge (figurative)
Arbeitsessen(German n.) dinner discussion
Arbeitsethik(German f.) work ethics
Arbeitsethos(German n.) work ethic
arbeitsfähig(German) able to work, capable of work, fit for work, working, employable
arbeitsfähiges Alter(German n.) working age, employable age
Arbeitsfähigkeit(German f.) strength to work, fitness for work, earning capacity, working power, capacity to work, capacity for work, ability to work, working ability, working capacity, employability
Arbeitsfassung(German f.) draft
Arbeitsfeld (s.), Arbeitsfelder (pl.)(German n.) field of work, sphere of work
Arbeitsfläche(German f.) canvas, working top, work surface, desktop, work space
Arbeitsfluss(German m.) workflow, flow of work
Arbeitsflussbild(German n.) progress chart
Arbeitsfolge(German f.) sequence of operations
Arbeitsfolgeplan(German m.) work schedule
Arbeitsförderung(German f.) promotion of employment, promotion of job creation
Arbeitsförderungsmaßnahmen(German pl.) employment promotion measures, employment incentive measures
Arbeitsfortschritt(German m.) work progress, work status
arbeitsfreie Zeit(German f.) time off work
arbeitsfreier Tag(German m.) non-working day
arbeitsfreudig(German) eager to work
Arbeitsfrieden(German m.) industrial relations, industrial peace
Arbeitsgang(German m.) pass, run, operational step, computer run, flow of work, running, action, working cycle, process, operation, run (of the machine)
Arbeitsgang beendet(German) operation complete
Arbeitsgangbeschreibung(German f.) description of operation
Arbeitsgangfolge(German f.) sequence of operations
Arbeitsgebiet (s.), Arbeitsgebiete (pl.)(German n.) area of operation, field of activity
Arbeitsgemeinschaft(German f.) study group, team, joint venture, working group, consortium, working team, project team, project group, syndicate, work group
Arbeitsgenehmigung(German f.) work permit, labour permit
Arbeitsgerät(German n.) implement
Arbeitsgericht(German n.) industrial tribunal, labour court, Employment Tribunal
Arbeitsgeschwindigkeit(German f.) speed of operation, operating speed
Arbeitsgesetzgebung(German f.) employment legislation
Arbeitsgestaltung(German f.) work structuring
Arbeitsgruppe (s.), Arbeitsgruppen (pl.)(German f.) study group, working party, working team, working group, work group, gang, team, gang of workmen, workgroup, (working) team, study group (school), workstream, working committee, task force, panel of participants (conference)
Arbeitshandschuh (s.), Arbeitshandschuhe (pl.)(German m.) work glove
Arbeitshaus (s.), Arbeitshäuser (pl.)(German n.) workhouse
Arbeitsheft (s.), Arbeitshefte (pl.)(German n.) workbook
Arbeitshemd(German n.) work shirt
Arbeitshilfe(German f.) working aid
Arbeitshocker(German m.) working stool, work stool
Arbeitshose(German f.) work trousers
Arbeitshund(German m.) working dog
Arbeitshypothese(German f.) working hypothesis
Arbeitsinhalt(German m.) work content
Arbeitsinspektorat(German - Austria) Health and Safety Executive
arbeitsintensiv(German) labour-intensive
arbeitsintensive Technologie(German f.) labour-intensive technology
arbeitsintensiver Artikel(German m.) labour-intensive product
arbeitsintensives Verfahren(German n.) labour-intensive technology
Arbeitsjahr (s.), Arbeitsjahre (pl.)(German n.) man-year
Arbeitskabine(German f.) booth
Arbeitskamerad(German m.) workmate, mate
Arbeitskampf(German m.) labour dispute, industrial dispute, industrial action
Arbeitskampfmaßnahme(German f.) (form of) industrial action
Arbeitskampfmaßnahmen(German pl.) industrial action
Arbeitskittel(German m.) smock, work coat
Arbeitskleidung(German f.) work clothing, working clothes, overall, work clothes
Arbeitsklima(German n.) working atmosphere
Arbeitskollege (m.), Arbeitskollegin (f.) Arbeitskolleginnen ( workmate, teammate, fellow-worker, co-worker, colleague, colleague at work, mate
Arbeitskolonne(German f.) gang
Arbeitskommando(German n.) fatigue party, fatigue detail, labour battalion
Arbeitskonditionierung(German f.) work conditioning
Arbeitskonflikt(German m.) industrial dispute, labour dispute
Arbeitskonzept(German n.) working concept
Arbeitskopie(German f.) working copy
Arbeitskosten(German pl.) labour costs
Arbeitskraft (s.), Arbeitskräfte (pl.)(German f.) worker, manpower, blue-collar employee, employee, workforce (plural form)
Arbeitskräfte mit längerer Zugehörigkeit(German pl.) senior employees, senior workers
Arbeitskräfte ohne Arbeitsgenehmigung(German pl.) illicit labour
Arbeitskräfte aus dem Ausland holen(German) to import labour
Arbeitskräfte bereitstellen(German) to provide manpower
Arbeitskräfte vermitteln(German) to place (in a position)
Arbeitskräfteabgang(German m.) attrition
Arbeitskräfteangebot(German n.) labour supply, manpower supply
Arbeitskräfteausbildung(German f.) manpower training
Arbeitskräftebedarf(German m.) manpower requirement, manpower requirements
Arbeitskräftedefizit(German n.) shortage of labour
Arbeitskräfteengpass(German m.) manpower shortage
Arbeitskräfteengpaß(German m., old form) manpower shortage
Arbeitskräfteknappheit(German f.) shortage of staff, manpower shortage
Arbeitskräftemangel(German m.) shortage of staff, manpower shortage
Arbeitskräftemobilität(German f.) labour mobility
Arbeitskräftenachfrage(German f.) demand for labour
Arbeitskräftestunde(German f.) man-hour
Arbeitskräfteüberschuss(German m.) manpower surplus
Arbeitskräftewanderung(German f.) migration of labour, labour migration
Arbeitskranker(German m.) workaholic
Arbeitskreis(German m.) study group, working party, working group, task force
Arbeitslager(German n.) labour camp, work camp
Arbeitslast(German f.) workload, pressure of business, pressure of work
Arbeitslauf(German m.) production run
Arbeitsleben(German n.) working life, professional life
Arbeitslehre(German f.) business and employment studies
Arbeitsleistung(German f.) work performance, efficiency, rformance on the job, job performance, amount of work, output (factory), performance (person)
Arbeitsleute(German pl.) workmen, working men
Arbeitslicht(German n.) working lights
Arbeitslied (s.), Arbeitslieder (pl.)(German n.) work song, working song
Arbeitslohn(German m.) employee's wages
arbeitslos(German) out of engagements (actors etc.), resting (actors, etc.), redundant, aid off, out of a job, unemployed, jobless, out-of-work, out of work
[entry corrected by Michael Zapf]
Arbeitslose (m.), Arbeitsloser(f.), Arbeitslosen (pl.)(German) redundant worker, unemployed person, out-of-work person, non-worker, dole (colloquial) (Austria - unemployment pay provided by the state), workless (plural form)
however die Arbeitslosen means 'the unemployed' (collective noun)
arbeitslose Bevölkerung(German f.) unemployed population
Arbeitslosengeld(German n.) dole (colloquial), unemployment benefit, Jobseeker's Allowance
Arbeitslosengeld beziehen(German) to be on the dole (colloquial)
Arbeitslosengeldantrag(German m.) signing on (filing for jobless benefits)
Arbeitslosen helfen(German) to help unemployed persons
Arbeitslosenhilfe(German f.) jobseeker's allowance, unemployment assistance
Arbeitslosenquote(German f.) unemployment rate, rate of unemployment, jobless rate
Arbeitslosenrate(German f.) jobless rate, unemployment rate
Arbeitslosenreservoir(German n.) pool of unemployed
Arbeitslosenunterstützung (s.), Arbeitslosenunterstützungen (pl.)(German f.) unemployment benefit, unemployment compensation, reduncancy payment, dole (colloquial), Jobseeker's Allowance
Arbeitslosenunterstützung beziehen(German) to draw unemployment benefits
Arbeitslosenversicherung (s.), Arbeitslosenversicherungen (pl.)(German f.) unemployment insurance
Arbeitslosenzahl (s.), Arbeitslosenzahlen (pl.)(German f.) unemployment figure, jobless figures, number of unemployed, unemployment data (plural form)
arbeitslose Person(German f.) unemployed person, person who is out of work
Arbeitsloser(German m.) jobless person, unemployed, person out of work, out-of-work person, unemployed person
arbeitsloser Landstreicher(German m.) unemployed vagrant
Arbeitslosigkeit (s.), Arbeitslosigkeiten (pl.)(German f.) redundancy, unemployment, joblessness
[entry provided by Michael Zapf]
Arbeitslosigkeit der Erwachsenen(German f.) adult unemployment
Arbeitslosigkeit bekämpfen(German) to reduce unemployment
arbeitslos sein(German) to be unemployed, to be out of work, to be off the payroll, to be idle, to be on the dole (colloquial)
Arbeitsmann(German m.) workman, labouring man, working man
Arbeitsmannschaft(German f.) labour force
Arbeitsmantel(German m.) overall, work coat
Arbeitsmarkt(German m.) employment market, job market, labour market
Arbeitsmarktaussichten(German pl.) employment prospects, job prospects
Arbeitsmarktdaten(German pl.) job market data, employment data
Arbeitsmärktestatistik(German f.) manpower statistics
Arbeitsmarktlage(German f.) manpower situation, labour market situation, job situation, employment situation
Arbeitsmarktreform (s.), Arbeitsmarktreformen (pl.)(German f.) labour-market reform, labour market reform, job market reform
Arbeitsmarktsituation(German f.) employment situation, job situation, manpower situation, labour market situation
Arbeitsmaschine(German f.) work machine, processing machine
arbeitsmäßig belastbar sein(German) to be able to cope with a heavy workload
Arbeitsmaterial(German n.) material for one's work
Arbeitsmedizin(German f.) occupational medicine, industrial medicine
Arbeitsmediziner (m.), Arbeitsmedizinerin (f.)(German) occupational physician
arbeitsmedizinische Überwachung(German f.) occupational health supervision
Arbeitsmenge(German f.) quantity of work, amount of work
Arbeitsmethode (s.), Arbeitsmethoden (pl.)(German f.) working method, work method
Arbeitsmethodenuntersuchung(German f.) study of working methods
Arbeitsmigrant (m.), Arbeitsmigrantin (f.), Arbeitsmigranten (pl.)(German) migrant worker, economic migrant, migrant labourer
Arbeitsmigration(German f.) labour migration
Arbeitsminister(German m.) labour minister, Secretary of State for Employment, Employment Secretary, employment minister
Arbeitsministerium(German n.) Department of Employment, Ministry of Labour
Arbeitsmittel(German pl.) means of production
Arbeitsmobilität(German f.) labour mobility
Arbeitsmöglichkeiten(German pl.) employment opportunities, job opportunities
Arbeitsmonat(German m.) man-month
Arbeitsmoral(German f.) working morale, employee morale, work ethic, work ethics
Arbeitsmuster(German n.) work pattern
Arbeitsnachfrage(German f.) labour demand
Arbeitsnarr(German m.) workaholic
Arbeitsnehmervertreter(German m.) worker representative
Arbeitsniederlegung(German f.) walkout, work stoppage, walk-out, stoppage, downing of tools (industrial action)
Arbeitsnische(German f.) cubicle
Arbeitsordnung(German f.) work rules, work regulations, Company Code of Practice
Arbeitsorganisation(German f.) labour organisation
Arbeitsort(German m.) job location
Arbeitsoverall(German m.) overall, boiler suit, overalls, coveralls
Arbeitspapier (s.), Arbeitspapiere (pl.)(German n.) working paper, position paper
arbeitsparend(German) labour-saving
Arbeitspause(German f.) (work) break
Arbeitspensum(German n.) workload, stint
Arbeitsperiode(German f.) stint
Arbeitspferd (s.), Arbeitspferde (pl.)(German n.) work horse, workhorse
Arbeitspflicht(German f.) obligation to work
Arbeitsplan(German m.) flow chart, working plan
Arbeitsplanung(German f.) progress planning, work scheduling
Arbeitsplatte(German f.) worktop, work disk (computer), (kitchen) counter, countertop
Arbeitsplattform(German f.) working platform
Arbeitsplatz(German m.) job, work area, activity area, workplace, employment, workstation, place of employment, position, post, work station, cubicle, place of work
Arbeitsplatzabbau(German m.) job losses
Arbeitsplatzanforderung(German f.) job requirement
Arbeitsplatzangebot(German n.) job offer
Arbeitsplatzanordnung(German f.) workplace layout
Arbeitsplatzbeleuchtung(German f.) workplace lighting
Arbeitsplatzbeschaffung(German f.) job creation, employment creation
Arbeitsplatzbeschreibung(German f.) job specification, job description
Arbeitsplatzbesichtigung(German f.) workplace inspection
Arbeitsplatzbesuch(German m.) workplace visit
arbeitsplatzbezogen(German) workplace-related
Arbeitsplätze erhalten(German) to save jobs, to safeguard jobs, to preserve jobs, to maintain jobs
Arbeitsplätze schaffen(German) to add new jobs, to generate jobs
Arbeitsplätze sichern(German) to safeguard jobs
Arbeitsplätze vernichten(German) to destroy jobs
Arbeitsplätze wegrationalisieren(German) to rationalise workplaces
Arbeitsplatzerfordernisse(German pl.) job requirements
Arbeitsplatzförderung(German f.) promotion of job creation
Arbeitsplatzgerät(German n.) workstation
Arbeitsplatzgestaltung(German f.) workplace layout
Arbeitsplätze im Fertigungsbereich(German pl.) manufacturing jobs
Arbeitsplatz in der verarbeitenden Industrie(German m.) manufacturing job
Arbeitsplatzmangel(German m.) scarcity of jobs, lack of jobs, job shortage, job scarcity, shortage of jobs
Arbeitsplatzrechner(German m.) desk calculator, personal computer (PC), workstation computer
Arbeitsplatzrotation(German f.) job rotation
Arbeitsplatzsicherheit(German f.) security of employment, job security, workplace security
Arbeitsplatzsicherung(German f.) safeguarding of jobs
Arbeitsplatzstandards(German pl.) employment standards
Arbeitsplatzsuche(German f.) job search
Arbeitsplatzteilung(German f.) job sharing
Arbeitsplatzverlust(German m.) job loss, loss of job
Arbeitsplatzwahl(German f.) job choice, choice of job
Arbeitsplatzwechsel(German m.) job change, change of job
Arbeitsplatz zu Hause(German m.) workplace at home
Arbeitspotential(German n.) man-power, manpower
Arbeitsprinzip(German n.) operating principle
Arbeitsprioritäten festlegen(German) to decide work priority
Arbeitsproduktivität(German f.) labour productivity
Arbeitspsychologe(German m.) industrial psychologist
Arbeitspsychologie(German f.) industrial psychology, occupational psychology
Arbeitsqualität(German f.) quality of work
Arbeitsrate(German f.) work rate
Arbeitsraum (s.), Arbeitsräume (pl.)(German m.) workroom, working room, workspace
Arbeitsrechner(German m.) host
Arbeitsrecht(German n.) labour law, labour legislation, industrial law, labour law-related
arbeitsrechtlich(German) concerning industrial law
arbeitsrechtliche Bestimmungen(German pl.) labour regulations
Arbeitsrechtsgesetzgebung(German f.) employment rights legislation
arbeitsreich(German) busy
arbeitsreiches Leben(German n.) strenuous life
Arbeitsreserve(German f.) labour pool
Arbeitsreserven(German pl.) human resources
Arbeitsrisiken(German pl.) operational hazards
Arbeitsrückstand (s.), Arbeitsrückstände (pl.)(German m.) backlog
arbeitsscheu(German) workshy, averse to work, indolent, work averse
Arbeitsscheu(German f.) aversion to work
arbeitsscheu sein(German) to have an aversion to work, to be workshy
arbeitsscheu und faul sein(German) to be bone idle
Arbeitsscheuer(German m.) workshy man
Arbeitsschicht(German f.) workshift, (work) shift, tour (of duty)
Arbeits-Schlafzimmer(German n.) study-bedroom, study bedroom
Arbeitsschritt (s), Arbeitsschritte (pl)(German m.) step of a procedure, individual operation
Arbeitsschuh(German m.) brogue
Arbeitsschutz(German m.) maintenance of industrial health and safety standards, occupational safety and health, industrial safety
Arbeitsschutzbeauftragter(German m.) occupational health and safety officer
Arbeitsschutzbegehung(German f.) health and safety inspection
Arbeitsschutzbestimmungen(German pl.) industrial safety regulations
Arbeitsschutzbrille(German f.) safety goggles
Arbeitsschutzpersonal(German n.) occupational health staff
Arbeitsschutzrecht(German n.) industrial safety legislation
Arbeitsschutzschuhe(German pl.) safety shoes
Arbeitsschutzvorschrift (s), Arbeitsschutzvorschriften (pl)(German f.) industrial safety regulation (at work)
Arbeitssessel(German m.) stool
Arbeitssicherheit(German f.) working safety, industrial safety, safety at work, occupational safety
Arbeitssitzung(German f.) working session
Arbeitssklave(German m.) drudge
Arbeitssoziologie(German f.) industrial sociology
Arbeitsspannung(German f.) working voltage
arbeitssparend(German) labour-saving
arbeitssparende Erneuerung(German f.) labour-saving innovation
arbeitssparende Technologie(German f.) labour-saving technology
Arbeitsspeicher(German m.) random access memory, main memory, internal memory, main storage
Arbeitsspeichererweiterung(German f.) add-on memory
Arbeitssplatzwahl(German f.) job choice
Arbeitssprache(German f.) working language
Arbeitsspuren(German pl.) wear marks
Arbeitsstation(German f.) workstation
Arbeitsstätte(German f.) workplace, place of employment, place of work
Arbeitsstelle(German f.) job, situation, post, position
Arbeitsstelle mit Unterkunft(German f.) live-in job
Arbeitsstellung(German f.) operating position
Arbeitsstoffe(German pl.) working materials
Arbeitsstreik(German m.) strike (industrial action)
Arbeitsstreitigkeit(German f.) labour dispute, industrial conflict, industrial dispute
Arbeitsstrom(German m.) working current
Arbeitsstück(German n.) piece of work, workpiece
Arbeitsstückliste(German f.) bill of materials
Arbeitsstudienbogen(German m.) study sheet
Arbeitsstunde (s.), Arbeitsstunden (pl.)(German f.) working hour, man-hour, man hour
Arbeitssuche(German f.) job seeking, job hunting
arbeitssuchend(German) seeking work, job-seeking
Arbeitssuchender (m.), Arbeitssuchende (f.), Arbeitssuchende (pl.)(German) job hunter, person in search of work, job seeker, job applicant
arbeitssüchtig(German) addicted to work, workaholic (colloquial)
Arbeitssüchtiger(German m.) workaholic
Arbeitstag (s.), Arbeitstage (pl.)(German m.) man-day, weekday, workday, business day, working day, work day
Arbeitstagung(German f.) workshop
arbeitstauglich(German) fit for work
Arbeitstauglichkeit(German f.) fitness for work, fitness for employment
Arbeitstechniker(German m.) time and motion study man
Arbeitsteil(German m.) work element, working part
Arbeitsteilung(German f.) division of responsibilities, division of labour
Arbeitstemperatur(German f.) operating temperature
Arbeitstempo(German n.) working speed, pace of work, speed of work
Arbeitstheorie(German f.) working theory
Arbeitsthese(German f.) working assumption
Arbeitstier (s.), Arbeitstiere (pl.)(German n.) work animal, working animal, plodder, slogger, workaholic (colloquial), demon for work (colloquial)
Arbeitstisch (s.), Arbeitstische (pl.)(German m.) worktable, workbench, bench (workbench), work table, desk
Arbeitstitel(German m.) working title
Arbeitstreffen(German n.) workshop
Arbeitsüberlastung(German f.) overwork, work overload
Arbeit suchen(German) to seek work, to seek employment, to look for a job, to hunt for a job, to be job-hunting, to look for work
Arbeitsumfang(German m.) extent of work, scope of effort, scope of work, volume of work
Arbeitsumfeld(German n.) working environment
Arbeitsumgebung(German f.) working environment
Arbeitsumverteilung(German f.) redistribution of work, work-sharing
Arbeits- und Gesundheitsschutz(German m.) health and safety at work
arbeitsunfähig(German) unable to work, unemployable, incapacitated for work, unfit for work, incapacitated, disabled
Arbeitsunfähiger(German m.) person unable to work
Arbeitsunfähigkeit(German f.) invalidity, inability to work, unemployability, incapacity for work, disablement, disability
Arbeitsunfähigkeitsbescheinigung(German f.) certificate of disability
Arbeitsunfähigkeitsrente(German f.) invalidity retirement (benefit, pension)
Arbeitsunfähigkeitsversicherung(German f.) disability insurance
Arbeitsunfall (s.), Arbeitsunfälle (pl.)(German m.) occupational injury, occupational accident, industrial injury, accident at work, industrial accident
Arbeitsunlust(German f.) disinclination to work
Arbeitsunruhe (s.), Arbeitsunruhen (pl.)(German f.) labour unrest, industrial unrest (plural form)
Arbeitsunterbrechung (s.), Arbeitsunterbrechungen (pl.)(German f.) time out, work stoppage, interruption of work, stoppage, stoppage of work, layoff
Arbeitsunterweisung(German f.) manufacturing specification
Arbeitsunzufriedenheit(German f.) labour unrest, industrial unrest
Arbeitsurlaub(German m.) working holiday
Arbeitsverfahren(German n.) method of operation, working method, procedure, manufacturing process
Arbeitsverfügbarkeit(German f.) availability for work
Arbeitsverhältnis (s.), Arbeitsverhältnisse (pl.)(German n.) employer-employee relationship, working condition, employment relationship, employment contract
Arbeitsverlauf(German m.) progress of work
Arbeitsvermittler(German m.) placement officer
Arbeitsvermittlung(German f.) job service, labour exchange, employment agency, employment bureau, placement service, employment exchange, placing service, employment service
Arbeitsvermittlungsstelle(German f.) employment agency, job centre
Arbeitsvermögen(German n.) energy
Arbeitsverpflichteter(German m.) indentured labourer (archaic)
Arbeitsverrichtung(German f.) operation
Arbeitsverschwendung(German f.) waste of effort
Arbeitsverteilung(German f.) division of work, assignment of activities
Arbeitsvertrag(German m.) employment contract, contract of employment, labour agreement, labour contract, contract of labour
Arbeitsverweigerung(German f.) refusal to work
Arbeitsvisum(German n.) working visa, work visa
Arbeitsvolumen(German n.) volume of work
Arbeitsvorbereitung(German f.) industrial engineering, preparation of work, dead work, process layout planning, operation scheduling, planning operation, planning process, preparatory work, operations scheduling, work scheduling, production planning (department), work preparation (on building site)
Arbeitsvorschrift(German f.) manufacturing specification, procedure
Arbeitswechsel(German m.) change of employment
Arbeitsweg(German m.) deflection
Arbeitsweise(German f.) modus operandi (Latin), method of operating, mode of operation, method, function, procedure, method of operation, operating principles, perating principle, functioning
Arbeitswelt(German f.) working environment, working world, world of employment
arbeitswillig(German) willing to work
Arbeitswilligkeit(German f.) willingness to work
Arbeitswirkungsgrad(German m.) job efficiency
Arbeitswissenschaft (s.), Arbeitswissenschaften (pl.)(German f.) ergonomics
Arbeitswissenschaftler(German m.) ergonomist
Arbeitswoche(German f.) working week
Arbeitswütiger (m.), Arbeitswütige (f.)(German) workaholic
Arbeitszeit(German f.) hours of work, working hours, working time, working period
Arbeitszeitausfall(German m.) loss of working hours
Arbeitszeiteinteilung(German f.) work schedule
Arbeitszeiterfassung(German f.) timekeeping
Arbeitszeiterfassungsbogen(German m.) time sheet
Arbeitszeitverkürzung(German f.) reduction of working hours, cut in working hours
Arbeitszettel(German m.) job ticket, work slip, job card
Arbeitszeugnis(German n.) employer's reference
Arbeitszimmer (s./pl.)(German n.) workroom, study (room), bureau
Arbeitszufriedenheit(German f.) job satisfaction
Arbeitszuteilung(German f.) assignment of activities, allocation of work
Arbeitszwang(German m.) compulsion to work
Arbeitszyklus(German m.) operational cycle, working cycle, operation cycle, duty cycle, operating cycle
Arbeit über ...(German f.) treatise on ...
Arbeit ums tägliche Brot(German f.) labour for mere subsistence
Arbeit vollenden(German) to accomplish work
Arbeit wieder aufnehmen(German) to resume work
Arbeit zum Lebensunterhalt(German f.) day job
Arbeit zuweisen(German) to assign work
Arbëresh(German pl.) Arbëreshë
Arbëreshëan ethnic Albanian community living in southern Italy and Sicily
Arbiter(Latin) a judge or arbiter (usually in matters of taste)
Arbiter Elegantiae(German m.) arbiter of good taste
Arbiter Elegantiarum(German m.) arbiter of good taste, arbiter elegantiarum (Latin)
Arbiter elegantiarum(Latin) a judge of good taste
Arbitrage(French m., German f.) arbitration
arbitraire(French) arbitrary
Arbitraje(Spanish m.) arbitration, decision, judgement, refereeing (sports), umpiring (sport)
arbitrar(Spanish) to arbitrate, to referee (football, etc.), to umpire (tennis, cricket, etc.)
arbiträr(German) arbitrary, arbitrarily
arbitrare(Italian) to arbitrate
Arbitrariedad(Spanish m.) arbitrariness
arbitrario(Italian) arbitrary
arbitrario (m.), arbitraria (f.)(Spanish) arbitrary
Arbitrarität(German f.) arbitrariness
Arbitrarya term used formerly for the melodic minor scale, which, unusually in Western musical scales, differs when descending from when ascending. When ascending the semitones (half-steps) lie between the second and third degrees and between the seventh and eighth degrees. However, when descending, the seventh and sixth degrees are flattened so that the scale is the same as a descending natural minor scale, and the semitones (half-steps) now lie between the sixth and fifth degrees and between the third and second degrees
Arbitration(English, German f.) the hearing and determination of a dispute by an impartial referee agreed to by both parties
Arbitre(French m.) arbiter
arbitrierbar(German) arbitrable
Arbitrio(Italian m.) free-will, power, arbitrary act
(Spanish m.) (free) will, decision (legal), judgement (legal)
Arbitrium(Latin) absolute authority
Arbitro(Italian m.) arbiter
Árbitro (m.), Árbitra (f.)(Spanish) arbitrator, arbiter, referee (football), umpire (tennis, cricket, etc.)
Árbitros de la moda(Spanish arbiters of fashion
Arbog(Danish) yearbook
Arbok(Norwegian) yearbook
Árbol (s.), Árboles (pl.)(Spanish m.) tree, axle, mast
los árboles no dejan ver el bosque (Spanish: you can't see the wood for the trees)
Árbolado(Spanish m.) woodland
arbolado (m.), arbolada (f.)(Spanish) wooded, tree-lined
Árboladura(Spanish f.) rigging
Árbol de Navidad(Spanish m.) Christmas tree
Árbol de Pascua(Spanish m. - the Andes) Christmas tree
Árboleda(Spanish f.) grove (of trees)
Árbol genealógico(Spanish m.) family tree
Arborescenttreelike in shape or growth
Arboreszenz(German f.) arborescence
Arboretum (s.), Arboreta (pl.)(English, German n., from Latin) a garden devoted to the cultivation of rare trees
Arborist(English, German m.) a person possessing the technical competence through experience and related training to provide for or supervise the management of trees
Arboscello(Italian m.) sapling
Arbotante(Spanish m.) flying buttress
Arbre(French m.) tree, shaft (technical)
Arbre à cames(French m.) camshaft
Arbre à cloches chinois(French m.) bell tree, chinese bell tree
Arbre de décision(French m.) decision tree
Arbre d'entraînement(French m.) driveshaft
Arbre de vie(French m.) tree of life
Arbre moteur(French m.) driving shaft
Arbrisseau (s.), Arbrisseaux (pl.)(French m.) shrub
Arbuse(German f.) watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)
Arbuste(French m.) bush
Arbusto(Italian m., Spanish m.) bush, shrub
Arc(French m.) arch
arc.abbreviated form of arcato or coll'arco (Italian: with the bow)
Arca, Arcas (Spanish pl.)(Italian f., Spanish f.) chest (for storage), safe, strongbox, coffers (Spanish plural form)
in Spanish, arca is a feminine noun taking the masculine article in the singular
Arcada(Spanish f.) arcade, arches, retching (nausea)
Arcadea series of arches supported by columns, piers, or pillars, either freestanding or attached to a wall to form a gallery
a series of arches employed for decorative purposes
a roofed passageway or lane, especially one with shops on one or both sides
a commercial establishment featuring rows of coin-operated games
on a keyboard, piece covering the front face of a key, below and perpendicular to the keytop, intended to cover the end-grain of the body of the key. Usually wood, but paper, bone, and other materials are also used. Non-structural but visible, therefore often highly decorated with moulding, carving, gilt, inlay, etc.
Arcade carda card that is distributed through penny vending machines usually found at amusement arcades
Arca de la Alianza(Spanish f.) Ark of the Covenant
in Spanish, arca is a feminine noun taking the masculine article in the singular
Arca de Noé(Spanish f.) Noah's ark
in Spanish, arca is a feminine noun taking the masculine article in the singular
Arcades ambo(Latin, a phrase from Virgil's seventh eclogue) (two people) having literary or aesthetic tastes in common
Arcade-Spiel(German n.) arcade game
Arcadiaalso Acadia or Arkadia, a mountainous area of Greece, named for Arcas the son of Jupiter. In Greek and Roman literature, a place where a contented life of rural simplicity is lived; an earthly paradise peopled by shepherds; rustic bliss
Arcadian also Acadian or Arkadian, a descendant of the original French settlers and often Métis, of parts of Acadia (French: Acadie) in the northeastern region of North America comprising what is now the Canadian Maritime Provinces of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island, Gaspé, in Québec, and parts of the American state of Maine. In the Great Upheaval of 1755, Acadians were uprooted by the British; some of these resettled in Louisiana, where they became known as Cajuns. War between the French and the British in their colonies and in Europe is an important element in the history of the Acadians. No other factor shaped the cultural evolution of Acadians in such a dominant way. A second historical element to affect development of the Acadians is a sense of abandonment by France. The last century has been marked by struggles by the Acadian people for equal language and cultural rights as a minority group in the Maritime provinces of Canada
Arcadian Dionysiafeasts instituted by Dionysius, at which children, who had been instructed in the music of Philoxenus and Timotheus, appeared on stage where they celebrated the festivals of Bacchus, by entertaining the spectators with songs, dances and exhibitions of various kinds
arcaico (m.), arcaica (f.)(Spanish) archaic
Arcaismo(Spanish m.) archaism
Arcana(Latin) secrets
(English) mysterious, secret
Arcanerequiring secret or mysterious knowledge, therefore known to only a few
Arcángel(Spanish m.) archangel
Arcangelo(Italian m.) archangel
Arcano(Spanish m.) mystery, secret
arcano (m.), arcana (f.)(Italian, Spanish) mysterious, secret
Arcanum (s.), Arcana (pl.)(Latin) a secret, a mystery
Arcanum imperii (s.), Arcana imperii (pl.)(Latin) state secret
Arcas públicas(Spanish Treasury
Arcata(Italian f.) bow stroke, colpo d'arco (Italian m.), Bogenführung (German f.), Bogenstrich (German m.), Strichart (German f.), coup d'archet (French m.)
(Italian f.) arch, arcade (series of arches, also a pattern used on the keyfronts of some early keyboard instruments)
Arcata in giù(Italian f.) (with a) down-bow, Abstrich (German m.), tiré (French m.)
Arcata in su(Italian f.) (with a) up-bow, Aufstrich (German m.), Anstrich (German m.), poussé (French m.)
arcato(Italian) bowed, played with a bow
this direction is used often after a passage played pizzicato to indicated that the player should revert to playing with the bow
arcazo(Spanish) bowing
arc-bouter(French) to lean (for support)
Arc de cercle(French m.) arc of a circle
Arc de Triomphe(English, German m. from French) a monument in Paris, France that stands in the centre of the Place Charles de Gaulle, also known as the Place de l'Étoile
Arce(Spanish m.) maple (tree)
Arceau (s.), Arceaux (pl.)(French m.) hoop, arch
Arcediano(Spanish m.) archdeacon
Arcén(Spanish m.) verge (road), hard-shoulder (motorway)
Arc-en-ciel(French m.) rainbow
Arch.abbreviation of 'Archbishop', 'Archdeacon', 'Archduke'
arch.abbreviation of 'archaic', 'archaism', 'architect', 'architectural', 'architecture'
Arch-a prefix indicating 'largeness', 'importance', 'preeminence'
Archa term applied to describe a melodic line that first rises before falling to a cadence
see 'arch-form'
Archaicantiquated, savouring of the past, not obsolete but uncommon in general use
Archaicisman archaic word or phrase, a propensity to the archiac
Archaic smilea representation of the human mouth with slightly upturned corners, characteristic of early Greek sculpture produced before the fifth century BC)
Archäikum(German n.) Archean, Archaeozoic, Archeozoic
archaïque(French) archaic
archaisch(German) archaic, Archean, Archaean
archaische Formen verwenden(German) to archaise
archaisches Lächeln(German n.) archaic smile
Archaiseto use archaisms, to imitate the archaic
archaisieren(German) to archaise
archaisiert(German) archaised
Archaisticimitatively or affectively archaic
Archaisma word, expression, spelling, or phrase that is out of date in the common speech of an era, but still deliberately used by a writer, poet, or playwright for artistic purposes
Archaismus(German m.) archaism
archaistisch(German) archaistic
Archaizeto use archaisms, to imitate the archaic
Archangelsk(English, German n.) formerly called Archangel in English, a city and the administrative centre of Arkhangelsk Oblast
Archäobotanik(German f.) archaeobotany
Archäologe (m.), Archäologin (f.)(German) archaeologist
Archäologie(German f.) archaeology
archäologisch(German) archaeological, archaeologically, archaeologic
archäologisch interessiert(German) interested in archaeology
archäologische Ausgrabung(German f.) (archaeological) excavation
archäologische Grabungsstätte(German f.) archaeological excavation site
archäologischer Beweis(German m.) archaeological evidence
archäologischer Fund(German m.) archeological find
archäologisches Museum(German n.) archaeological museum
archäologisches Zeugnis(German n.) archaeological evidence
Archäometallurgie(German f.) archaeometallurgy
Archäometrie(German f.) archaeometry, scientific analysis of archaeological materials
Archäopteryx(German m.) archaeopteryx (the oldest known bird, Archaeopteryx had feathers, scales on its neck and feet, teeth, and claws on all four limbs)
Archbishopa bishop with authority over a group of territorially contiguous dioceses and their bishops; also known as a metropolitan
Archbpabbreviation of 'Archbishop'
Archd.abbreviation of 'Archdeacon', 'Archduke'
Archdeacona cleric having a defined administrative authority delegated to him by the bishop in the whole or part of the diocese
Archdeaconrya sub-division of a diocese administered by an archdeacon, whose authority was delegated to him by the bishop
Arche(French f.) arch
(German f.) ark
Archeanalso Archaeozoic or Archeozoic, the time from 3,800 million years to 2,500 million years ago (earth's crust formed and unicellular organisms are earliest forms of life)
Archeggiamento(Italian m.) the management of the bow when playing a stringed instrument
archeggiamento(Italian) whipped (extended playing of a bowed string instrument where the strings are plucked rather than bowed), gepeitscht (German), fouetté (French)
archeggiare(Italian) to draw the bow across the strings (of a violin, etc.), to arch
Arche Noah(German f.) Noah's ark
Archeologia(Italian f.) archaeology
Archéologie(French f.) archeology
archéologique(French) archeological
Archeologo(Italian m.) archaeologist
Archéologue(French m./f.) archeologist
Arches papera type of air-dried paper that is preferred amongst printers and watercolorists. It has a warm-white colour and can be found in hot-pressed, cold-pressed, and rough varieties. Arches paper is valued for its durability, and is still made today at the Arches paper mill in Lorraine, France
Archet(French m.) bow, archetto (Italian), arco (Italian), Bogen (German)
the word may also be used to mean 'string' as in 'a single stringed instrument'
Archetto(Italian m.) bow, arco (Italian), Bogen (German), archet (French)
the word may also be used to mean 'string' as in 'a single stringed instrument'
Archetyp (s.), Archetypen (pl.)(German m.) archetype
Archetypal charactera recurring figure who transcends the particulars of time and place to take on a symbolic value with universal appeal
Archetypal criticismthe analysis of a piece of literature through the examination of archetypes and archetypal patterns in Jungian psychology
Archetype(as defined by Carl Jung) an image, descriptive detail, plot pattern or a character type that occurs frequently in literature, myth, religion, or folklore, and is therefore believed to evoke profound emotions because it touches the unconscious memory and thus calls into play illogical but strong responses
(in more general use) the original pattern or model (also called the primal form) of which all things of the same type are representations or copies, a perfect example
sometimes used mistakenly as a synonym for 'Ur-text'
Archétype(French m.) archetype
archetypisch(German) archetypal, archetypical, archetypally
Archetypus(German m.) archetype
Archevêque(French m.) archbishop
Arch-forma symmetrical musical structure such as ternary form, ABA
Archguitar (baroque)
Archguitar (modern)a modern instrument designed by Peter Blanchette and Walter Stanul in 1980. Archguitars can have from 9 to 11 strings, giving them a much larger musical range than 6-string guitars
Arch harp guitar
Archi-(Latin) a prefix indicating 'largeness', 'importance', 'preeminence'
Archi(Italian) bows, 'strings' as in 'a group of stringed instruments'
Archicello(Italian m.) a small bow
Archicembaloa keyboard instrument designed by Nicola Vicentino (1511-c.1576), based on a 31-fifth circle, with 31 keys per octave so allowing the integration of chromatic and enharmonic intervals (quarter tones)
Archidiakon(German m.) archdeacon
Archidiakonat(German n.) archdeaconry
Archidiócesis(Spanish f.) archdiocese
Archiduque (m.), Archiduquesa (f.)(Spanish) archduke (m.), archduchess (f.)
Archilaúd(Spanish m.) archlute, arciliuto (Italian), arcileuto (Italian), Erzlaute (German), archiluth (French)
Archilochian bitternessnamed for the Greek satyrical poet Archilocus (fl. seventh century BC), ill-natured satire or bitter mockery
Archilute(French m.) archlute
Archiluth(French m.) archlute
Archimandrit(German m.) archimandrite
Archimandrite(Eastern Orthodox Church) a cleric ranking below a bishop, the head of a monastery or a group of monasteries
Archimedes(English, German from Greek) Greek mathematician and physicist noted for his work in hydrostatics and mechanics and geometry (287-212 BC)
Archimedes' screwa flexible tube twisted spirally around an axis, originally as a means of irrigation. However, the carpenter's auger, a device to make holes in or through planks of wood, is of a similar construction
archimedisch(German) Archimedian
archimedische Schnecke(German f.) Archimedean screw
archimedische Schraube(German f.) Archimedean screw, Archimedes' screw
Archimedische Schraubenpumpe(German f.) Archimedean screw pump
Archimimea chief buffoon or jester. Among the ancient Romans, archimimes were persons who imitated the manners, gestures, and speech both of the living and the deceased. At first, they were only employed in the theatre, but were afterwards admitted to their feasts, and at last to funerals. At funerals, archimimes walked behind the corpse, imitating the gestures and behaviors of the person being carried to the funeral pyre, as if they were still alive
ArchingWölbung (German f.), voûte (French f.), bombatura (Italian f.)
the outward swell of the back and belly of a bowed string instrument (e.g. a violin)
Archiparaphonistaa name given formerly to the principal singer, or conductor of the choir, in the celebration of Mass in the Roman Catholic Church
Archipel(German m.) archipelago
Archipel-(German) archipelagic (prefix)
Archipelagoa group of many islands in a large body of water
Archiphonea microtonal keyboard instrument: since 1970 four archiphones have been built by Herman van der Horst of the firm Neonvox in Wilp, Gelderland at the instigation of Anton de Beer. The keyboard layout is essentially the same as on the Fokker-organ. The keys are closer to one another, making more rapid playing possible. Transistor oscillators are the tone source. It has some 40 different timbres, equally divided between the 8- and 4-foot "stops". The instrument was introduced on 1 november 1970 at Teyler's Museum. Anton de Beer had quickly written a demonstration piece with all kinds of puns with higher harmonics and natural thirds and sevenths. One scene of Joel Mandelbaum's opera The Dybbuk was also performed with the archiphone accompanied by a vocal quartet and violin duo
Archipiélago(Spanish m.) archipelago
archit.abbreviation of 'architect'
Architecte(French m.) architect
Architectonicthe architecture of music
the science of architecture
Architectural acousticsa term used to describe how the flow of sound is influenced by a building's structure
the study and design of acoustically balanced halls
Architekt (m.), Architektin (f.), Architekten (pl.), Architektinnen ( architect, artificer
Architektenbüro(German n.) architect's office
Architektengruppe(German f.) architectural firm
Architektonik(German f.) architectonics
architektonisch(German) architectural, architecturally, architectonic
architektonische Gestaltung(German f.) architectural design
architektonischer Garten(German m.) formal garden
Architektur(German f.) architecture
Architektur-(German) architectural (prefix)
Architekturbüro(German n.) architect's office, architectural office, architectural practice, architecture firm
Architektur der Bürgerhäuser(German f.) domestic architecture
Architekturgeschichte(German f.) history of architecture
Architektur im eigentlichen Sinne(German f.) architecture proper
Architekturschule(German f.) school of architecture
Architekturstahlbau(German m.) architectural steel construction
Architekturstil(German m.) architectural style
Architekturstudent(German m.) student of architecture
Architekturtheorie(German f.) theory of architecture
Architekturwettbewerb(German m.) architectural competition
Architetto(Italian m.) architect
Architettura(Italian f.) architecture
Architrav(German m.) architrave (beam)
Archiv(German n.) filing room, records, archive, archives, record office, morgue (colloquial), record vault (for important documents)
Archivador(Spanish m.) filing cabinet, ring-binder, file
Archivala term often used to describe the property of an object that indirectly implies its long-term stability
Archivale (s.), Archivalien (pl.)(German n.) document in the archives, document from the archives, paper in the archives, paper from the archives
archivalisch(German) archival
Archivar (m.), Archivarin (f.)(German) archivist, registrar, keeper of the archives
archivar(Spanish) to file (away), to shelve (project, investigation), to close the file on, to save (information)
archivarisch(German) archival
Archivband(German n.) archive tape
Archivbild(German n.) archive picture, archive photograph, library photo, library photograph
Archivdatei(German f.) archive(d) file
Archivesa collection of records, and also refers to the location in which these records are kept. Archives are made up of records which have been created during the course of an individual or organization's life. In general an archive consists of records which have been selected for permanent or long-term preservation. Records, which may be in any media, are normally unpublished, unlike books and other publications. Archives may also be generated by large organizations such as corporations and governments. The highest level of organization of records in an archive is known as the fonds. Archives are distinct from libraries insofar as archives hold records which are unique. Archives can be described as holding information "by-products" of activities, while libraries hold specifically authored information "products". The word 'archives' is the correct terminology, whereas 'archive' as a noun or a verb is related to computer science
archivierbar(German) archivable
archivieren(German) to archive, to file (away)
Archivieren(German n.) archiving
archivierend(German) archiving
archiviert(German) archives, archived
Archivierung(German f.) storage, filing, archiving
Archivierungsschrank(German m.) archive cabinet
Archivierungssystem(German n.) archiving system
Archivio(Italian m.) archives
Archiviole(French) celestina
Archiviste(French m./f.) archivist
Archivkraft(German f.) filing clerk
Archivmaterial(German n.) archive material
Archivo (s.), Archivos (pl.)(Spanish m.) file, archive (historical documents), record (archive, file)
Archivoltone of a series of concentric moldings on a Romanesque or a Gothic arch
Archivo municipal(Spanish m.) city archive
me pasé la mañana entera en el archivo municipal (Spanish m.: I spent the morning at the city archive)
Archivolte(German f.) architrave (moulding), archivolt
Archivos de la policía(Spanish police files, police records
Archivpapier(German n.) archival paper
Archivraum(German m.) archive room
Archivregale(German pl.) archive racks
Archivsekretär (m.), Archivsekretärin (f.)(German) archives secretary
Archivwissenschaften(German pl.) archival science
Archlutearciliuto (Italian), arcileuto (Italian), Erzlaute (German), archiluth (French), archilaúd (Spanish)
or 'arch-lute', a large lute popular both in Italy and England during the Renaissance with an elongated neck, fitted with two peg boxes, one to accomodate unstopped strings necessary to produce bass notes, the other to take the remainder of the 13 or 14 single or double courses of strings. In appearance the archlute resembles the theorbo and the chitarrone, but differs from them in that its body is smaller and that the first and second courscs are at lute pitch rather than an octave lower. This was possible because the stopped string length was shorter. Furthermore, the archlute's stopped strings were normally double-strung, while those of the theorbo were frequently single-strung
Archon(English, German m. from Greek) the chief of the nine magistrates of Athens. The next in rank was called basileus and the third polemarch
a wealthy citizen who provided the financial backing for an ancient Greek drama festival (the precursor of the contemporary producer)
Archon, eponymoussee eponymous archon
Archont (s.), Archonten (pl.)(German m.) archon
Archpriesta minister assisting a bishop in the administration of a rural deanery, or subdivision of an archdeaconry; also known as a rural dean
archt.abbreviation of 'architect'
Archtop-Gitarre(German f.) archtop guitar
Archtop guitaralso 'jazz-box', 'hollow-body' or 'carved top', a term describing when a guitar which has been carved or shaped to enhance its sound or appearance and which usually has f-holes as found on members of the violin family, so named because the table of the guitar is arched rather than flat
Archtop mandolinesee 'mandolin, mandoline'
Arci-(Italian) a prefix indicating 'largeness', 'importance', 'preeminence'
Arcicembaloan instrument invented by Nicolo Vicentino in the sixteenth century on which it was possible to play in all the genera, the diatonic, chromatic and enharmonic. Each of the six manuals divided an octave into 31 parts
see Universalclavicymbel
arcigno(Italian) grim
Arcileuto(Italian m.) arciliuto (Italian), archlute, Erzlaute (German), archiluth (French), archilaúd (Spanish)
Arciliuto(Italian m.) arcileuto (Italian), archlute, Erzlaute (German), archiluth (French), archilaúd (Spanish)
Arcilla(Spanish f.) clay
Arciorganosynonymous with arcicembalo
Arcivescovo(Italian m.) archbishop
Arciviola di lira(Italian) alternative name for lira da gamba
ARCM, A.R.C.M.abbreviation of 'Associated of the Royal College of Music'
ARCO, A.R.C.O.abbreviation of 'Associated of the Royal College of Organists'
Arco(Spanish m., Portuguese m., Italian m.) bow (also 'string' as in 'a single stringed instrument'), archet (French), archetto (Italian), Bogen (German)
(Italian m., Spanish m.) arch, arc (mathematics), bow (weapon), goal (Latin America: football)
(Italian) play (a stringed instrument) with the bow as opposed to pizzicato (plucked); also coll' arco
Arco abajo(Spanish m.) 'down-bow'
Arcobaleno(Italian m.) rainbow
ARCO(CHM)abbreviation of 'Associated of the Royal College of Organists with Diploma in Choir Training'
Arco de triunfo(Spanish m.) triumphal arch
Arco in giù(Italian m.) down-bow (on a stringed instrument)
Arco in su(Italian m.) up-bow (on a stringed instrument)
Arco iris(Spanish m.) rainbow
Arcón(Spanish m.) large chest
Arcos(Spanish) strings (collective term for the string section of an orchestra)
Arcticthe region on the Earth's globe that lies beneath the Northern constellation of the Great Bear, derived from arktos (Greek: bear)
Arctique(French m.) Arctic
arctique(French) Arctic
arcuato(Italian) curved
Arcus(English, German m., from Latin) a low, horizontal cloud formation associated with the leading edge of thunderstorm outflow (ie, the gust front)
Arcuscosinus(German m.) arc cosine (the inverse function of the cosine)
Arcus senilis(Latin) or Arcus senilis corneae, a narrow yellowish band gradually encircling the cornea with advancing age
Arcussinus(German m.) arc sine (the inverse function of the sine)
Arcustangens(German m.) arc tangent (the inverse function of the tangent)
ard.abbreviation of ardito
ardemment(French) ardently
ardent (m.), ardente (f.)(French) burning, ardent, fervent
Ardennen(German pl.) Ardennes
Ardennenoffensive(German f.) Battle of the Bulge, Battle of the Ardennes (16 December 1944-25 January 1945), a major German offensive launched towards the end of World War II through the forested Ardennes Mountains region of Belgium, France and Luxembourg on the Western Front
Ardenner Wald(German m., more recent name) Ardennes
Ardennesa wooded plateau in the Champagne-Ardenne region of France; the site of intense fighting in World War I and World War II
ardente(Italian, French) ardent, with fire, vehement, ardently, fervently
ardentemente(Italian) ardently, vehemently
ardentissimo(Italian) very ardently, very vehemently
ardentlyardente (Italian), fervente (Italian), mit Wärme (German), avec chaleur (French)
(from the Latin ardeo, burn) eager, fervent, passionate, burning
arder(Spanish) to burn, to seethe (also figurative), to be boiling hot, to sting (eyes), to smart (eyes)
ardere(Italian) to burn (up)
arder en deseos de(Spanish) to long for
arderse(Spanish) to burn (up)
Ardesia(Italian f.) slate
Ardeur(French f.) ardour, heat
Ardid(Spanish m.) trick, scheme, ruse, plot
ardiente(Spanish) burning, ardent, passionate
ardientement(Spanish) passionately
Ardilla(Spanish f.) squirrel
Ardin(Mauritania) a harp with a calabash resonator and 10 to 16 strings, reserved for women
Ardire(Italian m.) daring
ardire(Italian) to dare
arditamente(Italian) boldly, energetically, with ardour
Arditezza(Italian) boldness
ardito(Italian) daring, bold, spirited, impudent, energetic, with energy, hardi (French)
Ardoise (or Ardoize)(French f.) slate, writing slate, chalk writing board
as an adjective: for example un toit d'ardoise meaning a slate roof, or couleur ardoise meaning slate-coloured
Ardor(Spanish m.) heat, ardour (figurative), burning, fervour
Ardor del estómago(Spanish m.) heartburn
Ardore(Italian m.) ardour, with warmth
ardoroso (m.), ardorosa (f.)(Spanish) burning, ardent
ardu(French) arduous (physically difficult)
arduo(Italian) arduous, steep
arduo (m.), ardua (f.)(Spanish) arduous
A-rein solmisation the name of the note a, particularly the first space A in the bass clef
Are(English, German f - Switzerland) a unit of surface area equivalent to 100 square metres
Área(Spanish f.) area, hundred square metres
in Spanish, a feminine noun taking the masculine article in the singular
a reacción(Spanish) jet-propelled
Área chica(Spanish f.) goal area
Área de castigo(Spanish f.) penalty area
Área de servicio(Spanish f.) service area, services
Areal (s.), Areale (pl.)(German n.) area
areal(German) regional
Arealtypologie(German f.) areal typology
Areal typologythe study of the geographic distribution of linguistic features and the processes that give rise to the processes that give rise to it. A common view has been that mutual influence between languages concern primarily vocabulary and more exceptionally grammar. However, a major insight of areal typology is that grammatical structures spread easily across languages and that the typological profile of a language is largely predictable from its geographical location
Área pequeña(Spanish f.) goal area
areato(Italian) breezy, aerated [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
à rebours(French) against the grain, perversely
a recado(Spanish) in safety
a recaudo(Spanish) in safety
a red barredera(Spanish) sweepingly, overwhelmingly
a redopelo(Spanish) against the grain, the wrong way
a reembolso(Spanish) cash on delivery
Areflexiaabsence of a reflex (a sign of possible nerve damage)
Areflexie(German f.) areflexia
a regañadientes(Spanish) reluctantly, discontentedly, unwillingly, with reluctance, begrudgingly, grudgingly
a regla(Spanish) by rule
Areíto (s.), Areíto (pl.)a term derived from the native, indigenous tribes living in Cuba before colonisation, (such as the Siboney, Taíno and Guanajatabibe tribes), referring to elaborate religious celebrations of music, dance and theatre; a rhythmic style combining several elements of Cuban carnaval rhythms with the son and rumba, as well as several North American influences, resulting in a free-style, highly-syncopated style. The areíto later evolved into what is now known as songo
Arekanuss(German f.) betel nut
Arekapalme(German f.) pinang (palm) (Areca catechu), betel nut tree, betel palm
Arel(German n.) also Arlon, Aarlen, a Belgian municipality located in the Walloon province of Luxembourg, of which it is the capital
Arelat(German) Arelate
Arelatefor a time beginning in AD 328, the Gallic city of Arles or Arelate was renamed Constantia in honor of the emperor Constantine II
areligiös(German) areligious
Areligiosität(German f.) irreligiosity
Areligiousor irreligious, a lack of religion, indifference to religion, or hostility to religion which, depending on the context, may be understood as referring to atheism, deism, agnosticism, skepticism, freethought, or secular humanism
a remiendos(Spanish) piecemeal, piece by piece, in bits and pieces
a remo y vela(Spanish) quickly, efficiently
Ären(German pl.) eras
Arena(English, German f. from Greek) arena (a particular environment or walk of life), amphitheatre, circus ring
(English, German f., Italian f., Spanish f.) central part of an amphitheatre, bullring, etc.
(Italian f., Spanish f.) sand
Arenal(Spanish m.) sandy area
Arena movediza (s.), Arenas movedizas (pl.)(Spanish f.) quicksand
Arena política(Spanish f.) political arena
Arena rocksee 'anthem rock'
arenarsi(Italian) to run underground
Arena theatrealso called 'theatre in the round', where the audience sits on all sides of the theatre stage
Arène(French f.) arena, bullring
Arenga(Spanish f.) harangue, impassioned speech
arengar(Spanish) to harangue, to incite, to rouse (crowd), to rally, to exhort
a renglón seguido(Spanish) immediately afterwards, immediately below, right after
Arenilla(Spanish f.) fine sand (for example, as in an hourglass)
Arenisca(Spanish f.) sandstone
arenisco (m.), arenisca (f.)(Spanish) sandy
arenoso (m.), arenosa (f.)(Spanish) sandy
Arenque(Spanish m.) herring
Arenque ahumado(Spanish m.) kipper
Areopag(German m.) Areopagus
Areopagusnamed for the "hill of Ares (Mars)" a spur of the Athenian Acropolis where Athene established a court for homicides, the highest judicial and legislative council of ancient Athens
Arepa(Spanish f.) cornmeal roll
a repecho(Spanish) uphill
a repelones(Spanish) little by little
a requerimiento de(Spanish) at the request of, by request of, upon petition of, at the behest of
Ares(English, German m.) the god of war, son of Zeus and Hera, identified with the Roman Mars
a reserva de(Spanish) except for, with the purpose of
a reserva de que(Spanish) unless
a retaguardia(Spanish) in the rear
Arete(Spanish f. - Colombia, Mexico) earring
(Spanish f.) hoop
Arête(French f.) (fish) bone, ridge (mountain)
the Greek term arête implies a humble and constant striving for perfection and self-improvement combined with a realistic awareness that such perfection cannot be reached. As long as an individual strives to do and be the best, that individual has arête. As soon as the individual believes he has actually achieved arête, however, he or she has lost that exalted state and fallen into hubris, unable to recognize personal limitations or the humble need to improve constantly
Aretinian syllablesnamed for Arezzo or Aretino, the syllables ut, re, mi, fa, sol and la given as names to the notes of the 'hexachord' by Guido d'Arezzo (also Guido Aretinus) (c.991-c.1033)
a retrocarga(Spanish) breech-loading
a revienta cincha(Spanish) reluctantly
a rey muerto rey puesto(Spanish) as soon as one goes out the window another comes in the door
arg(German) bad, terrible, badly, terribly, eerie, arrant (downright, thoroughly, unmitigated, notorious)
Arg.abbreviation of 'Argentina', 'Argentine', 'Argentinean'
Argamasa(Spanish f.) mortar
Årgång(Danish, Norwegian, Swedish) volume (of a periodical) [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
Argano(Italian m.) winch
Argel(Spanish m.) Algiers
Argelia(Spanish f.) Algeria
Argelino (m.), Argelina (f.)(Spanish) Algerian
argelino (m.), argelina (f.)(Spanish) Algerian
Argent(French m.) money, silver (metal)
the heraldic colour of silver/white
argentado(Spanish) silver-plated
Argent compant(French m.) cash
Argent de poche(French m.) pocket money
argenteo(Italian) silvery
Argenteria(Italian f.) silverware
Argenterie(French f.) silverware
Argentiere(Italian m.) silversmith
Argentin (m.), Argentine (f.)(French) Argentinean
argentin (m.), argentine (f.)(French) Argentine
Argentina(English, Spanish f.) South-American country
Argentine(French f.) Argentina
Argentine cumbiaan umbrella term that comprises several distinct trends within the same tradition: the dance and music style known as cumbia in Argentina. Cumbia has been well-known and appreciated in Argentina for a long time, but it gained nationwide scope and attention when in the 1990s, it became popular in the large cities of the Río de la Plata basin
Argentine rockoften termed Rock nacional is a term that applies loosely to any variety of rock and roll from Argentina
Argentinean forkloric danceArgentina has a rich tradition of folkloric dance that include the tango, group dances such as the chacarera, gato and zamba, as well as the macho dances of the gauchos, the fiercely independent Argentine cowboys, which include malambos de boleadoras (tap dancing with whirling weapons)
Argentinean tangoargentinischer Tango (German m.) see 'tango'
Argentinien(German n.) Argentina
Argentinier (m.), Argentinierin (f.)(German) Argentinean, Argentine
argentinisch(German) Argentinean, Argentinian, Argentine
argentinischer Tango(German m.) Argentine tango
Argentinismthe use, by an Argentinian, of a word that is drawn from indigenous sources, for example, from lunfardo, in place of the correct Castilian one. It is one of the characteristics of tango lyrics, from where it spread to popular literature and Argentinian theatre
Argentinismo(Spanish m.) Argentinism
Argentino (m.), Argentina (f.)(Spanish) Argentinean
argentino (m.), argentina (f.)(Spanish) slivery, Argentinean, Argentine
Argento(Italian m.) silver
Argentum(Latin, German n.) silver
Ärger(German m.) annoyance, trouble, hassle (colloquial), upset, spleen, bother, aggravation (colloquial), worry, vexation, aggro (colloquial: aggravation), ire, anger, irritation, fret (anger), dander, chagrin, resentment
ärger(German) worse
Ärger bedeuten(German) to spell trouble
Ärger bekommen(German) to get into trouble
Ärger bereiten(German) to bring trouble, to cause trouble
Ärger bringen(German) to bring trouble
arger Dummkopf(German m.) unmitigated dunce, arrant dunce
Ärger herausfordern(German) to be asking for trouble
ärgerlich(German) annoyed, annoying, aggravating, bothersome, vexed, irritatiug, irksome, troublesome, angry, fretfully, vexingly, vexing, vexatious, cross, exasperatingly, invidiously, vexedly, vexatiously, annoyingly, pesky (colloquial), painful, exasperating, galling, angrily, invidious, irksomely, fretful
ärgerliche Angelegenheit(German f.) vexatious affair
ärgerlicher(German) angrier
ärgerlicher(German) more annoying
ärgerlicherweise(German) irritatingly, annoyingly
Ärgerlichkeit(German f.) irksomeness, vexatiousness, peskiness (colloquial)
ärgerlichste(German) angriest
ärgerlich sein(German) be annoyed
ärgerlichste(German) angriest
ärgerlich über(German) angry about
ärgerlich über eine Sache(German) annoyed about a matter
ärgerlich wegen(German) vexed at
ärgern(German) to annoy, to tease, to worry, to rile, to irk, to spite, to exasperate, to peeve, to irritate, to vex, to huff, to bring trouble upon, to cause trouble, to provoke, to fret, to anger, to roil, to nettle (colloquial), to madden (make angry), to bug (colloquial), to aggravate (colloquial)
ärgernd(German) galling, spiting, riling, fretting, chagrining, huffing, irking, irritating, nettling, peeving
Ärgernis(German n.) annoyance, vexation, irritant, bugbear, nuisance
Ärgernis erregen(German) to cause offence
arger Schurke(German m.) arrant scoundrel
Ärger suchen(German) to go looking for trouble
ärgert(German) peeves, chagrins, exasperates, annoys, galls, irritates, huffs, irks, vexes, spites, riles
ärgerte(German) exasperated, huffed, annoyed, vexed, spited, riled, irked, chagrined, galled
arger Tor(German m.) arrant fool
ärgert sich(German) frets
Ärger verursachen(German) to cause a lot of trouble
Arghoolsee arghul
Arghulargul or arghool, a double reed instrument from North Africa with two asymmetrical pipes, one the chanter plays the melody and usually has 5 or 6 finger-holes while the second, the drone, is much longer, has no holes and produces only a single note. The instrument is played inside the player's mouth using circular breathing. Both pipes are made from reed or other similar materials and are attached together with strings, wax, tar or glue
Argile(French f.) clay
argileux (m.), argileuse (f.)(French) clayey
Argilla(Italian f.) clay
Argine(Italian m.) embankment, dyke (for flood prevention)
Argismo(Sicilian Italian, from argia, literally 'spider') the Sicilian term for the tarantella healing ritual
Arglist(German f.) malice, cunning, guile, deceitfulness, bad faith
arglistig(German) malicious, maliciously, shrewd, fraudulent, guileful, guilefully, by devious means, disingenuous
[corrected by Michael Zapf]
arglistiges Verhalten(German n.) fraudulent behaviour
arglistige Täuschung(German f.) wilful deceit, wilful deception, fraud
arglistig handeln(German) to act maliciously
arglos(German) unsuspecting, innocent, innocently, simple, artless, guilelessly, unsuspicious, unsuspiciously, guileless, unsuspectingly, harmless, trustful, trusting, harmlessly, trustingly
arglos dreinsehend(German) innocent looking
Arglosigkeit(German f.) innocence, artlessness, guilelessness, simpleness
Arglosigkeit einer Person(German f.) personal simplicity
arg mitgenommen werden(German) to take a hammering
arg mitnehmen(German) to punish (figurative)
Argo(English, German f. from Greek) the ship in which Jason and his companions (the argonauts) sailed in search of the Golden Fleece
Argolla(Spanish f.) (large) ring, wedding ring (Latin America)
Argolla de compromiso(Spanish f. - Latin America) engagement ring
Argolla de matrimonio(Spanish f. - Latin America) wedding ring
argomentare(Italian) to argue
Argomento(Italian m., literally 'argument', 'reason', 'subject') see antefatto
Argonaut (s.), Argonauten (German pl.), Argonauts (English pl.)(English, German m.) Jason and his companions who sailed in the Argo
Argonnen(German pl.) Argonne (a region in North Eastern France)
Argonner Wald(German m.) Argonne Forest
Argos(English, German m.) an ancient city in southeastern Greece, dominated the Peloponnese in the 7th century BC
Argos(German m.) Argus (in Greek mythology) Argos, a giant with 100 eyes who was was guardian of the heifer Io and was slain by Hermes (Mercury)
Argot (s.), Argots (pl.)(French m., Spanish m., German n./m.) slang, a class dialect (originally a dialect of thieves), jargon
ärgst(German) worst
ärgste Not(German m.) direst need
ärgster(German) worst
Argucia(Spanish f.) sophism, ruse, stratagem, cunning scheme
Argüendero (m.), Argüendera (f.)(Spanish - Mexico) gossip
Arguendo(Latin) for the sake of argument
arguer de(French) to put forward as a reason
arguir(Italian) to deduce
argüir(Spanish) to deduce, to prove, to show, to argue, to deduce, to reproach
Argulsee arghul
Argument, Argumente (German pl.), Arguments (English pl.)(English, German n.) a fact or assertion offered as evidence that something is true
(German n.) reason, contention, criterion
Argumentación(Spanish f.) argument, line of argument
argumentador(Spanish) argumentative
argumentar(Spanish) to argue
Argumentation(German f.) reasoning, line of reasoning, line of argument
Argumentationskette(German f.) chain of reasoning
argumentativ(German) argumentative
argumentativ überlegen sein(German) to outargue (to surpass or conquer in argument)
argumentative Rede(German f.) speech in a debate contest
Argumente aufmarschieren lassen(German) to array reasons, to lay out reasons, to marshal arguments
Argumente aufzählen(German) to adduce reasons
Argumente hinterfragen(German) to pick holes in arguments
Argumenten ausweichen(German) to shirk arguments
Argumententeil(German n.) argument section
argumenter(French) to argue
Argumente vorbringen(German) to allege reasons
Argumente vortragen(German) to bring forward arguments
argumentieren(German) to argue, to reason, to debate, to contend
argumentierend(German) arguing, reasoning
argumentieren, dass(German) to bring forward the argument that
Argumentierender (m.), Argumentierende (f.)(German) arguer
argumentiert(German) argue, argued
argumentierte(German) argued, reasoned
Argumento(Spanish m.) argument, (in a book, film, etc.), plot (story), story line, synopsis
Argumento completamente absurdo(Spanish m.) absolutely absurd line of argument
Argumentum ad hominem(Latin, 'argument against the man') to direct an argument against one's opponent's character rather than against the subject
Argumentum ad ignorantiam(Latin) arguing from ignorance
Argumentum e silentio(Latin) or 'the arguement of silence', which leads to the arguer drawing the conclusion that, because an author omits mention of some subject in his works, the author was unaware of it
Argun(Turkey) a double clarinet formed of a drone pipe without fingerholes together with a melody pipe
  • Argun from which this information has been taken
Argus(English, German m.) a giant with 1,000 eyes set, by Juno, to watch over Io, of whom she was jealous, who was lulled to sleep by Mercury (Hermes) with his lyre and killed
Argusaugen(German pl.) eagle-eyes
Argus-eyed, to beto be vigilant or keen-sighted
arguto(Italian) witty
Arguzia(Italian f.) wit, witticism
Argwohn(German m.) suspicion, distrustfulness, caginess
Argwohn beschwichtigen(German) to allay suspicion
argwöhnen(German) to surmise, to suspect
Argwohn erregen(German) to set somebody thinking
argwöhnisch(German) suspicious, suspiciously, cagey (colloquial), doubtful, leery, wary, warily, distrustful, mistrustful
argwöhnischer(German) more suspicious
argwöhnisch gegen(German) distrustful of, mistrustful of
argwöhnisch machen(German) to cause suspicion
argwöhnisch sein(German) to be suspicious
argwöhnischste(German) most suspicious
Argwohn vertreiben(German) to avert suspicion
Argwohn verursachen(German) to cause suspicion
Argwohn wecken(German) to arouse suspicion, to awaken suspicion
Argyleknitted design of solid diamond blocks contrasted in a pattern, often used for socks and jumpers
Argyritaethe winners of Greek public competitions to whom medals of gold or silver were presented
Arheican area lacking surface runoff or drainage, such as deserts
arheisch(German) arheic
Aria (s.), Arie (Italian pl.), Arias (English pl.) (English, Spanish f., Swedish, Italian f.) music written for a solo voice with accompaniment, forming part of a larger work, as, for example, in an opera or cantata. The form is generally longer, non-strophic and with an accent of musical design and expression, than that corresponding to the air, song or Lied
in Spanish, aria is a feminine noun taking the masculine article in the singular
the aria first appeared in the fourteenth century, when it signified a manner or style of singer or playing
a melodic scheme (motif) or pattern for singing a poetic pattern, such as a sonnet
Aria(Italian f.) air, tune, appearance
Ária(Portuguese f.) aria
Aria agitata(Italian f.) an aria to be performed in an agitated manner, containing coloratura passages of great showmanship, a sub-specie of aria da capo
Aria buffa(Italian f.) a comic aria, also called a burlesque aria
Aria cantabile(Italian f.) an aria that is both slow and smooth, a sub-specie of aria da capo
Aria comprimato(Italian f.) compressed air, Druckluft (German f.), air comprimé (French m.), arie comprimado (Spanish m.)
Aria concertante(Italian f.) an aria with an obbligato instrumental accompaniment which vies with the vocal line. Many occur in Bach cantatas
Aria concertata(Italian f.) an aria with an elaborate orchestral accompaniment in a concertante style
Aria d'abilità(Italian f.) an aria that requires much skill and ability on the part of the performer
Aria da capo(Italian f.) a through-composed (non-strophic) ternary form (ABA) in which the beginning section is repeated after a contrasting middle section, a formal scheme first used by Monteverdi, although he did not give it this name
Aria da chiesa(Italian f.) a church aria
Aria da concerto(Italian f.) a concert aria
Aria d'agilita(Italian f.) an aria that requires great command of the voice
Aria d'entrata(Italian f.) an aria sung in an opera when the singer/character makes his or her first entrance
Aria di bravura(Italian f.) an aria in a florid style designed to display the technical brilliance of the singer, a sub-specie of aria da capo
Aria di cantabile(Italian f.) an aria that is both slow and smooth, a sub-specie of aria da capo
Aria di carattere(Italian f.) an aria that is extremely passionate and with an elaborate orchestral accompaniment
Aria di portamento(Italian f.) an aria written in long notes and dignified, to be sung with smooth progression from one note to the next
Aria di mezzo carattere(Italian f.) an aria that is more passionate and with orchestral accompaniment, the latter being often elaborate
Aria di sorbetto(Italian, literally 'sherbet aria') a convention of Italian opera in the early nineteenth century. Nineteenth-century audiences would rarely listen to an opera straight through, preferring instead to talk among themselves, eat, and drink for much of the performance. The aria di sorbetto would come fairly late in the second act of the opera, and it would afford vendors the chance to hawk their wares one last time before the evening ended. As most of the vendors sold ice cream and other sweets, such arias came to be known as "sherbet arias" because of what they signified to the audience
Aria di sortita(Italian f.) similar to an aria d'entrata, but more often an aria at the conclusion of which the singer makes his or her exit from the stage
Ariadne(English, German f. from Greek) beautiful daughter of Minos and Pasiphae who fell in love with Theseus and gave him the thread with which he found his way out of the labyrinth after killing the Minotaur who lived there
Ariadnefaden(German m.) Ariadne's thread
Aria fugata(Italian f.) an air, the accompaniment of which is written in a fugal style
Arianpertaining to Arius, a presbyter of the church of Alexandria, in the fourth century, or to the doctrines of Arius
Arianer(German m.) Arian
arianisch(German) Arian
Arianismthe doctrines of Arius (4th century) and his followers, denying that Christ is one substance with the Father
Arianismus(German m.) Arianism
Aria parlante(Italian f.) a declamatory aria, similar in effect to a recitative
Aria tedesca(Italian f.) an aria in the German style
Aridlacking sufficient water or rainfall
arid(German) arid, dry
aride(French) arid, dry, barren
Aridez(Spanish f.) aridity, dryness (also figurative)
Aridità(Italian f.) aridity, dryness
Aridität(German f.) aridity, dryness
arido(Italian) arid, dry
árido (m.), árida (f.)(Spanish) arid, dry (also figurative)
Áridos(Spanish dry goods
Arie (s.), Arien (pl.)(German f.) aria
Arie aggiunte(Italian supplementary arias, arias that are added to, or introduced from other works into an opera, etc.
Arie comprimado(Spanish m.) compressed air, aria comprimato (Italian f.), Druckluft (German f.), air comprimé (French m.)
arieggiare(Italian) to air
arieggiato(Italian) airy
a rienda suelta(Spanish) without restraint, with free rein
Arier(German m.) Aryan (no longer in technical use: a member of the people who spoke the parent language of the Indo-European languages)
Aries(English, Spanish m., German m.) the first sign of the astrological calendar, its symbol showing the ram
(English, Spanish m./f.) a person said to have been born under Aries
es (de) Aries (Spanish: she's an Aries, she's an Arian)
a riesgo de(Spanish) at the risk of
a riesgo del actor(Spanish) caveat actor
a riesgo del comprador(Spanish) at buyer's risk, caveat emptor, with all faults
a riesgo del vendedor(Spanish) at seller's risk, caveat subscriptor, caveat venditor
a riesgo del viajante(Spanish) caveat viator
Arieta(Spanish f.) arietta (Italian f.), Ariette (German f.), ariette (French f.)
Arietta (s.), Ariette (pl.)(Italian f., diminutive of aria) a short simple aria usually in binary form, not unlike a song or cavatina
Arietta alla Veneziana(Italian f.) a short air in the style of a Venetian Barcarolle
Ariette (s.), Arietten (German pl.), Ariettes (French pl.)(German f., French f.) although the name signifies a short aria or arietta (Italian f.), as it was in opera comique, the French gave this name also to long, often animated, vocal compositions called comédie mêlée d'ariettes or comédie mêlée mêl^eacute;e d'ariettes, forms closer to English ballad-opera than to Italian opera, which might includes vocal duets, trios and ensembles
Ariettina(Italian f., diminutive of arietta) a very short air or melody
Arie und Chor(German) air and chorus
a rifascio(Italian) in disorder, in confusion, pell-mell
a rigore di tempo(Italian) in strict time
Arigot(French) a fife
Ariñ ariñancient circle dance from Bilbao, in Spain's Basque Country. Men and women who participate in pilgrimages dance it in couples
Ario (m.), Aria (f.)(Spanish) Aryan
ario (m.), aria (f.)(Spanish) Aryan
Arion of Methymna(Greek) (625-585 BC) the son of Cycleus, said to have invented the dithyrambos (choral poems), give it its name and sung it in Corinth according to Herodotus, although it is more probable that it was Archilochus who first mentions a dithyramb as a song to Dionysos
Ariosa(Italian) a carnival dance
Ariosehaving a melody (as distinguished from recitative), songlike, melodic, melodious, musical
[entry prompted by Ware Page]
Ariose cantate(Italian pl., literally 'sung recitatives') airs that lie between aria and recitative, often containing elements of both, with frequent changes in time, manner and character
arioso(English, German from Italian) aereo (Italian), airy, luftig (German), aéré (French)
(Italian) airy, like an air, song-like, in the manner of an air, melodious
Arioso (s.), Ariosi (pl.)(English, German n., from Italian m.) short for recitativo arioso, a melodious recitative
a short air, short melodic or semi-melodic passages occurring in the midst of or to conclude a recitative
a free lyric passage not formally organised as an aria
an instrumental piece in cantabile style
used by Beethoven in the final movement of his Piano Sonata op. 110, for an accompanied recitative
Ariosto, Ludovico
Italian poet, the author of Orlando Furioso
Ariovist(German m.) Ariovistus
Ariovistusa leader of the Suebi and other allied Germanic peoples in the second quarter of the 1st century BC
arisch(German) Aryan (no longer in technical use: pertaining to the people who spoke the parent language of the Indo-European languages)
arisco (m.), arisca (f.)(Spanish) unsociable (person), unfriendly (person, animal), stand-offish, unsociable, vicious (animal), gruff (animal)
(Spanish - Mexico) upset, angry (familiar)
arisieren(German) to Aryanise
arisiert(German) Aryanised
Arisierte (Aryanized) businessa business, formally owned by Jews, but subsequently run by Aryans, and whose transfer was brought about through coercive measures, particularly following the call in 1933 by the Nazi-led government for a boycott of all goods produced or sold by Jewish merchants
Arisierung(German f.) Aryanisation
Arista(Spanish f.) edge, arris, groin, ridge, arête
Aristaeussee Aristaios
Aristaios(English, German m. from Greek) or Aristaeus, a minor god in Greek mythology, about whom we read largely through Athenian writers
Aristo(English, German m.) toff, nob (a person from a superior class, although sometimes used pejoratively or in fun)
Aristocracia(Spanish f.) aristocracy
Aristócrata(Spanish m./f.) aristocrat
Aristocrate(French m./f.) aristocrat
Aristocratico (m.), Aristocratica (f.)(Italian) aristocrat
aristocratico (m.), aristocratica (f.)(Italian) aristocratic
aristocrático (m.), aristocrática (f.)(Spanish) aristocratic
Aristocratie(French f.) aristocracy
aristocratique(French) aristocratic
Aristocrazia(Italian f.) aristocracy
Aristokrat (m.), Aristokratin (f.)(German) aristocrat
Aristokratie (s.), Aristokratien (pl.)(German f.) aristocracy, nobility
aristokratisch(German) aristocratic, aristocratical, silk-stocking, aristocratically
aristokratische Haltung(German f.) aristocratic bearing
aristokratische Manieren(German pl.) aristocratic manners
aristokratische Privilegien(German pl.) aristocratic privileges
aristokratische Regierung(German f.) aristocratic government
aristokratischer Name(German m.) aristocratic name
aristokratischer Stolz(German m.) aristocratic pride
aristokratischer Titel(German m.) aristocratic title
(c.450-c.385 BC)
(English, German n., from Greek) Athenian dramatist, a noted writer of comedies
aristophanisch(German) Aristophanic, pertaining to the Greek dramatist Aristophanes
(384-222 BC)
Greek philosopher, pupil of Plato
Aristoteles(German) Aristotle
Aristotelianismthe philosophical ideas of the GReek philosopher Aristotle
Aristoteliker(German m.) Aristotelian
aristotelisch(German) Aristotelian
Aristotelismus(German m.) Aristotelianism
AristoxenusAristoxenus described the various different sizes of intervals in his classification of shades and genera of tetrachord scales. But he never used any mathematics in his theory beyond simple geometric subdivisions of the tone. This was, in fact, the aspect of his music-theory that was distinctively new, a result of the formulation of classic geometry around this time by Euclid. Aristoxenus adamantly maintained that all larger musical intervals could and should be determined soley by ear. Both of these basic tenets were in sharp contrast to Pythagorean theory and other rational harmonic theories
Aristoxenus's theory was forgotten in Western Europe after the Germanic invasions (400s AD), then rediscovered during the Renaissance. The earliest surviving manuscript of his treatise was written in Constantinople [Istanbul] around 1150, so his theory seems to have remained known the whole time in the Greek-speaking areas. When his work was rediscovered by the Italians around 1450, the idea of 12-tone equal-temperament (the ordinary scale in everyday use today) was a topic of much debate, and many theorists who advocated that tuning interpreted Aristoxenus's approximations of small intervals as a justification for it. They were wrong, or at any rate not entirely correct, but the idea has persisted for over 500 years
arith.abbreviation of 'arithmetic', 'arithmetical'
Arithmasthenie(German f.) dyscalculia, difficultis with calculations in mathematics, difficultis with rapid processing of mathematics
Arithmetic divisionZarlino's theory of harmony, Istituzioni harmoniche (1558), is based partly on comparing two sequences, one harmonic or geometric (indicated by the fractions 1/6, 1/5, 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, 1) and the other arithmetic (indicated by the fractions 1/6, 2/6, 3/6, 4/6, 5/6, 6/6=1). The harmonic sequence (divisio harmonica) produces the natural harmonics and particularly the major triad, while the former (divisio arithmetica) gives the notes of a minor triad
Arithmetik(German f.) arithmetic
Arithmetiker (m.), Arithmetikerin (f.)(German) arithmetician
Arithmetiklehrer(German m.) arithmetic teacher
Arithmetikprozessor(German m.) arithmetic processor
Arithmetikstunde(German f.) arithmetic lesson
arithmetisch(German) arithmetically, arithmetic, arithmetical
arithmetische Folge(German f.) arithmetical progression
arithmetische Funktion(German f.) arithmetic function
arithmetische Operation(German f.) arithmetic operation
arithmetischer Ausdruck(German m.) arithmetical expression, arithmetic expression, arithmetic expression
arithmetischer Durchschnitt(German m.) arithmetical average
arithmetische Rechenoperation(German f.) arithmetic operation
arithmetische Reihe(German f.) arithmetical series, arithmetical sequence, arithmetic series, arithmetic progression
arithmetischer Mittelwert(German m.) arithmetic average, arithmetic mean (value)
arithmetischer Mittenrauhwert(German m.) arithmetical mean deviation
arithmetischer Operator(German m.) arithmetic operator
arithmetisches Mittel(German n.) arithmetic mean, (arithmetic) mean, arithmetic average, arithmetical mean
arithmetisch gemittelt(German) arithmetically averaged
Aritmética(Spanish f.) arithmetic
aritmético (m.), aritmética (f.)(Spanish) arithmetic
a ritmo(Spanish) a tempo (Italian)
a rivederci(Italian, literally 'until we meet again') farewell!
Arjuna nritham(meaning 'the dance of Arjuna') is a ritual art performed by men and is prevalent in the Bhagavathy temples of Kerala. Arjuna, the most valiant of the five heroic brothers - the Pandavas - of the epic Mahabharatha, was also a renowned singer and dancer and is said to have propitiated goddess Bhadrakaali by a devotional presentation
Arkade (s.), Arkaden (pl.)(German f.) ambulatory, arcade
Arkadengang(German m.) arcade
Arkadenhof(German m.) arcade court
Arkadien(German n.) Arcadia
Arkadier (m.), Arkadierin (f.)(German) Arcadian
arkadisch(German) arcadian, Arcadian
arkan(German) arcane
Arkana(German pl.) arcana, arcanums
Arkandisziplin(German f.) arcane discipline
Arkansas Travellera barn dance that had twice the number of calls as the other dances of the 1860s to symbolize the peddlers travels
Arkanum(German n.) arcanum, singular of Arkana (German pl.: arcana, arcanums)
Arkebuse(German f.) arquebus
Arkebusier(German m.) arquebusier
Arktis(German f.) Arctic, Arctic zone
arktisch(German) Arctic
Arktischer Ozean(German m.) Arctic Ocean
arktischer Ureinwohner(German m.) Arctic native
arktische Wildnis(German f.) Arctic wilderness
arktische Witterungsbedingungen(German pl.) arctic conditions
Arktur(German m.) Arcturus (a giant, orange star in the constellation Boötes)
Arkturus(German m.) Arcturus (a giant, orange star in the constellation Boötes)
Arkus(German m.) arc, arcus
Arkustangensreihe(German f.) arctangent series
arlecchinesco(Italian) in the spirit of a harlequinade
Arlecchino(Italian m.) harlequin, buffoon
Arlequin(French m.) harlequin
Arlequín(Spanish m.) harlequin
Arlésienne, L'L'Arlésienne (The Woman of Arles) is a play by Alphonse Daudet (1840-1897) for which Georges Bizet (1838-1875) wrote incidental music. Bizet arranged this music as Suite No. 1 which was first published in 1872. Suite No. 2 was compiled by Ernest Guiraud after Bizet's death. Since their debut, both have become popular musical works, often performed by professional orchestras
Arlig(Danish) annual
Arm(English, German m.) arm, upper limb of the human body from the shoulder to the hand (the term is also applied to that part of a garment that would cover the arm and to that part of a chair upon which the arm might be rested)
(German m.) branch, branch (candlestick)
arm(German) poor, poorly, beggarly, needy, indigently, indigent, poverty-stricken, impecunious
Arma(Spanish f.) section, arm, section
in Spanish, arma is a feminine noun that takes the masculine article in the singular
Arma biológica(Spanish f.) biological weapon
in Spanish, arma is a feminine noun that takes the masculine article in the singular
Arma blanca(Spanish f.) any sharp instrument used as a weapon
in Spanish, arma is a feminine noun that takes the masculine article in the singular
Armada (s.), Armadas (pl.) (English, Spanish f., German m.) navy, fleet
La Armada Invencible (Spanish f.: the Spanish Armada)
Armadaschlacht(German f.) Battle of the Armada (1588)
Arma de doble filo(Spanish f.) double-edged sword (as said of a line of argument)
in Spanish, arma is a feminine noun that takes the masculine article in the singular
Arma de fuego(Spanish f.) firearm
in Spanish, arma is a feminine noun that takes the masculine article in the singular
Armadillo(English, Spanish m.) South American mammal with a plated body and large claws
Armadio(Italian m.) cupboard, wardrobe
armado (m.), armada (f.)(Spanish) armed
iba armado hasta los dientes (Spanish: he was armed to the teeth)
armado de(Spanish) armed with
Armador (m.), Armadora (f.)(Spanish) shipowner
Armadura(Spanish f.) (suit of) armour, frame (structural), framework (structural)
(Spanish f.) in music, key signature, armature (French), armure (French), armatura (Italian)
Armadura de clave(Spanish f., Portuguese f.) key signature
Armageddon (English, German n., from Hebrew har megiddon) the scene of a final battle between the forces of good and evil, prophesied to occur at the end of the world
Armagnac(English, German m.) a fortified spirit made from grapes of the Armagnac region in Southwest France
Arma homicida(Spanish f.) murder weapon
in Spanish, arma is a feminine noun that takes the masculine article in the singular
Armamentario(Italian m.) tools, paraphernalia
armamentista(Spanish) arms (as in arms race)
Armamento(Spanish m.) arms (weapons), armaments, armament
armamputierte Frau(German f.) arm-amputee (female)
armamputierter Mann(German m.) arm-amputee
Arma nuclear(Spanish f.) nuclear weapon
in Spanish, arma is a feminine noun that takes the masculine article in the singular
armar(Spanish) to arm, to supply ... with arms, to fit out, to equip, to assemble, to pitch (tent), to put up, to do (Latin America), to piece together (Latin America), to roll (Colombia: cigarette)
armar de(Spanish) to arm with
armare(Italian) to fit out, to reinforce (architecture)
Armario(Spanish m.) cupboard, wardrobe, closet (wardrobe), (bathroom) cabinet
Armario empotrado(Spanish m.) built-in wardrobe, built-in cupboard
Armario ropero(Spanish m.) wardrobe
Armarius(Latin) the name given to those who perform the office of praecentors in cloisters and keep the church books
armar jaleo(Spanish) to kick up a racket, to make a racket (colloquial)
armarse(Spanish) to arm oneself, to break out (quarrel, discussion)
armarse de ...(Spanish) to arm oneself with ... (something)
armarse de paciencia(Spanish) to be patient
armarse de valor(Spanish) to pluck up courage
armar un escándalo(Spanish) to kick up a fuss
armar un lio(Spanish) to kick up a fuss
Armas de destrucción masiva(Spanish weapons of mass destruction
Armatoste(Spanish m.) monstrosity, hulk (familiar), huge great thing (familiar, colloquial)
Armatur (s.), Armaturen (pl.)(German f.) valve, fitting, fittings, armature, instrument, armouring (cables and hoses)
Armatura(Italian f.) scaffolding
(Italian f.) in music, key signature
Armatura di chiave(Italian f.) key signature
Armature(French f.) framework
the rotating part of a dynamo, consisting essentially of copper wire wound around an iron core
a rigid framework serving as a supporting inner core for clay or other soft sculpting material
any protective covering
(French f.) key signature, armadura (Spanish), armatura (Italian)
Armaturenbrett (s.), Armaturenbretter (pl.)(German n.) instrument panel, panel, car dashboard, fascia (old-fashioned)
Armauflage(German f.) armrest, arm support
Armazón(Spanish m./f.) frame, frames (spectacles), framework, timberwork, shell
(Spanish m.) Zarge (German f. s.), Zargen (German f. pl.), Zargenkranz (German), éclisse (French f.), fascia (Italian), rib or side that is bent to shape and then attached to the belly and back of a violin, violoncello, guitar, etc.
(Spanish m. Latin America) shelf , shelving
Armband (s.), Armbander (pl.)(German n.) bracelet, watch-strap, wristlet, watchstrap, wristband, strap, armlet, arm-band
Armband mit Anhängern(German m.) charm bracelet
Armbanduhr(German f.) wristwatch, bracelet watch, wrist watch, watch (wristwatch)
Armbanduhr mit Wecker(German f.) alarm watch
Armbeuge(German f.) crook of the arm, push-up, press-up
Armbinde(German f.) brassard (ribbon bow worn on the arm), brassart (variant of brassard), armlet
Armblatt(German n.) dress-shield (fabric arm pad, a small fabric pad worn around the armpits of a piece of clothing to prevent sweat showing through the dress)
Armbruch(German m.) arm fracture, fracture of the arm
Armbrust (s.), Armbruste (pl.), Armbrüste (pl.)(German f.) crossbow, arbalest, cross bow
Armbrustbolzen(German m.) crossbow arrow
Armbrustschütze(German m.) crossbowman
Armbrustschützenfest(German n.) crossbow tournament
Armchair critic(back-seat driver has a similar connotation) a person who expresses critical opinions without any involvement in the matter being criticized or having no first-hand knowledge of it
Ärmchen(German n.) little arm
ARMCMabbreviation of 'Associated of the Royal Manchester College of Music'
Arm des Gesetzes(German m.) arm of the law
armdick(German) as thick as an arm
Armdrücken(German n.) arm wrestling
Arme(German f.) pauper (female), poor woman
(German pl.) arms
arme Bauernschaft(German f.) peasantry
Armee(German f.) army
Armee der Konföderierten Staaten von Amerika(German f.) Confederate States Army
Armee der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika(German f.) United States Army
Armée(French f.) army
Armee-(German) army (prefix)
Armeeangehörige(German pl.) Army personnel, military personnel
Armeedienst(German m.) military service
Armeeeinheiten(German pl.) army units
Armeefahrzeug(German n.) army vehicle
Armeegebäude(German n.) army building
Armeeklamotten(German pl.) army clothes
Armeekrankenhaus(German n.) military hospital
Armeeoffizier(German m.) army officer
Armeesprecher (m.), Armeesprecherin (f.)(German) military spokesman, army spokesman
Armee-Stabsstelle(German f.) army headquarters
arme Kreatur(German f.) poor creature
Ärmel(German m. s./pl.) sleeve, sleeves
[additional information by Michael Zapf]
arme Landbewohner(German pl.) rural poor
Ärmelaufschlag(German m.) cuff (sleeve)
Armeleuteessen(German n.) poor man's food
Armeleuteviertel(German n.) wrong side of the tracks
Ärmelkanal(German m.) English Channel
Ärmellänge(German f.) sleeve's length
ärmellos(German) sleeveless
[corrected by Michael Zapf]
ärmelloses Hemd(German n.) tank top
Ärmelpatte(German f.) sleeve flap
Ärmelschlitz(German m.) sleeve vent
Ärmelschoner (s./pl.)(German m.) oversleeve, protective sleeves, sleeve stockings (plural form), sleeve guards (plural form)
Ärmelschutz(German m.) arm guard
Ärmelstreifen(German m.) stripe
Armenanstalt(German f.) almshouse
arme Nationen(German pl.) poor nations
Armenbegräbnis(German n.) pauper's burial
Armenbibel(German f.) biblia pauperum (neither a bible nor a book for the poor as its title suggests, it is a medieval picture book that pairs Old and New Testament scenes)
Armenfrage(German f.) pauperism
Armenfriedhof(German m.) paupers' field, paupers cemetery
Armenfürsorge(German f.) poor relief
Armengrab(German n.) pauper's grave
Armenhaus(German n.) poor house, almshouse, alms house, workhouse
Armenhilfe(German f.) relief for the poor, aid for the poor
Armenia(English, Spanish f.) a landlocked republic in southwestern Asia, formerly an Asian soviet. Modern Armenia is but a fragment of ancient Armenia which was one of the world's oldest civilizations and comprised the Armenian Highland southeast of Black Sea and southwest of Caspian Sea, located between the ancient Roman and Persian empires in southwestern Asia,, an area today divided between Turkey, Republic of Armenia, Azerbaijan and Iran
Armeniana native or inhabitant of Armenia
the Indo-European language spoken predominantly in Armenia, but also in Azerbaijan
a writing system having an alphabet of 38 letters in which the Armenian language is written
Armenian chantcanto armeno (Italian), Armenische Gesang (German), chant arménien (French), canto armenio (Spanish)
chant that forms part of the rite used by the Armenian Church. It belongs to the Antiochene family. Originally, the language was Syriac, but it is now ancient Armenian. This rite is used by both Uniats and Gregorians, i.e., those separated from Rome. On Christmas Eve and Easter Eve Mass is celebrated in the evening. The use of curtains screening off, at times, the priest from the people is noteworthy, also the Roman Preparatory prayers and the Last Gospel, both introduced through the influence of Western missionaries
Armenian danceas in other immigrant communities, the exiled Armenians sought to reaffirm their ethnic identity through dance and music. Traditional dancing is still popular among expatriate Armenians, and has also been very successfully `exported' to international folk dance groups and circle dance groups all over the world. Generally, Armenian dances may be broken up into four categories: dances from Eastern Caucasian Armenia, from Western Anatolian Armenia, from Greater Armenia, and diaspora dances. These categories may overlap somewhat, but they give a broad picture of the landscape of Armenian dance
[quoted from the information in the reference below which was written by Laura Shannon]
Armenian neumesArmenian chant, like Byzantine chant, consists mainly of hymns. The earliest surviving manuscripts with music notation date from the fourteenth century, and use a system of neumes known as Armenian neumes, which seem to use a developed system but which have not been deciphered
Armenien(German n.) Armenia
Armenier (m.), Armenierin (f.), Armenier (pl.), Armenierinnen ( Armenian
Armenio(Spanish m.) Armenian (language, alphabet)
Armenio (m.), Armenia (f.)(Spanish) Armenian
armenio (m.), armenia (f.)(Spanish) Armenian
Armenisch(German n.) Armenian
armenisch(German) Armenian
armenischsprachig(German) Armenian-speaking
armenischstämmiger Amerikaner(German m.) Armenian American
Armisticio(Spanish m.) armistice
Armenkost(German f.) poor man's food
Armenpfleger(German m. - archaic) guardian of the poor
Armenrecht(German n.) poor law
Armenschule(German f.) charity school
Armenspeisung(German f.) feeding the poor
Armenspital(German n.) poor-law infirmary
Armensündermiene(German f. - Austria) hangdog look
Armenunterstützung(German f.) pauper relief
Armenviertel(German n.) poor quarter, poor district, ghetto, slum area
arme Person(German f.) pauper
Armer (m.), Arme (f.)(German) poor man/woman, pauper
[correct by Michael Zapf]
die Armen, the poor
armer(French) to wind on (film in camera)
ärmer(German) poorer, needier
ärmerarmer Bauernjunge(German m.) peasant boy
armer Bettler(German m.) poor beggar
armer de(French) fit with
armer Hund(German m.) poor fellow
Armería(Spanish f.) gunsmith's shop, war museum
Arme Ritter(German pl.) French toast
Armer Junge!(German) Poor boy!
armer Kerl(German m.) poor soul, poor bloke (colloquial)
Armer Kerl!(German) Poor old chap!
armer la clef(French) to indicate the key by means of the key signature, the sharps and flats placed immediately after the clef
armer Mann(German m.) poor man
Armero(Spanish m.) gunsmith
armer Schlingel(German m.) poor wretch
armer Schlucker(German m.) poor fellow, poor devil
armer Sünder (m.), arme Sünderin (f.)(German) poor sinner
armer Teufel(German m.) poor devil, poor wretch
armer Tropf(German m.) poor devil
armes Bauernkind(German n.) peasant child
armes Bauernmädchen(German n.) peasant girl
armes Ding(German n.) poor thing (a person)
arme Seele(German f.) poor soul
armes Hühnchen(German n.) lame duck (figurative)
armes Luder(German n.) poor creature
armes Schwein(German n.) poor wretch (colloquial)
armes Wesen(German n.) wretch
armes Würstchen(German n.) poor devil
Armesündergesicht(German n.) hangdog look
Armesünderglocke(German f.) executioner's bell
Armesündermiene(German f.) hangdog look
Armesünderstuhl(German m.) cutty stool (the stool of repentance in a church for the purpose of humiliating those who'd broken the rules, such as adulterers)
Arme wie Pudding haben(German) to have arms like jelly
arm gemacht(German) pauperised, impoverished (made poor)
Armgewicht(German n.) weight of the arm
Armgriff(German m.) arm grip
Armi(Italian f. pl.) armed forces
Armida, The Gardens ofnamed for the enchantress in Tasso's Jerusalem Delivered, a synonym for gorgeous luxury
Armiereisen(German n.) reinforcing bar
armieren(German) to sheathe
armierend(German) sheathing
armiert(German) sheathed
armierter Beton(German m.) reinforced concrete
armiertes Kabel(German n.) sheathed cable, shielded cable, armoured cable
Armierung(German f.) armour, sheathing, amouring, concrete reinforcement, reinforcement, crimping, embedded reinforcement (concrete)
Armierungsmatte(German f.) reinforcement steel mesh
Armillarsphäre(German f.) armillary sphere
Armillary spherean old astronomical model with solid rings, all circles of a single sphere, used to display relationships among the principal planets and the sun
arm im Geiste(German) poor in spirit
Arm in Arm(German) arm in arm, with arms linked
Arm in armwith one arm interlinked with the arm of a person beside one
Arminiana follower of the theology of the Dutch pastor and theologian Jacobus Arminius (c.1559-1609) (born Jacob Harmenszoon in Oudewater near Utrecht), who rejected the Calvinist doctrines of predestination and election and who believed that human free will is compatible with God's sovereignty
Arminianer(German m.) Arminian
Arminianisma school of soteriological thought within Protestant Christianity based on the theological ideas of the Dutch Reformed theologian Jacobus Arminius (1560-1609)[1] and his historic followers, the Remonstrants. The doctrines' acceptance stretches through much of mainstream, evangelical Protestantism
Arminius(English, German m. from Latin) Armin (Germanic tribal leader, chieftain of the Cherusci)
Arminnenseite(German f.) inside (of the) arm
Armiño(Spanish m.) ermine
Armisticio(Spanish m.) armistice
Armkettchen(German n.) chain bracelet
Armkette(German f.) bracelet
armlang(German) arm-length
Armlänge(German f.) arm's length
Armlehne(German f.) arm rest, elbow-rest, armrest, arm (of a chair)
Armlehne eines Stuhls(German f.) arm of a chair
Armleuchter (s./pl.)(German m.) candelabrum (s.), candelabra (pl.), knucklehead (colloquial), bonehead (colloquial), idiot (colloquial)
[colloquial meanings provided by Michael Zapf]
ärmlich(German) poor, poorly, miserable, miserably, squalid, bad (poor, cheap), mean, humble, cheap and nasty, beggarly, barely, paltry (poor)
ärmlich aussehend(German) humble-looking
ärmliche Diät(German f.) poor diet
ärmliche Entschuldigung(German f.) paltry excuse
ärmliche Hütte(German f.) humble cottage
ärmliche Kleidung(German f.) poor clothes
ärmlicher Bauer(German m.) peasant
ärmlicher Haarwuchs(German m.) poor head of hair
ärmliches Wohngebiet(German n.) poor living quarters
ärmliche Verhältnisse(German pl.) poor circumstances
ärmlich dran sein(German) to be badly off (poor)
ärmlich leben(German) to live poorly
Ärmlichkeit(German f.) squalor, squalidness
Ärmling (s.), Ärmlinge (pl.)(German m.) oversleeve
Armloch(German n.) armhole
Armlosigkeit(German f.) abrachia (the condition of having no arms )
armmachen(German) to pauperise, to impoverish
arm machen(German) to impoverish, to pauperise
arm machend(German) pauperising, impoverishing
Armmuskel(German m.) arm muscle
Armoire(French f.) cupboard, wardrobe, closet
when used in English, the term armoire refers specifically to a free-standing cupboard or wardrobe
Armoiries(French f. pl.) coat of arms
armoneggiare(Italian) to sound in harmony
Armonia(Italian f.) or armonica, harmony, chord, concord
(Italian) or armonica, wind-band
Armonía(Spanish f.) harmony
Armonia a quattro parti(Italian f.) four-part harmony, barbershop harmony
Armonía funcional(Spanish f.) functional harmony
Armonia funzionale(Italian f.) functional harmony
armoniale(Italian) harmonious, musical
armoniato(Italian) harmonised
Armonica(Italian f.) a glass harmonica (for example, J.C. Miller's 'Method to Teach Yourself Armonica' (1788))
(Italian f.) accordion, Akkordeon (German n.), Zeihharmonika (German f.), accordéon (French f.), acordeón (Spanish m.)
see armonia
Armónica(Spanish f.) harmonica, mouth organ
Armonica a bocca(Italian f.) mouth organ, Mundharmonika (German f.), harmonica (French f.)
Armonica a clavitura(Italian f.) piano accordion, Akkordeon mit Klaviatur (German n.), accordéon à clavier (French f.), acordeón con el teclado (Spanish m.)
Armonica a clavitura chiusa(Italian f.) accordion with covered keyboard, Akkordeon mit verdeckter Klaviatur (German n.), accordéon à clavier fermé (French f.), acordeón con el teclado encerrado (Spanish m.)
Armonica a clavitura scoperta(Italian f.) accordion with open keyboard, Akkordeon mit offener Klaviatur (German n.), accordéon à clavier découvert (French f.), acordeón con el teclado descubierto (Spanish m.)
Armonica automatico(Italian f.) automatic accordion, Automatisches Akkordeon (German n.), accordéon automatique (French f.), acordeón automaticó (Spanish m.)
Armonica a vetro(Italian f.) glass harmonica
Armonica con bocchino a fiato(Italian f.) blow-accordion, Blasakkordeon (German n.), accordéon à embouchure (French f.), acordeón con embocadura (Spanish m.)
Armonica con registri(Italian f.) accordion with stops, Akkordeon mit Registern (German n.), accordéon à registres (French f.), acordeón con registros (Spanish m.)
Armonica con voci d'acciaio(Italian f.) accordion with steel reeds, Akkordeon mit stahlönen (German n.), accordéon avec lames d'acier (French f.), acordeón con lengüesta de acero (Spanish m.)
Armónica de boca(Spanish f.) mouth organ
Armonica de cristal(French f.) glass harmonica
Armónica de metal(Spanish f.) or juego de timbres, glockenspiel
Armónica de teclado(Spanish f.) keyed harmonica, melodica
Armonica de verre(French f.) glass harmonica
armónicamente(Spanish) in harmony, harmoniously
Armonici naturali(Italian f. pl.) natural harmonics (the harmonic series)
Armonico(Italian m.) harmonium, reed organ
armonico(Italian) harmonic, harmonious
(Italian) harmoniously
Armónico(Spanish m.) an harmonic
armónico (m.), armónica (f.)(Spanish) harmonic, harmonious
Armonio(Spanish m.) harmonium
Armonio de India(Spanish m.) Indian harmonium, peti, baja
armoniosamente(Italian) harmoniously
armonioso (m.), armoniosa (f.)(Italian, Spanish) harmonious, harmoniously (Italian)
Armonista(Italian f., Spanish m./f.) one acquainted with the laws and science of harmony
Armonización(Spanish f.) harmonizing
armonizar(Spanish) to harmonize, to reconcile (opinions, differences, tendencies), to get on well (people), to blend in, to go well
armonizar con (...)(Spanish) to harmonize with (...), to blend in with (...) (styles, people, colours), to get on well with (...) (people), to go well with (...) (colours)
armonizzante(Italian) that is harmonious or musical
armonizzare(Italian) to harmonize, to match, to go well (with)
Armoricaor Aremorica, an ancient and literary name for the northwest part of France, especially Brittany
Armorika(German n.) Armorica, Aremorica
armorikanisch(German) Armorican
Armorythe old name for heraldry, the word originally used to describe arms, military equipment and their employment
Armourya place where arms and military equipment are stored
Armprothese(German f.) prosthetic arm
Armreif(German m.) bangle
Armring(German m.) bangle
Armschlinge(German f.) sling (arm)
Armschmalz(German m.) elbow grease (colloquial)
Armschmerz (s.), Armschmerzen (pl.)(German m.) arm pain, pain in the arm
Armschutz(German m.) arm guard
armselig(German) miserable, miserably, bald, squalid, scrubby, poor, paltrily, squalidly, beggarly, paltry, pathetic, measly (colloquial)
armselige Entlohnung(German f.) beggarly wage
armselige Geschichte(German f.) poor affair
armselige Hütte(German f.) poor cottage, shanty, hovel
armselige Lebensweise(German f.) shabby living
armseliger(German) poorer
armseliger Bursche(German m.) paltry fellow
armseliger Lump(German m.) beggarly fellow
armseliges Aussehen(German n.) shabby look, poor appearance, miserable appearance
armseliges Bett(German n.) wretched bed
armseliges Ding(German n.) poor affair
armseliges Einkommen(German n.) shabby income
armseliges Haus(German n.) shabby house
armseliges Leben(German n.) poor life
armseliges Zeug(German n.) poor stuff
armselige Unterkunft(German f.) wretched accommodation
armselige Wohnung(German f.) hovel
Armseligkeit(German f.) meagreness, poorness, meanness (poorness), paltriness, beggarliness, niggardliness (amount, portion), misery, wretchedness
Arm's lengthto keep someone at arm's length is to keep tham at a distance (i.e. not close by)
Armspange(German f.) bangle
ärmste(German) poorest, neediness
arm sterben(German) to die poor
Armstulpen(German pl.) protective sleeves
Armsünderglocke(German f.) executioner's bell
Arm und Reich(German) rich and poor
Die Kluft (or Schere) zwischen Arm und Reich meaning 'the divide between rich and poor'
[phrase suggested by Michael Zapf to illustrate that Arm and Reich are capitalised here because they refer collectively to people]
Armure(French f.) key-signature, armadura (Spanish), armatura (Italian), Vorzeichnung (German)
Armure de la clé(French f.) the clef sign
Armure de la clef(French f.) the clef sign
Armut(German f.) poverty, penury, destitution, impecuniousness, pennilessness, baggarliness, need, neediness, indigence
[corrected by Michael Zapf]
Armut erzeugen(German) to produce poverty
Armut lindern(German) to alleviate poverty
Armutsbekämpfung(German f.) fight against poverty, poverty reduction
Armutsfalle(German f.) poverty trap
Armutsflüchtling(German m.) refugee from poverty
armutsgefährdet(German) at risk of poverty
Armutsgefährdung(German f.) risk of poverty
Armutsgrenze(German f.) poverty threshold, poverty line, poverty level, bread line (figurative)
Armutslücke(German f.) poverty trap
Armutsminderung(German f.) poverty alleviation, poverty reduction
Armutsreduzierung(German f.) poverty reduction
Armutszeugnis(German n.) pathetic display, evidence of incapacity
Armutszeugnis der modernen Gesellschaft(German n.) damning indictment of modern society
Armverband(German m.) arm bandage
Arm vibratosee 'vibrato'
Armvoll(German m.) armful
Arm voll(German) armful
arm wie (die) Kirchenmäuse sein(German) to be as poor as churchmice (old-fashioned)
arm wie eine Kirchenmaus(German) poor as a church mouse
ARNabbreviation of ácido ribonucléico (Spanish m.: ribonucleic acid, RNA)
Arnaque(French f.) swindling
arnaquer(French) to swindle, to con
Arnés (s.), Arneses (pl.)(Spanish m.) baby reins, harness
Arnese(Italian m.) tool, thing, gadget
Arnhema city of eastern Netherlands on the lower Rhine River east-southeast of Utrecht
Arnheim(German n.) Arnhem
Arnicaarnica is used topically for a wide range of conditions, including bruises, sprains, muscle aches, wound healing, superficial phlebitis, rheumatic conditions, etc.
Arnikatinktur(German f.) arnica tincture
Aro(Spanish m.) ring, hoop, (hooped) earring, napkin ring
(Spanish m.) a term used in flamenco to described the curved side of a guitar
Ärobic(German f.) aerobic
a rodio(Spanish) in abundance
Ärodynamik(German f.) aerodynamics
ärodynamisch(German) aerodynamically, aerodynamic
Arohain Indian classical music, an ascending note pattern
Arom(German n.) aroma
Aroma (s.), Aromas (pl.), Aromata (German pl., archaic), Aromen (German pl.)(English, Spanish m., German n.) flavour, flavouring, bouquet (e.g. of a wine), essence (flavouring used in cooking)
(Spanish m.) scent, perfume
(Greek) fragrance, an elusive charm
Aroma del cafe(Spanish m.) smell of coffee
Aromaniana people who, in the Middle Ages, created semi-autonomous states on the territory of modern Greece, particularly in Great Wallachia, Small Wallachia and Upper Wallachia. Aromanians played an important role in the independence wars (against the Ottoman Empire) of Bulgaria, Albania and Greece. In 1905, the Aromanians were acknowledged as a separate nation (millet) of the Ottoman Empire. After the fall of Communism, the Aromanian nation formed its own cultural and political societies in the Balkans and started its new national re-awakening
Aromaöl(German n.) aromatic oil
Aromastoff(German m.) flavouring agent, flavouring, aromatic
Aromat (s.), Aromaten (pl.)(German m.) aromatic compound
Aromate (s.), Aromates (pl.)(French n.) herb, spice
Aromaterapia(Spanish f.) aromatherapy
Aromatherapeut (m.), Aromatherapeutin (f.)(German) aromatherapist
Aromatherapie(German f.) aromatherapy
aromatico(Italian) aromatic
aromático (m.), aromática (f.)(Spanish) aromatic
aromatique(French) aromatic
aromatisch(German) aromatic, aromatically
aromatische Pflanze(German f.) aromatic plant
aromatischer(German) more aromatic
aromatischer Geschmacksstoff(German m.) flavour
aromatischer Wohlgeruch(German m.) balsamic odour
aromatisches Kraut(German n.) aromatic herb
aromatischste(German) most aromatic
aromatisé(French) flavoured
aromatisiert(German) flavoured
aromatisierte(German) flavoured
aromatizar(Spanish) to perfume, to flavour (culinary)
Aromatizität(German f.) aromaticity
Arôme(French m.) aroma
Aromi(Italian m. pl.) herbs
Aromunent(German pl.) Aromanians
äronautischt(German) aeronautical
Aroniat(German f.) chokeberry
Aronssche Röhret(German f.) mercury-vapor lamp
Arosaa municipality in the district of Plessur in the canton of Graubünden in Switzerland
Arosert(German m.) inhabitant of Arosa
Ärosolt(German n.) aerosol
a roso y velloso(Spanish) without exception
a rostro firme(Spanish) boldly, resolutely
Arousal compatibility preferencelisteners tend to prefer music that matches their pre-existing arousal level. When asleep, for example, most people have a low tolerance for music, especially when the music has a high level of stimulation. Conversely, when in a highly aroused state, most listeners find sedate music to be uninteresting or inappropriate. When engaged in aerobic exercise, for example, listeners show a strong aversion against sedate music - even if the tempo of the music matches the pace of the workout. With increasing age, people often show an increased preference for sedate music
arp.abbreviation of arpeggio
Arpa(Italian f., Spanish f.) harp, Harfe (German f.), harpe (French f.)
in Spanish, arpa is a feminine noun taking the masculine article in the singular
Arpa a doppio movimento(Italian f.) double-action harp, Doppelpedalharfe (German f.), harpe à double accrochement (French f.), harpe à double mouvement (French f.), arpa de doble acción (Spanish f.)
Arpa anottolini(Italian f.) see 'hooked harp'
Arpa celta(Spanish f.) Celtic harp
Arpa criolla(Spanish f.) Creole harp of Venezuela
Arpa de boca(Spanish f.) Jew's harp
Arpa de doble acción(Spanish f.) double-action harp, arpa a doppio movimento (Italian f.), harpe à double mouvement (French f.), Doppelpedalharfe (German f.)
Arpa de dos ordenes(Spanish f.) the Spanish cross-strung harp which was popular in the seventeenth century. It had light-tension gut strings, and was played with the right hand (treble strings) very close to the neck and the left hand (bass strings) very close to the middle of the strings, because its strings crossed at about one-quarter of the string's length below the neck. It was most commonly used as a chapel instrument, and it was shaped much like the modern Paraguayan harp
Arpa de ganchos(Spanish f.) hook or hooked harp
Arpaden(German pl.) Arpads, Árpáds
Arpa de pedal(Spanish f.) pedal harp
arpado (m.), arpada (f.)(Spanish) serrated
Arpa doppia(Italian f.) from ca. 1550-1700, any European harp with additional sets of strings, either double- or triple-strung
Árpádsor Arpads, followers of Árpáds (c.840-907), chief of the Magyars
Arpa eólica(Spanish f.) Aeolian harp
Arpa gotica(Spanish f.) Gothic or medieval harp
Arpa grande(Spanish f.) a style of rural Mexican folk music
Arpa indigenasee 'Peruvian harp'
Arpa llanera(Spanish f., literally 'plains harp') a folk harp with between 30 and 37 strings, used in the plains region of southwestern Venezuela and southeastern Colombia
Arpanelle(Italian f.) a small harp
Arpanetta(Italian f.) psaltery, small harp (generally one with strings of brass and iron)
Arpège(French m.) arpeggio
arpègé(French) arpeggiated, either arpègé montant or arpègé descendant
[entry corrected by Bonnie Jo Dopp]
arpègé descendant(French) downwards arpeggiation (from top note to bottom)
arpègement(French) the arpeggiation of a chord
arpègé montant(French) upwards arpeggiation (from bottom note to top)
arpègement ascendant(French) an ornament that marks that a chord should be arpeggiated from the bottom note upwards
arpègement descendu(French) an ornament that marks that a chord should be arpeggiated from the top note downwards
arpègement en descendant(French) descending arpeggio
arpègement en montant(French) ascending arpeggio
arpègement figurait(French) or acciaccatura, an ornament that marks that a chord should be arpeggiated, sometimes with the addition of unwritten notes although these are not held
arpègement figuré(French) or acciaccatura, an ornament that marks that a chord should be arpeggiated, sometimes with the addition of unwritten notes although these are not held
arpèger(French) to arpeggiate a chord, to perform arpeggios
arpeggiamento(Italian) to play the notes of a chord quickly, one after the other in imitation of a harp
arpeggiando(Italian, literally 'harping') to arpeggiate successive chords, for example on a string instrument by employing a bouncing bowstroke on broken chords
arpeggiare(Italian, literally 'harping') to arpeggiate successive chords, for example on a string instrument by employing a bouncing bowstroke on broken chords
Arpeggiationarpègement (French), Brechung (German)
arpeggiato(Italian, literally 'harping') to arpeggiate successive chords, for example on a string instrument by employing a bouncing bowstroke on broken chords
a way of playing a chord - starting with the lowest note, and with successively higher notes rapidly joining in or in reverse, starting with the highest note with successively lower notes rapidly joining in
Arpeggiator(English, German m.) a device for playing arpeggiated sequences automatically
Arpeggiatura(Italian f.) a succession of broken chords
arpeggieren(German) to arpeggiate
arpeggiert(German) arpeggiated
Arpeggierung(German f.) arpeggiation
Arpeggio (s.), Arpeggi (Italian pl.), Arpeggios (English, German pl.)arpegio (Spanish), arpège (French), Arpeggio (German n.), Akkordbrechungen (German), gebrochener Akkord (German)
(German n., Italian m., from the Italian meaning 'in the manner of a harp') a spread chord played from the top down or from the bottom up
in the first half of the eighteenth century, the marking arpeggio is sometimes found at the beginning of a sequence of chords, in which case the performer is at liberty, if he or she so chooses, to play the chords broken, both up and down
Arpeggione(English, German m., Italian) developed in 1823 by the Viennese guitar luthier Johann Georg Staufer (1778-1853), the arpeggione (also known as the bowed guitar/bogen-guitarre, guitarre d'amour, and guitarre-violoncell) was a bowed, six-stringed, fretted instrument, which was tuned exactly like a classical guitar. Its body shape was also similar to a guitar, with smooth rather than pointed violin corners. Because the instrument lacked an endpin, it was held between the knees like a viola da gamba
The Modern-Arpeggione is a string instrument built by Dr. Osamu Okumura. It is an acoustic, upright -fretted, seven string instrument tuned from a bass G up to E (semitone below the high E on a guitar). The body is larger than an acoustic guitar, with an arched fingerboard and bridge for bowing or picking
Arpeggio styleor broken style, where the notes of the chord are written or played one after another
Arpegi(Catalan m.) arpeggio
arpegiar(Spanish) to arpeggiate a chord
Arpegio(Spanish m.) arpeggio
arpenter(French) to pace up and down, to survey
Arpenteur(French m.) surveyor
Arpía(Spanish f.) harpy, hag (figurative), old witch, old hag
Arpichorduma stop similar to a buff stop except that the strings are touched by metal pins, producing a buzzing sound
Arpicordofrom the sixteenth century, an Italian name for the harpsichord
Arpillera(Spanish f.) sackcloth, sack-cloth, hessian, burlap, sacking
Arpinella(Italian f.) a psaltery, a small harp
Arpista(Italian m./f., Spanish m./f.) harpist
arpoabbreviation of arpeggio
Arpón(Spanish m.) harpoon
arponar(Spanish) to harpoon
arponear(Spanish) to harpoon
Arpón submarino(Spanish m.) speargun
Arpsichordan archaic spelling of 'harpsichord'
Arqué (French, literally 'arched' or 'bandy') it is a common fallacy to-day that the most beautiful legs are perfectly straight; hence the detrimental use of the terms arqué (bow-legged) and jarreté (knock-kneed). However, the study of anatomy will quickly convince one that Noverre's division of the adult human physique into these two categories is correct, as absolutely straight legs are so rare as to require no special term. Generally children are very knock-kneed, but if they become powerful and tightly-knit as adults the muscles of the leg will make the bones set so that when the feet are together and parallel a gap is seen between the knees. This is not a malformation to be remedied, any more than is its opposite; but merely evidence of a powerful physique, common among boxers and sprinters, possessing certain advantages and drawbacks which it is futile to attempt to alter. The arque dancer is remarkable for her power and ballon, and best expresses herself in movement, not in pose. Because she is tightly knit her extensions are never very high; loosening and stretching exercises only lessen her natural abilities and make her a straining copy of the jerrete type of dancer, who is remarkable for the elegant clarity of her movement and the beauty of her positions. This difference in physique is as great as the vocal difference between a soprano and a contralto; the singing teacher who attempted to make all students sing in the same register irrespective of voice would find few pupils, yet this is continually attempted in the ballet world thought it would be more sensible to make the most of the contrast
Arqueada(Spanish f.) bow-stroke, bowing, coup d'archet (French)
arquear(Spanish) to arch, to raise (eyebrow), to bow (shelf), to bend (shelf)
arquear las cejas(Spanish) to raise one's eyebrows
arquearse(Spanish) to arch, to sag, to bend, to curve, to bend one's back (person)
Arqueo(Spanish m.) arching, bending
Arqueología(Spanish f.) archeology
arqueológico (m.), arqueológica (f.)(Spanish) archeological
Arqueólogo (m.), Arqueóloga (f.)(Spanish) archeologist
Arquería(Spanish f.) arcade
Arquero (m.), Arquera (f.)(Spanish) archer, cashier (commerce), goalkeeper (Latin America: football)
Arqueta(Spanish f.) (small) chest, coffer
Arquetipo(Spanish m.) archetype, prototype
Arquitecto (m.), Arquitecta (f.)(Spanish) architect
arquitectónico (m.), arquitectónica (f.)(Spanish) architectural
Arquitectura(Spanish f.) architecture
ARRabbreviation of anno regni Regis (Latin: in the year of the King's reign), anno regni Reginae (Latin: in the year of the Queen's reign)
arr(s).abbreviation of 'arranged', 'arranged by', 'arranged for' (as for example, 'arr. Smith' which means 'arranged by Smith'), 'arrangement(s)', 'arrival', 'arrive', 'arrives', 'arrived'
Arrabal (s.), Arrabales (pl.)(Spanish m.) suburb, slum, poor quarter, poor area, outskirts (plural form)
arrabalero (m.), arrabalera (f.)(Spanish) suburban, common (in general outlook, taste and manners), vulgar (common), unrefined (common), uncouth (common)
arrabattarsi(Italian) to do all one can
arrabbiarsi(Italian) to get angry
arrabbiato(Italian) angry
Arrabbiatura(Italian f.) rage
Arrabel(Spain) also called ginebra or huesera, made with canes, sticks or bones tied to each other which are rubbed with a castanet
arraché(French) torn, raked, strappato (Italian), anreissen (German), gerissen (German), strong pizzicato, strongly plucked
arraché, à l'(French) with a struggle, after a hard struggle
arrache-pied, d'(French) relentlessly
arracher(French) to pull off, to pull out, to tear (a page), to tear out (a page)
arracher à(French) to snatch from, to force from, to wrest from
arracimado(Spanish) in a bunch, bunched together
arracimarse(Spanish) to bunch together
Arradasee arará
arraffare(Italian) to grab
arraigademente(Spanish) firmly
arraigado (m.), arraigada (f.)(Spanish) deeply-rooted (prejudice, custom), deep-rooted, deeply entrenched
una costumbre muy arraigada (Spanish: a deeply-rooted custom)
arraigar(Spanish) to take root (custom, plant), to become rooted, to become entrenched
arraigarse(Spanish) to take root, to settle (figurative:person)
Arraigo(Spanish m.) roots (figurative)
arraisonner(French) to inspect
Arrak(English, German m.) also arak, araq, any of various strong liquors distilled from the fermented sap of toddy palms or from fermented molasses
arramblar(Spanish) to sweep away, to uproot, to eradicate, to make off with
el huracán arrambló con todo lo que encontró a su paso (Spanish: the hurricane uprooted everything in its path)
arrambló con todo lo que se le antojó(Spanish) she made off with everything she fancied
arrampicasi(Italian) to climb (up)
Arrancada(Spanish f.) sudden start
arrancar(Spanish) to uproot, to pull up (plant), to pull out (tooth), to extract (tooth, confession), to tear out (page), to tear off (sheet of paper), to pull off (button), to pick (flower), to snatch (bag), to start (car, motor)
le arrancó el bolso (Spanish: he snatched her bag)
no había manera de arrancar a Juan de allí (Spanish: it was impossible to pull Juan away)
estábamos tan tranquilos y de repente arrancó a llorar (Spanish: everything was quiet when he suddenly started crying)
arrancar a llorar(Spanish) to start to cry
arrancar de raíz(Spanish) to pull up by the roots, to uproot
arrancarse(Spanish) to pull out, to pull off, to run away (Chile: familiar)
Arrangeto set a work originally written for one instrument (or set of instruments) for another instrument or set of instruments
arrangé(French) arranged
arrangeant (m.), arrangeante (f.)(French) obliging
Arrangement (s.), Arrangements (pl.)(English, German n.) reduzione (Italian), reduction (French)
(German n.), disposition, blocking
(English, German n., Dutch, French m.) the adaptation of a work originally written for one instrument (or set of instruments) for another instrument or set of instruments, but in a way that is more sophisticated than a simple transcription
a work that has been so arranged
in jazz or studio settings, 'arranging' is most commonly used to describe the process that is generally called orchestration, adaptation, setting, etc. while an arrangement is a set of instructions that indicate the way various sections or components (for example, intro, head, accompaniment, solos, interludes, coda, etc.) should interrelate
Johann Sebastian Bach's arrangement of Palestrina's Missa sine nomine reflects many of the practices of the eighteenth century. Instruments were added, playing colla parte, and a basso continuo realized for the lowest part. Sometimes a new basso continuo part was created, independent of the voice parts. The use of the breve as tactus was not understood. The original notation was not halved to retain the tactus; rather, the bars (measures) themselves were cut in half. Text underlay was altered to keep melismas to a minimum and to make declamation conform to the meter, especially in the bass. The use of accidentals and leading tones emphasized tonality but destroyed the cross-relations and major-minor shifts characteristic of sixteenth-century music. Bach, however, did not always alter the older model, but tried as much as he could to internalize the old Palestrina style
Arranger(English) in music, a person who adapts or orchestrates a musical work at the request of the composer - where that permission is missing the arrangement is said to be 'unauthorised'
arranger(French) to arrange
arrangeren(Dutch) arrange
Arrangeur (m.), Arrangeuse (French f.), Arrangeurin (German f.)(German, French) arranger
Arrangiamento(Italian m.) arrangement
arrangiare(Italian) to arrange
arrangiarsi(Italian) to manage
arrangiarsi alla meglio(Italian) to get by
arrangiati(Italian) get on with it!
Arrangiatore (m.), Arrangiatrice (f.)(Italian) arranger
arrangieren(German) to engineer, to fix up, to posture, to marshal, to contrive, to arrange
(German) to arrange or adapt a piece of music for instruments or voices, a disposition for which the work was not originally written
more commonly, to mean 'arrangement'
arrangierend(German) arranging
Arrangierprobe(German f.) blocking rehearsal
arrangiert(German) composed, marshalled, arranged, arranges, calculated
arrangiert werden(German) to come off, to be brought about
Arrangierung(German f.) arrangement, instrumentation
arrangiren(German, older spelling) to arrange or adapt music for instruments or voices
arrangirt(German, older spelling) arranged
Arranjador (m.), Arranjadora (f.)(Portuguese) arranger
Arranjo(Portuguese m.) arrangement
Arranque(Spanish m.) (sudden) start, (emotional) outburst, fit (familiar: outburst), starting mechanism (on a car), starting (of a car)
Arranque de ...(Spanish m.) fit of ... (something)
Arras(Spanish security
a tapestry, named for Arras in Artois, once famed for its manufacture
in Renaissance drama, a hanging tapestry or a curtain that covered a part of the frons scenae. It hid the discovery space and may have draped around the stage's edge to hide the open area underneath
arrasador(Spanish) overwhelming, devestating
arrasar(Spanish) to level, to smooth, to raze to the ground (building, etc.), to fill to the brim, to clear (sky), to destroy, to devastate, to win by a landslide (in an election)
nuestro equipo volvió a arrasar (Spanish: our team swept to victory again)
el fuego arrasó toda la zona (Spanish: the fire devastated the entire area)
arrasar con ...(Spanish) to demolish ... (somebody), to destroy ... (somebody), to devastate ... (something), to polish off ... (something)
arrasaron con toda la comida(Spanish) they polished off all the food (colloquial)
arrasarse(Spanish) to clear (sky), (eyes) to fill with tears, to triumph
arrastrado(Spanish) wretched
arrastrar(Spanish) to pull (along), to drag (along), to give rise to (consequencies), to trail on the ground, to trail along the ground, to tow (caravan, trailer), to draw (cart, carriage), to trawl (for fish)
vienen arrastrando el problema desde hace años (Spanish: they've been dragging out the problem for years)
se dejan arrastrar por la moda (Spanish: they are slaves to fashion)
la corriente lo arrastró mar adentro (Spanish: he was swept out to sea by the current)
arrastra esa tos desde el invierno(Spanish) that cough of hers has been dragging on since the winter
arrastrarse(Spanish) to crawl (person, to be humiliated), to slither, to grovel (to be humiliated), to drag oneself
Arrastre(Spanish m.) dragging, haulage (transport), appeal (Latin America: attraction)
(Spanish) a flamenco term used for a guitar playing technique in which the ring finger (anular) is dragged across the strings from treble to bass
arrastró todo a su paso(Spanish) it swept away everything in its path
Array(English, German n./m.) set out for display or use, place in an orderly arrangement
Arrayán(Spanish m.) myrtle
arrdabbreviation of 'arrived'
arre(Spanish) gee up!, giddy up!
arrea(Spanish) cripes!, gosh!, Oh, my!
arrear(Spanish) to urge on, to give (a blow), to drive (cattle), to herd (cattle), to spur, to chivvy (Latin America: familiar), to hurry ... along (Latin America: familiar)
arrear con ...(Spanish) to cart ... off (colloquial: somebody/something)
arrebañar(Spanish) to scrape together, to scrape clean (plate, etc.)
arrebatado(Spanish) enraged, impetuous, flushed
arrebatador (m.), arrebatadora (f.)(Spanish) breathtaking (figurative), dazzling, captivating (figurative), fascinating
arrebatar(Spanish) to snatch (away), to seize, to blow away (in the wind), to win (over) (figurative), to captivate (heart, etc.), to fascinate
arrebatarse(Spanish) to get carried way
Arrebato(Spanish m.) fit (illness), ecstasy, rapture, outburst
le dio un arrebato (Spanish: he flew into a rage)
Arrebato de ...(Spanish m.) fit of something
Arrebol(Spanish m.) red glow
arrebujarse(Spanish) to wrap oneself up
arrecare(Italian) to bring, to cause
arrechar(Spanish - Latin America) to turn ... on (colloquial: somebody), to bug (colloquial: annoy)
arrecharse(Spanish - Latin America) to get turned on (colloquial: somebody), to come on heat (animal), to get furious, to become enfuriated
arrecho (m.), arrecha (f.)(Spanish - Latin America) turned-on (colloquial), on heat (animal), gutsy (colloquial: Colombia, Venezuela), furious, mad (furious), tough difficult)
arreciar(Spanish) to get worse, to increase
Arrecife(Spanish m.) reef
Arredamento(Italian m.) interior decoration, furnishing, furnishings
arredare(Italian) to furnish
Arredatore (m.), Arredatrice (f.)(Italian) interior decorator
Arredo(Italian m.) furnishings
arredrar(Spanish) to intimidate, to frighten
arredrarse(Spanish) to shrink back, to become intimidated
arreglado (m.), arreglada (f.)(Spanish) neat, tidy, well-dressed, smart, moderate, repaired, fixed (repaired), settled (solution), fixed (Latin America: colloquial: election, football match)
arreglar(Spanish) to arrange (also music), to tidy up, to sort out, to settle (argument), to fix up, to mend, to repair (road), to fix, to do, to decorate, to arrange (flowers), to rearrange (also music), to alter (costume, skirt, etc.), to straighten up, to tidy up, to do up (colloquial)
el dentista me está arreglando la boca (Spanish: the dentist is fixing my teeth (colloquial))
esto te arreglará el estómago (Spanish: this'll sort your stomach out (colloquial))
tengo todo arreglado para el viaje (Spanish: I've got everything ready for the trip)
un amigo me está arreglando los papeles (Spanish: a friend is sorting out the papers for me)
lo quiso arreglar diciendo que ... (Spanish: she tried to put things right by saying that ...)
arreglar a la casa(Spanish) to do the housework, to dress and smarten up, to get ready
arreglarse(Spanish) to improve, to get ready, to manage, to make do, to come to an agreement, to get sorted out, to get better (day, weather), to clear up (weather)
no te arregles tanto (Spanish: you don't need to get so dressed up)
tengo que ir a arreglarseme el pelo (Spanish: I must go and have my hair done)
la casa es pequeña pero nos arreglamos (Spanish: it's a small house, but we manage)
no sé cómo se las arreglan (Spanish: I don't know how they manage)
arreglarse a de punta en blanco(Spanish) to dress up to the nines
arreglárselas(Spanish) to manage (familiar)
arreglar una entrevista(Spanish) to arrange an interview
arréglatelas como puedas(Spanish) sort it out as best you can, work it out as best you can
Arreglista(Spanish m./f.) arranger (music)
Arreglo(Spanish m.) arrangement (including music), repair, agreement, understanding, order, alteration, compromise, solution
no tiene arreglo (Spanish: it's beyond repair, he/she is a hopeless case)
la casa necesita algunos arreglos (Spanish: the house needs some work done on it)
su televisor no tiene arreglo (Spanish: your television is beyond repair)
este chico no tiene arreglo (Spanish: this boy is a hopeless case)
Arreglo de flores(Spanish m.) flower arrangement
Arreglo improvisado(Spanish m.) improvised arrangement
Arreglo musical(Spanish m.) musical arrangements
arrellanarse(Spanish) to lounge, to sit back, to settle (into a chair)
arremangar(Spanish) to roll up, to tuck up
arremangarse(Spanish) to roll up one's sleeves, to roll up one's trousers
arremeter(Spanish) to attack, to charge
arremeter contra ...(Spanish) to charge at ... (somebody/something), to attack ... (somebody/something)
Arremetida(Spanish f.) attack
arremolinarse(Spanish) to mill about, to mill around, to whirl about, to swirl (water, paper), to crowd together, to cram together
Arrendador (m.), Arrendadora (f.)(Spanish) landlord (m.), landlady (f.), lessor
Arrendamiento(Spanish m.) renting (out), leasing (out), rent, rental
arrendar(Spanish) to let (out), to hire (out), to rent (out), to lease (out)
Arrendatario (m.), Arrendataria (f.)(Spanish) tenant, lessee, contractor
arrendersi(Italian) to surrender
arrendevole(Italian) yielding
Arreos(Spanish harness, tack (riding)
arrepanchingarse(Spanish) to stretch oneself, to sprawl oneself
arrepentido (m.), arrepentida (f.)(Spanish) regretful, repentant
estaba arrepentido de lo que había hecho (Spanish: he was sorry for o feeling remorse for what he had done)
estoy arrepentido de haberlo dicho (Spanish: I regret having said it)
Arrepentimiento(Spanish m.) repentance, regret
arrepentirse(Spanish) to repent, to be sorry, to change one's mind
arrepentirse de ...(Spanish) to regret ... (something), to repent ... (something)
arrepentirse de hacer ...(Spanish) to regret doing ... (something)
Arrescusee aurresku
Arrest(English, German m.) detention, held by the authorities
(German m.) garnishment, distress upon somebody's property
Arrestant (m.), Arrestantin (f.)(German) arrested person
Arrestantenwagen(German m.) Black Maria (slang terms for either a police car, or a police vehicle used to transport large groups of people who have been arrested)
arrestar(Spanish) to arrest, to detain, to imprison
arrestare(Italian) to arrest, to stop
arrestarsi(Italian) to halt
Arrestbefehl(German m.) writ of garnishment, writ of attachment
Arrestbeschluss(German m.) attachment order
Arresto(Italian m.) stop, arrest, imprisonment, detention
(Spanish m.) arrest, imprisonment, detention
Arresto domiciliario(Spanish m.) house arrest
Arrestzelle(German f.) detention cell
Arrêt(French m.) stopping, stop, pause
arrêt, à l'(French) stationary
arretierbare Taste(German f.) stay-down key
Arretierbolzen(German m.) locating pin
arretieren(German) to fix, to lock, to stop, to arrest
arretierend(German) arresting
Arretierhebel(German m.) locking lever
Arretiernocken(German m.) locking key
Arretiernute(German f.) locking keyway
arretierte(German) arrested
Arretierung(German f.) latching, adjustment, catch
Arretierungsstift(German m.) locking pin
Arretiervorrichtung(German f.) stop device, locking mechanism
Arrêt maladie(French m.) sick leave
Arrêt de travail(French m.) stoppage (for example, a strike), sick leave
Arrêté(French m.) order
arrêter(French) to stop, to fix, to turn off, to arrest
Arrêt, point d'see point d'arrêt
arretrare(Italian) withdrawal
Arretrati(Italian m. pl.) arrears
arretrato(Italian) behind, behindhand, backward, back number
Arrhiniathe absence of the nose at birth
Arrhinie(German f.) arrhinia
Arrhythmiaan abnormal rhythm of the heart
Arrhythmie(German f.) arrhythmia
arrhythmisch(German) arrhythmic, arrhythmically, arrhythmogenic
arriar(Spanish) to lower, to loosen, to flood, to haul down (sails)
al entrar en el puerto, arriamos las velas (Spanish: we hauled down the sails when we came into port)
arriarse(Spanish) to be flooded
arriba(Spanish) above, up, on the top, upwards, upstairs, up with
la parte de arriba (Spanish: the top (part))
las puntuaciones de 80 para arriba (Spanish: scores of 80 or over)
los vecinos de arriba (Spanish: the people upstairs)
¡arriba!(Spanish) up you get! come on!
arriba de(Spanish) on top of
arriba de la cocina está el baño(Spanish - Latin America) the bathroom is above the kitchen
arriba del ropero(Spanish - Latin America) on top of the wardrobe
arriba del todo hay un reloj(Spanish) there is a clock right at the top
!arriba España!(Spanish) long live Spain!
¡arriba la Constitución!(Spanish) long live the Constitution!
¡arriba la democracia!(Spanish) long live democracy!
¡arriba las manos!(Spanish) hands up!
¡arriba levántate!(Spanish) or ¡arriba!, up you get!
arriba mencionado(Spanish) aforementioned
arribar(Spanish) to reach port, to arrive (particularly Latin America)
Arribeñolyrical folk music from Sierra Gorda, Mexico
Arribeño (m.), Arribeña (f.)(Spanish - Latin America) person from the highlands
arribeño (m.), arribeña (f.)(Spanish - Latin America) from the highlands
Arribista(Spanish m./f.) self-seeking or socially ambitious person, arriviste, social climber, parvenu
Arribo(Spanish m. - particularly Latin America)) arrival
Arricciato(Italian) also arricciatura or arriccio, the layer of rough plaster beneath the intonanco on which a fresco is painted, although strictly the arricciato is the term for the wall after the application of the arricciatura
Arricchito(Italian m.) nouveau riche
arricchire(Italian) to enrich
arricchirsi(Italian) to get rich
arricciare(Italian) to curl
arricciare il naso(Italian) to turn up one's nose
Arriendo(Spanish m. - in parts of Latin America) see arrendamiento
Arrière(French m.) back, rear, arrears (in rent)
arriéré(French) backward, behind the times, old-fashioned
Arrière-boutique(French f.) back room (of a shop)
Arrière-garde(French f.) rearguard
Arrière-goût(French m.) after-taste, particularly an unpleasant after-taste
Arrière-grand-mère(French f.) great-grandmother
Arrière-grand-père(French m.) great-grandfather
Arrière-pays(French m.) backcountry
Arrière-pensée(French f.) ulterior motive, a mental reservation, an unrevealed thought
Arrière-plan(French m.) background
Arriero(Spanish m.) muleteer
arriesgado (m.), arriesgada (f.)(Spanish) risky, fearless, brave, daring, hazardous
arriesgar(Spanish) to risk, to venture
arriesgarse(Spanish) to take a risk
arriesgarse a hacer ...(Spanish) to risk doing ... (something)
arrimar(Spanish) to bring close, to bring closer, to move closer, to move out of the way, to push aside
arrimar el ascua a su sardina(Spanish) to look after one's own interests
arrimar el hombro(Spanish) to lend a hand
arrimarse(Spanish) to come closer, to approach, to lean
arrimarse a(Spanish) to lean on
arrimarse a ...(Spanish) to move closer to ... (somebody)
arrimarse al sol que más calienta(Spanish) to develop relationships with influential people
arrímate al fuego(Spanish) come (up) closer to the fire
Arrimo(Spanish m.) support
arrimó la cama a la pared(Spanish) he moved the bed up against the wall, he pushed the bed up against the wall
arrimó la cama contra la pared(Spanish) he moved the bed up against the wall, he pushed the bed up against the wall
arrinconado (m.), arrinconada (f.)(Spanish) forgotten, blocked in, boxed in, cornered, lying around
arrinconar(Spanish) to put ... in a corner, to corner, to exclude, to put aside, to leave (out), to dump (colloquial), to put away, to lay aside, to ignore
arrinconarse(Spanish) to become a recluse, to isolate oneself
Arringa(Italian f.) harangue
arripieren(German, archaic) to seize
arriscado (m.), arriscada (f.)(Spanish) uneven (ground), craggy, cliffy, risky, dangerous
arrischiare(Italian) to risk
arrischiarsi(Italian) to dare
Arrischiato(Italian) risky, rash
Arrivage(French m.) consignment
Arrivant (m.), Arrivante (f.)(French) new arrival
arrivare(Italian) to arrive
arrivare a(Italian) to reach, to be reduced to
Arrivato(Italian m.) successful man
arrivato(Italian) successful
arrivé (m.), arrivée (f.)(French) successful, having made one's way, having established a position in the world
Arrivée(French f.) arrival
arrivederci(Italian) or a rivederci, goodbye
arrivederci a domani(Italian) see you tomorrow
arriver(French) to arrive, to come, to succeed, to happen
arriver à(French) to reach
arriver à faire(French) to manage to do
arrivieren(German) to arrive (achieve success)
arriviert(German) successful, established
Arrivierter (m.), Arrivierte (f.)(German) successful person
Arrivismo(Italian m.) social climbing
Arrivist(German m.) aimer
Arrivista(Italian m./f.) social climber
Arriviste(French m./f.) self-seeker, someone determined to succeed, someone on the make, a careerist
Arrivo(Italian m.) arrival
Arroba(Spanish) the 'at' sign (@)
(historically) unit of weight of about 14 kg (depending on region), unit of liquid measure of about 15 litres (depending on region)
arrobar(Spanish) to entrance (captivate)
arrobarse(Spanish) to be enraptured
Arrocero (m.), Arrocera (f.)(Spanish) rice grower
arrocero (m.), arrocera (f.)(Spanish) rice, rice-growing
arrodillarse(Spanish) to kneel (down)
Arrogancia(Spanish f.) arrogance, pride
arrogant(English, German) high and mighty, lordly, assumptive, conceited, supercilious, haughty, orgulous (archaic or literary: haughty), cocksure (pejorative), superior (haughty)
(German) arrogantly, haughtily
arrogant (m.), arrogante (f.)(French) arrogant, proud, haughty
arrogante(Italian, Spanish) arrogant, proud, haughty
arrogante Person(German f.) arrogant person
arroganter(German) more arrogant
arroganter Junge(German m.) arrogant boy
arroganter Kerl(German m.) arrogant fellow
arroganter Ton(German m.) arrogant tone
arroganterweise(German) snootily (colloquial), arrogantly
arrogantes Benehmen(German n.) arrogant manners
arrogante Sieger(German pl.) proud victors
arroganteste(German) most arrogant
arrogant sein(German) to be stuck-up (colloquial)
Arroganz(German f.) arrogance, conceit, lorliness (haughtiness), haughtiness
Arroganza(Italian f.) arrogance
arrogarse(Spanish) to assume
arrojado (m.), arrojada (f.)(Spanish) brave, bold, daring
arrojadizo (m.), arrojadiza (f.)(Spanish) easily thrown
arrojar(Spanish) to throw, to fling, to drop, to give off (emit), to spew out (lava), to belch out (smoke), to shed (light), to throw out, to produce (result), to show (result), to be sick (Latin America: vomit), to bring up (vomit), to throw up (vomit)
arrojarse(Spanish) to throw oneself, to fling oneself
arrojarse sobre ...(Spanish) to throw oneself onto ... (somebody/something), to pounce on ... (somebody/something)
Arrojo(Spanish m.) courage, daring
arrollador (m.), arrolladora (f.)(Spanish) overwhelming (victory, majority), devastating (attack, fire), overpowering (figurative: personality, eloquence), resounding (finale), captivating (personality)
arrollar(Spanish) to roll, to roll up, to run over, to crush, to overwhelm, to sweep away, to carry away, to have no respect for, to win easily (election)
Arroloor arrullo, a Spanish lullaby
arron.abbreviation of arrondissement (French: adminstrative district)
Arrondiin dance, term which is usually used for the execution of an arabesque with round arms instead of stretched ones
arrondir(French) to (make) round, to round off (a number)
Arrondissement(German n., from French m.) district, particularly one of the adminstrative subdivisions of Paris
arropar(Spanish) to wrap (...) up, to tuck (...) in, to protect (also figurative)
arroparse(Spanish) to wrap (oneself) up warm, to pull the covers up
Arrorroa Spanish lullaby
Arrosage(French m.) watering
arroser(French) to wash down (a meal), to celebrate with a drink, to baste (cooking)
Arrosoir(French m.) watering-can
arrossire(Italian) to blush
arrotolare(Italian) to roll up
arrotondare(Italian) to round, to round off (mathematics)
arrotondarsi(Italian) to become round, to become plump
arrovellarsi il cervello(Italian) to rack one's brains
arroventare(Italian) to make red-hot
arroventarsi(Italian) to become red-hot
Arrowroot(English, German n.) a nutritive starch obtained from the root of the arrowroot plant
Arroyo(Spanish m.) brook, stream, gutter, flood (also figurative: tears), pool (also figurative: blood), gully, dried-up bed of a stream, slow lane (Mexico)
Arroyuelo(Spanish m.) small stream
Arroz(Spanish m.) rice
Arrozal(Spanish m.) or campo de arroz (Spanish m.), rice field, paddy field
Arroz a la cubana(Spanish m.) rice with fried egg, plantain and tomato sauce
Arroz con leche(Spanish m.) rice pudding
Arroz integral(Spanish m.) brown rice
arruffare(Italian) to ruffle, to confuse
Arruga(Spanish f.) wrinkle (skin), line (face, etc.), crease (paper, fabric)
arrugar(Spanish) to wrinkle, to crumple (up), to srew up (paper), to crease, to knit (brow)
arrugarse(Spanish) to become wrinkled, to get wrinkled, to shrivel up, to go wrinkled, to crease, to get creased, to crumple
arrugginire(Italian) to rust
arrugginirsi(Italian) to go rusty
arrugginito(Italian) rusty
arrugó el entrecejo(Spanish) he frowned
arruinado (m.), arruinada (f.)(Spanish) bankrupt, ruined
arruinar(Spanish) to ruin, to destroy
arruinarse(Spanish) to be ruined (person), to fall into ruins (building)
arrullar(Spanish) to lull to sleep, to coo (doves)
arrullarse(Spanish) to bill and coo
Arrullo(Spanish m.) lullaby, cooing (doves)
see arrolo
Arrumaco(Spanish m.) caress, flattery
arrumbar(Spanish) to put aside
års-(Swedish) annual (suffix) [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
Arsakide(German m.) Arsacid (Arsaces I of Parthia, of the Arsacid Dynasty)
Arsamas(German n.) Arzamas (a city in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russia, located on the Tyosha River, a tributary of the Oka River)
Ars antiqua (Latin, German f.)
Ars nova (Latin, German f.)
Ars subtilor (Latin, German f.)
Ars vetus (Latin, German f.)
(English, German f., from the Latin) terms originating from the 12th- to 14th-centuries:
ars antiqua, ars vetus the older twelfth-century Paris style characterised by triple meter, a term used later in early fourteenth-century French theoretical writings specifically for music from the period c.1170 to c.1310 most of it by composers whose names we do not know. This period is sometimes divided into two rough periods, known as the early Gothic and the high Gothic. The early Gothic includes the French music composed in the Notre Dame school up until about 1260, and the high Gothic all the music between then and about 1310 or 1320, the conventional beginning of the ars nova. The forms of organum and conductus reached their peak development in the early Gothic, and began to decline in the high Gothic, being replaced by clausulae and motets. Conservative opinion, represented by Jacques of Liège, writing in his Speculum musicae (c.1320), mourned the loss of the ars antiqua calling it the musica modesta, while the ars nova, then also called ars modernorum, was a musica lasciva - a kind of music which he considered to be indulgent, capricious, immodest, and sensual
ars nova (literally 'new art') specifically the period 1310 to 1375, to include the newer, freer Florentine school (Italian Ars nova). The term was used in the 1319 treatise Ars nova by Philippe de Vitry (1291-1361). Ars nova flowered fully in the Italian madrigal of the following centuries characterised by duple and triple meter and some use of isorhythm. Strictly, the term Ars nova applies only to French music (French Ars nova) but is commonly used for all fourteenth-century music from the Roman de Fauvel onwards. In the writings of Marchettus de Padua, Pomerium de musica mensurata (1318), and Jean de Mauris, Ars Novae Musicae (1319), we find described respectively the Italian and French notational systems, the former short lived, the latter going on to form the basis of our modern notational system. The term Italian ars nova is sometimes applied to the music of of Francesco Landini or Landino (c.1325-1397) and his compatriots
ars subtilor a modern term applied to music from late fourteenth and early fifteenth century, limited in geographical distribution (southern France, Aragon and later Cyprus), and clearly intended for performance by specialists for an audience of connoisseurs, characterised by intricate rhythms and unusual harmonies. Many consider it to be a late development of ars nova rather than a distinct school of its own
Årsbok (Swedish) yearbook [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
ARSCabbreviation of 'Association for Recorded Sound Collections'
Ars canendi(Latin) the art of singing with truth, judgment and taste
Ars Cantus Mensurabilis (c.1260)written by a German theorist, Franco of Cologne (fl. mid-thirteenth century), Ars Cantus Mensurabilis was the first to describe a system of notation in which differently shaped notes have entirely different rhythmic values
Arschgeweih(German n.) lower back tattoo
ARSCMabbreviated for 'Associate of the Royal School of Church Music'
Ars dictaminis(Latin, the 'art of dictamen') in the medieval period, the art or discipline, rigorously codified, of composition employed by a professional secretary for writing formal prose drafted by kings, princes, popes, senior officials, etc. Among the earliest manuals of the dictamen is that of Alberico of Monte Cassino (1030-1100) (Albericus Cassinensis) entitled De dictamine
Ars dictandi(Latin) from the medieval period, the rules for the practice of writing, particularly documents other than letters
Arsen(German n.) arsenic (chemical element)
Arsenal (s.), Arsenale (German pl.)(English, German n.) arms depot, armoury
(Spanish m.) shipyard, naval dockyard, arms depot, armoury, store (figurative)
Arsenal de datos(Spanish m.) mine of information
arsenhaltig(German) containing arsenic, arsenical
Arsénico(Spanish m.) arsenic (chemical element)
arsenig(German) arsenic
arsenikhaltig(German) arsenic
Arsenvergiftung(German f.) arsenic poisoning
Ars est celare artem(Latin) true art is to conceal art
Ars gratia artis(Latin) art for art's sake, l'art pour l'art (French)
Arsi(Italian f.) weak beat
Arsin et thesin, per(Latin) a term applied in the writing of canon for imitation of a weak part (arsis) by a strong beat (thesis), and also for imitation by inversion. In fugal writing, the answer to the subject is made by contrary motion
Arsis (s.), Arses (pl.)(English, German f., from Greek, 'lifting') as in arsis and thesis, respectively 'unstressed upbeats' and 'stressed downbeats'. The terms originated in descriptions of Ancient Greek dance, where the arsis and thesis were respectively the raising and lowering of the dancer's foot
(Dutch) weak beat
up-stroke, when conducting or beating time
in classical metrical analysis, Greeks referred to the stressed syllable in a metrical foot as a thesis, and the unstressed syllable in a metrical foot as an arsis. Unfortunately, the Roman analysts used the exact opposite terminology, with the thesis being their unstressed foot and the arsis being the stressed foot
Ars longa, vita brevis(Latin) art (work) is long, but life is short
Ars musica(Latin) art and science of music
Ars novapolyphonic music of the later Middle Ages that displaced the earlier organum
see ars antiqua
Arspenger(Norwegian) subscription
Arsskrift(Norwegian) yearbook
Ars subtilora musical style characterized by rhythmic and notational complexity, centered around Avignon in southern France, at the end of the fourteenth century. Thus it was right at the dividing-line between the musical Middle Ages and Renaissance. Often the term is used in contrast with ars nova, which applies to the musical style of the preceding period from about 1310 to about 1370; though some scholars prefer to consider the ars subtilior a subcategory of the earlier style
Arstingen(Norwegian) subscription
Arsura(Italian f.) burning heat, dryness, parching thirst
Ars vetussee ars antiqua
Art(German f.) kidney (figurative), way (manner), nature, style, grade, class, character, mode, description, type, breed, variety, manner, species, fashion, sort, kind (type)
(English, French m.) in its broadest sense, all the processes and products of human skill, imagination and invention
Art-as a suffix, for example, 'art-pop', 'art-punk' and 'art-metal', is applied to various post-modern trends in popular music. The prefix 'art-' indicates a re-appropriation and subversion of the original (now mainstream) genre. The outcome is a genre which although appearing similar to the mainstream form has now become 'alternative'
art.abbreviation of 'article', 'artist', 'artificial'
Artangabe(German f.) adverb of manner (adverb that says how something happens or is done - examples include happily, angrily)
Artaschat(German n.) Artashat (a city on the Araks River in the Ararat valley)
Art autre(French m.) coined in a book published in 1952 by French writer and critic Michel Tapié to describe the kind of art many intellectuals and artists deemed appropriate to the turbulent mood of France immediately after World War II, for example, tachisme, or action painting, works of art in which pigment is spilled, poured or smeared on to the picture-surface
Art balladtwo types of ballads often studied in literature courses are literary ballads and folk ballads. A literary ballad (also known as 'art ballad') is a poem written in imitation of the folk ballad form; the author is most often a known professional poet. Some examples are John Keats's La Belle Dame sans Merci and Samuel Taylor Coleridge's Rime of the Ancient Mariner. A folk ballad is "a short, traditional, impersonal narrative told in song, transmitted orally from generation to generation, marked by its own peculiar structure and rhetoric, and uninfluenced by literary conventions" (Holman, A Handbook to Literature)
in music, a term synonymous with 'vocal Ballade', a work for voice and piano with a text derived from English ballads. The most prolific writer of 'vocal Ballade' is Carl Loewe (1796-1869) who published fifteen volumes of Balladen
artbetonend in seiner Reinheit(German) a style classic in its purity
Artboardor mechanical art, a term used in printing for completely camera-ready artwork including typesetting and reproduction proofs of type or hand lettering supplied by the customer
Art brut(French m.) primitive or pseudo-primitive art, a term coined by Jean Dubuffet in about 1945. The term 'outsider art' was coined by art critic Roger Cardinal in 1972 as an English synonym for art brut
Art déco(English, German m./n., from French m.) or Art Deco, decorative art style of the period 1910-30. Its basic elements could be seen in work dating back to 1910, but it wasn't until the Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs Industriels et Modernes held in Paris in 1925 that it received international attention. Afterwards this style began to be widely implemented especially in architecture. Its projection of luxury and affluence made it popular with a population emerging from the austere years of and immediately following World War One. Though influenced by modern art movements, its designs were often based on classical motifs borrowed from ancient Egypt, Persia, and Native Americans, that were then reduced to highly stylised geometries. The style utilised strong symmetrical and very flat ornamentation such as sharp zigzags, rounded corners, stripes and simple sweeping curves. The term Art Deco was never used while the style was in fashion. Among its many descriptions it was most often referred to as Style Moderne. The British art critic Bevis Hillier coined the term Art Deco during its 1960s revival
Art-Deco-(German) art deco (prefix)
Art-Deco-Distrikt(German m.) art deco district
Art-Deco-Stil(German m.) art deco (style)
Art de l'archet(French m.) art of bowing
Art der Anfrage(German f.) nature of an inquiry
Art der Berechnung(German f.) mode of calculation
Art der beruflichen Tätigkeit(German f.) kind of occupation
Art der Bezahlung(German f.) payment type
Art der Fertigung(German f.) type of production
Art der Geschäftsführung(German f.) manner of conducting business
Art der gewünschten Ware(German f.) kind of goods required
Art der Lautbildung(German f.) manner of articulation
Art der Lebensversicherung(German f.) type of assurance
Art der Nutzung(German f.) type of use
Art der Tätigkeit(German f.) kind of activity, type of work, type of job, type of activity, kind of work, kind of job
Art der Verehrung(German f.) form of worship
Art der Vereinbarung(German f.) type of agreement
Art der Vergütung(German f.) method of reimbursement
Art der verlangten Versicherung(German f.) type of insurance required
Art der Verrechnung(German f.) method of settlement
Art der Ware(German f.) kind of merchandise, kind of good, nature of the goods
Art des Artikels(German f.) type of product
Art des Einkommens(German f.) kind of income
Art des Gegebenseins(German f.) mode of presentation
Art des Geschäfts(German f.) nature of transaction, nature of the business, kind of business, type of business
Art des Problems(German f.) nature of a problem
Art des Schadens(German f.) type of loss
Art des Unternehmens(German f.) type of enterprise, kind of business
Art des Vertrags(German f.) type of contract
Art des Wertpapiers(German f.) kind of security
Art Director(German m.) art director
Art du chant(French m.) art of singing
Art du décor(French m.) scenography
Arte (s.), Artes (pl.)(Portuguese, Spanish m., Italian f.) art, craftsmanship, artistry, skill, cunning, tricks (plural form)
in Spanish, arte is masculine (m.) when singular, feminine (f.) when plural
el arte por el arte (Spanish: art for art's sake)
Arte aborigen australiano(Spanish m.) Australian aboriginal art
Arte dei Rumori, L'see 'Art of Noises, The'
Arte de la conversación, el(Spanish) the art of conversation
Arte del canto(Italian f.) art of singing, the vocal art
Arte dramático(Spanish) the art of acting (drama)
estudio arte dramático (Spanish: I am studying to be an actor)
Artefacta man-made object, especially a tool or vessel reclaimed from an archeological investigation
Artefacto(Spanish m.) device, artifact
Artefactos de baño(Spanish m. - parts of South America) bathroom fixtures (pl), sanitary ware
Artefakt(German n.) artefact
artefatto(Italian) fake
Artefice(Italian m./f.) craftsman, craftswoman, author (figurative)
arteigen(German) species-specific
Artel(English, German n., from Russian) Arbeitergenossenschaft (German f.), a cooperative of workers
Artemis(English, German f.) Greek god of marriage, chastity, hunting, and moonlight, twin sister of Apollo, daughter of Zeus and Leto
Artenanzahl(German f.) number of species
artenarm(German) species-poor
Artenbildung(German f.) speciation
Artendiversität(German f.) species diversity
Art engagé(French m.) artistic activities undertaken with a political or sociological purpose, following the ideas of Theodor Adorno who argued that there is no un-political art, for there is no outside of society
artenreich(German) rich in species, species-rich
Artenschutz(German m.) species conservation, protection of species
Artenschutzabkommen(German n.) Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), wildlife conservation programme
Artenschwund(German m.) species loss
artenspezifisch(German) species-specific
Artensterben(German n.) species extinction
Artenvielfalt(German f.) diversity of species, variety of species, biological diversity, biodiversity
Artenzahl(German f.) number of species
Arte Povera(Italian, literally 'impoverished art' or 'poor art') a term introduced by Germano Celant as a label for a small group of artists who were experimenting with nontraditional and politically charged art, and in particular modes of expression such as ephemeral art, performance art, installation art and assemblage. These techniques have since become extremely common tools in contemporary art; in fact this is one of the reasons that such a small and short-lived movement continues to have such relevance today. One of the clearest influences on the group is Marcel Duchamp, who could be considered the founder of 'conceptual art'
arteramente(Spanish) artfully
Alterationin printing, those changes in copy or specifications after production has begun, and for which the client is most likely to be charged extra
arterhaltend(German) species-preserving
Arterhaltung(German f.) conservation of the species
Arteria(Spanish f.) artery, main road (also figurative), highway
Artería(Spanish f.) cunning
Arterialof or pertaining to an artery
arterial(Spanish) arterial
Arterie (s.), Arterien (pl.) (German f.) artery (blood vessel)
arteriell(German) arterial, arterially
Arterienerweiterung(German f.) aneurysm
arterienverkalkend(German) arteriosclerotic
Arterienverkalkung(German f.) arteriosclerosis
Arterienverstopfung(German f.) artery blockage
Arteriografie(German f.) arteriography
arteriografisch(German) arteriographic, arteriographically, arteriographical
Arteriograman x-ray of the arteries and veins to detect blockage or narrowing of the vessels
Arteriogramm(German n.) arteriogram
Arteriographie(German f.) arteriography
arteriographisch(German) arteriographic, arteriographical, arteriographically
Arteriographyan x-ray opaque dye injected into the blood stream to study arteries (usually coronary) for damage
Arteriole(English, German f.) a tiny artery, especially a terminal artery continuous with the capillary network
Arteriosclerosisloss of elasticity and thickening of artery walls, especially in old age
Arteriosklerose(German f.) arteriosclerosis
Arteriosklerose von Hirngefäßen(German f.) cerebrosclerosis
arteriosklerotisch(German) arteriosclerotic
arteriovenös(German) arteriovenous
artero(Spanish) cunning
Artesa(Spanish f.) trough
artesanal(Spanish) (hand-)crafted, produced by traditional methods, home-made (depending on context), handmade
Artesanía (s.), Artesanías (pl.)(Spanish f.) handicrafts (either singular or plural form), craftwork (either singular or plural form), crafts (either singular or plural form)
una artesanía (Spanish: a piece of craftwork)
Artesano (m.), Artesana (f.)(Spanish) artisan, craftsman (m.), craftswoman (f.)
artesano (m.), artesana (f.)(Spanish) handmade
Artes de pesca(Spanish fishing equipment
Artes dicendi(Latin) grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic
Artes gráficas(Spanish graphic arts
Artesian wella well tapping a confined aquifer (water in the well rises above the top of the aquifer under artesian pressure, but does not necessarily reach the surface)
artesisch(German) artesian
artesischer Brunnen(German m.) artesian well
Artesonado(Spanish m.) coffered ceiling
Artes visuales(Spanish visual arts
Art for art's sakethe phrase "art for art's sake" expresses both a battle cry and a creed; it is an appeal to emotion as well as to mind. Time after time, when artists have felt themselves threatened from one direction or another, and have had to justify themselves and their activities, they have done this by insisting that art serves no ulterior purposes but is purely an end in itself. When asked what art is good for, in the sense of what utility it has, they have replied that art is not something to be used as a means to something else, but simply to be accepted and enjoyed on its own terms
artfremd(German) foreign to the species
Artfulcrafty, deceitful
Artgenosse (s.), Artgenossin (f.), Artgenossen (pl.)(German) conspecific, member of the same species
artgerecht(German) species-appropriate
artgerechte Tierhaltung(German f.) species-appropriate husbandry
artgleich(German) of the same type, homogeneous, of the same species
Arthausfilm(German m.) art house (film genre)
Arthousemotion picture theatre that shows foreign or non-mainstream independent films
Arthralgianeuralgic pain in a joint or joints
Arthralgie(German f.) arthralgia
Arthrektomie(German f.) arthrectomy
Arthrectomyoperation to remove joint, a surgical operation to remove a joint
Arthrite(French f.) arthritis
Arthriticto have an inflammed joint or inflammed joints
Arthritiden(German pl.) arthritides (plural of arthritis - there are over 100 different types of arthritis)
Arthritiker (m.), Arthritikerin (f.)(German) arthritic, person suffering from arthritis
Arthritis(English, German f.) inflammation of a joint or of joints
arthritisch(German) arthritic
Arthrocentesisremoving synovial fluid from a joint
Arthrodese(German f.) arthrodesis
Arthrodesissurgical fusion of a joint (the joint becomes stiff after the surfaces of the joint are removed and the bone ends are united)
Arthrografie(German f.) arthrography
arthrografisch(German) arthrographical, arthrographically, arthrographic
ArthrogramX-ray technique for joints using air and/or dye injected into the affected area
Arthrogramm(German n.) arthrogram
Arthrographie(German f.) arthrography
arthrographisch(German) arthrographical, arthrographically, arthrographic
Arthrographya test in which dye is injected into a joint in order to better visualize it on an x-ray
Arthropathie(German f.) arthropathy
Arthropathy(German) general term for joint disorder
Arthrose(French f.) arthrosis, osteoarthritis
Arthrosisa disorder of a joint
Arthroskopie(German f.) keyhole surgery, arthroscopy
arthroskopisch(German) arthroscopic
Arthrozentese(German f.) arthrocentesis
Arthurianrelated to the legends of King Arthur and his knights
Arti(German) Arte Deco
Article(English, French m.) item
(English, French m.) a non-fictional essay written by a journalist
Article de fond(French m.) feature article
Articles d'ameublement(French furnishings
Articles de voyage(French items required for a journey
artico(Italian) arctic
Ártico(Spanish m.) Arctic (region or ocean, preceded by el)
el Ártico (Spanish: the Arctic)
el océano Ártico (Spanish: the Arctic Ocean)
ártico (m.), ártica (f.)(Spanish) Arctic
articolando(Italian) articulating, artikulierend (German), en articulant (French)
articolare(Italian) articulate, pronounce distinctly
in singing, to articulate each note distinctly
to joint, to link
articolato(Italian) articulated, plain, distinct, clearly enunciated, artikuliert (German), articulé (French)
Articolazione(Italian f.) articulation, distinct pronunciation, utterance
(Italian f.) joint, knuckle
Articolo(Italian m.) article, subject, matter, section, clause, point, item, entry, material, requisite, wares (i.e. goods)
Articolo di fondo(Italian m.) leader (in a newspaper), leading article
Articulación(Spanish f.) joint, organisation, coordination, articulation (pronunciation)
articuladamente(Spanish) articulately
articulado (m.), articulada (f.)(Spanish) articulated, jointed
articular(Spanish) to articulate
Articulateslight separation made between successive notes
a technique is characteristic of early organ music up to Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) and George Frideric Handel (1685-1759)
a type of organ stop that has a clear attack point or chiff
Articulated legatosynonymous with portato, noted as a series of notes bearing staccato dots under a slur
Articulatie(Dutch) articulation
Articulatingarticolando (Italian), artikulierend (German), en articulant (French)
expressing (clearly or fluently) in speech, speaking
Articulation(English, French f.) speaking, being spoken, speech, joint (anatomy), (in dentistry) the relationship of cusps of teeth during jaw movement
when considering speech, articulation is said to be good then speech is clear and coherent. Poor articulation is often associated with mispronunciation or a tendency to mumble
(English, French f.) in music, the way notes are joined to one another when forming a musical line, e.g. staccato, legato, tenuto, glissando, slur, phrase mark, accents, sforzandos, rinforzandos, etc.
woodwind articulation:
legato usually marked by a slur, the first note only will be tongued and the remainder of the phrase in play under a continuous stream of breath
soft or tongued legato every note is lightly tongued, with a softer syllable (du instead of tu)
staccato notes played half their written length, every note started and stopped by the tongue
double tonguing fast alternating syllables, usually tu and ku
triple tonguing like double tonguing but alternating tu, ku and tu
flutter tongue a vibration of the tongue, as if rolling the syllable rrrr
vocalisation an extended technique where the performer 'hums' a note at the same time as he or she plays on the instrument
Irish whistle/pipe ornamentation/articulation:
tonguing rarely any note but the first is tongued, when a player briefly touches his or her tongue to the front of the roof of their mouth, creating a percussive attack
cut the brief lifting of a finger when playing a new note, but without interrupting the air flow, the resultant brief change in pitch providing an accent
roll a combination of cut and strike
strike or tap like a cut only a finger is briefly lowered
slide similar to a portamento, where the player plays a note above or below that intended and then shifts the pitch gradually up the the note intended
plucked string articulation:
pick articulation 'push' (down stroke) and 'pull' (up stroke)
slurring 'hammer on' and 'hammer off'
glissandi or slides most common on slide- or fretless guitars
bowed string articulation:
on-the-string bowings
detaché separate bows for each note but notes played seamlessly. This type of bowing is used when there are no slur markings over the notes
legato player plays smoothly according to bowings indicated by the slur marks
martelé (French)
martellato (Italian)
notes are played with accented force, literally "hammered"
marcato (Italian)heavy, separate strokes with a pressed accent played near the heel
louré (French)
portato (Italian)
piqué (French)
bow motion is legato, but with slight separation of the notes. It is performed with several notes in one bow direction, each note receiving a gentle "push" to separate it
staccato (each note is separated)
separate bow : notes are played separated and with separate bows for each note
slurred : consecutive notes are played separated, but with one bow direction
off-the-string bowings
spiccato (Italian)
saltando (Italian)
deliberate : usually in slow passages, player bounces the bow in a deliberate manner to give an interesting effect
spontaneous (sautillé) : the speed of the passage causes the player to instinctively create a bouncing motion with the bow; sometimes described as "an uncontrolled spiccato"
slurred spiccato (staccato volante, flying staccato) : similar to slurred staccato except that the bow bounces on the string to create the separation of the pitches; instead of reversing direction for each note as in ordinary spiccato, the bow picks up a series of short notes, usually on an up-bow
jeté (French)
ricochet (French)
volante (Italian)
the bouncing motion of the bow creates 2 to 6 or even more rapid notes. This is usually with a downward bow motion, but up-bows are occasionally used as well. The cello and double bass can only execute about 3 consecutive notes, maybe 4, because of the shorter bow that is used
conga drum articulation:
open tone played with the four fingers near the border of the drum head, producing a clear sound
muffled tone like the open tone, is made by striking the drum with the four fingers, but holding the fingers against the head to muffle the tone
bass tone played with the full palm on the head, producing a low muted sound
slap most difficult technique producing a loud clear "popping" sound
touch as implied by the name, this tone is produced by just touching the fingers or heel of the palm to the drum head
in singing, the enunciation of the words in order to convey them clearly to the audience, over and above the shaped musical line:
general commentvarious things affect the articulation of singers, the primary culprits being tension and natural physical problems. Tension affects every vocal performance. The vocal cords, which are muscles, and the muscles of the jaw, lips, inner mouth etc. tighten resulting in poor tonal quality and articulation. Certain speech habits also affect articulation. One common problem involves singers dropping or not emphasising certain letters at the end of certain lines. They may, for example, not emphasise a "V" when singing the word "love" or the "T" sound on the word "didn't." These are only two of thousands of possibilities. Another articulation problem may be substituting an "H" in words with soft vowel sounds - for example, the word "you" will become "you hoo hoo," or the word "me" may become "me hee hee," or the "fly" becomes "fly hi hi." There may be a physical problem which would cause poor articulation as well. A lisp is a major problem for a singer, especially in the recording studio where sensitive microphones pick up every nuance
[entry taken from Taking Care of Your Voice - The Most Common Problems Of Singers]
accompanied vocal musicthere needs to be greater emphasis on consonants so that words are understandable to the audience over the accompanying instrumental background
a cappella singingbecause there is nothing to sustain the momentum of the sound and the message of the song when a major break occurs, if a cappella singers over-articulate, the consonants will stop the tone flow completely and there are "white spaces". For this reason a cappella singers place their consonants over an underlying 'continuous tone flow'. Although most consonants cannot be produced on a pitch, there are a few that can, such as M, N, L and V. These are called voiced or singable consonants. It is important in a cappella articulation to sing through the voiced consonants. These singable consonants also affect pitch; the vowel that follows will always be flat if the preceding singable consonant is under pitch. For this reason consonants must be thought on the same pitch as the vowel they precede, to prevent the tonal attack from being scooped or flat; consonants should be articulated distinctly, freely and flexibly, rapidly, and as naturally and plainly as in dramatic speech; the proper sound of each consonant must be articulated (do not substitute one for another); make vowels long, consonants short (do not shorten the complete rhythmic length of the vowel by anticipating the ending consonant)
[entry extracted from Articulation: Creating Words that Communicate]
Articulation markssee Musical symbols
see Phrasing and articulation
Articulatorsstructures in the mouth area, such as the tongue and lips, employed when making the sounds of speech
Articulatory phoneticssee 'phonetics'
Articulatory ratethe speed at which syllables are spoken, measured by subtracting time taken by pauses from overall speech rate
Articulatory silencethe silence between two notes played in a non-legato or detached manner
Articulazione(Italian) articulation
articulé(French) well articulated
articuler(French) to articulate, to pronounce distinctly
articulieren(German) to articulate, to pronounce distinctly
articuliren(German, older spelling) to articulate, to pronounce distinctly
Articulista(Spanish m./f.) columnist (writer in newspapers, journals, etc.), feature writer (in a newspaper, etc.)
Artículo (s.), Articulos (pl.)(Spanish m.) article (also linguistics), goods (plural form)
Artículo de exportación(Spanish m.) item for export, export commodity
Artículo de fondo(Spanish m.) editorial, leader (newspaper, etc.), leading article
Artículo de primera necesidad(Spanish m.) essential item, essential
Artículos de consumo(Spanish goods
Artículos de escritorio(Spanish
Artículos del hogar(Spanish goods
Artículos de punto(Spanish knitwear
Artículos de tocador(Spanish
Artículos muy ácidos(Spanish very harsh articles (writing)
Artiere(Italian m.) craftsman, artisan
Artifactalternative spelling of 'artefact'
see 'sonci artifact'
Artificeclever device, cunning, skill, ingenuity
(French m.) contrivance
Artífice(Spanish m./f.) craftsman (m.), craftswoman (f.), artisan, person responsible, author (figurative), architect (figurative)
fue el artífice del secuestro (Spanish: he planned the kidnapping)
el artífice de esta victoria (Spanish: the architect of this victory
Artificial(English, Spanish) not natural, imitating nature, affected, insincere, man-made (textile), synthetic (textile)
artificiale(Italian) artificial
Artificial harmonics on a stringed instrument, when as the string is stopped normally (which stopping will be shown with a standard notehead sign), the little finger then touches lightly at a point above the stopped note (which will be shown with a diamond-shaped notehead). If the sounding note is also to be indicated it will be placed above the other two signs, in cue size and in parentheses. Such notes are known as 'flageolet tones' and flag. may be written over the note when this effect is required. It is possible to add vibrato and to play melodic lines in artificial harmonics, but both techniques should be used with care
position of little finger pitch of 'flageolet tone' produced
5th above stop one octaves + a 5th above the written note
4th above stop two octaves above the written note
maj 3rd above stop two octaves + a maj 3rd above the written note
min 3rd above stop two octaves + a 5th above the written note
there is a lack of consistency in the use of the terms 'natural harmonics' and 'artifical harmonics'. Many writers distinguish between the harmonics present in any note, the contribution of which gives a note its particular character (which they call 'natural' because to some degree they are a feature of any note and are therefore part of the 'nature of the note'), and those which have to be produced by the intervention of the performer (for example, by the careful placing of a finger on a vibrating string, in order to stiffle particular harmonics while allowing the presence of others, thereby causing a change in the pitch of the resultant note), which they term 'artificial' because the string is no longer vibrating in its natural modes. Other writers make no distinction and use both terms synonymously.
Artificial intelligencethe use of computers to undertake tasks usually thought of as requiring human intelligence
Artificial languagenot to be confused with what linguists call grammatically synthetic (inflected) languages, artificial languages are deliberately "made up" by a small number of individuals for some specific purpose rather than developing naturally over a period of centuries
artificiellement(French) artificially
artificial(English, Spanish) artificial, contrived
Artificiero (m.), Artificiera (f.)(Spanish) bomb-disposal expert
Artificio(Spanish m., Italian m.) skill, device, trick, artful device, affectation, ruse
artificio(Italian) artifice
artificioso(Italian, Spanish) artful, clever (astute), cunning, crafty
artifiziell(German) artificial, artificially
artig(German) well behaved, polite (dated), politely (dated), agreeable (dated), good, bravely, well-behaved
artiger Junge(German m.) nice boy
Artigianato(Italian m.) craftsmanship
Artigiano (m.), Artigiana (f.)(Italian) craftsman, craftswoman, artisan, workman, operative, originator (figurative), architect
Artigkeit(German f.) prettiness, civility, politeness (dated)
artiglich(German, archaic) gracefully, neatly, prettily
Artiglio(Italian m.) claw, clutch (figurative)
Artikel (s./pl.)(German m.) article, gender, product, line, item
Artikelanzahl(German f.) quantity (number) of items or articles
Artikelart(German f.) article type
Artikel aus Gussmetall(German f.) article of cast metal
Artikel aus Holz(German f.) article made of wood
Artikel aus Schmiedeeisen(German f.) article of wrought iron
Artikel aus zweiter Wahl(German pl.) seconds (slightly imperfect goods)
Artikelbezeichnung(German f.) article description, item description
Artikelcharakter(German m.) article character
Artikeldeklination(German f.) declension of articles
Artikel der gut gestaltet ist(German m.) article that is well designed
Artikel der sich bestens verkauft(German m.) best-selling line
Artikel, die an ein Ereignis erinnern(German pl.) commemorative merchandise
Artikel für den gehobenen Bedarf(German pl.) luxury goods
Artikel für eine Zeitung(German m.) contribution to a newspaper
Artikelgruppe(German f.) category of goods
Artikel in täglicher Benutzung(German m.) article in everyday use
Artikelliste(German f.) scroll of articles
Artikel mit beschränkter Nachfrage(German m.) article in limited demand
Artikel mit großer Nachfrage(German m.) article in great demand
Artikelnummer(German f.) order number, item number, part number, type number
Artikelreihe (s.), Artikelreihen (pl.)(German f.) series of articles
Artikelschreiber(German pl.) contributors to a magazine
Artikelserie(German f.) line of goods, series of articles (on a common theme)
Artikelstamm(German m.) stocklist, stock list
Artikel und Bedingungen(German pl.) articles and conditions
Artikel von ausländischer Herstellung(German m.) article of foreign manufacture
Artikel von hohem Wert(German m.) article of great value
Artikelwort(German n.) determinant
Artikel zum gleichen Preis(German pl.) articles all at the same price
Artikel zum persönlichen Bedarf(German m.) article for personal use
Artikel zum täglichen Bedarf(German m.) article for everyday use, utility article, article for daily use
Artikel zur Beleihung(German m.) article for pawning
artikular(German) articular
Artikulation(German f.) enunciation, articulation
Artikulationsart(German f.) manner of articulation, point of articulation, place of articulation
Artikulationspause(German f.) articulatory silence
Artikulationsstelle(German f.) point of articulation, place of articulation
Artikulationszeichen(German n.) articulation mark
Artikulator(German m.) articulator
artikulatorisch(German) articulatory, enuncatory
artikulatorische Phonetik(German f.) articulatory phonetics
Artikulieren(German n.) articulation, enunciation
artikulieren(German) to articulate, to pronounce distinctly, to enunciate
artikulierend(German) articolando (Italian), articulating, en articulant (French)
artikuliert(German) well articulated, articulates, articulated, enunciated
artikulierte(German) articulated, enunciated
Artikulierung(German f.) articulation, enunciation
artikuliren(older German) to articulate, to pronounce distinctly, to enunciate
in modern German, artikulieren
[clarification by Michael Zapf]
Artillería(Spanish f.) artillery
Artillería antiaérea(Spanish f.) anti-aircraft guns
Artillerie(German f.) cannonry, ordnance, artillery
Artilleriefeuer(German n.) artillery barrage, gunfire, artillery fire
Artillerieoffizier(German m.) artillery officer
Artilleriezielaufklärung(German f.) artillery target reconnaissance
Artillerist (s.), Artilleristen (pl.)(German m.) bombardier (archaic), artilleryman, gunner
artilleristisch(German) artilleristic
Artillero(Spanish m.) artilleryman, gunner
Artilugio (s.), Artilugios (pl.)(Spanish m.) gadget, device, contraption, equipment (plural form)
Artimaña(Spanish f.) trap (ruse), trick, ruse
Artindia funai(South America) Amazonian notched flute with three holes
Artisan(English, French m.) skilled manual worker, craftsman
artisanal (s.), artisanaux (pl.)(French) made by craftsmen, the product of craftsmanship, home-made
Artisanat(French m.) craft, artisans (as a class)
Artisan de, l'(French) the architect of (figurative: the person who makes something happen)
Artischocke (s.), Artischocken (pl.)(German f.) artichoke, globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus)
Artischockenherzen(German pl.) artichoke hearts
Artischockensuppe(German f.) artichoke soup
Artistthe Oxford English Dictionary definition of "artist" includes the words "one who makes his craft a fine art". The distinction between craftsmen and artists is applicable to musicians and dancers; for the expert craftsman of the art of performance may not have the intellectual approach by which to transform his craft into fine art, nor may he be interested in so doing. There is a vast difference between the performer who treats technique as an end in itself, and one who uses his or her technical equipment, such as it may be, with artistry: for example, the dancer who controls her movements to make them uniformly soft, or clear and precise throughout, or to give each step its own different character: or the musician who uses phrasing to underline the dramatic character of the music. There are infinite ways in which musicians and dancers can show artistry, and when labelling a performer "a great artist" some qualification of the statement is necessary
Artist (m.), Artistin (f.), Artisen (pl.)(German) (circus) artiste, singer/dancer
Artista(Italian m./f., Spanish m./f.) artist, artiste, performer, actor (m.), actress (f.)
Artista de cine(Spanish m./f.) movie star, film star
Artist and repertoireor 'A & R', the record label department in charge of finding, developing, and signing new bands or artists
Artiste(English) a public, usually professional performer, the term being applied particularly to singers or dancers
(French m./f.) artist, performer
Artiste lyrique(French m./f.) opera singer
artisticamente(Spanish) artistically
artistico(Italian) artistic
artístico (m.), artística (f.)(Spanish) artistic
artistisch(German) artistic, artistically
Artist-scribea craftsman who has both transcribed and illustrated manuscripts
Artium baccalaureus(Latin) Bachelor of Arts, BA
Artium magister(Latin) Master of Arts, MA
Artjom(German n.) Artyom (a town in Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated in the northern part of the Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula)
Artkonstanz(German f.) fixity of species
Artlessguileless, ingenuous, natural, clumsy
artmäßig(German) generic
Art moderne(French m.) modern art, a term that is applied generally to works of the avante-garde
Art nouveau(German n, from French m., literally 'new art') a major decorative art movement centered in Europe at the turn of the 20th century. While the term Art Nouveau was first associated with the symbolist-influenced Belgian artists of Les XX in 1884, the name Art Nouveau as a decorative style was derived from the name of a Parisian shop, Maison de l'art nouveau, which promoted this type of work. As the movement spread it became known as Jugendstil in Germany, Sezessionstil in Austria, and Modernismo in Spain. Its progressive designs were first glimmered in the 1880s rising out from the English Arts & Crafts movement. It came about as a reaction against years of historical and moral emphasis on art. After its exposure at the Universal Exposition of 1900 in Paris, and the 1902 Exposition in Turin, Italy, its popularity quickly grew. Though heavily influenced by Japonisme, the English Pre-Raphaelites, and Symbolist painters, Art Nouveau was more consistent in style. It emphasised dynamic and flowing curves inspired by the natural forms in nature from such unconventional items as insects and seaweed. The style was richly ornamental and asymmetrical. This imbued many of the objects that carried this design with a living growing presence. It was widely used in design on everything from jewellery to furniture to glassware. It was also applied to architecture where it often incorporated modern technology, producing wildly cast iron and glass. Art Nouveau was too closely associated with the ideals and class that carried the world into a disastrous war, and the style faded away as the new forms of decorative modernism took its place
Arto(Italian m.) limb, joint, member (anatomy)
Art of FugueDie Kunst der Fuge BWV 1080 (c.1745-1750) is Bach's final systematic collection of fugues and canons. It has been preserved in two versions, the second (printed after Bach's death) containing revisions and additions by the composer. The enlarged version comprises four simple fugues, two regular subject, and two inverted subject (all for four voices); three counter fugues (all for four voices), in which the subject is paired with an inverted answer; two double fugues (both for four voices); two triple fugues (one for three voices, one for four); four canons (all for tw voices); three mirror fugues (one for three voices, two for four), each illustrating both melodic and contrapuntal inversions; and an incomplete quadruple fugue (in which the third subject is the BACH motive, but which is missing its final section, which undoubtedly would have combined the various themes from the surviving sections). Each fugue (actually called a contrapunctus by Bach) uses the same subject, or a variation of that subject. Bach was fascinated with the number 14 as the sum of the ordinal values of the letters of his name (B+A+C+H)
Art of Noise, Thein 1913, Luigi Russolo, avowed Futurist, wrote L'Arte dei Rumori (The Art of Noise), a manifesto declaring that noise would revolutionize the concert hall. He said, "All this will naturally make music-lovers scream ..."
Artothek(German f.) picture-lending library (paintings)
art pompier, L'see 'Pompier art'
Art-Pop, Art-Punk, and Art-Metalthese terms combined represent an inevitable post-modern trend in popular music. The prefix "Art-" indicates a re-appropriation and subversion of the original (now mainstream) genre. The outcome is a genre which although appearing similar to the mainstream form has now become "alternative"
art. pf.abbreviation of 'artist's proof'
Artrite(Italian f.) arthritis
artritico (m.), artritica (f.)(Italian) arthritic
Artritis(Spanish f.) arthritis
Artritis reumatoide(Spanish f.) rheumatoid arthritis
Artrock(German m.) art rock
Art rocka sub-genre of rock music that is characterized by ambitious lyrical themes and melodic, harmonic, or rhythmic experimentation, often extending beyond standard pop song forms and toward influences in jazz, classical, or the avant-garde
  • Art rock from which this extract has been taken
Artrosis(Spanish f.) degenerative osteoarthritis
Arts & Crafts Movement, the less often written 'Arts and Crafts Movement', the Arts & Crafts Movement developed in nineteenth-century Britain as a rebellion against the fashion for inventive sham and over-elaborate design and as an attempt to reverse the growing dehumanisation of work in society. It borrowed heavily from pre-industrialized times, especially from Medieval, Islamic, and Japanese design. Botanical subjects were the most popular motif often yielding designs that were multifaceted yet incorporated a simple elegance. In the face of declining rural handicrafts and a rising industrial society, John Ruskin and other writers began to call for changes. They believed a moral society depended on the skilled workers that produced creative products, not soulless objects from a machine. Young London-based architects were inspired by the ideas of John Ruskin and William Morris. They founded the Art Workers' Guild in 1884 to break down barriers between architects, artists, designers and makers. The term 'Arts & Crafts' was first used at the suggestion of the bookbinder T J Cobden-Sanderson for its offshoot, the Arts & Crafts Exhibition Society, set up in 1888. The United States imported many of these ideas from Britain forming an American craft movement centred in Northern California and New York State. Native design such as the Shaker Style gave the work produced in America a simpler cleaner look. The works of the Stickley Style, Bungalow Style, Prairie Style, and Shingle Style all fall within the American Arts & Crafts Movement. While in Europe this design style evolved toward Art Nouveau, the many looks of Arts & Crafts in the United States held on to their popularity and largely remained unchanged. The style continues to be influential today. Design movements expressing similar ideas also rose independently at the same time in Russia
Arts et métiers(French m. pl.) arts and crafts
Art sich auszudrücken(German f.) way of expressing
Arts ménagers(French m. pl.) domestic science
Art songdesigned to stand alone and written for the concert hall, rather than a traditional or folk song, art song is usually sung by a solo voice with accompaniment
in German, Lied (s.), Lieder (pl.)
[entry corrected by Michael Zapf]
in French, chanson
artspezifisch(German) species-specific, typal
Artspezifität(German f.) species specificity
Art trouvé(French m.) art that is not a direct creation of the artist but is adapted from something found (for example, a naturally occuring object)
arttypisch(German) generic
Art und Weise(German f.) mode, style, kind, wise, manner, way of doing something, way, fashion, method
artverwandt(German) congeneric
Artverwandter(German m.) congener
Art vocal(French m.) art of singing
Art von(German f.) form of, kind of, type of, make of, sort of
Art von Dienstleistung(German f.) kind of service
Art von Diskriminierung(German f.) form of discrimination
Art von Frage(German f.) kind of question
Art von Information(German f.) kind of information
Art von Intervention(German f.) form of intervention
Art von Leuten(German f.) kind of people
Art von Material(German f.) kind of material
Art von Musik(German f.) kind of music
Art von Protest(German f.) form of protest
Art von Rache(German f.) form of revenge
Art von Risiko(German f.) kind of risk
Art von Sandstein(German f.) variety of sandstone
Art von Selbstschutz(German f.) form of self-protection
Art von Therapie(German f.) form of therapy
Art von Unterhaltung(German f.) form of entertainment
Art von Wagen(German f.) kind of car
Art von Ware(German f.) kind of goods
Art von Weizen(German f.) strain of wheat
Art von Werbung(German f.) kind of advertising
Art von Wiederverwertung(German f.) form of recycling
Art von Zimmermann(German f.) sort of carpenter
Artworktext, graphic and illustrations arranged individually or in any combination for subsequent printing. Artwork may conventionally be drawn in black and white on suitable artpaper or board; or may be computer-originated, in which case it may be supplied as digitised data on a floppy disk or other means of electronic data. Artwork may also be in the form of a full-colour drawing or picture which requires specialist reprographic colour separation. This enables the separation to be printed in the four basic printing process colours (cyan, magenta, yellow and black)
Art zu arbeiten(German f.) way of working
Art zu denken(German f.) way of thinking
Art zu gehen(German f.) way of walking
Art zu reden(German f.) manner of speaking
Aruba(English, German n.) an island of the Netherlands Antilles north of the Venezuela coast
Arubaner(German pl.) Arubans
Arundo donax(Latin) Arundo bifaria, Arundo donax var. versicolor, Arundo glauca, Arundo latifolia, Arundo sativa, Arundo versicolor, Cynodon donax, Donax arundinaceus, Donax donax, Scolochloa arundinacea, Scolochloa donax, bamboo reed, baranal (Hindi), bansi (Punjabi), caña (Portuguese f., Spanish f.), caña común (Spanish f.), caña cañabrava (Spanish f.), caña de roca (Portuguese f.), caña vieira (Portuguese f.), cane, giant cane, canne de Provence (French f.), distaff cane, donako (Esperanto), gaha nal (Bengali), gardener’s garters, great reed, Indian grass, Italienskt rör (Swedish), jättiruoko (Finnish), Kaemperolr (Danish), Persian reed, Provence reed, qasba (Maltese), reed, Riesenschilf (German), Pfahlrohr (German n.), roseau géant (French), shembeko (Ethiopian), spanisches Rohr (German n.), Spanish cane, Spanskrör (Swedish), Teberau gading (Malay) - used for over 5,000 years to make the single and double reeds used in numerous wind instruments this is the ‘reed’ referred to in the Bible. Today the giant reed is used to make clarinets, bagpipes and organ-pipes [Scandinavian terms corrected by Lars Hellvig]
Arve(German f.) Swiss pine, arolla pine, Swiss stone pine, Cembra pine (Pinus cembra)
Arveja(Spanish f.) vetch, pea (Latin America)
Arvejilla(Spanish f. - parts of South America) or arverjilla (Spanish f.) sweet pea
Aryana speaker of any of the languages of the Indo-European family
arz.abbreviation of arzobispo (Spamish m.: archbishop)
arzigoglare(Italian) to indulge one's fancy, to quibble, to indulge in a fantastic argument
Arzigoglo(Italian m.) whim, caprice, quibble, sophistry
Arzillo(Italian m.) pungency
arzillo(Italian) sprightly, lively, vigorous, full-bodied (wine), sparkling
Arznei(German f.) medicine, physic (archaic), drug, remedy
Arznei absetzen(German) to stop taking the pills
Arzneiausgabe(German f.) dispensary
Arzneibuch(German n.) pharmacopoeia
Arzneimittel(German n.) drug, pharmaceutical, medicinal product, medicament
Arzneimittelallergie(German f.) drug allergy
Arzneimittelhersteller (s/pl.)(German m.) drug maker, drug company, pharmaceutical manufacturer
Arzneimittelikterus(German m.) drug-induced jaundice
Arzneimittelintoxikation(German f.) drug intoxication
Arzneimittellehre(German f.) pharmacology
Arzneimittelmißbrauch(German m.) prescription drug abuse
Arzneimittelreaktion(German f.) reaction to drugs (specifically adverse reaction)
Arzneimittelsicherheit(German f.) drug safety
Arzneimitteltherapie(German f.) pharmacotherapy
Arzneimittelvergiftung(German f.) drug intoxication
Arzneimittelzubereitung(German f.) pharmacy
Arzneiregime(German n.) drug regimen
Arzneischrank(German m.) medicine cabinet
Arzneispezialität(German f.) proprietary medicinal product
Arzneistoff(German m.) active (pharmaceutical) ingredient
Arzneitee(German m.) medicinal tea
Arzobispado(Spanish m.) archbishopric
arzobispal(Spanish) archiepiscopal
Arzobispo(Spanish m.) archbishop
Arzt (m.), Ärztin (f.), Ärzte (pl.)(German) doctor (of medicine), physician, M.D.
Arztberuf(German m.) medical profession
Arztbesuch(German m.) visit to the doctor
Arztbrief(German m.) physician's letter, doctor's letter
Ärztehaus(German n.) medical centre
Arzteinheit(German f.) dental unit
Ärztekammer(German f.) medical association, medical council
Ärzteschaft(German f.) medical profession
Ärzteschule(German f., archaic) school of medicine
Arzt für Allgemeinmedizin(German m.) general practitioner
Arzthelfer (m.), Arzthelferin (f.)(German) (doctor's) receptionist
Arzthilfeschein(German m. - Austria) certificate of illness
Arzt in Facharztausbildung(German m.) resident (hopsital doctor)
Arztkittel(German m.) (doctor's) white coat, medical scrubs (colloquial)
Arztkoffer(German m.) doctor's case, doctor's bag
ärztlich(German f.) medical, medically
ärztlich betreut werden(German) to be under a physician's care, to be under the care of a doctor
ärztliche Ansicht(German f.) medical opinion
ärztliche Behandlung(German f.) medical treatment, medical attendance, medical attention
ärztliche Beobachtung(German f.) medical observation
ärztliche Beratung(German f.) consultation
ärztliche Beurteilung(German f.) medical assessment
ärztliche Fürsorge(German f.) medical care
ärztliche Hilfe(German f.) medical attention
ärztliche Reisefähigkeitsbestätigung(German f.) medical certificate of fitness to travel
ärztliche Schweigepflicht(German f.) medical confidentiality, doctor-patient confidentiality
ärztliche Überweisung(German f.) referral
ärztliche Untersuchung(German f.) medical examination, physical examination, medical inspection, checkup, medical (colloquial), physical (colloquial), medical exam
ärztliche Verordnung(German f.) medical prescription
ärztlichen Rat benötigen(German) to need medical advice
ärztlicher Behandlungsfehler(German m.) medical error
ärztlicher Betreuer(German m.) medical attendant
ärztlicher Kunstfehler(German m.) malpractice
ärztlicherseits(German) medically
ärztliches Attest(German n.) medical certificate
ärztliches Gutachten(German n.) medical opinion
ärztliches Honorar(German n.) medical fee, doctor's fee
ärztliches Rezept(German n.) prescription
ärztliches Zeugnis(German n.) medical certificate, doctor's certificate
Arztliege(German f.) doctor's couch
Arztpraxis (s.), Arztpraxen (pl.)(German f.) doctor's office, doctor's surgery, medical practice
Arztrechnung(German f.) doctor's bill
Arztroman(German m.) hospital romance
Arztsekretär (m.), Arztsekretärin (f.)(German) doctor's secretary, physician's secretary
Arzttasche(German f.) medical practitioner's case, doctor's bag
Arzttermin(German m.) doctor's appointment
Arztwartezimmer(German n.) doctor's waiting room