music dictionary : Bo - Bq

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Bofrom China, also called naobo and jingbo, a round convex gong played by striking or scraping with a beater
  • Bo from which this information has been taken
(German f.) gust, squall (gusts of wind with rain), blast (gust), scud, bump
b.o.abbreviation of 'back order'
Boa(Italian m.) boa (constrictor), (feather) boa
Boardin printing, an alternate term for mechanical
a committee having supervisory powers
a stout length of sawn timber
food or meals in general (as in 'bed and board': live and take one's meals in)
a flat portable surface (usually rectangular) designed for board games
a body (sometimes statutory) that regulates the provision of examinations for entry to higher levels of education or to determine suitability for a particular profession
Boardsa stage (hence, the colloquial term for the theatre, 'the boards')
Boar's bristlethe stiff hair of a pig, used as a spring to make the tongues return in historic wooden jacks. Wire, nylon or plastic is generally used in modern times although some makers still use boar bristle
Boaschlange(German f.) boa (constrictor)
Boato(Italian m.) rumbling
(Spanish m.) show, ostentation
Boat songbarcarole, gondoliera
when he graduated from Trinity College in 1799, Thomas Moore made a year long trip to America, Bermuda and the West Indies. The 'Canadian Boat Song' was published in 1805. Moore based it on a popular Canadian air Et en revenant du boulanger
Mingulay is a small island in the Outer Hebrides near Barra. Although the tune and the words are similar to many sea shanties, the words commonly used today were written by Sir Hugh Roberton in 1938 for the Glasgow Orpheus Choir. The 'Mingulay Boat Song' was originally recorded by the Francis McPeake family of Ulster
St. Columban (c.543-615) was the founder of the monastery of Bobbio in northern Italy. His 'Boat Song' captures the mood of adventure and robust faith that animated the Irish monks
The 'Skye Boat Song' has words by Sir Harold Boulton, Bart., 1884. The first half of the tune is said to be an old sea shanty; the other half is traditionally attributed to Miss Annie MacLeod
Boatswain's whistlea sailor's whistle
Bob(German m.) bobsleigh, bobsled
(English, German m.) a knot or bunch of hair, hence, a bunch or cluster of leaves, flowers, fruit, etc.
Bobada(Spanish f.) silly thing
bobalición(Spanish) stupid
Bob and wheela metrical devise in some alliterative-verse poetry, especially that of the Pearl Poet and that of fourteenth-century poems like Sir Tristrem. The first short line of a group of rhyming lines is known as the "bob" and the subsequent four are a quatraine called the "wheel." The bob contains one stress preceded by either one or occasionally two unstressed syllables (i.e., the bob is only two or three syllables long). Each line of the wheel contains three stresses. Together, the bob-and-wheel constitutes five lines rhyming in an ABABA pattern. Since it matches the alliterative pattern of the first part of the stanza, but also fits the rhyme scheme of the last five lines, the "bob" serves as a structural bridge between the alliterative sections and the rhyming sections of the poem
Bobard(French m.) fib
Bobbahn(German f.) bobsled run
Boberia(Spanish f.) silly thing
Bob FM(Bob is an acronym for 'Best of the Best') the on-air brand of several FM radio stations in Canada and the United States. Bob FM stations in Canada are all owned by CHUM Limited; those in the United States are owned by a variety of companies. Bob FM stations follow much the same format as the more famous (although newer) Jack FM brand, and are officially classified as variety hits or adult hits by radio research companies
  • Bob FM from which this information has been taken
Bobfrisur(German f.) bob hair (style), bob hairstyle, bob hairdo
Bobibationsee Bobisation
Bobina(Italian f.) bobbin, reel, spool, coil (electrical)
(Spanish f.) bobbin, reel, spool, coil (electrical)
Bobine(French f.) bobbin, reel, spool, coil (electrical)
Bobisation(English, German f.) or bocedisation, a system of solmisation, whose invention is attributed variously to the composer Hubert Waelrunt (c.1515-1595) who was said to have introduced this technique at the music school he founded in Antwerp in 1547, and to David Mostart (c.1550-1615). It is based on the Flemish syllables bo-ce-di-ga-lo-ma-ni
it substituted for the six Guidonian the following seven syllables:
Guidonian syllables ut re mi fa so la ti
Bobisation syllables bo ce di ga lo ma ni
Bobo(French m.) sore, cut
(Spanish m.) idiot, fool
(German m.) a bourgeois bohemian
Chinese double reed pipe
pegged drum with antelope skin from Ghana played with hands or hand and stick
bobo(Spanish) silly, stupid
Boboobothe most popular social music and dance of the Central and Northern Ewe of Ghana and Togo. This music and dance, also known as agbeyeye [New Life], or akpese [Music of Joy], emerged from a village, called Kpando in the Volta Region of Ghana during the independence struggle between 1947 and 1957. Boboobo is derived from an older circular dance called konkoma. Although this music was initially confined to a few towns and villages in central and northern Eweland, it has now spread to all Ewe speaking territories in Ghana and Togo
Bobre(Reunion) a musical bow struck with a bamboo stick (ticouti) and held at the same time as a rattle (kaskavel). Also called zezylava (Madagascar), bonm (Seychelles and Rodrigues Islands), and chitende (Mozambique)
Bobrennen(German n.) bobsled race
Bobschlitten(German m.) bobsled
Bobtail(German m.) Old English sheepdog
Boca(Spanish f., Portuguese) mouth
(Spanish f., Portuguese) the sound hole, for example, on a guitar or violin
Boca(Spanish f.) entrance (figurative), muzzle (gun), hole
boca abajo(Spanish) face down
boca arribo(Spanish) face up
Bocacalle(Spanish f.) (road) junction
Bocadillo(Spanish m.) sandwich, snack
Bocado(Spanish m.) mouthful, bite
Bocage(French m.) grove, thicket, woodland
(French m.) a background of foliage and flowers supporting the figures in a pottery set-piece
bocajarro(Spanish) point-blank
Bocal(French m.) also called a crook, a curved metal tube that connects the double reed to the body of the bassoon (if which case the bocal forms part of the acoustic length of the instrument) or the mouthpiece of a large recorder to the head section, for example on bass and greater recorders (in which case the bocal does not form part of the acoustic length of the instrument)
(French m.) windcap, copri-ancia (Italian m.), capsula (Italian f.), windcap (musical instrument), Windkapsel (German f.), capsule (French f.), cápsula (Spanish f.)
(French m.) mouthpiece of horn, trumpet, trombone, serpent, etc.
Bocal(French m.) fib
Bocal(Portuguese) mouthpiece
Bocal (s.), Bocaux (pl.)(French m.) jar
Bocamanga(Spanish f.) cuff
Bocanada(Spanish f.) puff, mouthful (of wine, etc.)
Bocas em f(Portuguese) f-holes
Bocazas(Spanish f.) big-mouth
Bocca(Italian f.) mouth
(Italian f.) mouthpiece of horn, trumpet, trombone, serpent, etc.
Boccaccia(Italian f.) grimace
Bocca chiusa(Italian f., literally 'with mouth closed') wordless humming
Boccale(Italian m.) jug, tankard (of beer)
Bocca ridente(Italian f.) smiling mouth, the term used in singing that is applied to the elongation of the mouth, approaching a smile, and designed to produce a particular conformation of the throat, mouth and lips, which is believed to be most conducive to the production of a pure, even tone and perfect intonation
Boccata(Italian f.) puff (smoke)
Boccetta(Italian f.) small bottle
boccheggiare(Italian) to gasp
Bocchino(Italian m.) a small musical instrument mouthpiece (for example, that of a brass instrument), Mundstück (German n.), embouchure (French f.), embocadura (Spanish f.)
(Italian m.) cigarette holder, mouthpiece of a smoker's pipe
Boccia(Italian f.) bottle, bowl (for playing bowls)
bocciare(Italian) to fail, to reject
Bocciatura(Italian f.) failure
Bocciolo(Italian m.) bud
Bocciuola(Italian f.) small mouth-piece
Boccone(Italian m.) mouthful, snack
bocconi(Italian) face downwards
Bocedisation(English, German f.) bobisation
Bocet(Romanian) a form of lament which is sung while expressing real grief in tears
Boceto(Spanish m.) sketch, outline
Bochinche(Spanish m.) uproar
Bochorno(Spanish m.) sultry weather, embarrassment (figurative)
bochornoso(Spanish) oppressive, embarrassing (figurative)
Bocina(Spanish f.) horn, car horn
cornet à bouquin (French), cornetto (Italian), bugle horn, cornet
Bocinazo(Spanish m.) blast, toot
Bock (s.), Böcke (German pl.)(French m., Spanish m.) beer glass, glass of beer
(German m.) boob, buck, billy goat, ram, support, stand, box (seat), support, bagpipe (Southern Germany), trestle, dog (engineering), pedestal, (vaulting) horse, howler (colloquial: bloomer), stubborness, billy goat
short for Bockpfeife, an abbreviation used commonly in the Alps
Bockbeere(German f.) dewberry (a trailing-vine variety of blackberry)
Bockbier(German n.) bock (a dark, heavier beer traditionally brewed to lager all winter for consumption in spring - most bock beer cans have the image of a goat on them)
Bockbrücke(German f.) trestle bridge, railroad trestle (bridge)
Böckchen(German n.) bracket
Bockdoppelflinte(German f.) over and under shotgun
Bocken(German n.) bucking
bocken(German) to buck, to be unruly, to be stubborn, to capriole (horse), to act up (colloquial)
bockend(German) bucking
Bockflinte(German f.) over and under shotgun
Bockhorn(Swedish) made of cow's or goat's horn with up to four finger-holes, similar in many ways to the shofar
bockig(German) obstinate, stubborn, spiteful, petulant, petulantly, restive
bockige Eigenart(German f.) contrary disposition
Bockigkeit(German f.) obstinacy
Bocklager(German n.) pedestal bearing
Bocklagermotor(German m.) pedestal-type motor
Bocklamm(German n.) ram lamb
Bockmist(German m.) nonsense
Bockpfeife(German f., dated) bagpipe
(German m.) in the Alps, the name is shortened to Bock
[information supplied by Michael Zapf]
Bocksbart(German m.) goatsbeard
Bocksbeutel(German m.) a bottle for Frankenwein
Bocksdorn(German m.) boxthorn, matrimony vine (any of various shrubs or vines of the genus Lycium with showy flowers and bright berries)
Bockshorn(German n.) an Estonian shepherd instrument
[entry by Michael Zapf]
Bockshornklee(German m.) fenugreek (a very hard seed grown in the Middle East, which is used as a spice. Its dominant flavour and aroma is recognisable in commercial curry powders)
Bockshornkleesamen(German m.) fenugreek seed
Bockshornkraut(German n.) goat's rue (Galega officinalis) (tall bushy European perennial grown for its pinnate foliage and slender spikes of blue flowers, sometimes used medicinally)
Bocksleder(German n.) buckskin
Bockspringen(German n.) leapfrog, leap-frog
Bock springen(German) to leapfrog, to leap-frog
Bocksprung(German m.) leap-frog, leap (also figurative)
Bockstrilleror 'goat's trill', see 'bleat'
Bockwindmühle(German f.) post mill (pivoting windmill)
Bockwurst(German f.) bockwurst, sausage
Bod.abbreviation of 'Bodleian Library, Oxford'
Boda(Spanish f.) marriage, wedding (ceremony)
Bode diagrama diagram in which the phase shift or the gain of an amplifier, a servomechanism, or other device is plotted against frequency to show frequency response (logarithmic scales are customarily used for gain and frequency)
Bode-Diagramm(German n.) a plot showing the frequency-response characteristics of an amplifier, servomechanism, etc.
Bodega(Spanish f.) cellar, wine cellar (a vault for storing and maturing wine), warehouse, wine-shop, hold (ship)
(French f.) or craba, bagpipe found in the Laguedoc region of southern France
Bodegón(Spanish m.) cheap restaurant, still life (picture)
Boden (s.), Böden (pl.)(German m.) ground, soil, floor, loft, attic, land, terrain (figurative), canvas, seat (of trousers), territory, base
(German m.) fond (French m.), fondo (Italian m., Spanish n.), the back of the sound-box of a musical instrument, bottom (of a harpsichord)
Boden des Glockenstuhls(German m.) bell deck (floor of the belfry)
Boden eines Fasses(German m.) bottom of a cask
Bodenablauf(German m.) floor drainage, floor drain
Bodenabsenkung(German f.) ground subsidence, land subsidence
Bodenabstand(German m.) ground clearance
Bodenabtragung(German f.) soil erosion
Bodenanalyse(German f.) soil analysis
Bodenanalysebericht(German m.) soil report
Bodenart(German f.) soil type
Bodenbakterien(German pl.) soil bacteria
Bodenbearbeitung(German f.) cultivation
Bodenbebauung(German f.) tillage
bodenbedingt(German) edaphic (influenced by the soil)
Bodenbelag(German m.) floor covering, flooring, flooring material, court surface (tennis), floor surfacing
Bodenbeschaffenheit(German f.) condition of the soil, configuration of the ground, configuration of the soil, composition of the ground
Bodenbeschichtung(German f.) floor coating
Bodenbestellung (s.), Bodenbestellungen (pl.)(German f.) tillage
Bodenbindung(German f.) soil consolidation
Bodenblech(German n.) floor panel, base plate, bottom plate
Bodenbrett(German n.) bottom board, flooring board, puncheon (a short wooden upright used in structural framing, a piece of broad, heavy, roughly dressed timber with one face finished flat)
bodenbrütende Vögel (s./pl.)(German n.) ground-nesting birds
bodenbürtig(German) soil-derived, soil-borne
bodenbürtige Viren(German pl.) soilborne viruses
Bodendecker(German m.) ground-cover plant
Bodendielen(German pl.) deck boards
Bodeneinlauf(German m.) floor drain
Bodenentwässerung(German f.) soil drainage
Bodenerhebung(German f.) rise in the ground, elevation (of the ground)
Bodenerosion(German f.) soil erosion
Bodenfaltenbeutel(German m.) bottom gusseted bag
Bodenfläche(German f.) floor space, floorspace, land coverage, area
Bodenfliese (s.), Bodenfliesen (pl.)(German f.) floor tile, paving (tile)
Bodenfrost(German m.) ground frost
Bodenfund(German m.) archaeological find
Boden gutmachen(German) to make up ground
Bodenhöhe(German f.) ground level
Bodenisolator(German m.) floor insulator
Bodenkammer (s.), Bodenkammern (pl.)(German f.) attic (room), garret
Bodenkanal(German m.) floor duct
Bodenkontamination(German f.) soil contamination
Bodenkreditanstalt(German f.) mortgage bank, mortgage company
Bodenkrume(German f.) topsoil, surface soil
Bodenkultivierung(German f.) tillage
Bodenlage(German f.) bottom layer
bodenlang(German) floor-length (gowns, curtains, etc.), full-length (gowns, curtains, etc.)
bodenlebend(German) ground-dwelling
Bodenleger(German m.) floor layer, floorer
bodenlos(German) bottomless, incredible (figurative), exceeding, abysmal, groundless, fathomless, abysmally, enormous (figurative)
bodenlose See(German f.) soundless sea
Bodenluke(German f.) hatch
Bodenmatte(German f.) floor mat, floormat
bodennah(German) near-ground, near the ground
Bodennähe erreichen(German) to reach ground level
Bodennebel(German m.) ground mist, ground fog
Bodennutzung(German f.) land use
Bodenplatte(German f.) base plate, bottom panel, floor slab, floor panel
Bodenplatte (s.), Bodenplatten (pl.)(German f.) track shoe, foundation slab, floor board, paving tile
Bodenprinzip(German n.) birthright citizenship (jus soli)
Bodenreform(German f.) land reform, agrarian reform
Bodenreformer(German m.) land reformer
Bodenrick(German n.) cavaletto (a small, portable jump for schooling horses)
Bodensatz (s.), Bodensätze (pl.)(German m.) lees, dregs, residuum, sediment, deposit
Bodensatzbildung(German f.) sedimentation
bodensaure(German) acidophilous
Boden scharren(German) to paw the ground
Bodenschatz (s.), Bodenschätze (pl.)(German m.) mineral deposit, natural resource
Bodenschicht(German f.) soil layer
Bodenschwelle(German f.) speed hump, speed ramp, sleeping policeman (colloquial)
Bodensee(German m.) Lake Constance
Bodensenke(German f.) swale (an elongated depression in the land surface that is at least seasonally wet, is usually heavily vegetated, and is normally without flowing water)
Bodensetzung(German f.) soil settlement, ground settlement
Bodenspekulation(German f.) real estate speculation, speculation in real estate
bodenständig(German) rooted to one's native soil, down-to-earth, native, indigenous, rooted to the soil, autochthonous
bodenständiger Mann(German m.) meat and potatoes man (colloquial)
Bodenständigkeit(German f.) down-to-earthness
Bodenstaubsauger(German m.) canister (vacuum) cleaner
Bodenstruktur(German f.) soil structure
Bodenträger(German m.) bottom beam
Bodentransportsystem(German n.) floor conveyor
Bodentuch(German n.) floorcloth
Bodenturnen(German n.) floor exercises
Bodentürschließer(German m.) floor door closer
Bodenunebenheiten(German pl.) unevenness of the floor
Boden unter den Füßen verlieren(German) to lose ground
Bodenuntersuchung(German f.) ground survey, soil test
Bodenvase (s.), Bodenvasen (pl.)(German f.) floor vase
Bodenvegetation(German f.) ground vegetation
Bodenverbesserer(German m.) soil conditioner
Bodenverdichter(German m.) soil compactor, wacker plate
Bodenverdichtung(German f.) soil compaction
Bodenverfestiger(German m.) compactor
Bodenverhältnisse(German pl.) ground conditions, underfoot conditions, soil conditions
Bodenverstärkung(German f.) floor reinforcement
Bodenwelle (s.), Bodenwellen (pl.)(German f.) bump (traffic calming measure)
Bodenwert(German m.) land value
Bodenwerterhöhung(German f.) rise in land values, appreciation in land value
Boden wiedergewinnen(German) to recover ground
Bodenwischer(German m.) floor mop
Bodgeroriginally, a travelling merchant or chapman - later an itinerant wood-turner, in particular, one who cut timber and converted it into chair legs by turning it on a pole lathe, an very simple tool that could be moved close to the stand of timber and used the spring of a bent sapling to help run it - today, a pejorative term for someone who produces poor-quality work
Bodhisattva(English, German m.) an enlightened being who, out of compassion, forgoes nirvana in order to save others
Bodhrán(English, German f., from the Irish) Irish frame drum made out of goat skin, generally played with a double-ended beater or tipper, approximately 45 cms. (18 inches) in diameter and 7.5- 10 cms. deep, with a circular rim
Bodicethe close fitting upper part of a woman's dress
a woman's wide, sleeveless vest tightly laced in front, worn over a blouse or dress, usually low-cut
Bodl.abbreviation of 'Bodleian Library, Oxford'
Bodleyabbreviation of 'Bodleian Library, Oxford'
Bodoque(Spanish m.) pellet, thickhead
Bodschnurd(German n.) Bojnourd (the capital city of North Khorasan province, Iran)
Body(of an instrument) cuerpo (Spanish), corpo (Italian), Schallkasten (German), coffre (French)
of an instrument, the resonance- or sound-box of a stringed instrument or some percussion instruments
of a guitar, the part on which the controls, bridge and pickups are mounted, which can be of hollow (i.e. hollow body) or solid (i.e. solid body) design
of an instrument, that part of a wind instrument that remains after the removal of the mouth piece, crooks, and bell
of an organ-pipe, the tube of an organ-pipe above its mouth
of a note or tone, its resonant quality - also called its 'body'
(English, German m.) see 'body suit'
Body(French m., German m.) leotard, teddy
referring to any all-in-one bodice and knickers
all-in-one leggings and top close fitting as to be apparently second skin
Bodycheck(English, German m.) the act of using one's body to impede an opponent
Body contactshort for 'closed position with body contact', a style of closed position in partner dancing
Bodyguard(English, German m.) or, in colloquial English, 'minder', a person or group of persons, usually armed, responsible for the safety of one or more other
Bodylotion(German f.) body lotion
Body lotionlotion applied to the body after bathing
Body mass indexor BMI a formula used to expresses body weight in relation to height. BMI equals weight in kilograms divided by height in metres squared
Body-Mass-Index(German m.) body mass index
Bodypainting(German n.) body painting
Body paintingbody painting with clay and other natural pigments existed in most, if not all, tribalist cultures, often worn during ceremonies; it still survives in this ancient form among the indigenous people of Australia, the Pacific islands and parts of Africa. A semi-permanent form of body painting known as Mehndi, using dyes made of henna (hence also known rather erroneously as "henna tattoo"), was and is still practised in India and the Middle East, especially on brides. Since the late 1990s, Mehndi has become popular amongst young women in the Western world. Actors and clowns around the world have painted their faces and sometimes bodies for centuries, and continue to do so today. More subdued form of face paints for everyday occasions evolve into the cosmetics we know today
Body percussionsounds produced by use of the body, e.g. clap, snap, slap, tap, stamp, etc.
Body politic, Themonarchial government, including all its citizens, its army, and its king
Body suitalso called a 'body', an all-in-one garments fitting from neck to ankle, used for dance and gymnastics
Böe (s.), Böen (pl.)(German f.) gust, squall, blasts (plural form), flurries (plural form)
Boehm systemthe systematic key mechanism invented by German flautist Theobald Boehm to replace the earlier arrangements of keys and finger holes on woodwind instruments
Boehm, Theobald
German flautist and composer, remembered principally for the system whereby he replaced the clumsily-placed holes of his instrument by keys enabling the cutting of the holes in their proper acoustical positions, yet leaving them in easy control of the fingers. He made his first 'ring key' flute in 1832, while a player in Munich court orchestra, and in 1847 brought out an improved metal flute with 15 holes and 23 levers and keys. This system has been adapted for oboe, clarinet, and bassoon. Boehm was also a goldsmith and ironmaster. From 1833 to 1846, he directed the reorganization of the Bavarian steel industry
Boehm's experimental tube with movable toneholes survives at the Dayton C. Miller Collection in Washington. With this simple device, Boehm was able to tweak the positions of the holes until he thought the flute worked as well as it could
[information supplied by Robert Bigio]
Boekhandel(Dutch) bookshop
Boekhandelaar(Dutch) bookseller
Boeotiaor Beotia, an ancient region of Greece north of Attica and the Gulf of Corinth
Boeotiansee 'Beotian'
Boer(Afrikaans) a South African farmer of Dutch origin, particularly one living in the Transvaal
Boethianof or pertaining to the philosophy of Boethius, that is, a philosophy of predestination suggesting all events appearing evil, misfortunate, disastrous, or accidental are none of these things. In actuality, such events serve a higher beneficial purpose that must remain unknown to us as long as we are trapped by the limits of the physical universe
Boethian notationor Buchstabennotation (German), although it is not known whether or not Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius (480-524 or 525) invented this system, the term refers to the use of the first fifteen letters of the alphabet to signify the notes in a two octave range
[clarified by Michael Zapf]
Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus
(480-524 or 525)
a Christian philosopher of the sixth century. He was born in Rome to an ancient and important family which included the emperor Olybrius and many consuls. His father Fl. Manlius Boethius held that position in 487 after Odoacer deposed the last Western Roman Emperor. He held the same position in 510 in the kingdom of the Ostrogoths. In 522 he also saw his two sons become consuls, but he was later executed by King Theodoric the Great (known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, king of the Ostrogoths (488-526), ruler of Italy (493-526), and regent of the Visigoths (511-526)) on suspicion of having conspired with the Byzantine Empire. Boethius translated the standard Greek texts for the topics of the quadrivium, with additions of his own in the fields of mathematics and music
Boeuf(French m.) ox, beef
(French m.) colloquial expression meaning 'jam', a jam session
Bofes(Spanish m. pl.) lights
Bofetada(Spanish f.) slap, blow (figurative)
Bofetón(Spanish m.) punch
Bofu(Chinese) barrel drum
Bog(Danish) book
bog(German) bent
Bog.abbreviated form of Bogen
Boga(Spanish m./f.) rower, oarsman, oarswoman, fashion
Bogavante(Spanish m.) lobster
Bogen (s.), Bögen (pl.)(German m.) bow (for stringed instrument), arco (Italian, Spanish, Portuguese), archetto (Italian), archet (French)
(German m.) or Bindenbogen (German m.) slur, tie, bind
(German m.) crook (brass wind instrument)
(German m.) curve, arc (geometry), turn, arch (architecture), sheet (of paper), vault (architecture), sweep (curve of road, river, etc.), scallop (loop)
Bogenbaum(German m.) English yew, common yew, (Taxus baccata)
Bogenbohrer(German m.) bow drill
Bogen Briefmarken(German m.) sheet of postage stamps
Bogenbrücke(German f.) arched bridge, arch bridge
Bogendruck(German m.) sheet fed printing
Bogenclavier(German n.) also Bogenflügel, Bogenklavier or Geigenwerk, a keyboard instrument strung with gut strings, the tone of which is produced by a steadily revolving well rosined cylinder (powered by a foot pedal), a mechanism not dissimilar to that found in the hurdy-gurdy
[clarified by Michael Zapf]
Bogen des Tonnengewölbes(German m.) barrel vault arch
Bogenecke(German f.) corner of the sheet, sheet corner
Bogen einer Brücke(German m.) arch of a bridge
Bogenfeder(German f.) bow spring
Bogenfenster(German n.) arched window, paladin window
Bogenflügel(German m.) Bogenclavier
bogenförmig(German) arch-shaped, bow-shaped, bowed, arcuate (curved), arched
bogenförmige Verzierung(German f.) scallop
Bogenfries(German m.) corble table (a row or course of corbels used for decoration or to provide support, as for a parapet)
Bogenführung(German f.) the management of the bow, the art of bowing, bowing, colpo d'arco (Italian m.), arcata (Italian f.), Bogenstrich (German m.), Strichart (German f.), coup d'archet (French m.)
Bogengang(German m.) arcade, archway, cloister, semicircular canal
Bogengeradstoßer(German m.) (sheet) jogger (used in printing)
Bogengeradstoßmaschine(German f.) (sheet) jogging machine (used in printing)
Bogengewölbe(German n.) arch
Bogengitarre(German f.) arpeggione
Bogenglattstoßmaschine(German f.) (sheet) jogging machine (used in printing)
Bogengrad(German n.) degree (°) (angular measure)
Bogenguitarre(German f.) arpeggione
Bogen-guitarresee arpeggione
Bogenhaare(German pl.) bow hair, crini dell'arco (Italian m. pl.), crins de l'archet (French m. pl.)
Bogenhalbmesser(German m.) curve radius, radius of curvature
Bogenhand(German f.) bowgrace (archaic), bow hand, bow hand (archery)
Bogenharfe(German f.) arched harp
Bogenhintermauerung(German f.) spandrel (the triangular space between the springing and centre of an arch)
Bogenhöhe(German f.) arch rise (the vertical distance between the spring line of an arch or vault and the keystone or boss)
Bogeninstrument(German n.) bowed instrument
Bogen-instrument(German n.) a bowed instrument, one that is played by means of a bow
Bogenklavier(German n.) Bogenclavier
Bogenlampe(German f.) arclamp, arc lamp
Bogenlänge(German f.) arc length
Bogenlauf(German m.) curvature
Bogenlaute(German f.) archlute, lyra, kithara, and African instruments (for example, djuma)
[entry extended by Michael Zapf]
Bogenlicht(German n.) arclight, arc light, arc-light
Bogenmacher(German m.) bow maker, bowyer
Bogenmaß(German n.) radian measure
Bogenminute(German f.) arc minute, minute of arc, arcminute
Bogenmontage(German f.) imposition
Bogenradius(German m.) curve radius, radius of curvature
Bogenrand(German m.) margin of the sheet, sheet margin
Bogenrundung(German f.) arching, hemicycle
Bogensäge(German f.) bow saw, bow-saw, fretsaw
Bogensatz(German m., from bogen meaning 'elbow') extension tubing for a natural horn to change its fundamental note
Bogenschießanlage(German f.) archery range
Bogenschießen(German n.) archery, shooting with bow and arrows
Bogenschießstand(German m.) archery range
Bogenschnittsäge(German f.) segment saw
Bogenschritt(German m.) bow stance
Bogenschüttelmaschine(German f.) (sheet) jogging machine (used in printing)
Bogenschütze (m.), Bogenschützin (f.)(German) archer, bowman (m.), bow woman (f.), archeress (f.)
Bogenschweißen(German n.) arc weld
Bogensehne(German f.) bow-string, bowstring
Bogensekunde(German f.) second of arc, arc second, arcsecond
Bogensignatur(German f.) sheet title, signature title (bookbindery)
Bogensprung (s.), Bogensprünge (pl.)(German m.) curvet (of a horse, perform a leap where both hind legs come off the ground)
Bogenstrich(German m.) bow stroke, the management of the bow, the art of bowing, colpo d'arco (Italian m.), arcata (Italian f.), Bogenführung (German f.), Strichart (German f.), coup d'archet (French m.)
Bogenstück(German n.) curved section
Bogenstützweite(German f.) effective arch span
Bogentor(German n.) arched gateway
Bogenwasserzeichen(German n.) sheet watermark
Bogenwechsel(German), bow change, when bowing, the change from Aufstrich (upstroke) to Abstrich (downstroke), or the reverse
Bogenwendung(German f.) sheet turning device (used in printing)
Bogenzähler(German m.) sheet counter (used in printing)
Bogenzähnung(German f.) sheet perforation
Bogenzirkel (s./pl.)(German m.) wing divider
Bogenzwickel(German m.) spandrel (the triangular space between the springing and centre of an arch)
Bogey(German n.) bogey (in golf, a score of one over par)
Boghandel(Danish) bookshop
Boghandler(Danish) bookseller
Bogomilen(German pl.) Bogomils
Bogomilsa reference to follows of Bogomil, a leader of a sect in the Balkans with very similar Manichaean teachings to that adopted by the Cathars of Languedoc. This term was used extensively by Bulgarian writers and sometimes by Byzantine writers
Bogotano(Spanish m.) native of Bogotá
Bogue(French m.) bug (in computing)
Boh.abbreviation of 'Bohemia', 'Bohemian'
Bohasmall pipes from Gascony, which have a rectangular chanter and drone combination - this form is unique to Gascony - and are made out of sheepskin with the fleece showing
Bohai-Meer(German n.) Bohai Sea
Bohai Seaor Bo Hai, also known as Bohai Bay or Bohai Gulf, the innermost gulf of the Yellow Sea on the coast of northeastern China
Bohemamin(German n.) bohemamine (an anti-tumour agent named after the Puccini opera La Bohème)
Boheme(German f.) Bohemia, bohemian world, bohemian society
Bohème(French m./f.) unconventional
bohème(French) unconventional
Boheme-(German) bohemian (circles, quarter, etc.) (figurative) (prefix)
Bohemiaa historical area and former kingdom in the Czech Republic
Bohemian Brethrena religious society organized in the fifteenth century by the Hussites
Bohemianismoriginally, the alternative lifestyle of the avant-garde creative community of the Romantic movement during the nineteenth century, especially characterized by anti-bourgeois and anti-intellectual attitude. This way of life was thought to have been similar to that of apparently rootless Gypsies from the Bohemian region of Czechoslovakia
Bohemian Rubya pyrope garnet that is inexpensive compared to actual rubies
Bohemien(German m.) bohemian (figurative)
bohémien(French m./f.) gipsy, Bohemian
Bohemio(Spanish m.) Bohemian
bohemio(Spanish) Bohemian
Bohemistik(German f.) Czech studies
Bohereen(Irish, bóthairín) or boreen, a minor road, a country lane, a cart-track
Bohle (s.), Bohlen (pl.)(German f.) (thick) plank, board, deal, slab, square plank
Bohlenbelag(German m.) planking, decking
Bohlenbrücke(German f.) plank bridge
Bohlen-Pierce scaleor BP scale, a musical scale that offers an alternative to the 12-tone equal temperament typical in Western music. It was independently discovered by Heinz Bohlen, Kees van Prooijen, and also John R. Pierce. Pierce, who, with Max V. Mathews and others, published his discovery in 1984, renamed the scale the Bohlen-Pierce scale after learning of Bohlen's earlier publication. While most scales have octave-equivalence, the BP scale instead has tritave equivalence. This means that its pitch classes are based on the interval 3:1 (tritave, or "perfect 12th" in diatonic nomenclature) rather than the 2:1 (octave). Thus the scale contains many consonant harmonies. A tritave is equivalent to a full octave plus a perfect fifth
Bohlen-Pierce-Skala(German f.) Bohlen-Pierce scale
Bohlen-Pierce tuninga just-intonation tuning discovered in 1972 and published in 1978 by Heinz Bohlen, and discovered independently and published in 1984 by John Robinson Pierce, in which the 3/1 ratio (the Pythagorean 'perfect-12th', i.e., 'perfect-5th' plus '8ve') is divided into 13 unequal steps. The equal-tempered version was published in 1978 by Kees van Prooijen
Bohlenweg(German m.) boardwalk
Böhme (m.), Böhmin (f.)(German) Bohemian
Böhmen(German n.) Bohemia
Böhmerwald(German m.) Bohemian Forest
böhmisch(German) Bohemian
Böhmische Brüder(German pl.) Bohemian Brethren
böhmische Dörferr(German pl.) double Dutch (colloquial), Greek (colloquial)
böhmische Dörfer für ... seinr(German) to be all Greek to ...
böhmisch einkaufen(German - Austria) to shoplift
böhmischer Rubin(German m.) Bohemian ruby
Bohne (s.), Bohnen (pl.)(German f.) bean
Bohneneintopf(German m.) bean stew
Bohnenfest(German n.) bean-feast
bohnenförmig(German) bean-shaped
Bohnengericht(German n.) bean dish
Bohnenhülse(German f.) bean-pod
Bohnenkaffee(German m.) pure coffee, real coffee, bean coffee, ground coffee
Bohnenkönig(German m.) bean king, roi de la fève (French m.), rey de habas (Spanish m.)
the child appointed to play the part of king on twelfth-night. In France it was at one time customary to hide a bean in a large cake, and he to whom the bean fell, when the cake was distributed, was, for the present, the bean king, to whom all the other guests showed playful reverence
Bohnenkrankheit(German f.) favism (disease caused by inhaling the pollen of the fava bean Vicia fava or after eating the beans themselves)
Bohnenkraut(German n.) savory (genus Satureja)
Bohnenkrautöl(German n.) savory oil, oil of savory
Bohnensalat(German m.) (French) bean salad
Bohnensprosse (s.), Bohnensprossen (pl.)(German f.) bean sprout
Bohnenstange(German f.) bean pole, bean-pole, bean-stalk, beanpole, stringbean (colloquial) (figurative)
Bohnensuppe(German f.) bean soup
bohnern(German) to polish (the floor), to wax (the floor)
Bohnerwachs(German n.) floor polish, floor wax
Bohranordnung(German f.) assembly for drilling
Bohraufsatz(German m.) boring bit, boring head
Bohrdurchmesser(German m.) bore, bore diameter
Bohreinsatz(German m.) drill bit, bit
Bohreisen(German n.) bit
Bohren(German n.) drilling
bohren(German) to drill, to drive (tunnel), to sink (well), to bore (insect), to drill (out), to persist, to go on and on, to bore (figurative)
bohren nach(German) to bore for
bohrend(German) boring
bohrende Frage (s.), bohrende Fragen (pl.)(German f.) probing question, nagging question
bohrender Schmerz(German m.) nagging pain, terebrant pain
bohrender Zweifel(German m.) nagging doubts
bohrendes Angstgefühl(German n.) nagging fear
Bohrer (s./pl.)(German m.) drill, auger, borer, wimble, driller, burr (drill), drill bit
Bohrerbürste(German f.) burr brush
Bohrerhalter(German m.) drill holder
Bohrerlehre(German f.) drill gauge
Bohrerreinigungsbürste(German f.) burr cleaning brush
Bohrersatz(German m.) drill bit set
Bohrerschaft(German m.) burr shank
Bohrerspitze(German f.) (drill) bit
Bohrerständer(German m.) burr holder
Bohrfräse (s.), Bohrfräsen (pl.)(German f.) fraise
Bohrfutter(German n.) drill chuck, chuck
Bohrfutterschlüssel(German m.) drill chuck key, chuck key
Bohrfutterschlüsselhalter(German m.) chuck key holder
Bohrgerät(German n.) drill
Bohr-Gewinde-Werkzeug(German n.) combination drill tap
Bohrgrat(German m.) burr
Bohrhaken(German m.) bolt
Bohrhammer(German m.) hammer drill, rotary hammer
Bohrkern(German m.) core, drill core
Bohrkernprobe(German f.) drill core sample
Bohrknarre(German f.) ratchet brace
Bohrkrone(German f.) drill bit
Bohrlehre(German f.) boring jig, drilling jig
Bohrloch(German n.) drill hole, borehole, auger hole, boring
Bohrmaschine(German f.) drilling machine, drill, boring machine, electric drill
Bohrmesser(German n.) boring bar bit
Bohrmühle(German f.) boring mill
Bohröffnung(German f.) bore
Bohrprozess(German m.) drilling process
Bohrsäge(German f.) keyhole saw
Bohrschablone(German f.) drilling template, drilling jig
Bohrspitze(German f.) drillbit
Bohrständer(German m.) drill stand
Bohrstange(German f.) boring bar
Bohrstangenhalter(German m.) boring bar holder
Bohrtiefe(German f.) drilling depth
Bohrtisch(German m.) (rotary) table
Bohr- und Fräsmaschine(German f.) boring and milling machine
Bohrung(German f.) bore (of a wind instrument or organ pipe), drilling, drill, hole, drilled hole, tobacco chamber (pipe)
Bohrungsdrücken(German n.) spin extrusion
Bohrungsdrückmaschine(German f.) spin extrusion machine
Bohrungsdurchmesser(German m.) bore diameter
Bohrungsmitte(German f.) hole centre
Bohrvorrichtung(German f.) drilling jig, boring jig
Bohrweite(German f.) bore, calibre (gun, rifle, etc.)
Bohrwerk(German n.) boring mill
Bohrwerkzeug(German n.) boring tool
Bohrwinde(German f.) brace
Boia style of Central Amazonian folk music now moving into the mainstream in Brazil
Boiata(Italian f.) rubbish
Boicot(Spanish m.) boycott
boicotear(Spanish) boycott
Boicoteo(Spanish m.) boycott
boicottare(Italian) boycott
böig(German) gusty, choppy (wind), bumpy (ride), squally (wind)
böiges Wetter(German n.) squally weather, gusty weather
Boiler(English, German m.) hot water heater, hot-water boiler, equipment for heating water
Boilerplaterepetitive blocks of type that are picked up and included routinely without recreating them
a phrase or body of text used verbatim in different documents such as a signature at the end of a letter
Boiler suitall-in-one or overall with long sleeves, of industrial origin as protective apparel, incorporated into fashion in the latter half of the twentieth century
Boina(Spanish f.) beret
boire(French) to drink, to soak up
boire un verre(French) to have a drink
Bois(French m.) wood
(French m. pl.) woodwind (instruments)
Bois clair(French m.) unstained and unvarnished wood
Bois d'acajou(French m.) or acajou (French f.), mahogany, mogano (Italian m.), Mahogani (German n.), caoba (Spanish f.)
Bois de rose(French m.) rosewood
boisé(French) wooded
boiser(French) to panel (in a room)
Boiserie(French f.) domestic woodwork, a wooden panel
Boiseries(French f. pl.) panelling
Boisson(French f.) drink
boisterousbullicioso (Spanish), strepitoso (Italian, geräuschvoll (German), impétueux (French m.), impétueuse (French f.)
high-spirited, playful
Boîte(French f.) box, tin, can, firm (business)
(French f.) a night-club, a dance-hall, a 'dive' or 'joint' (a disreputable night-club)
Boîte à musique(French f.) musical box, carillon (Italian m.), Spieldose (German f.), caja de música (Spanish f.)
Boîte aux lettres(French f.) letter-box
Boîte de nuit(French f.) night-club
Boîte (expressive)(French f.) swell box of an organ
Boîte postale(French f.) post-office box
boiter(French) to limp, to wobble (furniture)
boiteux (m.), boiteuse (f.)(French) lame, wobbly, shaky, limping, alla zoppo (Italian), alla zoppa (Italian), hinkend(German)
Boîtier(French m.) case
Boîtier de montre(French m.) watchcase
Boîtier électrique(French m.) electric torch, flashlight
Boitillement(French m.) slight limp, hobble
boitiller(French) to limp slightly, to have a slight limp, to hobble
Böjd klammer(Swedish) grand staff
Boj(Spanish m.) box (tree), boxwood
Bojar (s.), Bojaren (pl.)(German m.) boyar
Boje(German f.) buoy
Bok(Norwegian) book
Bokförlag(Swedish) publishing house [correction by Lars Hellvig]
Bokhandlare(Swedish) bookseller
Bokhandler(Norwegian) bookseller
Boktryckeri(Swedish) press
Boktrykker(Norwegian) printer
Bolin Hindustani classical music, the text of the lyrics
an important part of Indian rhythm, the word bol is derived from the word bolna, literally 'to speak'. It is a series of syllables which match the various strokes of the tabla and are used to define the tal. In the north (Hindustani sangeet) the tal is actually defined by the bol while in the south (Carnatic sangeet) it is merely a mnemonic aid to the musician
Bol(French m.) bowl
(French m.) un bol d'air, 'a breath of fresh air'
Bola(Spanish f.) ball, marble (small glass sphere), shoe polish, fib
Bola die mundo(Spanish f.) globe
Bolas(Spanish f. pl.) a device consisting of heavy balls attached to cords, used for capturing animals by entangling their legs
Bol bantin Hindustani classical music, rhythmic variations in dhrupad or khayal with the text of the song
Boldor 'boldly', audazmente (Spanish), ardito (Italian), mutig (German), muthig (German), hardiment (French)
Boldnessaudacia (Spanish), bravura (Italian), Bravour (German), bravoure (French)
Bole(in gilding) clay mixed with rabbit skin glue for application to the surface of an object being prepared for water-gilded. Usually the clay is applied to a gesso surface. It is the clay surface that receives the gold leaf. The clay and rabbit skin glue content dictate the reflective quality of the gold finish. Clay is finer than gesso and when burnished with a tool of hounds tooth, agate or hematite stone its surface becomes more dense and thereby more reflective
Bolera(Spanish f.) bowling alley
Boleritoa diminutive of bolero, the bolerito is a triple meter dance but includes only one or two sections or movements as compared with the standard three in a bolero
Bolero(Spanish m.) a high-kick, liar (figurative)
(English, German m., from Spanish m.) a short jacket that reaches barely to the waist
(from the verb volar meaning 'to fly') a Spanish dance in triple time, often having a triplet on the second beat of each bar (measure)
Cuban dance derived from the Spanish bolero, initially into 2/4 time then eventually into 4/4, but always slow. The music is frequently arranged with Spanish vocals and a subtle percussion effect, usually implemented with maracas, conga or bongos - Pepe Sanchez has been credited with creating the Cuban bolero in 1885 with a composition called Tristeza. The Cuban bolero developed out of previously existing genres such as the danzón and the contradanza, from which it received its characteristic 4/4 time. In the late nineteenth century, a wave of Cubans fleeing the Wars of Independence (1895-98) migrated to the Dominican Republic, particularly the Cibao region, where they introduced Cuban music, the guaracha, rumba, son and bolero. In the early twentieth century, the Cuban bolero spread all over Latin America, where it was typically played by guitar-based duos, trios, and quartets. Over the course of the thirties, forties, and fifties, however, the Cuban bolero was elaborated into an international Latin style, orchestrated with pianos and stringed and wind instruments, over time bearing less and less resemblance to its guitar-based antecedents
the Cuban bolero also took root in Mexico, where it developed into two styles: the more international variety was called romántico, danceable tunes played in the urban music hall; the bolero ranchero, on the other hand, was typically played by mariachi conjuntos, was sung only, and was associated with the rural segments of the population
an American Style ballroom dance, employing rumba patterns and some features of the waltz and the foxtrot, danced to music that is slow and in 4/4 time
Boléro(English, German m., from French m.) bolero
a one-act ballet with music by Maurice Ravel (1875-1937) choreographed by Vaslav Nijinsky (1890-1950) in 1928 for the Russian dancer Ida Lvovna Rubinstein (1880-1960)
Bolero ballad(Santiago, Cuba) a ballad form usually on the subjects of love, loss and happiness
Bolerojäckchen(German n.) (little) bolero jacket
Bolero-Jacke(German f.) bolero jacket
Bolero jacketa loose, waist-length jacket open at the front
Bolero ranchero(Spanish m.) see bolero
Bolero romántico(Spanish m.) see bolero
Bolero viejo o parado(Spanish m.) a style derived from the seguidilla, the Valldemosa (Majorca, Spain) bolero is the most popular in the Balearic Islands. The name parado (stopped) comes from the abrupt end of the dance. It is normally accompanied by violins, guitars, castanets and triangle
Boletín(Spanish m.) newsletter, bulletin, journal, report
Boletín de noticias(Spanish m.) news bulletin, news report
Boletín de precios(Spanish m.) price list
Boletín informativo(Spanish m.) news bulletin, news report
Boletín meteorológico(Spanish m.) weather forecast, weather report
Bolgia(Italian f.) bedlam
Boli(Spanish m.) ball-point pen
Bolid(German m.) bolide
Bolidea meteor, asteroid or comet that hits the Earth (or other planet) and explodes
Bolinea white handled knife, used in magick and ritual purposes
Bolin goxothe Basque name for dulzaina, the bolin goxo comes from a diversified family of instruments from the province of Nafarroa
Bolivarische Revolution(German f.) Bolivarian Revolution
Bolivarian Revolutionmass social movement and political process in Venezuela. Its most prominent leader is Hugo Chávez, the founder of the Fifth Republic Movement and the current President of Venezuela. The "Bolivarian Revolution" seeks the implementation of Bolivarianism in Venezuela. Proponents of Bolivarianism trace its roots to an avowedly socialist interpretation of some ideals of Simón Bolívar, an early 19th century Venezuelan and Latin American revolutionary leader, prominent in the South American Wars of Independence
Bolivianer (m.), Bolivianerin (f.), Bolivianer (pl.)(German) Bolivian
bolivianisch(German) Bolivian
Boliviano(Spanish m.) Bolivian
boliviano(Spanish) Bolivian
Boliviano (m.), Boliviana (f.)(Italian) Bolivian
boliviano (m.), boliviana (f.)(Italian) Bolivian
Bolivie(French f.) Bolivia
Bolivien(German n.) Bolivia
Bolivien (m.), Bolivienne (f.)(French) Bolivian
bolivien (m.), bolivienne (f.)(French) Bolivian
Bolivier (m.), Bolivierin (f.)(German) Bolivian
bolivisch(German) Bolivian
Bolla(Italian f.) bubble, blister
bollare(Italian) to stamp, to brand (figurative)
bollente(Italian) boiling, boiling hot
Böller(German m.) saluting gun, (small) cannon, heavy duty firecracker
Bollería(Spanish f.) baker's shop
Bollero(Spanish m.) baker
Böllerschuß(German m., old form) gun salute
Böllerschuss(German m., new form) gun salute
Bolletta(Italian f.) bill
Bollettino (s.), Bollettini (pl.)(Italian m.) bulletin, list
Bolline(German n.) boline (ritual knife)
Bollino(Italian m.) coupon
bollire(Italian) to boil
Bollitore(Italian m.) boiler, kettle
Bollitura(Italian f.) boiling
Bollo(Italian m.) stamp
(Spanish m.) roll, bun, dent, lump, fuss (figurative)
bollore(Italian) boil, intense heat, ardour (figurative)
Bollwerk (s.), Bollwerke (pl.)(German n.) bulwark, fortress, bastion, stronghold, rampart
Bollwerk der Freiheit(German n.) bulwark of freedom
Bollywood(English, German n.) the Indian commercial film industry
Bollywood-Film(German m.) bollywood production
Bolo(Spanish m.) skittle
Bolognese (m.), Bolognesin (f.)(German) Bolognese (a native of Bologna, Italy)
Bologneser(German m.) Bolognese (a member of the Bichon family of dogs)
Bolognese saucea thick, full-bodied meat sauce that's a staple on northern Italy's Bologna
Bolognesesoße(German f.) Bolognese sauce
Bolombattoharp from West Africa with four gut strings over a gourd resonator and an attached tin rattle
Bolon(Guinea) an arched three string bass harp with a resonating gourd that can be used as a drum
Boloyeone-string bass from the Ivory Coast
BolsAsian vocal percussion
Bolsa(Spanish f.) bag, purse, sotck exchange, cavity
Bolsa de agua caliente(Spanish f.) hot-water bottle
Bolschewismus(German m.) Bolshevism
bolschewistisch(German) bolshevist
Bolschoi-Ballett(German n.) Bolshoi Ballet
Bolshevik(Russian) the majority party at the Second Congress of the Russian Social-Democratic Party, 1903
BolshevismSoviet communism
Bolshoi BalletRussian ballet company, formed by English entrepreneur Michael Maddox and Prince Urusov, a patron of the arts, founded in 1776 and based at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow. Its dancers were recruited from the Moscow Orphanage where the first classes were conducted 1773. It provided dancers for the Petrovsky Theatre, established 1780, on the site of the present Bolshoi Theatre, which was opened 1825. With their mixed repertory of classics and new works, the Bolshoi is noted for its grand scale productions and the dancers' dramatic and eloquent technique. From 1964 to 1994 its artistic director was the choreographer Yuri Grigorovich (b.1927)
Bolsillo(Spanish m.) pocket, purse
Bolsista(Spanish m./f.) stockbroker
Bolso(Spanish m.) handbag
Bol-taansin Indian classical music, musical phrases interlinked with bols (words)
Bolt-on Neck(German m.) bolt-on neck (electric guitar)
Bolt on (neck)a means of attaching the neck of a guitar to the body using screws or bolts and a neck plate
Bolukulukunose flute from Zaire, now called the Democratic Republic of the Congo, or DROC
Bolus (s.), Boli (pl.)(English, German m., Latin, from the Greek) a large pill
Bolzen (s./pl.)(German m.) pin, bolt, stud, bolt nut
bolzen(German) to slam (ball)
Bolzenabschneider(German m.) bolt cutter, bolt clipper
bolzengerade(German, dated) bolt upright
Bolzengewinde(German f.) bolt thread
Bolzenloch(German n.) bolt hole, stud hole
Bolzenschneider(German m.) bolt cutter, bolt clipper, bolt cropper
Bolzplatz(German m.) football ground
Bom.abbreviation of 'Bombay'
b.o.m.abbreviation of 'bill of materials' (in manufacturing)
Bomaasee fontomfrom
Bomb.abbreviation of 'Bombay'
Bombin jazz and particularly in bop, an unexpectedly loud beat from the drummer on a 'backbeat', 'upbeat' or irregular quaver (eighth note) beat
Bombaa barrel-shaped drum of Afro-Puerto Rican origin covered with goatskin
(Puerto Rico) Afro-Puerto Rican dance and songs traditionally associated with plantation workers. One or two large wooden drum(s) covered with goatskin called the bomba, which accompanied this music, explain the dance's name. The first drum maintains a constant rhythm, while the second changes the rhythm to follow that of the dancer(s). In the bomba, the female dancer makes lively use of her long skirts, while the male uses his body to perform the intricate and rhythmic gestures. The bomba songs are improvised and have a call and response style. Bomba is divided into different rhythmic backgrounds and variations, such as the euba, cocobale, leró, yubá, cunyá, babú, belén and sica. The dance and the most purely African version of this music may come from the northeastern coast town of Loíza Aldea
(Ecuador) an African derived musical form from the Chota Rivera area of Ecuador. Its origins can be traced back to Africa and the use of African slave labour during the country's colonial period. African slaves in Ecuador brought with them this form heavily influenced by the Bantu culture of the Congo. It is played with barrel-shaped drums similar to those found in the Leeward Islands, Puerto Rico, Santiago, Cuba and Southern Angola. The people dance to the drums in pairs and used improvisation to build a relationship between the dancer and lead drummer
Bomba(Spanish f.) bomb, pump (machine), bombshell (announcement)
Bomba calindána stick-fighting dance from Puerto Rico
see calinda
Bombachas(Spanish/South America f. pl.) knickers, pants
Bombacho(Spanish/South America m.) baggy trousers
Bomba de incendios(Spanish f.) fire-engine
Bombai(Japanese) Buddhist chant style involving a complete sutra reading in Sanskrit
Bombardor bombarde, a large member (tenor or bass) of the shawm (oboe-like) family, which the Germans call Pommer
a brilliant sounding 16 ft. reed stop in a pipe organ
Bombard(German m.) bombarda
Bombarda(Italian f., Spanish f.) euphonium (a member of the tuba family)
(Italian f., Spanish f.) bombard, bombarde (French f.), Bombard (German m.), Pommer (German m.)
Bombarde(German f, French f.) a bombard
(French f.) or hautbois rustique, a small Breton clarinet-like reed instrument with its own distinctive sound
Bombardement(German n.) bombardment (physical, figurative), bombing, shelling (artillery)
Bombarder(French m.) also soner or talabarder, a player of the bombarde
bombarder(French) to appoint unexpectedly, to appoint unexpectedly as
bombardieren(German) to bomb, to batter, to bombard, to strafe (with bombs), to shell
bombardieren mit(German) to bombard with (figurative)
bombardiert(German) bombarded
bombardiertes Gebiet(German n.) blitzed areas
Bombardierung(German f.) shellfire, bombardment, bombing
Bombardierung mit Werbung(German f.) spamming
Bombardierung mit Zündbomben(German f.) bombing with incendiary bombs
Bombardino(Italian m., Spanish m.) baritone horn, Baritonhorn (German n.), euphonium (French m.)
a small bombard, the smallest of the family
(Italian m., Spanish m.) euphonium
Bombardo(Italian) a bombard
a brilliant sounding 16 ft. reed stop in a pipe organ
Bombardonfrom the 1820s onward, numerous bass instruments of similar construction but with different names were built. In 1829, for instance, W. Riedl made a valved instrument in Vienna which was modeled on the ophicleide and became known as the bombardon. This wide-bored instrument had a powerful tone and was still used in military bands after the advent of the tuba
a large early nineteenth-century musical instrument of the saxhorn family, the lowest of the saxhorns, in tone resembling the ophicleide
nineteenth-century valved tuba
(French m., German n.) bass tuba, bombardone (Italian m.)
(German n.) a bass reed stop for the pedals of nineteenth-century Walcker pipe organs
Bombardone(Italian m.) the largest member of the bombard family, Bombardon (German n,), bombardon (English, French m.)
(Italian m.) Basstuba (German f.)
Bombardon pipefound in some band organs, a bright-sounding bass reed stop or sometime a mellower rank of brass reed stops. In a pipe organ, a reed rank that is brighter than a Fagotto but not as brassy as a trombone
Bombastpadding made of cotton and rags used to stuff in the linings of sixteenth-century garments
Bombastik(German f.) bombast
bombastisch(German) bombastic, grandiose, overblown, pompous, overdone, fustian (figurative), bombastically, declamatory, orotund (language style), pompously, turgid (bombastic), puffy (figurative)
bombastische Rede(German m.) declamation
bombastischer Stil(German m.) inflated style, declamatory style, bombastic style
Bombatura(Italian f.) arching, Wölbung (German f.), voûte (French f.)
bombatura alta(Italian) voûté (French), bombé (French), hoch gewölbt, high arched, molto bombata (Italian)
Bombay(English, German n.) a city in western India just off the coast of the Arabian Sea, India's 2nd largest city (after Calcutta), now called Mumbai
Bomba y plena(Puero Rico) although usually grouped together, bomba y plena are actually town entirely different types of music that are coupled with dance
see bomba, plena
Bombazo(Spanish m.) explosion
Bombe (s.), Bombes (French pl.), Bomben (German pl.)(French f.) bomb, spray (atomiser), aerosol, a confection (an ice cream speciality of different flavours made in a round mould)
(German f.) bomb, bombshell, bombshell (figurative), cannonball (slang), ace
bombé(French) convex (for example, furniture with convex rather than plain surfaces), bulging, rounded, cambered (road)
(French) hoch gewölbt (German), high arched, voûté (French), molto bombata (Italian), bombatura alta (Italian)
bombear(Spanish) to pump, to bomb
Bombe mit Verzugszeit(German f.) time bomb
bomben(German) to bomb
Bomben-(German) dynamite (prefix)
Bomben abwerfen(German) to release bombs
Bombenabwurf(German m.) bombing
Bombenabwurf bei Tageslicht(German m.) daylight bombing
Bombenalarm(German m.) bomb alarm, bomb scare
Bombenangriff(German m.) air raid, bombing raid
Bombenanschlag (s.), Bombenanschläge (pl.)(German m.) bomb attack, bombing raid, bomb outrage, bombing (terror attack)
Bombenattentat(German n.) bomb attempt, bomb attack, bomb assassination
Bombenattrappe(German f.) dummy bomb
Bombenaufschlag(German m.) bomb impact, impact of a bomb, impact of the bomb
Bomben auslösen(German) to release bombs
Bombenbastler(German m.) bomb builder, bomb maker
Bombenbauer(German m.) bomb builder, bomb maker
Bombenbesetzung(German f.) fantastic cast, great cast
Bombendetektor(German m.) bomb detector, bomb detection device
Bombendetonator(German m.) bomb detonator
Bombending(German n.) wow (colloquial), smasher (colloquial), knockout (colloquial)
Bombendrohung(German f.) bomb threat
Bombeneinschlag(German m.) bomb impact, impact of a bomb, impact of the bomb
Bombenentschärfung(German f.) bomb disposal
Bombenentschärfungskommando(German n.) bomb squad, bomb disposal squad
Bombenerfolg (s.), Bombenerfolge (pl.)(German m.) wow (colloquial), huge success, smash hit, howling success, box-office hit, tremendous success, knockout (colloquial), great success, roaring success
Bombenexplosion(German f.) bomb burst, bomb blast
Bombenfabrik(German f.) bomb factory
bombenfest(German) bomb-resistant, bomb-proof, bombproof, steady as a rock, unshakeable, absolutely secure
Bombenflugzeug(German n.) bomber (aircraft)
Bombenfragment(German n.) bomb fragment
Bombengehalt(German n.) huge salary, tremendous salary, fantastic salary
Bombengeschädigter (m.), Bombengeschädigte (f.)(German) bomb victim
Bombengeschäft(German n.) roaring trade, land-office business (US) (colloquial)
Bombengroßangriff(German m.) clobbering
Bombengürtel(German m.) (suicide) bomb belt, suicide belt
Bombenhitze(German f.) sweltering heat
Bombenkoffer(German m.) bomb suitcase
Bombenlage(German f.) prime location, plum site (colloquial)
Bombenleger (m.), Bombenlegerin (f.)(German) bomber, bomb planter
Bombennacht (s.), Bombennächte (pl.)(German f.) night of bombing
Bombenopfer(German n.) bomb victim
Bombenräumtrupp(German m.) bomb disposal unit
Bombensache(German f.) wow (colloquial), smasher (colloquial), knockout (US) (colloquial)
Bombenschaden (s.), Bombenschäden (pl.)(German m.) bomb damage, air-raid damage
bombensicher(German) bomb-proof, bombproof, cannonproof, shellproof, sure as death, dead certain, absolutely safe
bombensicher feststehen(German) to be a dead cert (slang)
bombensichere Deckung(German f.) bomb proof shelter, bomb-proof shelter
Bombensplitter(German m.) bomb splinter, bomb fragment
Bombenstellung(German f.) plum position (colloquial: best possible job), job in a million, fantastic job
Bombenstimmung(German f.) tremendous atmosphere, fantastic atmosphere
Bombenvolltreffer(German m.) direct hit (bomb)
Bomberjacke(German f.) bomber jacket
Bomber-Jacke(German f.) bomber jacket
Bomber jacketwaist length cropped jacket with a rounded or puffed out body; large but fitted arms are elasticated at the wrist, sporty looking often with zip fastening from waist to neck
bomber la poitrine(French) to throw out one's chest
Bombero(Spanish m.) fireman
Bombe surprise(French f.) a confection, an unexpected happening
Bombetta(Italian f.) bowler hat
bombiert(German) raised
bombig(German) super (colloquial), smashing (colloquial), terrific, fantastic, swell (US) (colloquial) (dated)
Bombilationspecifically, the humming of bees - more generally, any droning or buzzing, also a loud sound
Bombilla(Spanish f.) (light) bulb
Bombín(Spanish m.) pump, bowler (hat)
Bombix(Greek) a Greek reed instrument
Bombo(Spanish m.) bass drum, grosse caisse (French)
(Spanish m.) a large sheepskin bass drum used in Spain and Spanish America
Afro-Uruguayan comparsa drum
Bomboa tremolo, the quick and continuous reiteration of a single pitch which, on stringed instruments, is produced by a rapid up-and-down movement of the bow. This effect is called for in violin music of the early seventeenth century, and is a feature of Monteverdi's stile conciato. In the eighteenth century, this effect is known in German by the term Schwärmer or Rauscher
[corrected by Michael Zapf]
Bombo criolloan adaptation of the Spanish military bass drum, used in Cuba for carnival
Bombo huillicheChilean bass drum
Bombola(Italian f.) cylinder
Bombo legüero(South American) traditionally made of a hollowed tree trunk and covered with cured animal skins such as goat, sheep, or cow, this instrument is used to set the tempo and pulse in a piece of music. It is a particular feature of zamba, the national dance of Argentina
Bomboniera(Italian f.) wedding keep-sake
Bommel (s./pl.), Bommeln (pl.)(German m./f.) bobble, pompom
Bon(French m.) voucher, coupon, bond (commerce)
(German m.) voucher, bon, Bön (indigenous religion of Tibet), sales slip (US), receipt (commerce)
[corrected by Michael Zapf]
Bön(English, German m.) the oldest spiritual tradition of Tibet
bon (m.), bonne (f.)(French) good, right, wise (prudent)
bon à (m.), bonne à (f.)(French) fit to
bonaccione(Italian) good-natured
bonachón(Spanish) easygoing, good-natured
Bonae memoriae(Latin) of gracious memory (said of a person who one is happy to call to mind)
Bonaerense(Spanish m.) native of Buenos Aires
bonaerense(Spanish) from Buenos Aires
Bona fide(English, German, from Latin) in good faith, well-intentioned, with sincerity, honest, sincere
a bona fide agreement is one entered into genuinely without attempt to fraud
bona-fide-Käufer(German m.) bona fide purchaser
bona-fide-Klausel(German f.) bona fide clause
Bonang barung(Javanese) the bonang barung and bonang panerus are each formed of a double row of tuned bronze kettle drums resting on a horizontal frame, played with two long sticks, called tabuh, bound with red cord at the striking end. The bonang panerus are similar to the bonang barung but sound one octave higher
Bonang panerussee bonang barung
Bonanza(Spanish f.) fair weather (nautical), prosperity, sudden unexpected wealth
bonario(Italian) kindly
bona vacantia(Latin) unclaimed goods, goods whose ownership cannot be determined
Bonaventura(German) Bonaventure
Bonaventura von Bagnoregio(German) Saint Bonaventure, San Bonaventura (Italian) (born: Giovanni di Fidanza)
BonaventureSaint Bonaventure of Bagnoregio (1221-1274), born John of Fidanza (Giovanni di Fidanza), was the eighth Minister General of the Order of Friars Minor, commonly called the Franciscans. He was a medieval scholastic theologian and philosopher, a contemporary of Saint Thomas Aquinas, and a Cardinal Bishop of Albano
Bonbaisee hora
Bonbon (s.), Bonbons (pl.)(French m., German m./n.) sugar plum, comfit, candy, small sugar confectionery
(French m., German n.) lozenge, goody, sweetmeat, bon-bon
Bonbondose(German f.) toffee tin
Bonbonne(French f.) demijohn (for storing liquids), (gas) canister
Bonbonkästchen(German n.) box for bonbons
Bonbonniere(German f.) box of chocolates
Bonbonnière(French f.) sweet-box (a fancy box designed to hold sweets)
Bonbonpapier(German n.) candy wrapper, sweets wrapper
Bonbonschüssel(German f.) bonbon dish
Bonbon zur Atemerfrischung(German m./n.) cachou
Bon copain(French m.) a good or loyal friend or companion
Bond(French m.) leap, jump, spring
(Afrikaans) a political league formed in South Africa in 1882 to strive for South African independence
Bondad(Spanish f.) goodness, kindness
bondadosamente(Spanish) kindly
bondadoso(Spanish) kind
Bondagehose(German f.) bondage trousers
Bond & carbonin printing, a business form with interleaving sheets of paper and carbon paper
Bondbarkeit(German f.) bondability
Bonde(French f.) plug, plughole
bondé(French) packed
Bonden(German n.) bonding
Bond paperstrong durable grade of paper used for letterheads and business forms
Bondparameter(German pl.) bonding parameters
Bondrucker(German m.) voucher printer
bondi(French) bouncing, springing (bowing), balzato (Italian), mit (dem) Springbogen (German), fliegendes Staccato (German), staccato volant (French)
Bondieuserie(French f., from bon Dieu, 'good God') cloying piety (a pejorative term directed particularly at certain form of religious art)
bondir(French) to leap, to jump (in surprise), to spring
BondjoCongolese side-blown trumpet
Bon enfant (s.), Bons enfants (pl.)(French m.) someone who is always good company
Bonespieces of rib bone played like castanets
Bong.abbreviation of 'bongos'
Bongo (s.), Bongos (pl.)(English, Italian m., German n./f., German f., French m.) bongo drums, smaller and shallower than conga drums, come in pairs: one drum is slightly larger and lower in pitch than the other. The larger drum is about 7" in diameter, and the smaller is about 5". The contrast between the higher and lower pitch gives the bongos their distinctive sound. A bongo player holds the drums between his/her knees and strikes the drums with his or her hands. The bodies of the bongos are made of wood, and a small piece of wood connects the two drums. Bongos were originally created around 1900 in Cuba to be used in dance bands. When playing just a rhythm part, the bongo player almost always sticks to a rhythm called martillo ('the hammer') which drives the music with its sharp steady pulse. In an orchestral context, bongo drums are usually played with medium mallets or sticks
[entry clarified by Michael Zapf]
Bongo bellthe campana, cencerro or hand bell, it is the bell played by the bongocero during the Montuno section of an arrangement and mounted and played by the Palito player during rumbas
Bongocerobongo (and bell) player
Bongotrommel(German f.) bongo
Bon goût(French m.) good taste (particularly aesthetic)
Bongraveworn between 1530 and 1615, a flat, square cap with a short flap of velvet on each side
Bongyilarge Burmese drum
Bonheur(French m.) happiness, good luck, luck
Bonheur-de-jour(French m.) a small writing-table for ladies, comprising many small drawers both below and at the back, which became extremely popular in about 1770
Bonhomie(French f.) good-heartedness, 'clubbability', good nature
Bonhomme(French m.) fellow
bonhomme(French) good-hearted
Bonhomme de neige(French m.) snowman
Bonhommie(French f.) good-heartedness
Boniato(Spanish m.) sweet potato
Boni et legales (homines)(Latin) decent, law-abiding people
Bonifatius(German m.) Boniface
Bonifaz(German) Boniface
Bonificio(Italian m.) discount (in business), transfer (banking)
Boniment(French m.) smooth talk
Bonität(German f.) degree of creditworthiness, solvency, soundness (financial), credit-worthiness, credit rating
Bonität einer Firma(German f.) reliability of a company
bonito(Spanish) nice, pretty
Bonivereinbarung(German f.) bonus agreement
Bonjour(French m.) hallo, hello, good morning, good afternoon
Bonkoechemillá see biankomeko
Bonmsee bobre
bon marché(French) cheap, cheaply (the name of a well-known cut-price shop in Paris)
Bonmot(German n.) clever or witty expression, clever or witty remark, witticism, bon mot (French m.)
Bon mot (s.), Bons mots (pl.)(French m.) an epigram, a witty remark
Bonn(English, German n.) a city in western Germany on the Rhine River; was the capital of West Germany between 1949 and 1989
Bonne(French f.) (domestic) maidservant, nursemaid
Bonne amie(French f.) a woman who is a good friend (implying that she might be more than a friend)
bonne année(French) happy New Year
Bonne à tout faire(French f.) a general maid
Bonne bouche (s.), Bonnes bouches (pl.)(French f.) a pleasant taste
(English, pseudo-French) a tasty morsel (a literal or figurative meaning that is foreign to the French)
bonne chance(French) luck
Bonne d'enfants(French f.) nanny
Bonne femme(French f.) woman (usually pejorative)
bonne grâce, avec(French) graciously
Bonne-maman(French f.) granny
bonne nuit(French) good night
Bonner(German f.) of or pertaining to Bonn
Bonnes fortunes(French pl.) love affairs, success with the ladies
Bonnet(French m.) hat, cup
(French m.) bell of a musical instrument
Bonnet de bain(French m.) swimming hat
Bonneterie(French f.) hosiery
Bonnet rouge(French m., literally 'red bonnet') known in English as the 'Phrygian cap', a hat adopted as one of the symbols of liberty and freedom during the French revolution
see 'Phrygian cap'
Bonne volonté(French f.) goodwill
Bono(Spanish m.) voucher, bond
Bono del Tesoro(Spanish m.) government bond
Bon Odori(Japanese, literally 'Bon dance') an event held during Obon, traditionally including a dance festival, a festival that honours the departed spirits of one's ancestors
Bon-papa(French m.) grand-dad
bon pour (m.), bonne pour (f.)(French) fit for
Bön-Religion(German f.) Bön (religion), Bon (religion)
Bonsai(English, German m., from Japanese, literally 'cultivation in a tray') the Japanese art of cultivating dwarf forms of tree and shrub by the repeated pruning of the roots
bon sens(French) common sense, good sense
Bonshelong Burmese drum
Bonsoir(French m.) good evening, good night
Bontà(Italian f.) goodness, kindness
Bonté(French f.) kindness
Bons temps de la mesure(French) the accented parts of a bar
Bontoesmall Burmese drum
Bon ton(English, from French) good-breeding (civility, refinement, manners, propriety), 'High Society', the world of fashion (now considered ironic), a sophisticated manner or style, the proper thing to do
Bonus (s.), Boni (pl.), Bonus (pl.), Bonusse (pl.)(German m.) premium, incentive, bonus
Bonuspunkt(German m.) bonus point
Bonussystem(German m.) benefit scheme
Bonustrack(German m.) bonus track (on a CD, etc.)
Bon uta(Japanese) as the name suggests, these are songs for Obon, the lantern festival of the dead
Bonvivant(German m.) bon vivant, bon viveur
bon vivant (s.), bons viveurs (pl.)(pseudo-French) bon vivant, someone who enjoys good living
bon voyage(French) good wishes for a prosperous journey
Bonze(German m.) fat cat, big shot (colloquial), bigwig (colloquial)
Boobammodern tubular drums made of bamboo or sometimes of lengths of PVC tube the tops of which are covered with a drum skin. The drums are struck with mallets, the hand or the fingers
Boog(Dutch) tie, slur
Boogalooalso called 'shing-a-ling' or 'popcorn music', short-lived but influential Latin rhythm and dance style influenced by soul music which was popular between 1966-1969
Boogh(Iran) ram's horn trumpet
Boogiethe word has several meanings: to move quickly, to get going, to dance to (rock) music and to party
a swing blues rhythm or technique originally played on the piano in 'boogie-woogie' music and adapted to guitar. As such it is often used in rock and roll and country music
  • Boogie from which some of this information has been taken
Boogie tanzen(German) to boogie (colloquial)
Boogie-Woogie(German m.) boogie-woogie
Boogie woogie(English, Boogie-Woogie (German m.)) a blues style of piano playing very popular in the thirties which evolved in the Mississippi basin of the Deep South of the U.S.A. characterised by a strong bass, formed on a sequence of I-IV-I-V-I chords, with an ostinato (continuous) upper line forming the melodic figure
a form of swing dance. The name 'boogie-woogie' is used mostly in Europe; the closest thing in the US is probably East Coast Swing. In parts of Europe, boogie-woogie is mostly danced as a social dance. In others, it is mostly a competition form
Booglinshaman Jew's harp from Mongolia
Boogluitinstrumenten(Dutch) bow lutes
Booka collection of sheets of paper, parchment or other material with a piece of text written on them, bound together along one edge within covers. Each side of a sheet is called a page and a single sheet within a book may be called a leaf. A book is also a literary work or a main division of such a work. A book produced in electronic format is known as an e-book. In library and information science, a book is called a monograph to distinguish it from serial publications such as magazines, journals or newspapers. Publishers may produce low-cost, pre-proof editions known as galleys or 'bound proofs' for promotional purposes, such as generating reviews in advance of publication. Galleys are usually made as cheaply as possible, since they are not intended for sale. A lover of books is usually referred to as a bibliophile, a bibliophilist, or a philobiblist, or, more informally, a bookworm
  • Book from which this extract has been taken
Bookbindingthe process of physically assembling a book from a number of folded or unfolded sheets of paper or other material. It also usually involves attaching covers to the resulting text-block
Booklet(English, German n.) a small bound book or pamphlet, usually having a paper cover
Booklet postcardsa series of postcards bound together in booklet form. They had one serrated edge so they could be torn out and mailed
Bookmark(English, German n.) a strip of material, as of ribbon or leather, or a metal clamp, that is placed between the pages of a book to mark the reader's place
Bookmark cardor 'book post card', a postcard that was manufactured for use as a bookmark. This type of novelty card was printed in England between 1903 and 1904, with some being printed in Canada about 1910. Their most common size is 5 1/4" by 1 3/4". They are also refered to as 'panel cards'
Bookmarklet(English, German n.) an applet or a small computer application, stored as the URL of a bookmark in a web browser or as a hyperlink on a web page
Bookmatcheda term applied to the way the back of a stringed instrument is constructed. Most acoustic and many archtop guitars have tops and backs that are two pieces of wood glued together to form one large panel. By cutting the timber from the same piece of wood and then laying the timbers so that the figure on one is the mirror of that on the other, an attractive figure-pattern is created, which can be found also on the backs of fine violins, etc.
Book musica long strip of stiff cards glued together in staggered layers and folded in a zig-zag pattern to form a compact 'book'. The information required to operate the player is coded as rectangular or round perforations punched in the cards. This system is derived from that invented by Joseph-Marie Jacquard (1752-1834), who invented an automatic loom that used punch cards for the control of patterns within fabrics
Book of hoursa prayer book used by laymen for private devotion, containing prayers or meditations appropriate to certain hours of the day, days of the week, months or seasons. They became so popular in the fifteenth century that the Book of Hours outnumbers all other categories of illuminated manuscripts; from the late fifteenth century there were also printed versions illustrated by woodcuts. The most famous Book of Hours and one of the most beautiful of all illuminated manuscripts is the Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry (Musée Condé, Chantilly), illuminated by the Limburg Brothers for Jean de Berry
Book of Odessee 'Shi Jing'
Book of Songssee 'Shi Jing'
Book of the Dead, Thethe common name, invented in the nineteenth century by the German Egyptologist Karl Richard Lepsius (1810-1884), for the ancient Egyptian funerary text known as Spells of Coming (or Going) Forth By Day. The book of the dead was a description of the ancient Egyptian conception of the afterlife and a collection of hymns, spells, and instructions to allow the deceased to pass through obstacles in the afterlife and included images, or vignettes to illustrate the text. The book of the dead was most commonly written on a papyrus scroll and placed in the coffin or burial chamber of the deceased. Because the Egyptian texts changed over time Lepsius' Book of the Dead is the product of a long process of evolution from the Pyramid texts of the Old Kingdom to the Coffin Texts of the Middle Kingdom
Book organGavioli-orgel (German), a barrel organ where the traditional cylinder has been replaced with a pneumatic reader, a system invented in 1892 by the French organ builder Anselme Gavioli
[entry clarified by Michael Zapf]
Book paperor publishing paper, a paper which is designed specifically for the publication of printed books
Book peddlerstravelling vendors of books
Book reviewor book report, a form of literary criticism in which a book is analyzed based on content, style, and merit. It is often carried out in periodicals, as school work, or online. Its length may vary from a single paragraph to a substantial essay. Such a review often contains evaluations of the book on the basis of personal taste. Reviewers, in literary periodicals, often use the occasion of a book review for a display of learning or to promulgate their own ideas on the topic of a fiction or non-fiction work. At the other end of the spectrum, some book reviews resemble simple plot summaries
Booksellersin the 18th- and 19th-centuries, the diversity of the bookseller's trade may be demonstrated by examining the trade cards of the period. In addition to every conceivable element of stationery, the bookseller might sell hair and nail brushes, the camera lucida, compasses, scales and mathematical instruments, paper hangings, etc. Booksellers traditionally sold musical instruments, together with their accessories: hair for violin bows, violin and violoncello strings, bridges and pegs, violins and bows
Boom(English, German m.) a period of rapid economic expansion
term from the film industry, short for 'boom microphone', an overhead microphone used to record actors' voices
boomen(German) to boom
boomend(German) booming, burgeoning (industry, market)
boomender Markt(German m.) booming market
Boomerang(Australian) a curved missile that, when thrown, follows a path back to the thrower
Boomjahr(German n.) boom year
Boomland(German n.) boom country
Boom microphonean overhead microphone used to record actors' voices
Boom pipelarge bamboo tubes open at one end that, that when one end is struck on the ground or on a mat lying on the ground, emit deep notes
Boomzeit(German f.) boom time
Boo-sasaraa long, notched stick that is scraped with a smaller stick
Boot (s.), Boote (pl.)(German n.) boat
Boot auf Strand laufen lassen(German) to beach a vessel
booten(German) to boot up (a computer)
Bootfahren(German n.) boating
Boot fahren gehen(German) to go boating
Bootfahrt(German f.) boating
Böotien(German n.) Boeotia
Bootlegalso called 'boot' or 'underground' record, is a newly created item - LP, EP, 45, or CD (and also includes record sleeves) that has never existed in this form as an official, original item, indeed, any item that was never legitimately released in its present form. These are illegal materials, usually pressed by fans themselves from material otherwise not available on commercial recordings. Castleman and Podrazik (1975) state that "bootlegs generally fall into one of three categories: recordings of live concerts, recordings of radio / television / film appearances, or studio outtakes"
Bootlessliterally, without boots
figuratively, something fruitless, unprofitable, or to no useful purpose
Bootsausflug(German m.) boat trip
Bootsbau-Sperrholz(German n.) marine ply
Bootsfahrt(German f.) boat trip, boating, canoe-trip, boat ride
Bootsfahrten machen(German) to go boating
Bootsferien(German pl.) boating holiday
bootsförmig(German) boat-shaped
Bootsführer(German m.) boatman, coxswain
Bootsgrab(German n.) boat grave
Bootshaus(German n.) boat house, boathouse, boat shed
Bootslack(German m.) spar varnish
Bootsleute(German pl.) boat people, sailors
Bootsmann (s.), Bootsmänner (pl.)(German m.) boatswain (bosun), bosun, bos'n
Bootsmannpfeife(German f.) boatswain's whistle
Bootsmannspfeife(German f.) bosun's call, boatswain's pipe, boatswain's call, bosun's pipe
Bootspfeife(German f.) boatswain's whistle
Bootsreise(German f.) boat trip
Bootssteg(German m.) landing stage, boat bridge
Bootsurlaub(German m.) boating holiday
Bootsverdeck(German n.) canopy
Bootsverleih(German m.) boat hire, boat rental
Bootsvermietung(German f.) boat hire
Bootswächter(German m.) boat keeper
Bootswerft(German f.) boat builder's yard
Booty basssee 'Miami bass', 'Bass music'
Bop(English, German m.) see 'bebop'
Boqueada(Spanish f.) gasp
Boquete(Spanish m.) hole, breach
boquiabierto(Spanish) open-mouthed, amazed (figurative), dumbfounded (figurative)
Boquilla(Spanish f.) or embocadura (Spanish f.), mouthpiece (of a musical instrument, etc.), becco (Italian m.), Schnabel (German m.), bec (French m.)
(Spanish f.) cigarette-holder
bor.abbreviation of 'borough'
Bora(English, German f.) cold Adriatic Autumn wind
Bora-borabull-roarer, thunder stick, Schwirrholz (German)
Boragea blue-flowered plant with hairy leaves that taste somewhat like cucumber; used primarily in salads
Borax(English, German n.) sodium borate, a white crystalline mineral generally used as an emulsifier or cleanser, also used in cream preparations as an emulsifier
boraxhaltig(German) containing borax, borax-containing
Borbannadirtype of Tuvan xoomii said to sound like the rapids of a river
borbollar(Spanish) to bubble
Borbollón(Spanish m.) bubble
Borborygmus(English, German m.) bowel sounds, the gurgling, rumbling, or growling noise from the abdomen caused by the muscular contractions of peristalsis
borbotar(Spanish) to bubble
Borbotón(Spanish m.) bubble
borbottare(Italian) to mumble, to rumble (stomach)
Borbottio(Italian m.) mumbling, rumbling
Borchia(Italian f.) stud
Bord (s,.), Bords (French pl.), Borde (German pl.)(French m.) Rand (German m.), bordo (Italian m.), border, edge, margin of an area or surface, narrow surface of a thin object, meeting-line of surfaces
(French m.) rim or edge of a drum
(French m.) edge, bank (of a river)
(German n.) shelf, bank (slope, incline), side (of ship)
Bordado(Spanish m.) embroidery
bordado(Spanish) embroidered
bordar(Spanish) to embroider, to do very well
bordare(Italian) to border
Bordatura(Italian f.) border
Bordbrett(German n.) shelf
Bordbuch(German n.) log book
Bordcomputer(German m.) seaborne computer, car computer, on-board computer
Bord du trottoir(French m.) kerb
Bordeaux(English German m.) Bordeaux wine
Bordeaux(English, German n.) French city and wine-growing region
Bordeaux-Karaffe(German f.) claret jug
bordeauxrot(German) claret, wine-red
Bordeauxwein(German m.) Bordeaux, Bordeaux (wine)
Borde(Spanish m.) edge, side, tim, hem
bordear(Spanish) to go round the edge of, to border on (figurative)
Bordée d'injures(French f.) torrent of abuse
bordeigen(German) ship's (own), plane's (own), aircraft's (own), on-board
bordeigene Stromversorgung(German f.) on-board power supply
Bordel(French m.) brothel, shambles (disorder)
Bordelaise(French) red wine sauce with bacon lardons and baby onions
Bördelgerät(German n.) flaring tool
Bordell (s.), Bordelle (pl.)(German n.) brothel, bawdy house, bawdy-house, bawdyhouse, bordel, bagnio, stew (brothel), barber shop (figurative), bordello
Bordellbesuch(German m.) visit to a brothel
Bordellchefin(German f.) procuress
Bordello(Italian m., although the original meaning is a person, not a place) brothel, bedlam (figurative)
Bordellwirtin(German f.) bawd, procuress
Bördeln(German n.) crimping
bördeln(German) to crimp
Bördelscheibe(German m.) flared disk
Bördelwerkzeug(German n.) bordering tool
Borden-Insel(German f.) Borden Island
Borderin medieval manuscripts, a type of book decoration placed around one to four sides of the justification [writing space] in order to distinguish and decorate main divisions of the text; usually more elaborate on the first page and/or Table of Contents page; also used around miniature frames
[quoted from Kathleen Scott]
Border Ballad(German f.) border ballad
Border balladsa subgenre of folk ballads collected in the area along the Anglo-Scottish border, especially those concerned with border 'reivers' and outlaws, or with historical events in the area
Border Collie(English, German m.) a British sheepdog that has a wavy, usually black coat with white markings and is used for herding
Bordereau(French m.) note, list, slip, invoice, memorandum, a scrap of paper
Borderline-Persönlichkeitsstörung(German f.) borderline personality disorder
Border Pipe(German f.) border pipe (lowland pipe)
Border pipessee 'lowland pipes'
Border Terrier(English, German m.) small rough-coated terrier of British origin
Bordfunk(German m.) ship's radio, (aircraft) radio equipment
Bordfunker(German m.) radio operator
Bordicor(English, German m., late nineteenth century, invented by P. J. Bordier) a large violin, two octaves lower, and is tuned, like the violin, to G-D-A-E, in the double bass register. The instrument can, on the one hand, play a fourth lower than the cello, while on the other hand, its four and a half octaves give it the compass of the violin. With the E string it gains an incomparable "chanterelle". Due to the high tension, this string creates a sound with an extraordinary carrying power which can measure up in the orchestra against the heavy brass
bordieren(German) to border
Bordillo(Spanish m.) kerb
Bordkarte(German f.) kerb, boarding ticket, boarding pass, boarding card, embarkation card
Bordküche(German f.) galley (on an aircraft)
Bordleben(German n.) life on board (a ship)
Bordmagazin(German n.) in-flight magazine
Bordmechaniker (s./pl.)(German m.) flight mechanic, air mechanic
Bordnetz(German n.) on-board power supply
Bordo(Italian m.) Rand (German m.), bord (French m.), border, edge, margin of an area or surface, narrow surface of a thin object, meeting-line of surfaces
(Spanish m.) board
Bordón(Spanish) the back-skin of a Gallician drum called the tamboril
(Spanish) the larger drone pipe of a gaita de boto, the Aragonese bagpipe, bourdon (French)
Bordone(Italian) an organ stop, the pipes of which are stopped or covered and produce a 16 ft. tone, or sometimes a 32 ft. tone
(Italian) drone bass
Bordonetathe smaller drone pipe of a gaita de boto, the Aragonese bagpipe
Bordoniera(Italian f.) snare
a large, deep bodied acoustic bass guitar, native to Puerto Rico, which is made in different shapes and sizes:
bordonúa chiquitaa very small bordonúa also existed in some regions of Puerto Rico. It is descended from the Spanish guitar family
6-string bordonúaa bordonúa with six single strings. Standard tuning is D-A-E-E-B-F#
8-string bordonúaa bordonúa with four pairs of strings
10-string bordonúaa bordonúa with five pairs of strings, the most common form. The standard tuning is A-a-D-d-F#-f#-b-b-e-e
  • Bordonua from which this information has been taken
Bordpersonal(German n.) flight crew, cabin staff
Bordrestaurant(German n.) on-board restaurant
Bordschomi(German n.) Borjomi (the largest mountain spa in Georgia)
Bordstein(German m.) kerb, kerbstone, border stone
Bordsteinabsenkung(German f.) dropped kerb
Bordsteinhöhe(German f.) kerb height
Bordsteinkante(German f.) kerbside
Bordsteinschwalbe(German f.) streetwalker
Borduhr(German f.) on-board clock, board clock
Bordun(German m.) drone (vocal sound), drone, bourdon (bagpipe)
Bordunflöte(German f.) an organ stop
Bordun-Flöte(German f.) an organ stop
Bordunsaite(German f.) drone string, corda di bordone (Italian f.), corde hors manche (French f.), lowest string on a lute, violin, violoncello or double bass
Bordura(Italian f.) border
Bordure(French f.) border
Bordüre (s.), Bordüren (pl.)(German f.) border, edging
Bordwandgeschütz(German n.) drake (small cannon)
Bordwerkzeug(German n.) tool kit
Bord-zu-Bord-Umschlag(German m.) transhipment
Borethe diameter of the tube of a woodwind or brass instrument the shape of which in part dictitates the timbre or tone color of the instrument; thus, a conical bore instrument, in which the bore grows larger throughout, such as the cornet, produces a mellow timbre while a cylindrical bore instrument, such as the trumpet, which has a constant bore until the flare of the bell, produces a brighter, more brilliant timbre
(English, German f.) tidal bore
Borea(Italian) bourrée
Boreadsin Greek mythology, Calais and Zetes (also Zethes). They were the sons of Boreas and Oreithyia, daughter of King Erechtheus of Athens, and because they were the sons of the north wind they were able to fly, having wings either on their feet or backs
boreal(English, German) boreal, living near the north, sub Arctic
Boreassöhne(German pl.) Boreads
Boreensee bohereen
Borg(German m., dated) borrowing
Borgata(Italian f.) hamlet
Borgen(German n.) borrowing
borgen(German) to lend (out), to borrow
borgen von(German) to borrow from
Borger(German m.) borrower
borghese(Italian) bourgeois, civilian
Borghesia(Italian f.) middle-classes
Borgis(German f.) bourgeois
borgne(French) one-eyed, shady (figurative)
Borgo(Italian m.) village, district
borgte(German) borrowed
borhaltig(German) boracic
Boria(Italian f.) conceit
Borinqueño(Spanish m.) Puerto Rican
borinqueño(Spanish) Puerto Rican
borioso(Italian) conceited
Borke(German f.) bark (of a tree), periderm (the outermost layer of stems and roots of trees, etc.)
Borkenkrepp(German m.) bark crêpe (a crêpe fabric textured to simulate the appearance of tree.), crépon (a thin stuff made of the finest wool or silk, or of wool and silk)
borkig(German) barky
Borla(Spanish f.) tassel
Born(German m.) spring (water source)
Borne(French f.) boundary marker
borné (m.), bornée (f.)(French) narrow, narrow-minded (person)
Borne kilométrique(French f.) metric 'milestone'
borner(French) to confine
borniert(German) narrow-minded, blinkered
bornierte Ansichten(German pl.) narrow views
Borniertheit(German f.) localism, narrow-mindedness
boro.abbreviation of 'borough'
Borotalco(Italian m.) talcum powder
Borra(Spanish f.) flock, fluff (down), sediment
Borraccia(Italian f.) flask
Borrachera(Spanish f.) drunkenness
Borrachin(Spanish m.) drunkard
Borracho(Spanish m.) drunkard, drunk
borracho(Spanish) drunk
Borrador(Spanish m.) rough copy, rough notebook
Borradura(Spanish f.) crossing-out
borrajear(Spanish) to scribble
borrar(Spanish) to rub out, to cross out
Borrasca(Spanish f.) storm
borrascoso(Spanish) stormy
Borre(English) bourrée
Borree(English) bourrée
Borrego(Spanish m.) year-old lamb, simpleton (figurative), hoax
borreguil(Spanish) meek
Borreliose(German f.) Lyme disease (caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, which is carried by ticks and transmitted to humans through a tick bite)
Borretsch(German m.) borage (Borago officinalis, Echium amoenum)
Borretschöl(German n.) borage oil
Borretschsamen(German m.) borage seed
Borretschsamenöl(German n.) borage seed oil
Borrey(Italian) bourrée
Borricada(Spanish f.) silly thing
Borrico(Spanish m.) donkey, ass (figurative)
Borromäerinnen(German pl.) Borromeans (Sisters of Mercy of St. Borromeo)
Borromäische Inseln(German pl.) Borromean Islands
Borromean IslandsIsole Borromee (Italian), a group of three small islands and two islets in the Italian part of Lago Maggiore
Borrón(Spanish m.) smudge, blemish, sketch
borroso(Spanish) blurred, vague (figurative)
Borrowed chorduse of a chord in a key in which it is not diatonic, or the substitution of a chord from a different key into a work
Borrowed divisiona term used to describe when a note is divided into an unusual number of smaller notes, for example, when three crotchets (quarter notes) are to be played in the time of a minim (a half note), i.e. as a triplet
Borrowed stopsor borrows, organ pipes that can be played by more than one stop control. They duplicate other stops elsewhere in the organ, and permit a single rank of pipes to sound in more than one division. Borrows usually involve softer accompanimental ranks and reed ranks, and are provided to increase the flexibility of smaller organs
the exclusive right of the artist to the benefits that accrue from his or her intellectual property is a characteristic of modern culture. Borrowing is a common phenomenon, and exists in three types:
self-borrowing, or use of themes from one piece in another
borrowing which is done as an obvious tribute or burlesque of the original
unacknowledged borrowing. Modern sensitivities consider this latter type of borrowing to be outright theft. The eighteenth century acknowledged but did not condemn this type of borrowing
terms that might be applied in such cases are:
parodyrestricted to literal or almost literal reuses of material with a different text, where structure and musical substance remains intact
reusethe literal repetition of the same piece, including the text
reworkinga musical idea that has been modified
new workthose works which use brief motives or themes to form a new piece
Borrowssee 'borrowed stops'
Borsa(Italian f.) bag, handbag, stock exchange
Borsa della spesa(Italian f.) shopping bag
Borsa di studio(Italian f.) scholarship
Borsaiolo(Italian m.) pickpocket
Borsalbe(German f.) boric ointment
Börse (s.), Börsen (pl.)(German f.) stock exchange, bourse (stock market in non-English-speaking countries, especially France), exchange, stock market, securities exchange, purse, share market
Börsegang(German m. - Austria) going public (company)
Borsellino(Italian m.) purse
Börsenanlage(German f.) stockmarket investment
Börsenbeobachter(German m.) analyst
Börsenbericht(German m.) stock list, stock exchange list, stocklist, market report, review of the market, stock market report, stock exchange report
Börsenbewertung(German f.) market valuation, stock market valuation
Börsenblatt (s.), Börsenblätter (pl.)(German n.) financial newspaper, financial paper, stock exchange gazette
Börsenboom(German m.) stock market boom
Börsenfachmann(German m.) analyst
börsenfähig(German) negotiable
börsengängig(German) marketable
Borsengeschäfte manipulieren(German) to manipulate the stock market
Börsenindex(German m.) stock exchange index
Börsenkrach(German m.) market crash, collapse of the stock market, stock market crash
Börsenkurs (s.), Börsenkurse (pl.)(German m.) market price, market rate, stock exchange quotation, stock market price
börsennotiert(German) quoted, publicly owned, listed (company)
börsennotierte Gesellschaft(German f.) publicly traded company
börsennotiertes Unternehmen(German n.) publicly traded company, quoted company, listed company
Börsennotiz(German f.) stock market listing
Börsenrückzug(German m.) delisting
Börsenschlusspreis(German m.) closing price
Börsensturz(German m.) slump, market collapse, plunge, stock market crash
Börsenzeitung (s.), Börsenzeitungen (pl.)(German f.) financial (news)paper
Börsianer(German m.) stock exchange speculator
Borsista(Italian m./f.) speculator, holder of a scholarship
Borst-ademhaling(Dutch) costal or thorasic breathing
Borste (s.), Borsten (pl.)(German f.) bristle
Borstenkiefer(German f.) bristlecone pine
Borstenpinsel (s.), Borstenpinsel (pl.)(German m.) bristle brush
Borsten zeigend(German) bristling
borstig(German) bristly, bristled, setaceous
borstig sein(German) to bristle
borstiger Bart(German m.) bristly beard
borstiges Haar(German n.) bristly hair
Borstigkeit(German f.) bristliness
Borst-register(Dutch) chest register (voice)
Borte(German f.) border, braid (decorative woven band), piece of braid, edging
Bortsch(Russian, borshch) also borsch or borscht, a Russian soup coloured with beetroot juice
Borudscherd(German n.) Borujerd (Iranian city, the main centre of making samovars)
Borusse(German m.) Prussian
Borwasser(German n.) boracic lotion
Borzoi(Russian) a Siberian wolfhound
bösartig(German) ill-natured, malicious, malignant, mischievous, naughty, venomous, virulent, malign, pernicious, ferocious, viciously, ill-naturedly, mischievously (maliciously), vicious, rogue (only before noun), malevolent, iniquitous
bösartige Sachbeschädigungen(German pl.) malicious damages
bösartige Software(German f.) malware (malicious software)
bösartiger Hund(German m.) snarling dog, vicious dog
bösartiger Tumor(German m.) malignant tumour
Bösartigkeit(German f.) malignity, sinisterness, viciousness, cussedness, malice, malignance, ill nature, virulence
Bosca Ceol(Irish Gaelic, literally 'music box') a term applied to the chromatic (half-step) tuned Irish button accordion, not to piano accordions or concertinas
Boscagewoodland, ornamental plantations, shrubbery
Boscaglia(Italian f.) woodlands
Boscaiolo(Italian m.) woodman, forester
Boscaje(Spanish m.) thicket
Böschung(German f.) bank, brae (Scotland), acclivity, slope, escarpment, embankment
Böschungsmauer(German f.) retaining wall
Böschungsschichten(German pl.) foreset beds (one of the main parts of a river delta)
Bosco(Italian m.) wood
boscoso(Italian, Spanish) wooded
Böse(German n.) bad, evil, ill
böse(German) angry, wicked, evil, naughty, bad, badly, cross, vicious, squint-eyed, resentful, nefarious, ill, black, mean, diabolic, fierce, sinister, indignant, nasty, villainous, crossly
böse Absicht(German f.) malice (in law)
böse Ahnung(German f.) misgiving, bad omen
böse Ahnungen bestätigen(German) to validate suspicions
böse Angelegenheit(German f.) nasty matter
böse auf(German) angry at
böse auf ... werden(German) to get shirty with ... (colloquial)
böse Bemerkung(German f.) rude remark
böse Blicke werfen(German) to shoot malignant glances
böse brummen(German) to growl
böse Erwiderung(German f.) bad turn, ill turn
böse Fee(German f.) wicked fairy godmother
böse Folgen(German pl.) dire consequences
böse Gedanken(German pl.) evil thoughts
böse Geister austreiben(German) to exorcise
böse Geister bannen(German) to exorcise
böse gesinnt(German) ill-affected
böse Kopfschmerzen(German pl.) a violent headache
böse Mächte(German pl.) evil forces, forces of evil
böse Person(German f.) evil person
böse Programm(German n.) malware
böser Anfall von Lungenentzündung(German m.) bad attack of pneumonia
böser Blick(German m.) evil eye, nasty look, sinister look
böser Bursche(German m.) bad fellow
böser Finger(German m.) bad finger
böser Geist (s.), böse Geister (pl.)(German m.) daemon, demon, fiend, hobgoblin, evil spirit, evil genius
böser Haufen(German m.) bad lot
böser Junge(German m.) bad boy
böser Kerl(German m.) baddie (colloquial)
böser Mann(German m.) bad man, wicked man
böser Streich(German m.) dirty trick, naughty trick
böser Sturm(German m.) bad storm, vicious storm
böser Traum(German m.) nasty dream
böser Trick(German m.) nasty trick
böser Wind(German m.) ill wind
böse Sache(German f.) ugly business
Böses ahnen lassen(German) to have misgivings
Böses anzetteln(German) to machinate
Böses beabsichtigen(German) to mean mischief
böses Blut(German n.) bad blood
böses Blut erzeugen(German) to cause bad blood
böses Blut heranzüchten(German) to breed bad blood
böses Brummen(German n.) growl
böse sein auf(German) to be mad at
böses Geschick(German n.) doom
böses Gewissen(German n.) sore conscience
Böses im Schilde führen(German) to be up to mischief
böse Situation(German f.) crunch
böses Knie(German n.) bad knee
böses Omen(German n.) portent, bad omen
böses Schicksal(German n.) doom
böse Stiefmutter(German f.) wicked stepmother
Böses tun(German) to do evil
böses Vorzeichen(German n.) bad omen, bird of ill omen
Böses wiedergutmachen lassen(German) to get a great wrong righted
böses Zeichen(German n.) sinister sign
böses Zeug(German n.) bad stuff
böse Tat (s.), böse Taten (pl.)(German f.) foul deed, dark doings (plural form), evil deeds (plural form)
böse über(German) angry over
böse Verbindung(German f.) evil alliance
böse Vorahnung(German f.) presentiment
böse Weib(German n.) virago, tigress (woman), fury (mythological figure)
böse Welt(German f.) evil world
Bösewicht (s.), Bösewichte (pl.)(German m.) villain, evildoer, baddie (colloquial), bad guy, rascal
böse Wille(German m.) ill will
böse Wunde(German f.) angry wound
böse Zeiten(German pl.) bad times, hard times
böse zugerichtet(German) badly-hit, ravaged, battered
böse zugerichtetes Bild(German n.) ravaged picture
böse zugerichtetes Gesicht(German n.) battered face, ravaged face
böse Zunge (s.), böse Zungen (pl.)(German f.) foul tongue, sharp tongue, detractors (plural form), malicious tongues (plural form)
böse zurichten(German) to batter
bösgläubig(German) mala fide (of bad faith)
bösgläubig handeln(German) to act mala fide, to act in bad faith
bösgläubiger Besitzer(German m.) male-fide possessor
bösgläubiger Erwerb(German m.) acquisition made in bad faith,
bösgläubiger Erwerber(German m.) acquirer acting in bad faith, purchaser acting in bad faith
bösgläubiger Käufer(German m.) male-fide purchaser
Bösgläubigkeit(German f.) scienter (guilty knowledge)
boshaft(German) mischievous, malicious, spiteful, venomous, venomously, vicious, wicked, mischievously (maliciously), maliciously, spitefully, rogue (followed by a noun)
boshafte Anspielung(German f.) venomous allusion
boshafte Bemerkung(German f.) vicious remark
boshafte Kritik(German f.) vicious criticism
boshafter Charakter(German m.) nasty character
boshafter Schriftsteller(German m.) venomous writer
boshafter Streich(German m.) venomous joke
boshaftes Grinsen(German n.) evil grin, venomous smile
boshaftes Weibsstück(German n.) scratching-cat
Boshaftigkeit(German f.) evilness, shrewishness, malignity, spite, spitefulness, viciousness, wickedness, invidiousness
Bosheit (s.), Bosheiten (pl.)(German f.) malice, wickedness, accursedness, fiendishness, impishness, maliciousness, malignity, rancorousness, invidiousness, spite, virulence (figurative), cattiness, unpleasantness, spiteful act, nastiness (malice), spiteful remark
Boskoop(German m.) russet
Boskop(German m.) russet
Bosniak(English, German m. - Austria) a person belonging to autochthonous South Slavic people living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Sandzak region of Serbia and Montenegro
Bosniake (m.), Bosniakin (f.), Bosniaken (pl.)(German) Bosniak
bosniakisch(German) Bosnian
Bosnian hip hop
Bosnien(German n.) Bosnia (now part of Bosnia & Herzegovina)
Bosnien-Herzegowina(German n.) Bosnia-Herzegovina
Bosnien und Herzegowina(German n.) Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnier (m.), Bosnierin (f.), Bosnier (pl.), Bosnierinnen ( Bosnian
Bosnisch(German n.) Bosnian
bosnisch(German) Bosnian
bosnisch-herzegowinisch(German) of Bosnia and Herzegovina
bosnischsprachig(German) Bosnian-speaking
Bosporus(English, German m.) Bosphorus (generally, a strait or narrow sea between two seas, or a lake and a seas)
Bosquecillo(Spanish m.) copse
bosquejar(Spanish) to sketch
Bosquejo(Spanish m.) sketch
Bosquet(French m., Spanish m.) grove, wood, forest
Bossa circular bulge or knoblike form, as a round mound protrudes from a flatter area surrounding it
(English, German m.) gaffer, honcho (slang), top dog (colloquial), the person in charge
Bossagean uncut stone that is laid in place in a building, projecting outward from the building, to later be carved into mouldings, capitals, arms, etc
Bossa Nova(German m.) bossa nova
Bossa nova(English, Boosa Nova (German m.), from the Portuguese, literally 'new bump') bossa nova officially started in August 1958, when Odeon released a João Gilberto single that featured Chega de Saudade (Tom Jobim and Vinicius de Moraes) and Bim Bom (João Gilberto). The influence of impressionist composers like Debussy and Ravel, the dissatisfaction with restrictive local music formats and the overwhelming power of American culture in the Post-War period enabled the emergence of clever, controversial artists like guitarists Garoto, Luís Bonfá, João Donato and specially composer/pianist Johnny Alf
Bossa nova (dance)a dance genre that corresponded to bossa nova music. It was introduced in 1960 and faded out in the mid-sixties
Bossa nova jazza hybrid form that appeared in the early 1960s as bossa nova rhythms became popular with jazz and pop musicians in the U.S. and Europe
Bosse (s.), Bosse (German pl.)(French f.) bump, hump (camel)
(German f.) boss
Bosselatedmarked or covered with many bosses (protuberances)
bosseler(French) to emboss, to dent
Boßeln(German n. - Northern Germany) game involving the throwing of a ball along country roads
Bossenquaderwerk(German n.) bossage
bosser(French) to work, to work hard, to work at, to work hard at
bossieren(German) to boss, to emboss
Bossierhammer(German m.) embossing hammer (one of a range of special hammers employed in silversmithing and metalsmithing)
Bossolo(Italian m.) cartridge case
Bossu (m.), Bossue (f.)(French m./f.) hunch-back
bostezar(Spanish) to yawn
Bostezo(Spanish m.) yawn
Boston (waltz)or 'The Boston', see 'American waltz'
Boston (jive)a form of Swing similar to the Lindy Hop but with kicks
Boston Terrier(German m.) Boston terrier, Boston bull terrier
Boston terriersmall pug-faced American terrier breed having a smooth brindle or black coat with white markings
Bostoner (m.), Bostonerin (f.)(German) Bostonian, Boston girl (f.), Boston woman (f.)
Bostoner(German) Bostonian
Bostoner Ehe(German f.) Boston marriage
Boston marriageoriginally used in the 19th century to describe two women living together
böswillig(German) malicious, malevolent, maliciously, wilful, malignant
böswillige Absicht(German f.) malicious intent
böswillige Tat(German f.) piece of malice
Böswilligkeit (s.), Böswilligkeiten (pl.)(German f.) malevolence, malignancy, malice, ill will, maliciousness
bot(German) bade, bid (archaic)
Bota(Spanish f.) boot, leather wine bottle
Botanico(Italian m.) botanist
Botánico(Spanish m.) botantist
Botanik(German f.) botany
Botaniker (m.), Botanikerin (f.), Botaniker (pl.)(German) botanist
botanisch(German) botanical, botanic
botanischer Garten (s.), botanische Gärten (pl.)(German m.) botanic garden, botanical garden
botanisieren(German) to botanise
Botanisiertrommel(German f.) (botanist's) specimen container
Botanist(English, German m.) a biologist specializing in the study of plants
Botaniste(French m./f.) botanist
Botanomantie(German f.) botanomancy (divination from burning tree branches and leaves)
Botão(Portuguese) button (as on an accordion)
botar(Spanish) to launch, to bounce
Botaratada(Spanish f.) silly thing
Botarate(Spanish m.) idiot
Bote (m.), Botin (German f.), Boten (German pl.)(German) messenger, summoner, delivery boy, delivery man, errand boy, runner, legman, envoy, mercury, herald (as part of the title of a newspaper)
(Spanish m.) bounce, blow, jump, jolt, tin, can, jar, jar for tips (restaurant), boat
Botella(Spanish f.) bottle
Botellita(Spanish f.) small bottle
Botenbericht(German m.) report by messenger
Botengang(German m.) errand
Botengänge machen(German) to run errands
Botengänger(German m.) messenger
Botenjunge(German m.) messenger boy
Botenlohn(German m.) delivery fee
Botenstoff des Nervensystems(German m.) neurotransmitter
Bote salvavidas(Spanish m.) lifeboat
Botet(Catalan) a small instrument or bird call used in the Catalan region of Spain. It is used for calling quails into a trap, and made of a rabbit or pigeon bone.
Botewgrad(German n.) Botevgrad (a town in western Bulgaria)
Bothy bandan informal band put together for dancing or singing origininating in the farm bothies of Scotland
Botica(Spanish f.) chemist's shop
Boticario(Spanish m.) (dispensing) chemist
Botija(Spanish f.) or botijuela, a ceramic jug originally used to transport Spanish olive oil, used to provide a bass accompaniment in the Cuban son
Botijo(Spanish m.) earthenware jug
Botijuelasee botija
Botín(Spanish m.) half boot, booty, sock
Botiquín(Spanish m.) medicine chest, first aid kit
botmäßig(German) submissive
Botmäßigkeit(German f.) dominion (rule)
Botola(Italian f.) trapdoor
Botón(Spanish m.) button, bud
Botonadura(Spanish f.) buttons
Botón de oro(Spanish m.) butter-cup
Botones(Spanish m.) bellboy
Botryoid(German n.) botryoid (a mineral formation shaped like a bunch of grapes)
Botschaft (s.), Botschaften (pl.)(German f.) message, embassy, communication, subtext
Botschafter (m.), Botschafterin (f.)(German) ambassador, ambassadress (f.), head of mission
Botschafterebene(German f.) ambassadorial level
Botschafterfrau(German f.) ambassador's wife
Botschaftsempfang(German m.) embassy reception, embassy dinner
Botschaftsgebäude(German n.) embassy
Botschaftskanzlei (s.), Botschaftskanzleien (pl.)(German f.) chancellery
Botschaftspersonal(German n.) embassy staff
Botschaftsrat(German m.) embassy counsellor
Botschaftssprecher(German m.) embassy spokesman
Botsuana(German n.) Botswana
Botsuaner (m.), Botsuanerin (f.), Botsuaner (pl.), Botsuanerinnen ( Botswanan
botsuanisch(German) Botswanan
Botswana(English, German n.) formerly Bechuanaland, a country of south-central Africa
Botswana hip hop
Botta(Italian f.) blow, bang
Böttcher (m.), Böttcherin (f.), Böttcher (pl.), Böttcherinnen ( cooper
Böttcherei(German f.) cooperage
Böttcherhammer(German m.) cooper's mallet
Böttcherlohn(German m.) cooperage
Böttchermesser(German n.) cooper's knife
Böttcherniete(German f.) cooper's rivet
Böttcherware(German f.) cooperage, coopery
Böttcherwerkstatt(German f.) cooper's shop
Böttcherwerkzeug(German n.) cooper's tools
Botte(French f.) boot, bunch (flowers, vegetables), bundle, bale
(Italian f.) barrel
Botte de caoutchouc (s.), Bottes de caoutchouc (pl.)(French f.) wellington boot
Bottega(Italian f.) a café, a wine-shop
(Italian f.) studio or workshop, often used to identify an object made in the studio of a master when his pupils' or assistants' work on it appears to dominate his own
Bottegaio (m.), Bottegaia (f.)(Italian) shopkeeper
Botteghino(Italian m.) box-office (theatre), lottery-shop
Botten(German f. - Northern Germany) boots
Bottesini bowsee 'French bow/grip'
Bottich(German m.) vat, tub, wash-tub, cuvée (vat)
Bottier(French m.) boot-maker
Bottiglia(Italian f.) bottle
Bottiglieria(Italian f.) wine shop
Bottin(French m.) phone book
Bottino(Italian m.) loot, booty
Bottleneck-Gitarre(German f.) bottleneck guitar
Bottleneck guitara slide guitar, where a smooth, hard object, usually a hollow metal or glass cylinder, is used to change the pitches of the strings
Bottlenecking(English, German n.) using a 'bottleneck' or 'tube slide', for example when playing a guitar
Bottleneck Slide(German m.) bottleneck slide
Bottleneck slideor 'tube slide', usually worn over the ring (3rd) or little (4th) finger when playing a slide guitar. Wearing on the 4th finger has the advantage of leaving one more finger free to fret notes if desired. However some players feel that they get better control using the ring finger. Most instructors recommend letting one or more of the fingers in back of the slide rest lightly on the strings to help mute unwanted vibrations
Bottle organthe concept of the 'bottle organ' with a keyboard developed in the 1800s. Modern 'beer bottle organs' are being made by Peterson Tuners. The sound is produced by blowing air over the tops of real beer bottles. The bottles are filled or "tuned" using mineral oil, which will not evaporate or change tunings if the weather changes
Bottnischer Meerbusen(German m.) Gulf of Bothnia (a northern arm of the Baltic Sea; between Sweden and Finland)
Botto(Italian m.) bang
Bottomthe lowest surface of the harpsichord case. In Italian historical harpsichords and all clavichords it is the primary structural member. In these instruments the bottom is made first and all the other parts are attached to it. In Flemish and French historical instruments the bottom is not structural. The case sides and framework were built first and the bottom was attached last, apparently after the instrument was strung and playing. In some cases it seems that the bottom is held on only by wooden nails or pegs, not glued, perhaps for subsequent repair access? On many revival instruments (Hertz, Ammer, etc.) the bottom is omitted entirely
Bottom boardSockel (German), as the name implies, this is the bottom of the piano. On it are located the pedals, springs and bearing-blocks which are the means of activating the damper lift-rod, bass sustaining or "soft-pedal" mechanisms
[clarified by Michael Zapf]
Bottom frameUnterrahmen (German), on the piano, actually a misnomer, the bottom "frame" is really the finished panel on the front of the piano which extends from just above the pedals to the bottom of the key bed
[clarified by Michael Zapf]
Bottomryor bottomage, a contract by which a shipowner borrows money for equipment, repairs, or a voyage, pledging the ship as security
Bottone(Italian m.) endpin, Knopf (German), bouton (French)
(Italian m.) button, stud, bud
(Italian m.) Endknopf (German m.) Saitenhalterknopf (German m.), bouton (French m.), endbutton, a small projection at the bottom of a stringed instrument (violin, cello, etc.) to which the tailpiece may be attached or through which an endpin may be fitted (for example, on a cello)
Bottoni dei registri(Italian draw-stops
Botulinum(Engloish, German n.) botulinum, botulinus (anaerobic bacterium producing botulin the toxin that causes botulism)
Botulinumtoxin (s.), Botulinumtoxine (pl.)(German n.) botulin toxin (botox), botulinum toxin
Botulisma rare but serious illness caused by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum
Botulismo(Spanish m.) botulism
Botulismus(German m.) botulism
Bouc(French m.) billy-goat, goatee (beard)
Boucan(French m.) din
Bouc émissaire(French m.) scapegoat
Boucharde(French f.) a sculptor's hammer, one face of which is surfaced with small pyrimidal points
Bouche(French f.) mouth
bouché(French) a direction usually reserved for players of the French horn, to stop the sound of or mute their instrument with a hand placed into the bell
bouché (m.), bouchée (f.)(French) blocked, stopped up
Bouche-à-bouche(French f.) mouth-to-mouth resuscitation
Bouche bée (s.), Bouches bées (pl.)(French) open-mouthed, singing with the mouth open, humming
Bouche d'égout(French) manhole
Bouche de metro(French) underground railway entrance
Bouche d'incendie(French) fire hydrant
Bouchée (s.), Bouchées (pl.)(French f.) a mouthful, a small patty, a small pastry, a small puff pastry case
bouchées, sonssee sons bouchées
bouchée, Trompette(French f.) muted trumpet
Bouche fermée (s.), Bouches fermées (pl.)(French f., literally 'mouth closed') bocca chiusa, wordless humming
Boucher (m.), Bouchère (f.)(French) butcher
boucher(French) to block, to cork
Boucherie(French, literally 'butcher's shop') a community gathering in South Louisiana where food (usually hog meat) is provided and which may also involve musical traditions such as Cajun music and zydeco
Bouch-trou(French m.) stopgap
Bouchon(French m.) stopper, cap, cork, float (fishing), hold-up (figurative)
Boucicault, Dion(ysus) Larner (1822-1890)Irish dramatist and actor who enjoyed considerable success before he was 20 with his comedy London Assurance (1841) and then went on to write successful plays on both sides of the Atlantic. He is famous also for his article Opera published in 1887 in The North American Review (Volume 144 Issue 365: Pages 340-348) which attacked opera as an art-form. This led to an impassioned reply from Edgar J. Levey entitled Boucicault and Wagner also published in 1887 in The North American Review (Volume 144 Issue 367; Pages 650-653)
Boucle(French f.) buckle, loop, curl (hair)
Boucle d'orielle(French f.) ear-ring
Bouclé(German n., from French m.) or, in English, 'boucle', a looped, highly textural fabric woven from curly knotted yarn
bouclé(French) curly (hair)
boucler(French) to fasten, to finish off, to shut up, to seal off, to balance (budget), to curl
Bouclier(French m.) shield
Bouddhiste(French m./f.) Buddhist
bouddhiste(French) Buddhist
bouder(French) to sulk, to steer clear of
Bouderie(French f.) sulkiness
Boudeur (m.), Boudeuse (f.)(French) sulky person (a sulk)
Boudoir(German n., from French m., literally 'a sulking-place') a small room where a lady can receive intimate friends or be alone
Boue(French f.) mud
Bouée de sauvetage(French f.) lifebuoy
Boueux (m.), Boueuse (f.)(French) dustman, garbage collector
boueux (m.), boueuse (f.)(French) muddy
bouffant(French) puffed out (for example, a reference to a style of hair-dressing)
Bouffe(French f.) food, grub
bouffe(French, meaning 'comic') as in opèra bouffe, meaning comic opera
bouffée(French) puff, whiff, flush (medicine), fit (of pride)
bouffer(French) to eat, to gobble
Bouffonsold sword dance performed by men in cardboard armour, also called Mattachins or Matassins
Bougainvillea(English, German f.) or, in English, bougainvilla, any of several South American ornamental woody vines of the genus Bougainvillea having brilliant red or purple flower bracts
Bougarobou(West Africa) or bugarabu, a rhythm adopted by the Mandinka from the Jola; also one of several sizes of drums that can be attached together
Bouge(French m.) hovel, dive (bar)
Bougeoir(French m.) candlestick
Bougeotte, la(French f.) the fidgets
bouger(French) to move, to stir
Bougie(French f.) candle, spark(ing)-plug (of a petrol engine)
(French f., German f.) a thin, flexible medical instrument for probing or dilating passages in the body
bougieren(German) to dilate with a bougie
bougon (m.), bougonne (f.)(French) grumpy
bougonner(French) to grumble
Bouillabaisse(French f.) from Provence, a dish of fish stewed in wine or water
bouillant (m.), bouillante (f.)(French) boiling, boiling hot
bouillé(French) boiled
Bouilli(French m.) boiled or stewed meat (usually beef)
Bouillie(French f.) porridge, baby food, mush (prejorative)
bouillir(French) to boil
Bouilloire(French f.) kettle
Bouillon(English, German f., from French m.) unclarified stock (from the French meaning 'to bubble', as when liquid boils)
bouillonner(French f.) to bubble
Bouillonwürfel(English, German m.) soup-tablet, stock cube
Bouillote(French f.) hot-water bottle
boul.abbreviation of boulevard (French)
Boula(Grenada) a drum made from rum barrels, often used in pairs supporting a single higher-pitched 'cut drum', used, for example, in Guadeloupan gwo ka, Carriacouan bele and Dominican bèlè
the smallest supporting drum of a Haitian vodoun ensemble
in Cuba, one of the drums used in tumba francesa is called bulá
Boula djelvocalized percussion songs (i.e. mizik djel or 'mouth music') from Martinique and Guadeloupe which, while associated with traditional wakes, are not considered sacred music. The term boula refers to the use of the traditional boula rhythm
Boulanger (m.), Boulangère (f.)(French) baker
Boulangere, Lasee La Boulangere
Boulangerie(French f.) bakery
Boulangerie-pâtisserie(French f.) bakery and confectioner's shop
Boule(French f.) ball, golf-ball (for a type-writer), a game similar to roulette
Bouleau(French m.) silver birch (tree)
boule dans la gorge, une(French) lump in one's throat
Boule de neige(French f.) snowball
Boule Lyonnaise(French f.) also Sport-boules or le jeu Lyonnaise, a popular form of bowls, and may be the oldest form of the French form of this sport
Boulet(French m.) cannon ball, ball and chain (figurative)
Boulette(French m.) pellet (of paper), meat ball
Boulevard (s.), Boulevards (pl.)(English, German m., from French m.) a broad street or walk planted with trees, particularly designed for leisurely conversation
Boulevardblatt(German n.) tabloid, popular newspaper, tabloid newspaper
Boulevardier(French m.) one who frequents the boulevards, a lounger
Boulevardjournalismus(German m.) yellow journalism
Boulevardpresse(German f.) tabloid press, gutter press, popular press, yellow press (archaic)
Boulevardthema(German n.) topic in the tabloids
Boulevardzeitung (s.), Boulevardzeitungen (pl.)(German f.) tabloid, popular paper, yellow press (plural form)
bouleversant (m.), bouleversante (f.)(French) deeply moving
bouleversé (m.), bouleversée (f.)(French) upset, turned upside down, overwhelmed, overcome (with emotion)
Bouleversement(French m.) upheaval, turning upside down
bouleverser(French) to turn upside down, to disrupt, to distress, to upset
Boulgaríthe Cretan version of the Turkish saz, similar to the earliest forms of the bouzouki
Boulier(French m.) abacus
Boulimie(French f.) bulimia (compusive eating disorder)
Boullean inlaid furniture decoration, tortoiseshell and yellow and white metal form scrolls in cabinetwork
Boulon(French m.) bolt
Boulot(French m.) work
boulot (m.), boulotte (f.)(French) dumpy
Boult, Sir Adrian Cedric (1889-1983)English orchestral conductor, author of A Handbook on the Technique of Conducting (1968)
Boum(French m.) bang
(French f.) party
Bouncy technoa style of music c.1992, mostly emanating from the United Kingdom and the Netherlands
Boundligar (Spanish), legato (Italian, gebunden (German), lié (French)
slurred, tied
Bound booka book in which the boards of the cover have first been attached to it, the covering of leather, cloth, or other materials being then affixed to the boards. Bound books are more expensive to produce and much stronger than cased books
Bound morphenea morpheme used exclusively as part of a larger word rather than one that can stand alone and retain independent meaning. Examples include the morpheme 'ept' in the word 'inept', or the morpheme 'gruntle' in the word 'disgruntled'. This term is the opposite of a free morpheme, which can function by itself as a word, such as the morphemes 'it' and 'self' in the word 'itself'
Bou oughanima clown, a member of a group of Berber professional musicians led by a poet (amydaz), the clown also playing a double clarinet or zummara
Bouquet(English, German n., from French m.) bunch (of flowers), a nosegay, the aroma from a wine
(French m.) clump (of trees)
Bouquet garni(French m.) a faggot of fresh herbs (usually parsley, thyme, bay leaf, usually tied inside pieces of leek or celery)
Bouquin(French m.) book
bouquiner(French) to read
Bouquinist(German m.) bouquiniste
Bouquiniste(French m./f.) second-hand bookseller
bourbeux (m.), bourbeuse (f.)(French) muddy
Bourbier(French m.) mire
Bourbon (Whiskey)(German m.) bourbon (whiskey) (named after Bourbon county, Kentucky, whiskey distilled from a mash of corn and malt and rye and aged in charred oak barrels)
Bourbonen(German pl.) Bourbons (European royal line that ruled in France (from 1589-1793) and Spain and Naples and Sicily)
bourbonische Lilie(German f.) fleur-de-lys (stylised lily in heraldry and art)
Bourbon vanillathe majority of the world's vanilla (named, by the Spanish, vainilla or 'little pod') is produced from the variety Vanilla planifolia, more commonly known as 'Madagascar-Bourbon' vanilla, which is produced in Indian Ocean islands such as Madagascar, the Comoros, and Réunion, formerly the Île Bourbon
Bourbon-Vanille(German f.) bourbon vanilla
Bourde(French f.) blunder
Bourdon (s.), Bourdons (pl.)(French m., literally 'bumble-bee') a low sounding large scale organ pipe, usually stopped, made of wood and generally at 16 ft. or 32 ft. pitch
the lowest string on a lute, violin, violoncello or double bass
French organs sometimes have open bourdons, at 4 ft. and 8 ft. pitch
in a Dutch street organ, the bourdon is two ranks of loudly-voiced melody flutes tuned to a strong celeste
the term bourdon is often used more generally for any stopped flute rank
a large deep-sounding bell, whether in a chime, carillon, or peal - or simply a single large church bell. However, in English change ringing, the largest bell is called the 'tenor'
the drone string of a hurdy-gurdy
a drone pipe of a bagpipe
(German m.) burden
Bourdon de cornemuse(French m.) the drone of a bagpipe
Bourdon de musette(French m.) the drone of a bagpipe
Bourdonnement(French m.) buzzing
bourdonner(French) to buzz
Bourg(French m.) town (usually a market town)
Bourgade(French f.) village
Bourgeois (m.), Bourgeoise (French f.)(German m., from French) people or values or behaviours typical of the middle class. All those who are bourgeois comprise a group called the bourgeoisie. Most members of this group are executives and professionals. The upper middle-class is known as the haute bourgeoisie. These terms appear frequently in Marxist texts
bourgeois (m.), bourgeoise (f.)(French) middle-class
Bourgeoisie(English, German f., from French f.) city-dwelling middle class (a social group that is usually considered philistine when it comes to matters of taste)
Bourgeoisie dorée(French f.) affluent middle class
Bourgeon(French m.) bud
bourgeonner(French) to bud
Bourgeosie(French f.) see bourgeois
Bourgogne, la(French f.) Burgundy
Bourguignonne(French f.) a red wine sauce with the addition of button onions and mushrooms
Bourlescasee burlesco, burlesca
bourlinguer(French) to travel about
Bournonville, August (1805-1879)Danish dancer and choreographer who work gave equal importance to both male and female dancers
Bournville Village Trust
an influential model village founded by the Quaker Cadbury Brothers after moving their Cocoa & Chocolate factory to a site just south of Birmingham. Started with a few cottages provided alongside the factory, it grew into a whole planned village that was turned into a charitable trust in 1900 at which time it consisted of 330 acres and 313 dwellings. Became a model for the Garden City & Suburbs movement with the First Garden City conference being held there in 1901 and George Cadbury was one of the first vice-presidents of the Garden City Association. The village is laid out with ample open space, shops, public buildings and each house has a large garden attached. Tenancies were open to anybody, not just Cadbury employees. During the 1930s the trust developed what were known as 'Ten shilling houses. The trust has continued to managed the village and be involved in housing development up to the present day. In the 1930s the trust acquired a series of farms as a 'greenbelt' on the southern side of Birmingham and now manage some 2770 acres of open or farm land
Bourrade(French f.) prod
Bourrage de crâne(French m.) brainwashing
Bourrasque(French f.) squall
bourratif (m.), bourrarive (f.)(French) filling, stodgy
Bourré(French) bourrée
Bourreau de travail(French m.) workaholic
Bourrée(French f., German f.) or boree, a French dance similar to the gavotte but beginning on the fourth beat (of four) rather than the third (of four) as in the gavotte
Bourreesin dance, a series of tiny steps which give the impression of gliding across the floor
Bourrelet(French m.) draught excluder, roll of fat (flesh)
bourrer(French) to cram, to stuff, to fill
bourrer de(French) to cram with, to stuff with
bourrer de coups(French) to thrash
bourrer le crâne à ...(French) to fill ...'s head with nonsense
Bourrette(German f.) noil silk, silk noil (silk waste made up of short fibres combed from long fibres during the preparation of textile yarns)
Bourretteseide(German f.) silk noil, bourrette silk, noil silk (silk fabric produced from yarn spun from silk waste)
Bourrette-Seide(German f.) silk noil
Bourrique(French f.) ass
bourru(French) surly
Bourse(French f.) purse, grant (of money), the French Stock Exchange
Bousculade(French f.) rush, crush
bousculé(French) tumbling
bousculer(French) to jostle, to rush, to knock over
Bouse(French f.) cow dung
bousiller(French) to mess up
Boussole(French f.) compass
Boustrophedonor boustrephedon, an ancient way of writing manuscripts and other inscriptions in which, rather than going from left to right as in modern English, or right to left as in Hebrew and Arabic, alternate lines must be read in opposite directions. The name is borrowed from the Greek and means 'as the ox turns while ploughing'
Bout(French m.) end, tip (tongue, bâton), bit
(French m.) end (of a bow)
(English) in the violin and guitar families, the curve in the sides of the instrument, especially the C-shaped inward curve that form the waist and the convex curve at the top and bottom of the instrument
upper boutOberbug, Oberbügel (German m.)largeur du haut (French f.)zona superiore (Italian f.)
middle boutMittelbug (German m.)largeur aux "C" (French f.)zona della C (Italian f.)
lower boutUnterbug (German m.)largeur du bas (French f.)zona inferiore (Italian f.)
Boutade(French f.) jest, whim, a sudden fit of temper, an unpredictable action
(French f.) an improvisatory piece like a caprice or fantasia
(French f.) an old French dance
(French f.) a short ballet which was meant to appear as though it was being improvised
Bout du doigt(French m.) fingertips
Boute-en-train(French m.) joker, live wire
Bouteille(German f., from French f.) bottle (in Austria, a specific volume of 0.7 litre)
Bouteillophonea percussion instrument formed of a number of bottles tuned so that when struck they play a chromatic scale. The bottles are tuned by filling them with a certain amount of water. Erik Satie wrote for this instrument
Boutique (s.), Boutiquen (German pl.), Boutiques (English, French, German pl.)(English, German f., from French f.) shop (usually one selling fashionable items are very high prices)
(German f.) millinery
Boutique de brocanteur(French f.) junk shop
Bouton(French m.) endpin, bottone (Italian), Knopf (German)
(French m.) button, stud
(French m.) Endknopf (German m.) Saitenhalterknopf (German m.), bottone (Italian m.), endbutton, a small projection at the bottom of a stringed instrument (violin, cello, etc.) to which the tailpiece may be attached or through which an endpin may be fitted (for example, on a cello)
(French m.) pimple, bud, knob (radio, etc.)
Bouton de manchette(French m.) cuff-link
Bouton d'or(French m.) buttercup
boutonné (m.), boutonnée (f.)(French, literally 'buttoned up') reticent, unforthcoming, laconic
boutonner(French) to button, to button up
Boutonnière(French f.) buttonhole
boutonneux (m.), boutonneuse (f.)(French) pimply
Bouton-pression(French m.) press-stud
Boutons de registres(French m. pl.) drawstops
Bouts rimés(French m. pl., literally 'rhymed ends') a game in which a verse in composed where individual couplets are commenced and ended by different people, sometimes where the person completing one couplet also begins the following couplet
Bouture(French) cutting (plant)
Bouvet-Insel(German f.) Bouvet Island
Bouvet Islandan island belonging to Norway in the South Atlantic near the Antarctic Circle
Bouvier des Flandres(German m.) bouvier des Flandres (rough-coated breed of dog used originally in Belgium for herding and guarding cattle)
Bouyon(Dominica) a fusion of 'cadence-lypso' and traditional 'Jing ping' sound
Bouyon-muffina modern offshoot of bouyon that uses prominent elements of Jamaican raggamuffin music
Bouzouki (s.), Bouzoukia (pl.)(English, German f, from Greek) a twentieth-century long-necked Greek lute, derived from the Turkish saz with a fretted neck and a pear shaped body containing 2, 3 or 4 double courses of metal strings
today there are three forms of bouzouki:
trichordoearly bouzoukis were Trichordo, with three courses (six strings in three pairs) and were generally tuned to D3/D4 A3 D4. This tuning fits in well with the music of the Middle East, as an open chord is neither major nor minor, allowing great flexibility with the melody. Trichordo bouzoukis are still being made, and are very popular with aficionados of Rembetika
tetrachordoin 1953, Manolis Khiotis added a fourth pair of strings to the bouzoúki. This instrument has 8 metal strings, arranged in four pairs, known as courses. In the two higher-pitched (treble) courses, the two strings of the pair are tuned to the same note. These are used for playing melodies, usually with the two courses played together. In the two lower-pitched (bass) courses, the pair consists of a thick string and a thin string tuned an octave apart. These 'octave strings' add to the fullness of the sound and are used in chords and bass drones (continuous low notes that are played throughout the music). The original tuning for the four-course bouzouki is C3 F3 A3 D4 (where C4 is Middle C). This makes it the same tuning pattern as the first four strings on a guitar, but pitched down a whole tone. In recent times, some players have taken to tuning their bouzoukis up in pitch to D3 G3 B3 E4
Irishintroduced into Irish traditional music in the 1970s, by Johnny Moynihan and Alec Finn, and popularised by Andy Irvine and Dónal Lunny. Irish music relies less on virtuoso melodies played on double courses, and more on the bass courses, so they got rid of the octave strings which only confuse things and replaced them with pairs tuned to the same note. They used a tuning of G2 D3 A3 D4 or A2 D3 A3 D4, which ironically is closer to the original Greek instrument than modern Greek ones are
Bovarism(named after the character of Emma Bovary in Flaubert's novel Madame Bovary) an imagined or unrealistic conception of oneself
a anxiety to escape from a social or sentimental condition judged to be unsatisfactory, sometimes by building a fictitious personality
Bovarysme(French m.) Bovarism
Bovarismo(Italian m., Spanish m.) Bovarism
Bóveda(Spanish f.) vault
Bovenblad(Dutch) belly (of a string instrument), soundboard, top plate
Boventoon(Dutch) partial, overtone (acoustics)
bovin(German) bovine
bovin (m.), bovine (f.)(French) bovine
bovino(Italian) bovine
Bovini(Italian cattle
Bovins(French cattle
Bowarco (Italian, Spanish, Portuguese), archetto (Italian), Bogen (German), archet (French)
a device used on certain stringed instruments, a stick, usually made of wood, and hair, usually taken from the tail of a horse, which is used to impart energy to the strings, so that they vibrate, which vibrations act on the resonator box over which the tensioned strings are stretched, thus producing the audible sound characteristic to the instrument. The modern violin bow is usually between 27 and 30 inches in length although historically it was somewhat shorter
the Chinese yazheng and yaqin, and Korean ajaeng zithers are generally played by "bowing" with a rosined stick, which rubs against the strings without any horsehair. The hurdy-gurdy, an instrument known in medieval Europe, has strings which are bowed by a "rosin wheel," which is turned by a handle
instruction on how to use a bow when playing such an instrument, through a series of special signs printed in or added later to the score
to incline the head or body in greeting or acknowledgement, for example as part of an early dance
Bow-armor 'bow-hand', most commonly the right arm or hand, in which the bow of a stringed instrument is held
Bow changeBogenwechsel (German), the change of direction when moving from up-stroke to down-stroke, or visa versa
Bowdlerizationa later editor's censorship of sexuality, profanity, and political sentiment of an earlier author's text. Editors and scholars usually use this term in a derogatory way to denote an inferior or incomplete text. A text censored in this way is said to be bowdlerized. The term comes from the name of Reverend Thomas Bowdler (1754-1825) who produced The Family Shakespeare (1815-18). He removed whatever he considered "unfit to be read by a gentleman in the company of ladies"
Bowdlerizeto censor or alter an earlier writer's work
Bow, earlyearly violin and cello bows and bows for the viol are all outcurved, unlike the modern violin bow shown above. In the case of the viol bow, this shape makes it possible to hold it 'underarm' in the palm of the hand with one or two fingers on the bow hair to adjust the tension during the stroke
Bowed guitarsee arpeggione
Bowed psalteryliterally a psaltery that is played with a bow
Bowed vihuelasee vihuela d'arco
Bowed zitherthe bowed zither may seem strange, but is exactly what it appears to be - a violin for zitherists. Resting on a table, the left hand frets the fingerboard (tuned backwards from a violin) exactly like a zither, while the right hand bows the strings
Bow haircrini dell'arco (Italian m. pl.), Bogenhaare (n. pl.), crins de l'archet (French m. pl.)
BowhammerMichael Masley's invention is a system of eight "bowhammers" and thumbpicks, allowing him to pluck, bow, or strike the strings in any combination on a range of string instruments
Bow-handsee 'bow arm'
Bowie knifea stout hunting knife with a single edge
Bowiemesser(German n.) bowie knife
arcobowing as opposed to pizzicato
down-bowwhere the bow moves from the frog to the point
up-bowwhere the bow moves from the point to the frog
middle-bowwhere most of string instrument playing takes place
legatoa group of notes played smoothly in one bow
tenutoalternate bows, full length
portatoplayed with a single bow but with a slight break between the notes
staccatoshort up and down bows (notes are half length) - indicated by dots placed over/under the note.
There are two types:
a. separate bow - notes are played separated and with separate bows for each note
b. slurred - consecutive notes are played separated, but with one bow direction
spiccato, saltandostaccato with a bounced bow, that is usually used for faster passages. There are a number of different types:
a. deliberate - usually in slow passages, player bounces the bow in a deliberate manner to give an interesting effect
b. spontaneous - (sautillé) where the speed of the passage causes the player to instinctively create a bouncing motion with the bow. Sometimes described as "an uncontrolled spiccato"
c. slurred spiccato (staccato volante, flying staccato) - similar to slurred staccato except that the bow bounces on the string to create the separation of the pitches. Instead of reversing direction for each note as in ordinary spiccato, the bow picks up a series of short notes, usually on an up-bow
détachéa single bow stroke per note, with successive notes played as seamlessly as possible, more legato than staccato (although some writers do use the term, when refering to non-stringed instruments, to mean separated or detached)
au talonbowing at the frog, for a loud effect
punta d'arco bowing at the point, for a delicate effect
louré, piquéa succession of notes slightly separated played on the same bow, that is, it is performed with several notes in one bow direction, each note receiving a gentle "push" to separate it - indicated in the same way as détaché but with a slur
marcatoheavy, separate stroke with a pressed accent played near the heel
martelé or martellatohammered notes, a strong staccato
jeté, ricochetbouncing the top of the bow to create repeated notes in one bow - indicated by slurred staccato.
The bouncing motion of the bow creates 2 to 6 or even more rapid notes. This is usually with a downward bow motion, but up-bows are occasionally used as well. The cello and double bass can only execute about 3 consecutive notes, maybe 4, because of the shorter bow that is used.
volantebouncing on the string, similar to ricochet
tremolosmall but very rapid up and down bows - can sound dramatic, ethereal, or clichéed if overdone - measured (e.g. semiquavers or sixteenth notes) written with two slashes, unmeasured with three. A fingered tremolo is similar to a trill but with an interval larger than a whole tone
col legnousing the bow upside down
ecraséscratchy noise achieved on bowed string instruments by the use of excess bow pressure (also called a 'scratch tone' or 'scratch note')
sul ponticellobowing close to the bridge - a thin sound
sul tastobowing over the fingerboard - sounds hazy
flautandobowing close to the fingerboard - sounds flutelike
glissandoor portamento, sliding from one note to another, indicated by a line between the notes
portamentoor glissando, sliding from one note to another, indicated by a line between the notes
sul G, etc.this means all notes played on the G string, can apply to any other string as requested e.g. sul A
Bowle(German f.) (cold) punch (drink), punchbowl
Bowlen (s./pl.)(German n.) bowls (game), bowling
bowlen(German) to play bowls (game), to bowl
bowlen gehen(German) to go to play bowls, to go (tenpin) bowling
Bowler(German m.) bowler (cricket), bowler (hat)
Bowlerhut(German m.) bowler hat
Bowling(German n.) bowls, (tenpin) bowling
Bowling spielen(German) to bowl
Bowlingbahn(German f.) bowling alley
Bowlingkugel(German f.) bowling ball
Bowlingspieler(German m.) bowler (at bowling, in a bowling alley)
Bowlsspiel(German n.) bowls
Bowlsspieler(German m.) bowler (at bowls, on a bowling green), bowls player
Bow mitesanthrenus museorum is a common destroyer of hair and anything else made of protein, such as old-fashioned woollen felt case linings, gut strings, leather, hair, parchment, etc. Mites usually only live where it is closed and dark, such as in a violin case that is not often used. Keep the case off the floor, especially away from carpets. The worst possible place to store a violin is under a bed or in a closet. Once mites infest a case, they can be difficult to get rid of. You should vacuum and air out the case thoroughly, and if possible expose it to sunlight for a few days. There are a number of suggested treatments that are not to be recommended, such as spraying the case with an insecticide or using camphor moth balls. Such products are highly aromatic and can possibly damage the varnish on your violin and bow. Never store a violin with mothballs in the case with it. Old cases with wool felt, natural silk or silk velvet linings are notorious for attracting mites. Modern cases with synthetic linings and good weather seals are less prone to infestation. If you are using the older type of case you should get rid of it immediately. Even decorative antique cases are not usually very valuable because they provide so little protection to their contents
in fact 'bow mites' aren't really mites, they are the larvae of a species of carpet beetle. The entomologist in the museum where I work has given a couple of brown bag lectures on pest that bother museum collections, and this group of beetles are among the worst. They are small (under a 1/4 inch) and it is the larvae that do the eating. The larvae do not look like beetles, more like very small elongated sow bugs (or pill bugs) and are often a bit hairy. There are different species, and the species differ in what they prefer to eat but there could be several types that would be willing to eat horsehair
[comment provided by Michael Zapf]
Bow, modernan incurved stick with horsehair stretched across it, used today to play stringed instruments such as the violin, cello, etc.
violin bow
Bow sawa saw with a slender blade connected at each end to a narrow handle that curves outward like an archer's bow
Box (s.), Boxen (German pl.)(French m.) lock-up garage, cubicle
(Italian m.) loose box (horse), play-pen (baby)
(German f.) loudspeaker, pit (motor racing), stall, (loud) speaker (hi-fi system), box (step), loose box (horse)
Boxball(German m.) punchingball, punching-ball
Boxclub(German m.) boxing club
Boxen(German n.) boxing, pugilism
boxen(German) to scuff, to punch, to box
boxend(German) fighting
Boxenstopp(German m.) pit stop
Boxeraufstand(German m.) Boxer Rebellion
Boxershorts(German pl.) boxer shorts, boxers
Boxgymnastik(German f.) boxercise (fitness class)
Boxhandschuh (s.), Boxhandschuhe (pl.)(German m.) boxing glove
Boxinga substyle of 'tutting', which consists of creating and manipulating box-like or rectangular shapes predominately with ones arms
Boxkamera(German f.) box camera
Boxkampf(German m.) boxing match
Box officethe place from which theatre, concert, etc. tickets are purchased
in the eighteenth century, only boxes could be reserved and paid for in advanced. All other seating was sold on a first-come first-served basis. The boxes were sold from an office near the stage door, hence the term 'box office'
Box pleatpleat made of two flat folds turned inwards towards each other, creating a box like shape on the front of the garment
Boxring(German m.) boxing ring
Boxsack(German m.) punchbag (gym equipment)
Box seta theatrical structure common to modern drama in which the stage consists of a single room setting in which the "fourth wall" is missing so the audience can view the events within the room. Contrast with the 'theatre in the round' and 'apron stage'
Boxsport(German m.) boxing
Box step
Box The Gnatone of the figures unique to, or traditionally associated with, square dancing
Boxweltmeister(German m.) boxing world champion
Boxwettkampf(German m.) boxing bout, boxing match, boxing-match
Boxwood(German Buchsbaum, French Buis, Dutch Gewone palm, European Species: Buxus sempervivens: Average Weight: from 53 to 70 pounds per cubic foot) Boxwood is very hard and almost without grain. It is only available in small pieces and is used for carving and small items such as combs. Boxwood was used for inlays from at least the sixteenth century
Boya(Spanish f.) buoy, float
Boy actoror boy player, a common term for the adolescent males employed by Medieval and English Renaissance playing companies. Some boy players worked for the mainstream companies and performed the female roles, as women did not perform on the English stage in this period. Others worked for "children's companies," in which all roles, not just the female ones, were played by boys
  • Boy player from which this information has been taken
boyante(Spanish) buoyant
Boyar(Russian) or bojar, a member of the highest rank of the feudal Bulgarian, Romanian, and Russian aristocracy, second only to the ruling princes, from the 10th through the seventeenth century
  • Boyar from which this extract has been taken
Boyau(French m.) catgut, actually made from the intestines of sheep, lambs or goat
(French m.) gut, gallery, (bicycle) tyre
Boyaudier(French m.) maker of strings for violins, etc.
Boybandor, in the US, boy band, a style of pop group featuring between three and six young male singers who are usually also dancers
  • Boy band from which this extract has been taken
Boycottsocial, economic, or political noncooperation
Boyfriend(English, German m.) a favoured male companion, sweetheart or friend
Boygroup(English, German f.) boy band (male singers)
Boykott(German m.) boycott
boykottieren(German) to boycott
boykottierend(German) boycotting
Boykottierender (m.), Boykottierende (f.), Boykottierende (pl.)(German) boycotter
boykottiert(German) boycotted
Boykottierung(German f.) blacking (of goods), boycott action, boycotting
Boy playersee 'boy actor'
Boyscout(German m.) boy scout
Boyscoutaged between 11 and 18, a member of a worldwide organization of young men and boys, founded in England in 1908, for character development and citizenship
Boysenbeere(German f.) boysenberry
Boysenberrya berry created by horticulturist Rudolph Boysen in 1923 by crossing a raspberry, blackberry, and a loganberry
Boy sopranoa male singer whose voices has not yet changed, one who, in the Anglican and Roman Catholic traditions, is called a treble
Bozal(Spanish m.) muzzle (dog, etc.), halter (horse)
Bolzano(Bozen (German n.), Botzen (archaic), Bulsan (Ladin), Bauzanum (Latin)) a city in the Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol region of Italy, the capital of the province of Bolzano-Bozen
Bozen(German n.) Bolzano
Bozukasee buzuq
Bozukësee buzuq
Bozza(Italian f.) draft, proof (typesetting), bump
Bozza in colonna(Italian f.) galley proof
Bozzetto (s.), Bozzetti (pl.)(Italian m.) a sculptural sketch, a small scale model for a large piece of statuary
Bozzolo(Italian m.) cocoon
BPabbreviation of 'British Patent', 'blood pressure', 'before present' (following a number of years), 'British Pharmacopoeia', boîte postale (French: PO Box, post office box)
Bpabbreviation of 'bishop'
bp.abbreviation of 'baptized', 'birthplace'
b/pabbreviation of 'blueprint'
BPAabbreviation of Bahnpostamt (German: railway post office)
bpl.abbreviation of 'birthplace'
Bpmabbreviation of 'beats per minute', the usual measurement of tempo
bpmabbreviation of 'bits per minute', a measure of the speed at which data is sent over transmission lines
BPosabbreviation of Bass-Posaune (German: bass trombone - trombone basse (French))
B-Probe(German f.) B sample (doping)
Bpsabbreviation of 'bytes per second', a measure of the rate of data transfer
bpsabbreviation of 'bits per second', a measure of the rate of data transfer
Bp Suff.abbreviation of 'Bishop Suffragan' of 'boiling point'
BQabbreviation of bene quiescat (Latin: may he, or she, rest well)
bq.abbreviation of 'barque'
B quadratum(Latin) the note B natural
(Latin) the natural sign
B quadro(Italian) the natural sign
B quadrum(Latin) the note B natural
(Latin) the natural sign
B-quarre(French) béquarre
bque.abbreviation of 'barque'