music dictionary : C - Car

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Cafter Richard Charteris, the cataloguer of music by Giovanni Gabrieli (1557-1612)
after Luciano Ciappari, the cataloguer of music by Franz Liszt (1811-1886)
after Anneliese Callan, the cataloguer of music by Franz Ignaz Beck (1734-1809)
after Howard A. Craw, the cataloguer of music by Jan Ladislav Dussek (1760-1812)
C in music written for the guitar, bar chords (barre chords, barré chords) are usually signified by a large C followed by the Roman numeral representing the fret where the player places his or her index finger
common time, the time signature 4/4 or common time symbol
if a single vertical line lies through the C it indicates alla breve or alla cappella time
if a double vertical line lies through the C it indicates alla breve (that is 4/2) (this sign is now obsolete)
Cabbreviation of 'Celsius' (after Anders Celsius), which is the same as 'centigrade', a temperature scale on which the freezing point of water is 0°, and the boiling point of water is 100° under normal atmospheric pressure
abbreviation of canto or cantus
C, c
note C
(English, German n.) the first note (or tonic) in the scale of C major: in 'fixed do' solfeggio the note called do, doh or ut
Cthe third of three sections in ternary form, i.e. the C section
a system of envelope sizes
C0917 x 1297 mm
C1648 x 917 mm
C2458 x 648 mm
C3324 x 458 mm
C4229 x 324 mm
C5162 x 229 mm
C6114 x 162 mm
C7/681 x 162 mm
C781 x 114 mm
C857 x 81 mm
C940 x 57 mm
C1028 x 40 mm
DL110 x 220 mm
the C series within the ISO International paper sizes range which is mainly used for envelopes or folders suitable for enclosing stationary in the A series
Cin music theory, designates the C-major triad
cin music theory, designates the c-minor triad
cabbreviation of 'cent(s)'
c/abbreviation of calle (Spanish f.: street)
c.abbreviation of 'common' (in dictionaries, glossaries, etc.: both masculaine and feminine)
one-lined c, or middle c, using the 'so-called' German method for distinguishing different octaves (the same notation is applied to the six diatonic notes above c which are treated as lying in the same octave). Notes successively an octave higher have an addition horizontal line or stroke above them and are called two-lined, three-lined, and so on (again applied to the c and the six diatonic notes in each octave immediately above it)
C1, C2, C3, C4, C5see 'clef'
C-14 Datierung(German f.) carbon 14 dating, radiocarbon dating
c.or ca, abbreviation of circa (Latin: about, approximately)
C. 8see con 8va
c.a.abbreviated form of coll'arco (Italian: with the bow, using the bow)
caabbreviated form of circa (Latin: about, approximately)
ça(French) it, that, this
Cab(English, German n.) a compartment at the front of a motor vehicle or locomotive where driver sits, the popular name for a taxicab
Cabaca(English) cabaça
Cabaçaor afuche, rather like a spool with metal beads wound around it, it has a wooden handle and is played by twisting it in the air while striking it on the palm, or by rotating the beads back and forth in the palm of the hand
Cabacetetype of war hat popular in fifteenth century Europe with a turned-down brim which was drawn up to a point in the front and rear with an almond-shaped skull
Cabalesa special kind of flamenco siguiriyas
Cabaletta(Italian f., from cobola meaning 'couplet') or cabbaletta, in nineteenth-century Italian opera, a short aria in rondo form, the last section of an operatic duet. Initially, a simple animated operatic aria, then, finally, the fast concluding section of an operatic aria that brings an act to an end, requiring great accuracy and control
Cabalistic numerological symbolisma method of embedding hidden messages in music, by using a code of numbers based on which notes are used, their durations, arrangement, subdivision, etc., whereby the composer made symbolic referrence to specific persons, places, or things and/or events in some way associated with the music
Caballo(Spanish, literally 'horse') often written a caballo, in Afro-Latin music it is used to describe a rhythmic accompaniment that resembles in feel the trotting of a horse; also used to describe the rhythmic accompaniment to the Pachanga style
Cabane(French f.) hut, cabin, shed, shack (pejorative), capanno (Italian m. - hut, shed), Bude (German f. - shed), Hütte (German m. - hut), cobertizo (Spanish m. - hut, shed)
la cabane (French f.: the nick, the slammer, prison)
Cabane à outils(French f.) toolshed, capanno degli attrezzi (Italian m.), Werkzeugschuppen (German m.), cobertizo para herramientas (Spanish m.)
Cabane de rondins(French f.) log cabin, casetta di legno (Italian f.), Blockhütte (German f.), refugio (Spanish m.)
Cabanon(French m.) hut, shed, capanno (Italian m. - hut, shed), Bude (German f. - shed), Hütte (German m. - hut), cobertizo (Spanish m. - hut, shed)
(French m.) (beach) chalet, cabin, country cottage
(French m.) padded cell
Cabaret(Spanish m., German n., Italian m. from French m., literally 'tavern') cabaré (Spanish m.), a form of entertainment featuring comedy, song, dance, and theatre, distinguished mainly by the performance venue - a restaurant or nightclub with a stage for performances and the audience sitting around the tables (often dining or drinking) watching the performance. The venue itself can also be called a cabaret
  • Cabaret from which this extract has been taken
Cabaret (opera)a form of entertainment based on the ballad opera of eighteenth-century England, the most famous example being Dreigroschenoper (1928), composed by Kurt Weill (1900-1950) with its libretto drawn from a book written by Bertolt Brecht (1898-1956)
Cabaret (song)a form of nightclub entertainment fashionable between the 1880s and the 1930s, particularly in Paris and Berlin. In Germany, cabaret songs could be satirical, erotic or sentimental and later took on a strongly political slant
Cabas(French m.) shopping-bag
Cabaza(Italian f., German f.) cabaça
Cabbaletta(Italian f.) see cabaletta
Cabeza(Spanish f.) the head of a guitar
(Spanish f.) note head
(Spanish f.) head
Cabeza de ajo(Spanish f.) head of garlic
CabildosFernando Ortiz counted the presence of over one hundred different African ethnic groups in nineteenth-century Cuba, and estimated that by the end of that century fourteen distinct "nations" had preserved their identity in the mutual aid associations and social clubs known as cabildos, societies of free and enslaved blacks from the same African 'nation', which later included their Cuban-born descendants. Soon after Emancipation in 1886, cabildos were required to adopt the name of a Catholic patron saint, to register with local church authorities and when dissolved, to transfer their property to the Catholic Church. The cabildos not only preserved specific African practices, their members also creatively reunited and resynthesized many regional African traditions, some, as in the case of the Yoruba, long separated by migration and war
Cabillaud(French m.) cod (fish)
Cabine(French f.) cubicle (swimming pool), hut (beach), cabin (boat), cockpit (plane), cab, cage (lift)
Cabinet(French) surgery, office, pricatice, Cabinet (politics)
(English, French m.) a small, private room where works of art, valuables and curiosities were kept and contemplated at leisure; over time the term was used for the collections themselves. Renaissance cabinets played an important role in the development of museums and art galleries
Cabinet carda 4 by 5 1/2" photograph, usually on thin albumen or carbon paper, pasted to a rigid 4 1/4 by 6 1/2" colour board to prevent curling. The photo studio's name is printed on the card's front or back very often with decorative gold guilding. They were almost exclusively used for portraiture and sparked the photo-retouching profession. Though often put out in display cabinets, they were made in a specific size to fit into specially made collectors' albums. Photographs of various consistent sizes that were pasted to cards went by different names such as 'Boudoir', 'Imperial', 'Promenade', 'Trilby' and 'Victoria', but the cabinet card was the most popular
Cabinet de toilette(French m.) toilet
Cabinet d'orgue(French m.) an organ case, a barrel-organ
Cabinet organsee 'reed organ'
the term is used also for a pipe organ in which the pipes are housed within a organ box which has doors on the front, as in a cabinet. Some call this tpe of organ a bureau-organ
[additional entry prompted by Michael Zapf]
Cabinet particulier (s.), Cabinets particuliers (pl.)(French m.) a private room, particularly one provided temporarily for a man and his mistress
Cabinet pianoforte(French m.) an upright piano standing about 6 ft. tall, larger than a cottage pianoforte or the pianino
Cabinet stylea piano or organ without a keyboard
Cabine-teléphonique(French m.) phone-booth, phone-box
Cabiscola(Latin) a precentor, or choir leader (obsolete term)
Câble(French m.) cable, rope (cord)
Câble avec prise(French m.) cable with plug
Cablecar(German n.) cable car
Cable cara conveyance for passengers or freight on a cable railway
Cableknitknit in a raised loop stripe resembling a twisted cable, used in knitted sweaters
câbler(French) to cable
Cabo (de áudio)(Portuguese) cable, lead
Cabochon(English, German m., French m., from the Middle French caboche, literally 'head') a precious stone, rounded, smoothed and polished rather than faceted
(French m.) a moulding with a smooth convex surface surrounded by ornamentation
cabosser(French) to dent
Cabotage(French m.) coastal navigation
Caboteur(French m.) coaster
Cabotin (m.), Cabotine (f.)(French) ham (actor/actress), play-actor (figurative)
Cabotinage(French m.) ham acting, play-acting (figurative)
Cabot Straitthe passage between southwest Newfoundland and Cape Breton Island
Cabotstraße(German f.) Cabot Strait
Cabretta(French f.) bellows-blown bagpipe from Auverne region of France
Cabrette(French f., literally 'little goat') or musette, bellows-blown bagpipe from Auverne region of France consisting of a chanter for playing the melody, and a drone
Cabri(French m.) kid
Cabrio (s.), Cabrios (pl.)(German n.) convertible, drop-top
Cabriole(French f.) somersault, caper
(French f.) a form of curved leg frequently used in eighteenth-century furniture and sometimes found too on harpsichords of the period
(France f.) in dance, an allegro step in which the extended legs are beaten in the air. Cabrioles are divided into two categories: petite, which are executed at 45 degrees, and grande, which are executed at 90 degrees. The working leg is thrust into the air, the underneath leg follows and beats against the first leg, sending it higher. The landing is then made on the underneath leg. Cabriole may be done devant, derrière and à la seconde in any given position of the body such as croisé, effacé, écarté, etc. In addition there is the double cabriole in which one leg strikes the other in the air two or more times before landing
  • Cabriole from which this information has been taken
Cabriolet (s.), Cabriolets (pl.)(English, German n., French m.) a light two-wheeled one-horse vehicle with a large hood and an apron, a motor-car constructed with a sliding glass partition between the passengers (in the back) and the driver (in the front)
(English, German n., French m.) car with a removable soft or hard top, convertible, drop-top
Cabrio-Verdeck(German n.) convertible hood
Cacahuète(French f.) peanut
Cacao(French m.) cocoa
Caccavella(Italian f.) friction drum
Caccia (s.), Cacce (pl.)(Italian f., literally 'chase' or 'hunt') usually describing an animated scene, the caccia flourished in Italy between 1345 and 1370. Written for two equal voices in canon, the Italian version added a supportive instrumental part
Caccia(Italian f.) hunt
(Italian f.) see corno da caccia
(Italian f.) see oboe da caccia
Cacciante(Sicilian/Italian) drover
Caccini trilla trill 'on a single note', in other words a repeated note, described in Giulio Caccini's Le Nuove Musiche, Florence, I Marescotti 1601
Cachalot(French m.) sperm whale
Cache(French m.) mask, lens cover (camera)
(English, German m., French m.) hiding place, hidden store set up for later use, temporary memory in computer (for example, used to decrease write- and read-times on a hard disk)
Cache-cache(French m.) hide-an-seek (game)
Cachemire(French m.) cashmere
Cache-misère(French m.) any concealing garment (for example, a hat that conceals the hair)
cacher(French) to hide, to conceal
cacher à(French) to hide from, to conceal from
Cache-sexe(French m.) a garment like a G-string, designed to be minimal while preserving decency
Cache-Speicher(German m.) cache (memory), cache memory
Cachet(French m.) fee (artist's)
(French m.) postmark (particularly a special impression made with a rubber-stamp on a first-flight envelope in addition to the normal postal markings), seal, tablet
(French m.) style (figurative), a 'certain something'
an unpalatable medicine enclosed in a soluble casing or capsule
cacheter(French) to seal
cache-torchons(French m.) a receptacle, usually kept out of sight, for storing cleaning-rags, etc.
Cachette(French f.) hiding-place
Cachimboone of the three güiros, or shakers, called the caja, mula and cachimbo, or the caja, dos golpes and salidor that feature in the music of Santería
one of the three conga drums, named, like the guïros mentioned above, caja, mula and cachimbo or caja, dos golpes and salidor
Cachinnatoryrelating to loud or immoderate laughter
Cach-nez(French m.) scarf
Cachoa güiro-like instrument from El Salvador, made from an animal horn
Cachot(French m.) dungeon
Cachotteries(French f. pl.) secrecy
cachottier (m.), cachottière (f.)(French) secretive
Cachou(Portuguese, cachu, from the Malay) a fragrant lozenge used by smokers and others to sweeten the breath
Cachucha(Spanish) first created in Cuba in 1803, it is considered a Spanish dance. The Cachucha was danced in the U.S. at the White House. Fanny Essler (1810-1884), who introduced the Cachucha to the public in the ballets The Lady of the Lake (1812) and later in Le Diable boiteux (the Lame Devil) in 1836 which established its popularity, was so popular that the Congress decided it would not convene when she was dancing. Sometimes, the Cachucha is erroneously spelled Catchucha
a graceful Spanish dance from the southern region of Andalusia, in triple meter, related to the fandango and not unlike the bolero
  • Cachucha from which this information has been taken
Cäcilianismus(German m.) Cecilianism
Cacodaemon(Greek) an evil spirit, an evil genius
Cacoepyfaulty pronunciation
Cacoethes loquendi(Latin) an irresistible desire to talk
Cacoethes scribendi(Latin) an irresistible desire to write
Cacofonia(Italian f.) cacophony
cacofonico(Italian) cacophonous
Cacographic(from Greek) or cacographic, misspelled, written badly
Cacography(from Greek) or kakography, an archaic word, originally the opposite of orthography, 'correct spelling', but which came to be used to mean 'bad handwriting' as well, as the opposite of calligraphy
Cacophonie(French f.) cacophony
cacophonique(French) cacophonous, discordant, dissonant
Cacophony(Greek, 'bad sound') discordant or dissonant sound, poor intonation
in poetry, the term refers to the use of words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony
Cactus(English, French m.) plant with a thick fleshy stem, usually spines, and no leaves, often found in near-desert surroundings
cad.abbreviated form of cadenza
cada dos por tres(Spanish) every five minutes
cada quisque(Spanish) everybody, absolutely everybody
cadavérique(French) deathly pale
Cadavre(French m.) corpse
Caddie(English, German m., French m.) trolley, golf trolly, person who carries golf equipment for a golfer (as well as offering advice on playing the course)
Cadeau (s.), Cadeaux (pl.)(French m.) present, gift
Cadel(from Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau, meaning "a gift", "a little something extra") in a manscript, a small addition or "extra" item added to an initial letter
Cadenas(French m.) padlock
Cadenas(Spanish f. pl.) chains
in flamenco, a footwork combination in triplets - first the golpe of one foot, then the heel of the other foot then finally returning to the first foot
cadenasser(French) to padlock
Cadence(English, French) cadencia (Spanish), cadenza (Italian), Kadenz (German f.), Schluss (German m.)
the melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase, for instance an interrogation or an exhortation. More generally, the natural rhythm of language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Cadence is a major component of individual writers' styles. A cadence group is a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, "of parting day" or a noun phrase, "our inalienable rights"
(English, French f.) in her article entitled Cadence in Music, Catherine Schmidt-Jones writes about those things that produce a feeling of cadence:
harmonyin most Western and Western-influenced music (including jazz and "world" musics), harmony is by far the most important signal of cadence. The most fundamental "rule" of the major-minor harmony system is that music ends on the tonic. A tonal piece of music will almost certainly end on the tonic, although individual phrases or sections may end on a different chord (the dominant is a popular choice). But again, you cannot just throw in a tonic chord and expect it to sound like an ending; the music must "lead up to" the ending and make it feel inevitable (just as a good story makes the ending feel inevitable, even if it's a surprise). So the term cadence, in tonal music, usually refers to the ending chord plus the chord or two immediately before it that led up to it. There are lots of different terms for the most common tonal cadences; you will find the most common terms below. Some (but not all) modal musics also use harmony to indicate cadence
melodyin the major/minor tradition, the melody will normally end on some note of the tonic chord triad, and a melody ending on the tonic will give a stronger (more final-sounding) cadence than one ending on the third or fifth of the chord. In some modal musics, the melody plays the most important role in the cadence. Like a scale, each mode also has a home note, where the melody is expected to end. A mode often also has a formula that the melody usually uses to arrive at the ending note. For example, it may be typical of one mode to go to the final note from the note one whole tone below it; whereas in another mode the penultimate note may be a minor third above the final note. (Or a mode may have more than one possible melodic cadence, or its typical cadence may be more complex.)
rhythmchanges in the rhythm, a break or pause in the rhythm, or a slowing of or pause in the harmonic rhythm are also often found at a cadence
texturechanges in the texture of the music also often accompany a cadence. For example, the music may momentarily switch from harmony to unison or from counterpoint to a simpler block-chord homophony
formsince cadences mark off phrases and sections, form and cadence are very closely connected, and the overall architecture of a piece of music will often indicate where the next cadence is going to be - every eight measures for a certain type of dance, for example. (When you listen to a piece of music, you actually expect and listen for these regularly-spaced cadences, at least subconsciously.)
Cadence (harmonic)(English, French) cadencia (armónica) (Spanish), cadenza (armonica) (Italian), cadence harmonique (French), Schlusskadenz (German)
a progression of chords at the end of, or at the end of a section in a musical work - terminology here is inconsistent both within England and the U.S., as it is between the two:
perfect cadence
authentic cadence
full close
final cadence
full close cadence
complete cadence
whole cadence
cadenza perfetta (Italian)
authentische Kadenz (German)
vollkommene Kadenz (German)
Ganzschluss (German)
cadence parfaite (French)
cadence ouverte (French)
cadence pleine (French)
cadéncía perfecta (Spanish)
some do not consider a cadence to be completely perfect unless the melody ends on the tonic and both chords are in root position
authenticfor example, VI
true plagal
church cadence
amen cadence
Greek cadence
complete cadence
Kirchenschluss (German)
Plagalschluss (German)
authenticfor example, IVI
plagal cadence
cadenza plagale (Italian)
Plagale Kadenz (German)
cadence plagale (French)
cadéncía plagal (Spanish)
see note below about 'half' and 'half-close'
authenticfor example, IIVI
mixed cadence
there are two other uses made of this term, both superfluous, as the cadences can be better described using terms elsewhere in this table
authenticthe sequence, VVIVI
imperfect cadence
dominant cadence
half close cadence
half cadence
half close
false cadence
cadenza imperfetta (Italian)
Halbschluss (German)
cadence suspendue (French)
demi-cadence (French)
cadence à la dominante (French)
cadence irrégulière (French)
cadéncía imperfecta (Spanish)
'half close' and 'half' are sometimes applied to 'plagal' cadences which are authentic but in which the chord is not in root position, or the melody does not end on the tonic
not authenticfor example, IIV
interrupted cadence
irregular cadence
deceptive cadence
avoided cadence
broken cadence
evaded cadence
false cadence
false close
surprise cadence
abrupt cadence
cadenza sfuggita (Italian)
cadenza sospesa (Italian)
cadenza evitata (Italian)
cadenza d'inganno (Italian)
cadenza finta (Italian)
unvollkommene Kadenz (German)
Halbkadenz (German)
Trugschluss (German)
cadence suspendue (French)
cadence interrompue (French)
cadence rompue (French)
cadence évitée (French)
cadence trompeuse (French)
cadéncía rota (Spanish)
these cadences end on unexpected chords
not authenticfor example, VVI
phrygian cadence
phrygische Kadenz (German f.)
a special type of half cadence that only occurs in minor keys
modal cadencefor example, iv6V
Italian cadence
cadence italienne (French f.)
cadence complète (French f.)
authenticfor example IVIVI
although there are variations particularly in regard to the choice of the first chord in the sequence
mixolydian cadence
mixolydische Kadenz (German f.)
modal cadencefor example, vI
disguised cadencecadence containing altered dominant or tonic, so that the dominant-tonic function is often camouflaged in standard chords to which additional notes have been added or from which notes have been deleted
inverted cadenceapplies to perfect or imperfect cadences where, in either case, the final chord is inverted, i.e. not in root position
medial cadence(from 'medial' meaning 'middle') an inconclusive cadence commonly marking the end of the first musical section in a multi-sectional piece. The term may be applied to any cadence where the penultimate chord is inverted
radical cadenceany cadence where the chords are in root position, i.e. the roots of each chord are in the bass
suspended cadencea cadence held on a penultimate chord (often the second inversion of the tonic chord) while a cadenza is performed by the soloist at the end of which the cadential progression (i.e. two further chords) is completed
third-relationship cadencea cadence that results from a harmonic progression in which the roots lie a 3rd apart
masculine cadencea cadence in which the final chord occurs on an accented beat
feminine cadence
non-accented ending
feminine ending
weibliche Endung (German f.)
although it is usual for the final chord of a cadence to fall on an accented beat, sometimes it can be effective when the final chord is placed on an unaccented beat, often midway through a bar. Such a cadence is called a feminine (perfect, interrupted, etc.) cadence. The feminine cadence is the preference in Romantic music (for example, Beethoven, in his late-period works or as a typical feature of the Polonaise)
Cadence (linear or melodic)(English, French) cadencia (Spanish), cadenza (Italian), Kadenz (German f.), Klausel (German f.)
Michael Zapf writes: generally, in German, Klausel means the ending of a single voice, and Kadenz the one of several voices, without necessarily implying a harmonic approach. This rule is not universally adhered to, however
in medieval music theory, a cadence is a point where all of the voices of a multipart counterpoint come together making a close to a particular musical phrase. At this point, the voices sound a perfect consonance on the strong beat. In two voice writing, this is almost always a unison or an octave. If there are three or more voices, one voice may take a third or a fifth to the bass note. It is possible for two voices in a composition to cadence while the others continue moving, although at the final cadence all voices sound the final harmony of the piece together. From this, it can be seen that there are two species of cadence: the final cadence and the interior cadence. The rules are slightly different for the two types of cadence. Cadences normally proceed from a major sixth to an octave or from a minor third to a unison. This is often proceeded by a syncopated dissonance, which resolves to the sixth or third which then proceeds to the octave or unison by contrary motion. In the major sixth to octave cadence, usually the lower voice descends by a tone and the upper voice ascends by a semitone (except in the Phrygian cadence, where the two voices are reversed). In the minor third to unison (or minor tenth to octave) cadence, usually the lower voice ascends by a semitone and the upper descends by a tone (except in the Phrygian cadence)
in the middle ages and the renaissance, cadences were thought of contrapuntally rather than harmonically
third-to-unison cadence
Terz-Einklangklausel (German f.)
Terz-Einklangkadenz (German f.)
a third-to-unison chord sequence would be expressed in terms of two voices moving together so that the interval between them changes from a third to a unison
third-to-fifth cadence
Terz-Quintklausel (German f.)
Terz-Quintkadenz (German f.)
a third-to-fifth chord sequence would be expressed in terms of two voices moving apart so that the interval between them changes from a third to a fifth
sixth-to-octave cadence
Sext-Oktavklausel (German f.)
Sext-Oktavkadenz (German f.)
a dominant-to-tonic chord sequence would be expressed in terms of two voices moving together so that the interval between them changes from a sixth to an octave
Landini cadence
Landino sixth
under-third cadence
Burgundian cadence
Landino-Kadenz (German f.)
Landinoklausel (German f.)
Landinosexte (German f.)
Unterterzklausel (German f.)
named after Francesco Landini (1325-1397) who made extensive use of this technique, Landini's version of the typical Medieval sixth-to-octave cadence, uses an escape tone in the upper voice to briefly narrow the interval to a perfect fifth before the octave. For example, the top line might add an ornamental note a third beneath the cadential pitch before both voices expand outward to an octave; the top voice might approach a C cadence with the pitches B-A-C (over the lower voice's descent from D to C)
parallel cadence
Parallelkadenz (German f.)
doubling of the upwardly moving voice by a second voice a fourth below (Unterquart (German f.))
[entry provided by Michael Zapf]
parallel cadence with tritone
Parallelkadenz mit Tritonus (German f.)
a parallel cadence in which the paenultima of the middle voice is not raised, which results in a tritone with the upper voice
[entry provided by Michael Zapf]
double leading note cadence
Doppelleittonkadenz (German f.)
a parallel cadence in which the middle voice reaches the ultima by a semitone
[entry provided by Michael Zapf]
mixolydian cadence
mixolydische Kadenz (German f.)
see 'cadence (harmonic)'
phrygian cadence
phrygische Kadenz (German f.)
see 'cadence (harmonic)'
Cadencedance style in 2/4, played on electric instruments and developed in Martinique and Guadeloupe '70s, derived from the Antillean beguine
Cadence(French f.) rhythm, cadence, rate (of travel)
"cadences are to melodies what periods and commas are to speech" - Furetière (1690)
(French f.) cadenza
(French f.) shake, trill
"[French] singing masters say that cadence is a natural gift that permits one to trill delicately. The two notes making up the cadence [trill] should be executed in the throat, one after the other, and the same on the harpsichord, by striking the two keys of the trill" - Furetière (1690)
(French f.) a turn (as given in Wilhelm Friedemann Bach's Clavier-Büchlein (1720))
(French f.) the term is used in speech to indicate the harmonious conclusion of a period [a long and rather complex sentence] or part of a period
(French f.) in dancing, the term refers to the fall of the body's motion, for example, to dance en cadence (literally 'in cadence')
(French f.) "cadence also means observing the mesures [in the sense of the downbeat that create the over-arching phrasing] used in dancing, when the steps and the motion of the body follow the notes and the mesures of the instruments; and so the cadence is the end of a temps or a mesure [in the sense of a phrase]. Thus one says "be in cadence", en cadence, or "out of cadence," to mean following or not following the mouvements [in the sense of rhythm] of the violin, the oboe, the song, etc. It is also said of the mesure that should be observed in oratory, in order to make it sound pleasing to the ear." - Furetière (1690)
(French f.) cadence also means the way dancers' steps must conform to the mesure stressed by the instrument. But I would like to point out that this cadence is not always beaten in the way the mesure [time] is beaten. Thus music masters beat the menuet with a downbeat at the beginning of each measure, while the dancing master only beats one every two measures, because that is how long it takes to perform the four steps of a menuet." - Rousseau (1768)
cadencé (m.), cadencée (f.)(French) rhythmic, rhythmical
Cadence à la dominantesee demi-cadence
Cadence boucle(French f.) turnaround, turnback
Cadence brisée(French f.) an abrupt shake, which begins with the upper auxiliary note
Cadence callMarschgesang (German m.), also called 'Jody calls' or simply 'jodies', cadence calls are songs sung by soldiers, for example when marching, designed to build motivation and esprit de corps
Cadence complète(French f.) or cadence italienne, the cadential progression IVIVI, although there are variations particularly in regard to the choice of the first chord in the sequence
cadenceé (m.), cadenceée (f.)(French) cadenced (in the sense of 'rhythmic')
"Music that is written to fit dance motions must be more cadencé, that is, not only should the beat be more marked and make itself felt more clearly than usual, but the symmetry of the even-numbered measures must be more strictly observed. When the dance has a specific ambiance [caractère], such as pantomimed ballets, the music should conform to it. When there is no determined ambiance to the dance, as in contradanses, menuets, allemandes, and so forth, the music should assume and maintain an ambiance that is gay, playful or majestic, in sum, the one deemed the most appropriate for it." - Mercadier de Balesta (1776)
Cadence évitée(French f., literally 'avoided cadence') or cadence rompue, a dissonant chord followed by another dissonant chord rather than the expected consonant triad
Cadence finale(French f.) final cadence
Cadence goupsee 'cadence' (scond entry)
Cadence harmonique(French f.) harmonic cadence
Cadence imparfaite(French f.) imperfect cadence
Cadence interrompue(French f.) interrupted or delayed cadence
Cadence irrégulière(French f.) synonymous with cadence imparfaite
Cadence italienne(French f.) or cadence complète, the cadential progression IVIVI, although there are variations particularly in regard to the choice of the first chord in the sequence
Cadence-lypsoa genre developed in the 1970s, the first style of Dominican music to find international acclaim, eventually becoming a part of styles like zouk
Cadence ouverte(French f.) perfect cadence, authentic cadence
Cadence parfaite(French f.) perfect cadence, authentic cadence
Cadence perlée(French f.) brilliant cadence
Cadence plagale(French f.) plagal cadence
Cadence pleine(French f.) full cadence
a shake which is preceded by the upper auxiliary note as a long appoggiatura
Cadence rampaa variety of music from the Caribbean country of Haiti
Cadence rompue(French f.) also cadence évitée or cadence trompeuse, 'broken' or deceptive cadence
Cadence suspendue(French f.) imperfect cadence or half-close, delayed cadence
Cadence trompeusesee cadence rompue
Cadencia(Spanish f.) cadence, rhythm
[entry corrected by Donald Skoog]
Cadência(Portuguese f.) cadence
Cadencia andaluza(Spanish f.) Andaluzian cadence (IV-III-II-I)
Cadencia armónica(Spanish f.) harmonic cadence
Cadencia auténtica(Spanish f.) perfect cadence
Cadencia borgoñona(Spanish f.) Burgundian cadence (from the Renaissance)
Cadencia completa(Spanish f.)
Cadencia imperfecta(Spanish f.) imperfect cadence
Cadencia Landini(Spanish f.) Landini cadence
Cadencia perfecta(Spanish f.) perfect cadence
Cadencia plagal(Spanish f.) plagal cadence
Cadencia rota(Spanish f.) interrupted cadence
cadens(Dutch) cadence
Cadential decorationsembellishments of cadences, similar to graces and passaggi but which should be considered separately because, in the 15th and 16th-centuries, cadences were generally decorated even when other sections of the piece were not
Cadential extensionKadenzerweiterung (German f.), erweiterte Kadenz (German f.), the prolongation (post-cadential extension) or delay (pre-cadential extension) of a cadence by the addition of material beyond (i.e. before or after) the point at which the cadence is expected
[German terms provided by Michael Zapf]
Cadential 6/4kadenzierender Quartsextakkord (German m.), Vorhaltsquartsextakkord (German m.), often at cadences, the root position dominant is preceded by a chord that has the same bass note as the dominant, but contains the notes of the tonic triad. Since the chord contains the notes of the tonic, it seems logical to label the chord I6/4. However, this label implies that the chord is somehow functioning as a tonic. Unfortunately, while the label may appear to classify the chord, it obscures the actual harmony and the function of the sixth and fourth above the dominant bass. The purpose of the sixth and fourth above the bass is to embellish and therefore intensify the dominant harmony. The fourth is a suspension that delays the entrance of the leading tone over the dominant bass. The fifth can also be delayed by suspending the sixth above the bass. The double suspension produces an apparent tonic chord in second inversion, but the underlying harmony is still V. Consequently, the apparent tonic triad is simply the product of voice leading motions, and therefore does not serve any tonic function. In fact, the cadential 6/4 produces an interesting reversal. Since scale degree 1 produces the interval of a perfect fourth above the dominant bass, scale degree 1 is a dissonance requiring resolution rather than a stable goal of motion. The leading tone, scale degree 7, becomes the note of resolution and the goal of motion. The notation V6/4-5/3 captures the double suspension function over a dominant harmony
[German terms provided by Michael Zapf]
  • Glossary from which this extract has been taken
Cadenz(German) cadence
Cadenza(Spanish, Italian) cadence (French), Kadenz (German f.), Schluss (German m.)
(Italian f.) cadence
(Italian f.) originally a vocal flourish extemporized at a cadence by the performer (until the time of Verdi all opera cadenzas were improvised), later also featured in instrumental performance, nowadays a cadenza is that part of a concerto shortly before the end when the soloist plays alone to demonstrate their virtuosity. At the close of the cadenza, the soloist falls silent and the orchestra completes the movement. Cadenzas may have be written out by the composer or they might have been written by a noted performer as with Joachim's cadenza for the Brahms Violin Concerto. Nowadays, few performers improvise their own cadenza nor these days is room left in the score where a cadenza might be inserted. Operatic cadenzas generally began from a second inversion, tonic chord and finished on the dominant followed by the tonic
Cadenza armonica(Italian f.) harmonic cadence
Cadenza d'inganno(Italian f.) deceptive cadence
Cadenza evitata(Italian f.) evaded cadence
Cadenza finta(Italian f.) false cadence
Cadenza fiorita(Italian f.) ornate or florid cadence
Cadenza imperfetta(Italian f.) imperfect cadence, half close
Cadenza perfetta(Italian f.) perfect cadence, authentic cadence
Cadenza plagale(Italian f.) plagal cadence
Cadenza sfuggita(Italian f.) interrupted, avoided or broken cadence
Cadenza sospesa(Italian f.) suspended or delayed cadence
cadenzato(Italian) cadenced, rhythmic
ça dépasse l'entendement(French) it defies one's understanding
Cadet (m.), Cadette (f.)(French) youngest (of many children), younger (of two children)
cadet (m.), cadette (f.)(French) youngest (of many), younger (of two)
Cadgera man who borrows small sums or favours from acquaintances and friends but conveniently forgets to return them, a person who gets something for nothing
Ca din tulnic(Romania) a unique type of doina in which the melody resembles that played by a type of bugle called the tulnic
Cadit quaestio(Latin, literally 'the question lapses') there is nothing left to discuss (figurative)
Cadmium(English, German n.) a soft bluish-white ductile malleable toxic bivalent metallic element
Cadran(French m.) dial
Cadran solaire(French m.) sundial
Cadre(French m./f.) executive (person)
(French m.) frame (picture, piano, etc.), surroundings, scope (limitations)
(French m.) framework (context), a minimum establishment of key men
Cadres, les(French m./f. pl.) the managerial staff
cadrer avec(French) to tally with, to centre (photograph)
caduc (m.), caduque (f.)(French) obsolete
Caduceus (s.), Caducei (pl.)(German m., Latin, from the Greek) the staff of office of a Greek or Roman herald, staff with two snakes (symbol of the medical profession)
Caducidad(Spanish f.) expiration, loss of validity, lapse, to be used before (medicine, etc.)
caduco (m.), caduca (f.)(Spanish) expired, out-of-date, invalid, deciduous (botany), senile, decripit (pejorative)
CAD-Werkzeuge(German pl.) CAD tools (computer-aided design tools)
Caecilianismvariant of cecilianism
Caecilianismus(German m.) cecilianism, caecilianism
caelabbreviation of caelavit (Latin: engraved)
caelavit(Latin) (he or she) engraved (it) (always accompanied by a name and appended to an engraving)
caer de bruces(Spanish) to fall flat on one's face
caer de cansancio(Spanish) to be totally worn out (exhausted), to be totally exhausted
caer en cama(Spanish) to fall ill
caer en desgracia(Spanish) to fall from favour
caer en desuso(Spanish) to become obsolete
Caerphillykäse(German m.) Caerphilly cheese (a hard, white cheese that originates in the area around the town of Caerphilly in South Wales)
caerse la baba(Spanish) to be delighted
Caesaropapismalso Byzantinism or Erastianism, the doctrine that the state is supreme over the church in ecclesiastical matters
Caesar's commentariesCommentarii de Bello Gallico is Julius Caesar's third-person account of his nine years of war in Gaul. The Latin title, literally 'Commentaries about the Gallic War', is often retained in English translations of the book, and the title is also translated as About the Gallic War, Of the Gallic War, On the Gallic War, The Conquest of Gaul and The Gallic War
Caesar salada tossed salad of greens, anchovies, croutons, and grated cheese with a dressing of olive oil, lemon juice and a raw or coddled egg
Caesium(English, German n.) a soft silver-white ductile metallic element (liquid at normal temperatures)
Caestura(Latin) synonymous with caesura
Caestus(Latin) a Roman boxing glove loaded with lead or iron
Caesura (s.), Caesurae (pl.)(Latin, literally, a 'cut' or 'cutting') also called a metrical pause, a term in poetry, caesura is a break or pause somewhere in the middle of a verse, usually a pause for breath. Some lines have strong (easily recognizable) caesurae, which usually coincide with punctuation in the line, while others have weak ones. In Italian versification, the eleven-syllable endecasillabo (hendecasyllable) usually has a metrical pause after the word in which the fourth- or sixth-syllable stress occurs, so dividing the line into two unequal emistichi (hemistichs); if the longer element precedes, the line is an endecasillabo a maiore, if the shorter, the line is an endecasillabo a minore. Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at all.
fetura or caesura in music, the term is applied to a double line // placed across the top line of the staff (but touching the line below), where the music may pause a little. Also called fetura, 'tramlines', or 'railroad tracks'. By convention, the pause of a caesura is slightly shorter than a fermata and slightly longer than a breath mark (whether actually taken as a breath or only as a slight break in the musical line). If a longer break is required a fermata may be placed above the caesura
a term applied to the comma or a small 'v' placed in a part written for a singer or wind player showing where a breath is expected
the slight holding up of the metre in a Viennese waltz
caetera desunt(Latin, literally 'the rest is lacking') or cetera desunt, an indication that the remainder of a manuscript, etc. is not extant
caeteris paribus(Latin) or ceteris paribus, other things being equal
çà et là(French) here and there
Cafard(French m.) cockroach
depression, often accompanied by nostalgia
cafarder(French) to tell tales
Cafe (s.), Cafes (pl.)(English, German n.) variant of café
Café (s.), Cafés (pl.)(English, German n., French m., Spanish m.) coffee, coffee-house (place where soft drinks and food may be purchased), coffee bar
Café aman(French m.) in the Eastern Mediterranean, a musical café found throughout the Eastern Mediterranean, where amané songs were sung
Café au lait(French m.) coffee with hot milk, a light brown colour
Café-au-lait-Fleck(German m.) café-au-lait spot (pigmented birthmark)
Café bar(Spanish m.) café
Café cantante(Spain m.) flowering in the late 1800s, a coffee house which featured flamenco shows
Café chantant (s.), Cafés chantants (pl.)(French m.) a type of musical establishment associated with the belle époque in France, originally an outdoor café where small groups of performers performed popular music for the public
(French m.) in the Eastern Mediterranean, a music café in which lighter 'European' music would be performed
Café-concert(French m.) a café providing live music, a music-hall
Café concierto(Spanish m.) café with live music
Café con leche(Spanish m.) white coffee
Cafecultor (m.), Cafecultora (f.)(Spanish) coffee grower
Café de música en vivo(Spanish m.) café with live music
Café descafeinado(Spanish m.) decaffeinated coffee
Café en grano(Spanish m.) coffee beans
Café filtre(French m.) a cup of coffee made by allowing hot water to filter down through a detachable vessel containing ground coffee
Cafeína(Spanish f.) caffeine (principal active ingredient in coffee)
Caféine(French f.) caffeine (principal active ingredient in coffee)
Café littéraire(French m.) a café patronised by men of letters
Café lyophilisé(French m.) freeze-dried coffee
Café molido(Spanish m.) ground coffee
Café noir(French m.) black coffee (coffee without milk)
Café organa small to medium-sized dance organ
Café solo(Spanish m.) black coffee
Cafetal(Spanish m.) coffee plantation
Cafetera(Spanish f.) coffee maker, coffee-maker, coffeepot, old banger (familiar), old crock (familiar)
Cafetera exprés(Spanish f.) expresso (coffee) machine
Cafeteria (s.), Cafeterien (German pl.)(English, German f.) a restaurant where you serve yourself and pay a cashier
Cafetería(Spanish f.) snack bar, café, refreshment room, buffet car (on a train)
Cafetero (m.), Cafetera (f.)(Spanish) coffee planter, coffee grower
cafetero (m.), cafetera (f.)(Spanish) coffee, coffee-producing, coffee-growing
Cafetière(French f.) coffee-pot
Cafeto(Spanish m.) coffee bush, coffee (botanical)
Café torrefacto(Spanish m.) high roast coffee
Caffè Latte(English, German m., from French m.) strong espresso coffee with a topping of frothed steamed milk
caffouiller(French) to bumble, to flounder
Cafre(Spanish m./f.) savage, beast
cafre(Spanish) brutal, barbarous
Caftan(from Turkish kaftan) an Oriental garment consisting of a long ankle-length tunic with a girdle at the waist, usually made from a very lightweight fabric such as muslin or cotton
Cafurnaa rhythm of the Fulni-o Indians of Brazil, with which they tell stories about their ancestors
Cage(English, French f.) container used to secure animals, etc.
(French f.) well (stair), shaft (lift)
Cageot(French m.) crate
Cage The Birdone of the figures unique to, or traditionally associated with, square dancing
Cagibi(French m.) storage room
Cagne(French f.) or khâgne (French f.), an art class to prepare for the extrance examination for the École normale supérieure
cagneux (m.), cagneuse (f.)(French) or khâgneux (m.), khâgneuse (f.), knock-kneed, crooked (limbs)
Cagnotte(French f.) kitty, the percentage of the stakes retained by the proprietor of the gaming-room
Cagoule(French f.) a hood, a cowl
Cahier(French m.) notebook (for example, the technical notebook of a writer or artist), exercise-book, part or section of a book, issue, number (of a magazine or journal)
Cahot(French m.) bump, jolt
cahoter(French) to bump, to jolt
cahoteux (m.), cahoteuse (f.)(French) bumpy
Ca hue(Vietnam) Hue-style song from Vietnam
CAIabbreviation of Contrat d'Accueil et d'Intégration (French: agreement required of long-term visitors and residents of France)
Caiambesee kayamb
Caïd(French m.) big shot
Caille(French f.) quail
Cailleach(Irish) an old hag (usually abusive)
Caillot(French m.) (blood) clot
Caillou(French m.) stone, pebble
caillouteux (m.), caillouteuse (f.)(French) stony
Cailloutis(French m.) gravel
Caïque(French, from the Turkish) a light rowing boat, Levantine sailing-vessel
Ça ira(French) it'll be fine (the phrase taken from a popular song composed in 1789 by Ladré: Ah, ça ira, ça ira, ça ira!)
(French) translated also as 'there is hope', an opera in three acts by Roger Waters to a French libretto by Étienne Roda-Gil and his wife Nadine, based on the historical subject of the French Revolution
Cairn Terrier(English, German m.) small rough-haired breed of terrier from Scotland
Cairo Opera Housepart of Cairo's National Cultural Centre, the main performing arts venue in the Egyptian capital. Home to most of Egyptian's finest musical groups, it is located on the southern portion of Gezira Island in the Nile River, close to downtown Cairo
Caisse(French f.) drum (musical, etc.), crate, case, till (for holding cash), pay-desk, office
(French f.) body, case (of an organ)
Caisse chinoise(French f.) wood block
Caisse claire (s.), Caisses claires (pl.)(French f.) snare drum, caja clara (Spanish)
Caisse d'épargne(French f.) savings bank
Caisse de résonance(French f.) sound box, resonant body, Schallkasten (German), klankkast (Dutch), cassa armonica (Italian), cassa di risonanza (Italian)
Caisse de retraite(French f.) pension fund
Caisse enregistreuse(French f.) cash register
Caisse, Grosse(French f.) bass drum
Caisse roulante(French f.) side drum, usually rather long in the body
Caisse sourde(French f.) tenor drum
Caissier (m.), Caissière (f.)(French) cashier
Caisson(German m.) cofferdam (a temporary watertight enclosure that is pumped dry to expose the bottom of a body of water)
Caius Choirbookimportant collection of religious music from Renaissance England that is believe to seems to have been produced at Arundel, Sussex, in the late 1520s, and presented by the then Master of Arundel College, Edward Higgons (d.1538), to the collegiate chapel of St Stephen in Westminster, where Higgons was a canon from 1517. Many of the composers represented in this collection feature also in the Lambeth Choirbook
Caixa(Portuguese) box, snare drum
Caixa acústica(Portuguese) cabinet, as for example the speaker cabinet of an amplification system
Caixa clara(Portuguese) side drum
Caixa de guerra(Portuguese, literally 'snare drum of war') in a samba bateria this small drum gives character to the samba. It's played with two sticks, and has two cords [snares] across the drumhead that gives it a distinctive tone. Although it sets the tempo, unike the larger surdos it can also decorate the rhythm line with flourishes. Some players hold the drum at waist level, playing it with two hands, while others place the caixa higher, using one hand as a support and the other free. It also features in maracatu nação (also known as maracatu de baque virado) an Afro-Brazilian performance genre
CaixetaPortuguese or Brazilian wood block
Caja(Spanish f.) snare drum of Spain and Spanish America
in vallenato, a small drum held between the knees and played with bare hands
one of the three güiros, or shakers, called the caja, mula and cachimbo, or the caja, dos golpes and salidor that feature in the music of Santería
one of the three conga drums, named, like the guïros mentioned above, caja, mula and cachimbo or caja, dos golpes and salidor
(Spanish f.) box, cash desk, coffin, casket, crate, case, bank, housing, casing, case (of a piano), body (of a violin), case (typography)
Caja alta(Spanish f.) upper case (typography)
Caja armónica(Spanish f.) sound body, sound box (of a violin)
Caja baja(Spanish f.) lower case (typography)
Caja china(Spanish f.) wood block
Caja clara(Spanish f.) snare drum, caisse claire (French)
Caja craneana(Spanish f.) cranium, skull
Caja de cartón(Spanish f.) cardboard box
Caja de colores(Spanish f.) paintbox
Caja de empalmes(Spanish f.) junction box (electricity)
Caja de música(Spanish f.) music box, musical box, carillon (Italian m.), caraglione (Italian m.), scatola musicale (Italian f.: musical snuff box), Spieldose (German f.), boîte à musique (French f.), tabatière à musique (French f.: musical snuff box)
Caja de órgano(Spanish f.) organ case, buffet d'orgue (French)
Caja redoblante(Spanish f.) a snare drum from Galicia, a shallow drum which has metallic strings lying across one face that when the drum is struck vibrate. Older instruments used old gut or guitar strings. It is played with two sticks and usually accompanies the dulzainas or bagpipes. In some regions it was called the tambora, in contrast to the lower sounding tamboril
Caja rodante(Spanish f.) tenor drum
Cajeta(Spanish, Central America) sweet or biscuit box
Cajista(Spanish m./f.) typesetter
Cajitaa small trapezoidal box from Peru. The lid is opened and closed with one hand, while the other hand hits the box with a wooden stick
percussionist Freddy "Huevito" Lobatón playing the cajita
Cajita de música(French) music box, boîte à musique (FRench)
cajoler(French) to coax
Cajoleries(French f. pl.) coaxing
Cajón (s.), Cajónes (pl.)(Spanish m.) resonant wooden crates of various sizes (originally, to box and transport cod), used to play early forms of rumba and also in flamenco performances
they are still used today by folkloric ensembles:
Peruused singly
Cubaused in sets of three, the largest cajón called the salidor, the mid-sized one the tres-dos and the smallest the quinto
see cajita
Cajun(English, German n.) Cajun French (language)
Cajun (s.), Cajuns (pl.)(English, German n.) descendant of French colonialists deported from Acadia to Louisiana after the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713
Cajun accordionalso called melodeon or la accordion Cadien, a traditional accordion with a row of buttons, four stops, and two bass buttons
Cajun-Akkordeon(German n.) Cajun accordion
Cajun dancealso called Zydeco dance
Cajun fiddlethe first instrument widely used by Cajuns was the fiddle; from Acadian times it provided accompaniment for dancing at bals de maison (house parties). It was common for one fiddler to play the melody while another provided rhythmic accompaniment (called bassing or seconding). The fiddle style of this time was relatively delicate and complex, using many old French melodies
Cajun Jigsee 'Cajun Two Step'
Cajun Jitterbuga term that some use for the 'Cajun One Step' while others consider it a kind of 'Jitterbug'
Cajun musicalthough it is doubtful whether today's Cajun culture is all that similar to the present French-Canadian culture, Cajun music draws from a large body of French-Canadian folk song that developed in Nova Scotia (or Acadia) before 1750. Some undoubtedly had their roots in France, particularly in Normandy, but many of them originated in Acadia and, like so many other folk songs in other folk cultures, most were sung without accompaniment. The Acadians had an instrumental tradition built around the violin, or fiddle, which was played at dances and weddings and probably even at wakes and could have been inherited from the Scotch-Irish communities who for a time shared Nova Scotia with the French. The expulsion, in the 1750s, of the Acadians from Nova Scotia by the British significantly reduced French influence in Nova Scotia. A great number of the Acadians immigrated to Louisiana bringing with them their French folk songs and their fiddles. Cajun music began with the fiddle. The Acadians-turned-Cajuns kept the instrument of their forebears and adapted it to their needs. In the early days when "country dances" at homes throughout the region were popular, two fiddles, one playing melody, and the other, harmony, were the only accompaniment. Nearly a century later an influx of German farmers brought the accordion but the accordion was rarely played with the fiddle until after 1900. Little is known about when the triangle came into use in the Cajun band or where it came from. It served as a percussion instrument and kept time for both the fiddle and the accordion. Today, the simple triangle continues to be an important part of the Cajun band. The guitar, first heard on early gramophone records, brought with it country and western music, which was to have a definite impact on Cajun music. The guitar was as portable as the accordion and fiddle and added a bass line to the music
Cajun-Musik(German f.) Cajun music
Cajun rub-boardalternative name for the frottoir
Cajun Two-Stepalso called 'Cajun jig' or 'Cajun One-Step', a fast folk dance in 4/4, danced by couples who move in a counter-clockwise direction around the floor, with the man moving forward. The term 'two-step' is also applied to the songs that accompany these dance-steps
Cake(French m.) fruit-cake
Cakewalk(English, German m.) a strutting duple meter, 2/4, dance including high steps and lively movement, which originated in the nineteenth century with the slaves on the plantations of the southern states of America, in imitation of the mannerisms of the plantation owners. The name is said to derive from a prize cake offered to the most innovative dancers
cal.abbreviated form of calando
Calabash(West Africa) dried hollow shell of a gourd, used as a rattle; large dried hollow shell of a gourd, used as a bass drum
Calabaza(Spanish f.) pumpkin, gourd, dolt (familiar)
Calada(Spanish f.) a drag (smoking), a puff (smoking)
Calado(Spanish m.) emboidery, depth (of the sea)
calado (m.), calada (f.)(Spanish) soaked, emboidery
Calador(Spanish, Spanish American) borer, probe
cala il sipario(Italian) the curtain falls
Calambre(Spanish m.) (electric) shock, cramp (spasm)
Calamidad(Spanish f.) calamity, disaster
Calamité(French f.) calamity
calamitoso (m.), calamitosa (f.)(Spanish) calamitous, disasterous
Calamus(Latin) a reed pipe, a type of shawm
Calamus pastoralis(Latin) or calamus tibialis, an ancient woodwind instrument with three or four fingerholes and made of reed
Calamus tibialissee calamus pastoralis
calando(Italian) or calante (Italian), waning, lowering, absinkend (German), en faisant descendre (French), en descendant (French)
diminuendo (softening) together with a ritardando (slowing)
Calandraco(Spanish m., Spanish American) rag, scatterbrain
Calandre(French f.) radiator grille
Calandria(Spanish f.) treadmill
Calandrone(Italian) a reed instrument with a somewhat hoarse tone
Calanque(French f.) creek
calante(Italian) or calando (Italian), waning, lowering, absinkend (German), en faisant descendre (French), en descendant (French)
calare(Italian) to sing flat
Calascione(Italian) a long neck lute-like instrument with a small body and two or three strings
Calata(Italian) also calate or calado, a fifteenth- and sixteenth-centuries Italian dance in 3/4 time
Caláta(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) an abating, a descending. Also a falling note. Also a trap dore. Also a fit of mirth
Calatravamilitary monastic order founded in Spain and Portugal in the 12th century
calcaire(French) chalky (soil), hard (water)
calcando(Italian, literally 'trampling') or premendo (Italian), accelerando (Italian), pressing forward, hurrying the time, compressing the time, betonend (German), drängend (German), en comprimant (French)
Calcant(German) bellows-treader
Calcante(Italian) bellows-treader
calciné(French) charred
calcinieren(German) to calcine (to heat a substance so that it oxidises or reduces)
calciniertes Soda(German n.) calcined soda
Calcinierung(German f.) calcination
Calciphyt(German m.) calciphyte
Calciphyteor calcicole, a plant that does not tolerate acidic soil
Calcit(German m.) calcite
Calcitea common crystalline form of natural calcium carbonate, CaCO3, that is the basic constituent of limestone, marble, and chalk
Calcium(English, French m., German n.) a white metallic element that burns with a brilliant light
calciumabhängig(German) calcium-dependent
Calciummangel(German m.) calcipenia, calcium deficiency
Calcul(French m.) calculation, arithmetic, calculus
Calcul biliaire(French m.) gallstone
Calculateur(French m.) computer, calculator
Calculatrice(French f.) calculator
calculer(French) to calculate
Calculette(French f.) (pocket) calculator
Calculus (s.), Calculi (pl.)(Latin) a stone, a method of calculation used in mathematics
Caldaia(Italian f.) shell (of a drum)
Caldarium(English, German n., from Latin) also calidarium, cella caldaria or cella coctilium, a room with a hot plunge bath, used in a Roman bathhouse complex; in a monastery, a small room containing a fire where inmates can go in to warm themselves
fermata(Catalan m.) a musical symbol placed over a note or rest to be extended beyond its normal duration
fermata(Spanish) or corona, a musical symbol placed over a note or rest to be extended beyond its normal duration, point d'orgue (French)
Cale(French f.) wedge, hold (of a ship)
calé(French) clever
Calebasse(French f.) calabash
Caleçon(French m.) underpants, leggings
Caleçon de bain(French m.) (bathing) trunks
Calembour(French m.) pun
CalendaTrinidadian drum dance
or calinga, an Afro-Cuban dance
see kalenda
Calendarin general terms, a table of the days, weeks and months of the year notinig public holidays
in terms of the liturgical calendar found in many religious manuscripts, a listing of the feast days and saints' days throughout the year
see 'Christian calendar', 'Jewish calendar', 'Moslem calendar'
Calendario(Spanish m.) engagement book, calendar
Calenderingthe pressing of paper between two metal rollers in its final stage of manufacture. As pulp dries on a screen, the pattern of the screen will impart itself onto one side of the paper while the other will develop a rough and irregular surface. These natural papers are often used for art works
Calendrier(French m.) calendar, timetable (figurative)
Calends(Latin) of kalends, the day of the new moon and the first day of the month in the ancient Roman calendar, often a time of festive celebration
'the Greek calends' is a phrase that means 'a time that will never come', as the Greeks had no calends
Calendes(French f. pl.) calends
Calentanosfolk music of the Balsas River Basin, Mexico
Calentura(Spanish f.) fever, sunstroke
Calenturefrom calentura (Spanish f.), hyperthermia, in its advanced state referred to as heat stroke or sunstroke, an acute condition which occurs when the body produces or absorbs more heat than it can dissipate
(figuratively) a burning passion, the emotions of a lovelorn lover, the feverish ardour of a man afflicted with love, or to have illusions
Calepin(French m.) notebook
caler(French) to wedge, to stall (car)
Caleswhat gypsies call themselves
Cale sèche(French f.) dry dock
CaleseraAndalusian style with flamenco influences developed by the caleseros to entertain themselves during long treks
Calesitas(dance) merry-go-rounds
calfeutrer(French) to stop up the cracks of
Calgiatraditional urban ensemble music from Macedonia, played by bands (calgii) with a def (tambourine) and tarabuka (hourglass drum) providing percussion for ud (lute), qanún (zither), clarinet and violin
Calibre(English) internal size of the barrel of a gun or tube, ability, importance, quality of character (person)
Calibre(French m.) calibre, grade (egg, fruit, etc.)
calibrer(French) to grade
Calice(French m.) chalice (religious), calyx (botany)
Calidad(Spanish f.) quality
Calidad del aire(Spanish f.) air quality
Calidad del tono(Spanish f.) tone quality
Calidad de vida(Spanish f.) quality of life
Calidad de voz(Spanish f.) voice quality
Calidad musical(Spanish f.) musical quality
Calife(French m.) or khalife (French m.), caliph
California Two-stepsee 'Nightclub Two Step'
Calimba(Spanish f.) kalimba
câlin (m.), câline (f.)(French) endearing, endearingly, caressing, caressingly, cuddly, liebkosend (German), accarezzando (Italian), accarezzevolmente (Italian), accarezzevole (Italian), carezzevole (Italian)
câliner(French) to cuddle
Calinda(Trinidad) a stick-fighting dance which was banned because it was considered violent by the British colonial rulers
Calingasee calenda
Caliper, Calipersor 'calliper', an instrument used to measure the thickness or diameter of an object. It consists of a pair of movable metal or wooden arms with curved, pointed ends, hinged together, or, having a fixed and a movable arm on a graduated stock
in the printing industry, paper thickness in thousandths of an inch
Caliphthe civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth
Caliphatethe era of Islam's ascendancy from the death of Mohammed (AD 632) until the 13th century
CalipsoVenezuelan calypso music
Call(English, German m.) in square dancing, a 'call' is a command by a 'caller' to execute a particular dance figure
in round dancing, calls are called 'cues'
callando(Spanish) calando
Call and response
(English, German m.) the alternation of musical phrases between groups of musicians, whether drummers, singers or instrumentalists. Three terms have been used to distinguish between different forms of call and response:
adjacentthe response follows immediately after the call section
overlappingthe response begins before the call section has concluded
interlockinga continuous response with a counter solo passage over it, so that the call and response are 'locked' together
see 'respond'
Callcenter (s./pl.)(German n.) call centre equipped to handle a large volume of telephone calls (especially for taking orders or serving customers)
Call-Center (s./pl.)(German n.) call centre equipped to handle a large volume of telephone calls (especially for taking orders or serving customers)
calle abajo(Spanish) down the street
calle arriba(Spanish) up the street
Calleror 'cuer', a person that calls or cues dance figures to be executed in square dances and round dances respectively
Callerlabthe International Association of Square Dance Callers, the largest international square dance association
Calligraphic workin medieval manuscripts, decorative work, usually developing from or used to make up an important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work
[quoted from Kathleen Scott]
Calligraphie(German f.) calligraphy
Calligraphy(from Greek, kallos, beauty) the art of fine handwriting, works in fine handwriting considered as a group, handwriting
Callingprofession or occupation, vocation
Calling cardor visiting card, an engraved card bearing one's full name
a distinguishing characteristic or behaviour
Callingcard(German f.) calling card
Calling-Card(German f.) calling card
Calliopesteam-blown mechanical organ, with stopped flute-type usually brass pipes voiced on high pressure and intended for outdoor use. Calliopes for most of the twentieth century were air-operated, via a pump or blower, and are more properly called air calliopes
the eldest of the Muses, goddesses of music, song and dance. She was also the goddess who bestowed the gift of eloquence on kings and princes. In Classical times, when the Muses were assigned specific artistic spheres, Calliope was named the Muse of epic poetry
Calliperor 'caliper', (as a plural) compasses for measuring diameters, (as a singlular) metal splint to support the leg
Callipygian(from Greek kallos, beauty) pertaining to or having finely developed or beautifully proportioned buttocks
Callisthenics(from Greek kallos, beauty) exercises for fitness and grace
Callithumpianof or pertaining to a band of discordant instruments or a noisy parade
Callithumpian concerta noisy serenade to a person, the object of ridicule or hostility
Callosityor 'callus', area of hard thick skin
Callousunfeeling, insensitive
or 'calloused', of skin (hardened)
Callowinexperienced, immature
Call timethe time an actor is required to be at a theatre to allow time for make-up, dressing, etc.
Callus(Latin) area of hard thick skin or tissue, hard tissue formed round bone ends after a fracture (medical)
Calmtranquilo (Spanish), calmato (Italian), rühig (German), calme (French)
tranquil, quiet (still, not soft), serene, not agitated
calm.abbreviated form of calmato
Calma(Italian f.) calm, tranquil
calmando(Italian) growing calm, calming, en calmant, beruhigend
calmandola(Italian) calming her
Calmandosi(Italian) growing calm, calming down, en se calmant
Calmant(French m.) sedative
Calmante(Italian m.) sedative
calmante(Italian) calming
calmare(Italian) to calm , to calm down, to soothe
calmarsi(Italian) to calm down, to drop, to die down
calmato(Italian) calmed, calmly, tranquilly, calme, beruhigt
Calme(French m.) calm, calmness, tranquility
calme(French) restful, calm, tranquil, beruhigt, calmato
calmo(Italian) calm
Caló(Spanish Romani) Spanish Romani or Gypsy language
Calo(Italian) fall (in the market), shrinkage (in volume), loss
caloabbreviation of calando
Calomnie(French f.) slander, libel (written)
calomnier(French) to slander, to libel
calomnieux, calomnieuse(French) slanderous (spoken), libellous (written)
Calore(Italian m.) passion, warmth or animation
Calorie(English, French f.) unit of quantity of heat, the amount needed to raise the temperature of one gram (small calorie) or one kilogram (large calorie) of water by 1 °C.
Calorifuge(French m.) lagging (insultation)
calorifuge(French) (heat-) insulating
caloroso(Italian) with passion, with warmth, passionately
Calot(French m.) forage-cap (military)
Calotte(French f.) skullcap (religious), slap (tape)
Caloyera monk of the Eastern Orthodox Church
Calque(French m.) tracing, exact copy (figurative), a slavish imitation
an expression introduced into one language by translating it from another language, by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language
calquer(French) to trace, to copy (figurative)
calquer sur(French) to model on
CAltabbreviation of 'contralto'
[entry supplied by Ed Batutis]
Calthumpian Concertsee charivari
Calumeaua reed or pipe
Calumeta highly decorated ceremonial pipe of Amerindians - smoked on ceremonial occasions (especially as a token of peace)
Calung(South-East Asia) bamboo tube xylophone
Calunnia(Italian f.) slander
calunniare(Italian) to slander
Calvados(English, German m.) a dry brandy made from apples, named after the Calvados region of Normandy
Calvaire(French m.) calvary (cross), suffering (figurative),an open-air representation pf the Crucifixion, a wayside cross
Calvarios(Spanish m., from Calvario, 'Calvary') Spanish Easter songs
Calvinismthe theological system of John Calvin and his followers emphasising omnipotence of God and salvation by grace alone
Calvinismus(German m.) Calvinism
calvinistisch(German) Calvinist
Calvitie(French f.) baldness
Calx (s.), Calces (pl.)(Latin) originally a product of alchemy, the powdery residue that results from the calcination of a metal, a thermal treatment process applied to ores and other solid materials in order to bring about a thermal decomposition, phase transition, or removal of a volatile fraction. The calcination process normally takes place at temperatures below the melting point of the product materials. Calcination is to be distinguished from roasting, in which more complex gas-solid reactions take place between the furnace atmosphere and the solids. Calx is also sometimes used in older texts on artist's techniques to mean calcium oxide
Calypso(English, German m.) calypso developed in eighteenth-century Trinidad as a fusion of African and French music, accompanied by satirical and socio-political lyrics. This Caribbean popular musical form (which became a fad in the US in the late 1950s and early 1960s) is traditionally sung by a single guitarist or by bands some consisting of a drummer, bass player, guitar player, keyboards and horns. Calypso of the major musical ancestors of many other diverse styles, including reggae, soca and rapso
Calypsoniana musician, usually from Trinidad, who has studied calypso and memorised its traditional tunes and stanzas. A Calypsonian composes calypsos on topical subjects. The best can sing extemporaneously, that is improvise a calypso on any subject
as calypso developed, the role of the griot (a traveling musician in West Africa) became known as a chantuelle and eventually, calypsonian
Calypsonier(German m.) calypsonian
Calypso-style bailaSri Lankan baila mixed with calypso influences
Calypso tentsvenues in which calypsonians perform during the Carnival season. Originally these performances took place under tents, but they soon moved to permanent structures
Calypsotrommel(German f.) or Stahltrommel, steel drum
calzado(Spanish) wearing shoes
calzar(Spanish) to put shoes on
Calzone(English, German f., from Italian) a baked or fried Italian turnover of pizza dough filled with vegetables, meat, or cheese
Cama(Spanish f.) bed
Cama abatible(Spanish f.) foldaway bed
Cama camarote(Spanish f.) bunk bed
Cama de matrimonio(Spanish f.) double bed
Cama de dos plazas(Spanish f.) double bed
Cama de una plaza(Spanish f.) single bed
Cama doble(Spanish f.) double bed
Cama elástica(Spanish f.) trampoline
Cama individual(Spanish f.) single bed
Cámara(Spanish f.) room, royal chamber
Câmara(Portuguese) chamber, as for example in 'chamber music'
Camarade(French m./f.) friend, comrade (politics)
Camarade de jeu(French m./f.) playmate
Camaraderie(French f.) good companionship, loyalty among intimates
Camarilla(Spanish f., 'little room') a secret group of intriguers
Cama solar(Spanish f.) sunbed
Cama turca(Spanish f.) divan
Cambiamento di posizione(Italian m.) shift position (on a string instrument), Lagenwechsel (German m.), changement de position (French m.)
Cambiamento enarmonico(Italian m.) enharmonic change
cambiante(Spanish) variable
cambiar(Spanish) to change
cambiar de tren(Spanish) to change trains
Cambiare(Italian) to change, to alter, as for example, changing one's instrument
for a string player or a timpanist, to retune their instrument
for a brass player, to change a crook
cambiarse de ropa(Spanish) to get changed, to change (one's clothes)
Cambiata(English, German f., from the Italian, literally 'changed') in counterpoint, a nonharmonic tone inserted between a dissonance and its resolution
see échappée
see nota cambiata
Cambio(Italian m., Spanish m.) exchange
Cambio della voce(Italian m.) mutation
Cambios de ánimo(Spanish mood changes
Cambiste(French m./f.) foreign exchange dealer
Cambouis(French m.) (engine) oil
Cambrein ballet, a bend from the waist to the side or to the back
cambrer(French) to arch
Cambriolage(French m.) burglary
cambrioler(French) to burgle
Cambrioleur (m.), Cambrioleuse (f.)(French) burglar
Cambrure(French f.) curve
Camcorder(English, German m.) a lightweight, handheld video camera, especially one that records data in digital form onto a storage device such as a videotape, DVD, etc.
Camée(German f., French m.) cameo
ça me botte(French) I like the idea
Camel caseor CamelCase, a method of naming using a combination of words, in which the first letter of each word is capitalised and the component words are concatenated without any additional characters between them
Camelot(French m.) street vendor
Camelote(French f.) junk
Camembert(English, German m.) a kind of soft, unpressed cream cheese made in the vicinity of Camembert, near Argentan, France
Camenaor Camoena, one of the muses
Cameo(Italian m.) a carving in low relief on a medium that has two layers of different colours, so that the figure is in one colour and the background in another
a small ornament carved in this way
or vignette (French), a representation in miniature (as, for example, a cameo performance, an outstanding performance given by an actor or actress who appears in only a small number of scenes in an play or film)
Camera(Italian f.) chamber (for example, political), room, (bedroom) suite, camera (for taking photographs)
(Italian) chamber, as in 'chamber music', the term normally indicating the inclusion of dance movements, as opposed to the chiesa or 'church' style
Caméra(French f.) camera (cinema, television)
Camera da letto(Italian f.) bedroom
Camera d'aria(Italian f.) windway, air-passage, Kernspalt (German m.), canal pour l'air (French m.), canal de viento (Spanish m.)
Camera lucida(English, German f., Italian f., from Latin) invented by Robert Hooke (1635-1703), a device, which operates in a normally lit room, for projecting a coloured image onto a sheet of paper on which the outline may then be traced
Caméraman(French m.) cameraman
Camera musica(Italian f.) chamber music
Camera obscura(English, German f., from Latin, literally 'hidden room') an early painting (and later photographic) technique utilising an optical pin-hole, in which a coloured image is projected onto a surface in a darkened room
Camera-readya term in printing for print ready mechanical art. The stage in printing when the document is ready to be photographed to make plates for the press. All elements of the document are in their final position, and the document has received its final proofing
Camerata(Italian f.) dormitory
(Italian m./f.) a mate, a pal, a comrade (in politics)
see camerata fiorentina
Camerata Bardi(Spanish f.) camerata de' Bardi
Camerata de' Bardisee camerata fiorentina
Camerata fiorentina(Italian f.) also called Camerata de' Bardi, in the late sixteenth century, a gathering of writers and musicians who regularly met to discuss art and experiment with form. In the years prior to 1580, the gathering assembled at the residence of Giovanni de Bardi, and after 1592, at the home of Jacopo Corsi. Vincenzo Galileo, the astronomer's father, was among them. Their deliberations led directly to the rise of opera as a combination of music, drama and stage spectacle. Jacopo Peri, a musician at the Medici court and a member of the Camerata, was the composer of Dafne (1597), considered to be the first opera
Camerata Florentina(Spanish f.) camerata fiorentina
Cameratismo(Italian m.) comradeship
Cameriera(Italian f.) maid, waitress (in a restaurant), chamber-maid, stewardess
Cameriere(Italian m.) manservant, waiter (in a restaurant), steward
Camerino(Italian m.) dressing-room
Cameron-Insel(German f.) Cameron Island
Cameron Islandone of the Canadian arctic islands in the Nunavut Territory, Canada
Camice(Italian m.) overall (garment)
Camicetta(Italian f.) blouse
Camicia(Italian f.) shirt
Camicia da notte(Italian f.) night-shirt, nightdress
Camicia di forza(Italian f.) strait-jacket
Camilla(Spanish f.) couch
caminaba abstraído en sus pensamientos(Spanish) he walked lost in thought
caminaban asidos de la mano(Spanish) they walked hand in hand
Camino(Italian m.) chimney, fireplace
(Spanish m.) road, path, track, way
Camino reál(Spanish) the most successful means of achieving an end
Camion(German m. - Switzerland, Italian m, French m.) lorry, truck
Camión(Spanish m.) lorry, truck, (in Mexico) bus
Camion-citerne(French m.) tanker
Camionero(Spanish m.) lorry-driver
Camioneta(Spanish f.) van
Camionetta(Italian f.) jeep
Camionnage(French m.) haulage
Camionnette(French f.) van
Camionneur(French m.) lorry driver, truck driver, haulage contractor
Camisa(Spanish f.) shirt, skin (of a fruit)
Camisa de dormir(Spanish f.) nightdress
Camisa de fuerza(Spanish f.) strait-jacket
Camisería(Spanish f.) shirt shop
Camiseta(Spanish f.) T-shirt, vest
Camisole de force(French f.) strait-jacket
Camisón(Spanish m.) nightdress
Camlet(from Arabic khamlat) a rich cloth of Asian origin, supposed originally to have been made of camel's hair and silk but later made of goat's hair and silk or other combinations, or a coat made of this cloth
Cammello(Italian m.) camel, camel-hair
Cammeo(Italian m.) cameo
Cammermusicus(German m.) an instrumentalist required to take part, either as a harpsichord player or as a violinist, in the small ensemble at a German court
Cammer-Thon(German) see Cornett-Thon
Cammerton(German) in the early 17th century the Cammerton standard was about a'=465Hz (about a semitone higher than modern pitch a'=440Hz) and it was common to most instruments of the time. With the arrival in the 1680s of new woodwind instruments from France (pitched between a'=385Hz and a'=425Hz) which replacing the traditional Renaissance woodwind instruments (which had generally been pitched at Cornet-ton a'=465Hz), Cammerton descended a whole tone or more. By about 1700 there were three general levels of Cammerton, at about a'=415Hz, a'=403Hz and a'=390Hz (tief-Cammerton or Opera-Ton)
(German) see Chor-Thon
camminando(Italian from camminare, to walk) a flowing style, a walking pace, similar to andante
camminare(Italian) to walk, to go, to work
camminare barcolloni(Italian) to stagger
Cammino(Italian m.) way
Camoenasee Camena
Camomilla(Italian f.) camomile
Camoscio(Italian m.) chamois
Camouflage(French m.) the disguise the appearance or purpose of something
Camouflagehose(German f.) camouflage trousers
camoufler(French) to camouflage
Camouflet(French m.) a puff of smoke
camouflieren(German, dated) to camouflage
Camp(English, French m., German n.) a place where tents, huts, or other temporary shelters are set up, as by soldiers, nomads, etc.
(French m.) side (sport)
Camp(English, German m.) as a style, the term 'camp' - normally used as an adjective, even though earliest recorded uses employed it mainly as a verb - refers to the deliberate and sophisticated use of kitsch, mawkish or corny themes and styles in art, clothing or conversation. A part of the anti-academic defense of popular culture in the sixties, camp came to academic prominence in the eighties with the widespread adoption of the Postmodern views on art and culture
Campagna(Italian f.) country, countryside
(Italian f., German f.) campaign (political , military), crusade (figurative)
Campagnard (m.), Campagnarde (f.)(French) countryman, countrywoman
campagnard (m.), campagnarde (f.)(French) country
Campagne(French f.) country (side), campaign (military, political)
Campagnolo (m.), Campagnola (f.)(Italian) countryman, countrywoman
campagnolo (m.), campagnola (f.)(Italian) pastoral, rustic, idyllic
campagnuolo (m.), campagnuola (f.)(Italian) pastoral, rustic, idyllic
Campamento(Spanish m.) camp
Campana (s.), Campane (pl.)(Italian f.) bell
(Italian f., Spanish f.) the bell of a brass instrument, pabellón (Spanish m.), pavillon (French m.), Schalltrichter (German n.), Schallbecher (German m.)
(Spanish f.) also called the bongo bell or cencerro, the large handheld bell is played by the bongocero during the Montuno section of an arrangement in dance ensembles and mounted and played by the palito player during some rumbas
(Spanish f.) bell-bottom (trousers), hood (chimney), extractor hood (kitchen)
Campaña(Spanish f.) countryside, campaign (military, political, social)
Campaña antidroga(Spanish f.) anti-drug campaign
Campaña antitabaco(Spanish f.) anti-smoking campaign
Campanaccio(Italian m.) cowbell
Campanada(Spanish f.) stroke of a bell, peal of bells
Campaña de alfabetización(Spanish f.) literacy campaign
Campana de cristal(Spanish f.) glass bell
Campana de iglesia(Spanish f.) church bell, cloche d'église (French)
Campaña electoral(Spanish f.) electoral campaign, election campaign
Campana extractora(Spanish f.) extractor hood
Campana in lastra di metallo(Italian m.) plate bell
Campanajo(Spanish m.) a bell-ringer, a bell-founder, a performer on the campanetta
Campana mayor(Spanish m.) the large bell, bourdon (French)
Campaña publicitaria(Spanish f.) advertising campaign
Campanario(Spanish m.) bell tower, belfry
Campanas(Spanish bells
a musical section in a flamenco zapateado which imitates the sound of bells
Campana tubular(Spanish f.) tubular bell
Campane(Italian f. pl.) bells
campanear(Spanish) to ring the bells
campanearse(Spanish) to sway, to stagger
Campane doriche(Italian f. pl.) Dorian bells
Campane in alto(Italian) bell up (horn playing technique)
Campanelason the baroque guitar, scale passages in which alternate notes are played on different courses giving an effect like a peal of bells as successive notes ring on at the same time
Campanella(Italian f., Spanish f.) handbell, a small bell
Campanelle da messa(Italian f., Spanish f.) Sanctus bells
Campanelli(Italian m. pl.) glockenspiel, jeu de timbres
Campanelli a tastiera(Italian m. pl.) keyed glockenspiel
Campanelli della messa(Italian m. pl.) Sanctus bells (used in Church services)
Campanelli giapponese(Italian m. pl., literally 'Japanese bells) the closest Puccini gets to using authentic instrumentation in his opera Madame Butterfly is the use of campanelli giapponese, Japanese bells, which make their appearance during the wedding scene
Campanellino(Italian m.) a very small bell
Campanello(Italian m.) handbell, a small bell
Campaneo(Spanish m.) peal of bells
Campanero (m.), Campanera (f.)(Spanish) bell-ringer, bell founder (a maker of bells)
Campanetta(Italian) glockenspiel, a set of bells tuned diatonically and played with keys, a carillon
Campane tubolari(Italian f. pl.) tubular bells, Röhrenglocken, tubes de cloches
Campaniform(English, German) cup-shaped, shaped like a bell
Campanile, Campanili (It. pl.)(Italian m., German m., French m.) a bell tower, a building generally associated with a church in which bells were hung
Campanilla(Spanish f.) small bell (grelot (French), clochette (French), uvula, bell flower
campanillear(Spanish) to ring the bells
Campanilleo(Spanish m.) the ringing of the bells
Campanilleros(Spanish) traditionally sung during religious processions which begin at dawn and are accompanied by the ringing of small bells. They are often sung and played by flamenco artists as part of their repertoire
Campanista(Italian) a player upon the campanetta
Campanologie(German f., French f.) campanology
Campanólogo (m.), Campanóloga (f.), (Spanish) bell ringer, campanologist
Campanologythe study of bells and bell-ringing
Campanone(Italian) a great bell
campante(Spanish) cool, unconcerned
campanudo(Spanish) bell-shaped, bombastic
campar(Spanish) to wander, to roam
campar por sus respetos(Spanish) to do as one pleases
Campbellockingsee 'locking'
campear(Spanish) to be visible
Campechaneria(Spanish f.) or campechania, openness, informality
campechano (m.), campechana (f.)(Spanish) open, good-natured
Campeggiare(Italian) when performing fifteenth-century Italian dance, the body should be slightly inclined while performing steps, a concept called campeggiare in Cornazano's treatise. Depending on the reconstruction, the dancer should either face in the same direction as the step he or she is taking or face in the opposite direction
Campement(French m.) encampment
Campen(German n.) camping
campen(German) to camp
campen gehen(German) to go camp
Campeón (m.), Campeóna (f.)(Spanish) champion
campeón(Spanish) champion
Campeonato(Spanish m.) championship
Camper (m.), Camperin (f.)(German) person who goes camping, camper van (masculine form)
camper(French) to camp, to plant boldly, to sketch
Campesino(Spanish m.) peasant
campesino(Spanish) country
campestre(Italian, Spanish) agreste (Italian, Spanish), villanesco (Italian), pastoral, rustic, rural, ländlich (German),
Campeur (m.), Campeuse (f.)(French) camper
Campher(German m.) camphor
Camphoran aromatic crystalline compound obtained naturally from the wood or leaves of the camphor tree or synthesized (often in the form of flakes), slow vapourising fumigant for moths or larvae, used when storing objects in a closed room or cabinet, particular useful for controlling Anthrenus museorum (bow mites)
Camphre(French m.) camphor
campieren(German) to camp
Campiña(Spanish f.) countryside
Camping(German n., French m., Spanish m.) the act of encamping and living in tents in a camp
Camping-Anlage am See(German f.) lake-side camping site
Campingausrüstung(German f.) camping equipment
Campingbett(German n.) campbed
Camping-car(French m.) camper-van
Campingfahrzeug(German n.) recreational vehicle
Camping-gaz(French m.) a form of bottled gas used in camping for heating, cooking, etc.
Campinggeschirr(German n.) mess kit
Campingliege(German f.) campbed
Campingplatz (s.), Campingplätze (pl.)(German m.) camp site, camping ground, campsite, caravan site, camping site
Camping-Platz(German m.) camping site
Campingplatzgebiet(German n.) caravan and camping area
Campingstuhl(German m.) camp chair, camping chair
Campingtisch(German m.) camp table, camping table, picnic table
Campingurlaub(German m.) camping holiday
Campo(Spanish m.) country, field (figurative), (tennis) court, (football) pitch, (golf) pitch
Campo d'internamento(Italian m.) internment camp
Camposanto(Spanish m.) cemetery
Campo santo(Italian m.) cemetery
CampursariIndonesian modern folk music, a fusion of dangdut, langgam and pop music
Campus(English, German m., French m.) grounds of a university of college
Campusplan(German m.) campus plan
Can(Welsh) a song
Can.abbreviation of 'Canadian'
çanfrom Turkey, a bell made of sheet metal, the rod-shaped clapper suspended on the inside from a ring in the handle. It is placed around the necks of sheep and goats
  • çan from which this information has been taken
can.abbreviation of cantoris
Cana(Spanish f.) grey hair, white hair
Cañaa melancholic kind of flamenco singing, closely related to soleares
(Spanish f., Portuguese f.) ancia (Italian f.), reed (as in the reed of a clarinet, oboe, etc.), Rohrblatt (German n.), anche (French f.), éiglotte (French f.), lengüeta (Spanish f.)
Arundo donax, Arundo bifaria, Arundo donax var. versicolor, Arundo glauca, Arundo latifolia, Arundo sativa, Arundo versicolor, Cynodon donax, Donax arundinaceus, Donax donax, Scolochloa arundinacea, Scolochloa donax, bamboo reed, baranal (Hindi), bansi (Punjabi), caña común (Spanish f.), caña cañabrava (Spanish f.), caña de roca (Portuguese f.), caña vieira (Portuguese f.), cane, giant cane, canne de Provence (French f.), distaff cane, donako (Esperanto), gaha nal (Bengali), gardener's garters, great reed, Indian grass, Italienskt rör (Swedish), jättiruoko (Finnish), Kaemperolr (Danish), Persian reed, Provence reed, qasba (Maltese), reed, Riesenschilf (German), Pfahlrohr (German n.), roseau géant (French), shembeko (Ethiopian), spanisches Rohr (German n.), Spanish cane, Spanskrör (Swedish), Teberau gading (Malay) - used for over 5,000 years to make the single and double reeds used in numerous wind instruments this is the 'reed' referred to in the Bible. Today the giant reed is used to make clarinets, bagpipes and organ-pipes [Scandinavian corrections by Lars Hellvig]
Canaan Dog(English, German m.) the national dog breed of Israel
Canada(French m.) Canada
Canadá, el(Spanish m.) Canada
Canadian boat songsee 'boat song'
Canadian hip hop
Canadien (m.), Canadienne (f.)(French m./f.) Canadian
canadien (m.), canadienne (f.)(French) Canadian
Canadienne(French f.) fur-lined jacket
Canadiensa(Spanish m.) Canadian
canadiensa(Spanish) Canadian
Caña doble(Spanish f.) or lengüeta doble (Spanish f.), double reed, ancia doppia (Italian f.), Doppelrohrblatt (German n.), Doppelzunge (German f.), anche double (French f.)
Canaille(French f., literally 'a pack of dogs') a rogue, the rabble, the crowd, the mob, the populace
Canal(French m., Spanish m.) channel, (artificial) canal, (TV) channel
Canal de la Mancha(Spanish) English Channel
Canal de Panamá(Spanish) Panama Canal
Canal de viento(Spanish m.) windway, air-passage, camera d'aria (Italian f.), Kernspalt (German m.), canal pour l'air (French m.)
Canalón(Spanish m.) (horizontal) gutter, (vertical) drainpipe
Canale(Italian m.) groove, channel
canaliser(French) to canalise (water), to channel (figurative)
Canalla(Spanish f.) rabble
(Spanish m.) swine (figurative, familiar: person))
Canallada(Spanish f.) dirty trick
Canal pour l'air(French m.) windway, air channel, air-passage, camera d'aria (Italian f.), Kernspalt (German m.), canal de viento (Spanish m.)
Canangabaum(German m.) ylang ylang, ilang-ilang (evergreen Asian tree, Cananga odorata, with aromatic greenish-yellow flowers yielding a volatile oil used in perfumery)
Canapé(Spanish m., French m.) a high-backed sofa large enough to seat several people
(French m., Spanish m.) a piece of toasted or fried bread on which a savoury titbit is served
Caña rajadaslit reed used in popular Andalusian folk music
Canard(French m.) a duck
(French m.) a rag (popular term for a lowbrow publication), an absurd story, a false report, a hoax
(French m.) a wrong note (slang)
Canari(French m.) canary
Canarias, las islas(Spanish the Canary Islands, the Canaries
Canarie(s)(English, French) a very fast gigue-like dance, in triple or duple-compound meter, with a 'skipping' feel to it, believed to imitate the rhythms of the music of the Canary Islands
Canárij(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) a kind of people so called because they feed on dogs. Also Canarians
Canario(Spanish, Italian) canary (also pejorative), a native of the Canary Islands
Canário(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) a sacrifice of a red dog, used of ancient to pacifie the dog star
canario(Spanish) of the Canary Island
Canarios(Spanish, Italian) canaries
Canary organsee 'bird organ'
Caña simple(Spanish f.) or lengüeta simple (Spanish f.), single reed, einfaches Rohrblatt (German n.), anche simple (French f.), ancia semplice (Italian f.)
Canasta(English, German n.) a form of rummy using two decks of cards and four jokers in which jokers and deuces are wild, and the object is to form groups of the same rank
(Spanish f.) (large) basket
Canastilla(Spanish f.) small basket, layette (for a baby)
Canastillo(Spanish m.) small basket
Canasto(Spanish m.) (large) basket
Caña única(Spanish f.) single reed (as on a clarinet or saxophone)
Canaveira(Galicia, Spain) a cane with a slit in the middle. It is held tightly and the lower half is struck rhythmically to obtain a certain kind of clapping sound
Canboulayin the Caribbean, Carnival had arrived with the French, but the slaves, who could not take part formed their own, parallel celebration called canboulay from where calypso emerged
Cancan(German m.) can-can, cancan
Can-can(French, cancan, 'tittle-tattle' and chahut, 'noise' or 'uproar') cancan, can can, or chahut, a boisterous Parisian quadrille-like dance in 2/4 meter, originating in the music halls of Paris in the 1830s, involving a line of high-kicking women, once considered risqué
see 'French can-can'
Can-Can-Rock(German m.) can-can skirt
Can-cans(French or cancans (French, malicious gossip
Cancan-Tänzer (m.), Cancan-Tänzerin (f.)(German) can-can dancer
Canção(Portuguese f.) song
Canção patriótica(Portuguese f.) national anthem
Canção religiosa(Portuguese f., literally 'sacred song') hymn, anthem
natural signnatural sign, used to remove a previously applied accidental
also 'off', piano (Italian), afsluiter (Dutch), declan (French), declanche (French), ferme jeux (French), ab (German), ausschalten (German), to turn off a function that was previously switched on
see cancellandum
a postmark, the placement of which, over postage, designates that it has been accepted into use by a postal system and to prevent it from being used for postal services again
a bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is substituted for one removed by the printers because of an error
Cancela(Spanish f.) gate
Cancelación(Spanish f.) cancellation
cancelar(Spanish) to cancel, to write off (debt), to forget (figurative)
Cancellandum(Latin) (part of) a leaf of a book for which another (a cancel) is to be substituted
cancellare(Italian) to erase (for example, a tape)
Cancellen(German f. pl., archaic) Kanzellen
Cancelli(Latin pl.) lattice-work placed before a window or a door-way
canceln(German) to cancel
Cancer(English, French m.) disease caused by malignant tumour(s) of body cells
Cáncer(Spanish m.) cancer
cancéreux (m.), cancéreuse (f.)(French) cancerous
cancérigène(French) carcinogenic (cancer-causing)
Cancerogen(German n.) cancer-causing substance
cancerogen(German) carcinogenic
Cancha(Spanish f.) pitch (football), ground, (tennis) court
Canciller(Spanish m.) chancellor
Canción (s.), Canciones (pl.)(Spanish f., literally 'song') chanson (French), a refrain song of the period between c.1450-1530
a sixteenth-century song set to Italianate poems in Castilian
a sixteenth-century arrangement of French chansons
in the Renaissance, the term was often used interchangeably with cantiga, cantar, canson, and sometimes villancico; it was related to the chanson of the Franco-Flemish school. Canción was the least specific term to cover all the popular, secular styles of vocal music of Spain at the time
Spanish song style focusing primarily on the lyrics/melody and a simple guitar accompaniment (often referred to as trova), that became one of the original components in the later development of the son style. In Spanish-language concerts and recordings, when the title of a particular song does not belong to a danceable genre (such as son in Cuba, or chacarera in Argentina), its genre is mentioned as canción
Canción bailable(Spanish f.) dance song
Cancioncica(Spanish f.) diminutive of canción, little song
Cancioncilla(Spanish f.) diminutive of canción, little song
Cancioncita(Spanish f.) diminutive of canción, little song
Canción de amor(Spanish f.) love song, torch song
Canción de baile(Spanish f.) dance song
Canción de boda(Spanish f.) wedding song
Canción de borrachos(Spanish f.) drinking song
Canción de cuna(Spanish f.) lullaby, berceuse (French)
Canción de guerra(Spanish f.) war song
Canción del Emperador(Spanish f., literally 'the song of the Emperor') the title given in Spain to Josquin's chanson Mille regretz. The emperor in question was Charles V
Cancioneiro(Portuguese) a collection of lyrics or songs. The word originated in the twelfth century
Cancionero(Spanish m.) a songbook or collection of poetry, particular monophonic songbooks of the Iberian Middle Ages, for Spanish polyphonic songbooks in the years following 1490 (form example, Cancionero de la Sablonara is a highly selective manuscript collection of seventy-five Spanish polyphonic art-songs, composed primarily at the Spanish Court during the first quarter of the seventeenth century) and more recently for collections of Spanish and Spanish-American folksongs made in and since the nineteenth century
Cancionero Musical de la Colombina(Spanish, literally 'Colombina Songbook') (Sevilla, Catedral Metropolitana, Biblioteca Capitular y Colombina, Ms. 7-I-28) a late fifteenth-century manuscript from Seville that by 1534 was part of the library of Ferdinand Columbus, the son of the explorer
Cancionero Musical de Palacio(Spanish) (Madrid, Biblioteca Real, MS II - 1335) a Spanish manuscript, the largest and most diverse manuscript collection of music from Spain at the time of Columbus (end of 15th and beginning of 16th centuries). Most likely this manuscript was copied for King Ferdinand II of Aragon, and may represent his personal taste
Canción infantile(Spanish f.) children's song
Cancionista(Spanish m./f.) writer of canciones
Canción pastoril(Spanish f.) pastoral song, bergerette
Canción popular(Spanish f.) popular song
Canción profana(Spanish f.) secular song
Cancre(French m.) dunce
Cancrelat(French m.) cockroach
Cancrizans(Latin, literally 'crab-wise') a tune repeated so that the original order of notes is reversed, i.e. the last note become the first, the penultimate note becomes the second, and so on until the first becomes the last, i.e. retrograde
cancrizzamente(Italian) reversed
cancrizzante(Italian) retrogressive
CanDabbreviation of Cantate Domino (Latin)
Candela(Spanish, literally 'candle') an expression used to express the heat, brightness and beauty of a well performed piece of music or dance
(English, German f.) the Standard International (SI) unit of luminous intensity
Candado(Spanish m.) padlock
Candela(Spanish f.) candle
Candélabre(French m.) candelabrum
Candelero(Spanish m.) candlestick
Candelilla(Spanish f.) candle
candente(Spanish) red-hot, white-hot, burning (figurative: desire, etc.)
Candeur(French f.) naïvety
Candida(English, German f.) yeast that normally inhabits our digestive system (the mouth, throat, intestines) and genito-urinary tract
Candidat (m.), Candidate (f.)(French) applicant (for a post), person standing for election
Candidato(Spanish m.) candidate
Candidature(French f.) application, candidacy (politics)
candide(French) naïve
Candidez(Spanish f.) innocence, naïvety
Candidiasis(English, German f.) an infection caused by fungi of the genus Monilia or Candida (especially Candida albicans)
candido(Spanish) naïve
Candinga(Spanish m. - Mexico) devil
candil(Spanish m.) oil-lamp, chandelier
Candilejas(Spanish footlights
Candlelight dinnerromantic dinner by candlelight
Candle-Light-Dinner(German n.) candlelight dinner
Candle-standor lamp-stand, guéridon (French), torchère (French), a portable stand for a candle-stick, candelabrum or lamp
Candombéboth a rhythm and a drum-based dance of African (mainly Bantu) origin from Uruguay, the name deriving from the Bantu words ka and ndonge which together means a 'meeting of blacks'
the candombé rhythm is created by the use of three drums (tambores):
tambor chicosmallest and highest in pitch of the three tambores, its head measures 8.5 inches in diameter - it acts as the rhythmic pendulum of the cuerda, the group of three performers
tambor pianolargest and lowest in pitch of the three tambores, its head measures 16 inches in diameter - it is responsible for the rhythmic base of candombé, its rhythmic function is similar to an upright or electric bass
tambor repiquerepique means 'ricochet' - its head measures 12 inches in diameter - this tambor embellishes candombé's rhythm with improvised phrases
Candor(Spanish m.) innocence, naïvety
Candora(Spanish f.) a type of guitar
candoroso(Spanish) innocent, naïve
Cane(French f.) (female) duck
ça ne fait rien(French) or cela ne fait rien, it doesn't matter, it's of no importance
Canela(Spanish f.) cinnamon
Canellonisee cannelloni
Canephora(Latin) the figure of a young girl with a basket on her head
Canephorus(Latin) the figure of a youth with a basket on his head
Caneton(French m.) duckling
Canette(French f.) bottle (of beer)
Canevas(French m.) canvas, framework (plan), outline (plan)
cangiare(Italian) to change, to alter
Cangrejo(Spanish m.) crab
Cangrejo de río(Spanish m.) crayfish
Canguro(Spanish m.) kangaroo, baby-sitter (person)
Canhoto(Portuguese) left-handed
Caníbal(Spanish m.) cannibal
caníbal(Spanish) cannibal
Canibalismo(Spanish m.) cannibalism
Canica(Spanish f.) marble
Caniche(French m.) poodle
Canicule(French f.) hot summer days
Cañieguesee 'canyengue'
Canif(French m.) penknife
Canijo(Spanish m.) weak
canin (m.), canine (f.)(French) canine
Canine(French f.) canine (tooth)
Canino(Spanish m.) canine (tooth)
canino(Spanish) canine
Canions(in use 1570-1620) tubular, thigh-hugging extensions worn from breeches to knee. Separate "netherstocks" could be gartered either over or under them
Caniveau (s.), Caniveaux (pl.)(French m.) gutter
Canje(Spanish m.) exchange
canjear(Spanish) to exchange
Canna (s.), Canne (pl.)(Italian f.) reed, pipe
Canna ad ancia(Italian f.) reed pipe
Cannabis(English, French m., German m.) or, in English, dope or grass, the botanical name for the plant from which marijuana comes (Canabis sativa), or the powerful narcotic Indian hemp (Cannabis indica)
Cannabisöl(German n.) cannabis oil
Cannabis-Zigarette(German f.) cannabis cigarette
Cannadaa Sardinian metallic container used by shepherds to replace the guitar
Canna d'organo(Italian f.) organ pipe
Canna labiale(Italian f.) labial pipe, flute pipe
Cannaloni(Italian pl.) large tubes of pasta which are stuffed and served in a sauce
Canne(French f.) (walking-)stick
Canne a lingua(Italian f. pl.) reed-pipes (organ pipes)
Canne à pêche(French f.) fishing-rod
Canne à sucre(French f.) sugar-cane
Canne d'anima(Italian f. pl.) flue-pipes (organ pipes)
Canne de Provence(French f.) Arundo donax, Arundo bifaria, Arundo donax var. versicolor, Arundo glauca, Arundo latifolia, Arundo sativa, Arundo versicolor, Cynodon donax, Donax arundinaceus, Donax donax, Scolochloa arundinacea, Scolochloa donax, bamboo reed, baranal (Hindi), bansi (Punjabi), caña común (Spanish f.), caña (Spanish f., Portuguese f.), caña cañabrava (Spanish f.), caña de roca (Portuguese f.), caña vieira (Portuguese f.), cane, giant cane, distaff cane, donako (Esperanto), gaha nal (Bengali), gardener's garters, great reed, Indian grass, Italienskt rör (Swedish), jättiruoko (Finnish), Kaemperolr (Danish), Persian reed, Provence reed, qasba (Maltese), reed, Riesenschilf (German), Pfahlrohr (German n.), roseau géant (French), shembeko (Ethiopian), spanisches Rohr (German n.), Spanish cane, Spanskrör (Swedish), Teberau gading (Malay) - used for over 5,000 years to make the single and double reeds used in numerous wind instruments this is the 'reed' referred to in the Bible. Today the giant reed is used to make clarinets, bagpipes and organ-pipes [Scandinavian corrections by Lars Hellvig]
Canne de tambour major(French f.) drum major's baton
Canne d'organo(Italian f. pl.) organ pipes
Cannelle(French f.) cinnamon
Cannello(Italian m.) a reed-stop on an organ
Cannelloni(Italian pl.) or canelloni, a pasta stuffed with cheese, meat, etc and served with a sauce after baking
Cannelonssmall stuffed rolls of pastry or rice
Cannibale(French m./f.) cannibal
cannibale(French) cannibal
Cannstatter Volksfest(German n.) Stuttgart (Beer) Festival
Cannstatter Wasen(German m.) Stuttgart Beer Festival
Canntaireachd(Gaelic) a Scottish system of bagpipe notation in which syllables stand for recognized groups of notes and ornaments on the bagpipe. Using this complex type of mouth music, pipers could preserve tunes by passing them on even when the instruments were banned or unavailable
cano(Spanish) a grey-haired
Canoa(Spanish f.) canoe, motor boat
Canoë(French m.) canoe, canoeing (sport)
Canon(French m., Spanish m.) gun (big gun, in English, cannon), barrel (of a weapon), canon (rule)
or 'secular canon', member of the secular clergy belonging to a cathedral or collegiate church
a member of the Augustinian or regular canons who lived under semi-monastic rule
Canon(French m., English) canone (Italian m.), Kanon (German m.), cánone (Spanish m.)
(from the Greek kanon literally, 'reed' or 'measuring rod') so-called because by following a written instruction the performers could derive one or more parts from a single notated part, also called 'perfect canon', a musical form in which a (second, third, fourth, etc.) line starting later than the one before it matches it note for note but such that the parts overlap
the Greek name for the monochord
see caccia, catch, chace, fuga, rondellus, rota, round
see 'canon of two bars'
see 'retrograde canon', canon recte et retro, canon rectus et invertus, canon cancrizans
an approved or traditional collection of works. Originally, the term 'canon' applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Today the word 'canon' refers to the writings of an author that generally are accepted as genuine, such as the 'Chaucer canon' or the 'Shakespeare canon'
Cañon(Spanish m.) organ pipe
(German m., Spanish m.) canyon
Canon at the fourtha canon may be described in terms of the interval between the different parts, thus, for example, 'canon at the unison', 'canon at the fourth', etc.
Canon by augmentationa canon where the second voice plays the same line as the first voice but at a slower speed, for example, by doubling the rhythm value of every note
Canon by diminutiona canon where the second voice plays the same line as the first voice but at a faster speed, for example, by halving the rhythm value of every note
Canon cancrizans(Latin) canon by regression, i.e. where the consequent performs the notes of the antecedent backwards
Canon, crabsee 'crab canon'
Canone(French m., Italian m.) canon
Cánone(Spanish m.) canon
Cánone abierto(Spanish m.) an open canon, i.e. one written out in full
Canone al sospiro(Italian m.) a canon the parts of which begin one crotchet (one quarter note) rest from each other
Canone aperto(Italian m.) an open canon, i.e. one written out in full
Canone cancrizzante(Italian m.) a crab-like canon, canon by regression
Canone chiuso(Italian m.) a close or hidden canon, i.e. where only one part is fully written out, the entry points for other voices being indicated by numbers, letters or other marks written on that part
Canone criptico(Italian m.) puzzle canon
Cánone críptico(Spanish m.) puzzle canon
Canone enigmatico(Italian m., literally 'enigmatic canon' or 'enigmatical canon') also called 'puzzle canon', where the number of voices and/or the entry points of the other part(s) is/are not indicated and have to be guessed at contextually
Cánone enigmático(Spanish m., literally 'enigmatic canon' or 'enigmatical canon') also called 'puzzle canon', where the number of voices and/or the entry points of the other part(s) is/are not indicated and have to be guessed at contextually
Canone infinito(Italian m.) infinite or perpetual canon, i.e. one that could go on for ever
Canon, enigmaticalsee 'enigmatic canon'
Canone perpetuo(Italian m.) infinite or perpetual canon, i.e. one that could go on for ever
Cánone perpetuo(Spanish m.) infinite or perpetual canon, i.e. one that could go on for ever
Canone sciolto(Italian) a free canon, i.e. where the imitation is not exact
Canonessnun belonging to an Augustinian or related order
Canonical babblingwhat one calls the sounds a baby makes before learning to speak
Canonical hourssee 'divine office'
Canonic imitationalso called 'strict imitation', the imitation of one part (the antecedent) by another (the consequent) note for note and interval for interval
Canon, infinitesee 'infinite canon'
Canónico(Spanish) canonic
Canon in augmentationa canon in which the answer is in notes of double length to the subject
Canon in diminutiona canon in which the answer is in notes of half-length to the subject
Canoniseto declare officially to be a saint, to regard as a saint, to admit to the canon of Scripture, to sanction by Church authority
canonizar(Spanish) to canonise
Canon lawthe body of ecclesiastical rules or laws imposed by authority in matters of faith, morals and discipline
Canon, mensurationsee 'mensuration canon'
Canonnade(French f.) gunfire
Cannonier(French m.) gunner
Canon of two barsa canon that may be described in terms of the distance, in bars, between the entries of the different parts, thus, for example, canon of two bars, canon of three bars, etc.
Canon of proportiona rule of proportion. The ancient Greeks considered beauty to be a matter of "correct" proportion, for the human figure and for buildings - a concept first incorporated into a statue by the fifth-century BC ancient Greek sculptor Polykleitos
Canon, perfectsee 'canon'
Canon, perpetualsee 'perpetual canon'
Canon polymorphus(Latin) a canon in which the different parts follow each other at different intervals
Canon, puzzlesynonymous with 'enigmatical canon'
Canon sciolto(Latin) a mock canon
Canon tablea concordance table in a Bible for locating passages of similar content in the four gospels
Canon two in onea canon that may be played from a single line but with staggered entries, so for example 'canon two in one' means a two voice canon played from one part, 'canon three in one' means a three voice canon played from one part
canoodleto kiss and cuddle (colloquial)
Canophobiairrational fear of dogs
Canophobie(German f.) cynophobia
Canopya covering suspended over a throne, bed, etc.
sky, overhanging shelter
(in architecture) rooflike projection over a niche, etc.
expanding part of a parachute
canore(Italian) for singing
Canoris(Latin) melody, song
canoro(Italian) canorous, harmonious
Canorousmusical, tuneful, richly melodious
canorus(Latin) melodious, musical, sweet-sounding
Canot(French m.) boat
Canotage(French m.) boating
Canot de sauvetage(French m.) lifeboat
canoter(French) to boat
Canotier(French m.) boater
Canot pneumatique(French m.) rubber dinghy
CanqAzerbaijani harp
Cansheadset earpiece, microphone and beltpack used for communication and co-ordination of technical departments during a performance. (e.g. 'Electrics on cans', 'Going off cans', 'Quiet on cans!')
Cansancio(Spanish m.) tiredness
Cansancio del viaje(Spanish m.) tiring journey
Cansoa strophic two-part troubadour song in which the first part is repeated and second played only once for each stanza (the form is pes - meaning 'foot', pes, cauda - meaning 'tail'), where each pes is formed of two phrases, the first inconclusive or 'open', the second conclusive or 'closed' (termed clos) - the cauda is musically free although it ends with a conclusive cadence; at the end of the final stanza, the composer may add a partial stanza called the envoy
the term canso is also used to describe any troubadour song
Cantinsincere pious or moral talk, language peculiar to a class, profession, etc. (i.e. jargon)
to use cant (to use jargon)
slanting surface, bevel, oblique push or jerk, tilted position
to push or pitch out of level, to tilt
can'tcontraction of 'can not'
cant(s).abbreviated form of canto(s), cantata(s)
Cantababbreviation of Cambridge University (from Latin Cantabrigiensis)
cantab.abbreviation of cantabile
Cantabile(Italian, from cantare, literally 'to sing') in a singing style
the term is frequently used in pianoforte music to indicate that the tone must be made to 'sing'
cantábile(Spanish) cantabile
Cantabile, ormententi ad libitum, ma più tosto pochi e buoni(Italian) in a singing style, with embellishments as the performer wishes, but few and well chosen
cantacchiare(Italian) to sing often and badly, to hum
Cantador(Spamish m.) a singer, particularly of canciones and ballads in the medieval period
Cantadour(French) a singer of songs and ballads in the medieval period
Cantafera(Italian) synonymous with cantilena
Cantajuolo(Italian m.) street singer, itinerant musician, a singer (contemptuous term)
Cantaloup(named for Cantaluppi near Rome, where it was first grown in Europe) also 'cantaloupe', a small round ribbed melon
Cantambanca(Italian f.) street singer, itinerant musician, a singer (contemptuous term)
Cantamento(Italian) singing
(Italian) an air, a song, a melody
cantando(Italian, from cantare, literally 'to sing') in a singing style, cantabile, graceful and well blended
cantankerousbad-tempered, quarrelsome
Cantante(Italian m./f., Spanish m./f.) singer, opera singer
cantante(Spanish) singing
Cantante-compositore(Italian m./f.) singer-songwriter
Cantante solista(Italian m./f., Spanish m./f.) solo singer, vocal soloist
Cantante soprano(Italian m./f., Spanish m./f.) soprano singer
Cantantes profesionales(Spanish m./f. pl.) professional singers
Cantante y compositor (de letra para canciones)(Spanish m./f.) singer-songwriter
Cantanti(Italian m./f. pl.) singers
Cantaor (m.), Cantaora (f.)(Spanish) flamenco singer
Cantar(Spanish m.) singing
cantar(Portuguese, Spanish) to sing
CántarasSpanish drum made from a clay pitcher
Cantar de gesta(Spanish) the Spanish version of the Old French chanson de geste or "songs of heroic deeds"
cantare(Latin, Italian) to sing, praise or celebrate
cantare a aria(Italian) to sing without confining oneself to the written notes
cantare a prima vista(Italian) to sing at sight, to sight-sing
cantare a orecchio(Italian) to sing by ear
cantare di maniera(Italian) to sing in a correct style, with grace and expression
cantare giusto(Italian) to sing in tune
cantare intonato(Italian) to carry a tune
Cantarela(Spanish) chanterelle
cantare manierata(Italian) to sing with a profusion of ornaments, but without taste or discernment
CántaroSpanish drum made from a clay pitcher
Cantata(Italian f., Spanish f.) generally a seventeenth- or eighteenth-century sacred or secular non-theatrical work which might include sung, recitative and instrumental sections
Cantata da camera(Italian, literally 'chamber cantata') a vocal composition in vogue in the seventeenth and first half of the eighteenth century, consisting of a recitative and air, more often for a single voice but sometimes for more, with instrumental accompaniment
Cantata da chiesa(Italian, literally 'church cantata') a cantata written to be performed in church
Cantate(German f., French f., Dutch) cantata
Cantate Domino(Latin, literally 'sing to the Lord') a part of the Latin mass
Cantate spirituelle(French f.) sacred cantata
this form never established itself in France to the degree that it had in Italy - the pioneer of the vernacular sacred cantata in France was Elizabeth-Claude Jacquet de la Guerre
Cantate zum WeihnachtsfestJohann Andreas Kuhnau's Cantate zum Weihnachtsfest suggests that there was a custom, in Leipzig, of interpolating Laudes into the Magnificat at Christmas, a practice that extends from the early 17th- through to the first quarter of the eighteenth century. Two further examples are an anonymous early eighteenth-century Magnificat à 4 in D major and J. S. Bach's Magnificat à 5 in E-flat major
Cantatilla(Italian) a short cantata
Cantatille(French) a short cantata (a sacred cantata form popular in France from c.1740 on)
Cantatina(Italian) a short cantata
Cantation(Latin) the act of singing
Cantatore (m.), Cantatrice (f.)(Italian) a professional singer
Cantatorium(Latin) a service book of the Roman Catholic church containing the music of the Antiphonary as well as the Gradual
Cantatrice(French f.) a female professional singer, opera singer
Cant de la sibilatraditional Christmas song from Majorca (Spain) about the second coming of Christ
Cante(Spanish m.) folk song
Cântecsee cîntec
cante chicolight or frivolous flamenco song
Canteena restaurant for employees in an office, factory, etc.
shop for provisions in a barracks or camp
case of cutlery
soldier's or camper's water-flask
Cante flamencoa general term for flamenco song
Cante grande(Spanish, literally 'important song') a serious flamenco song style
Cante hondo(Spanish) or cante jondo, a type of serious Spanish flamenco song frequently making use of the Phrygian cadence and the word ole
Cante intermedio(Spanish, literally 'middle song) an arbitrary flamenco song classification between cante grande and cante chico
Cante jondosee cante hondo
cantellerando(Italian) singing in a low or subdued voice, warbling, murmuring, trilling
Canterhorse's pace between a trot and a gallop
to go or make go at a canter
Canterburya small music-stand with partitions for music-books, usually mounted on castors, and sometimes with small drawers, much used in the nineteenth century (the name applies also to a plate and cutlery stand from the late eighteenth cneutyr)
canterellare(Italian) to hum, to sing softly, to sing to oneself, to speak in a jesting tone, to trill
Canterino (m.), Canterina (f.)(Italian) singer
Cantes de las minasflamenco style that has as its theme the mines, its men and their difficulties
Cantes extremeñosflamenco songs from the Extremadura region
Cantharidin(English, German n.) a poisonous chemical compound, secreted by the Spanish fly (Lytta vesicatoria), the active ingradient in one of the world's most well-known aphrodisiacs, but also used as an abortifacient, a stimulant (since one of its effects was producing insomnia and nervous agitation), and as a poison
Cantharus(Latin) a large two-handled drinking-vessel, a fountain in the courtyard of a church
Canthaxanthin(English, German n.) a red carotenoid pigment used as a food colour, which can be added to the diet of broiler chickens to colour the skin and shanks, and to the diet of farmed trout and salmon to produce the same colour as is seen in wild fish, which is derived from carotenoids in natural foodstuffs. It is also used to maintain the plumage colour of flamingos kept in captivity. Tanning pills containing canthaxanthin have been associated with health problems, including an eye disorder called canthaxanthin retinopathy, which is the formation of yellow deposits on the eye's retina. Canthaxanthin has also been reported to cause liver injury and a severe itching condition called urticaria
Cantiblea misspelling of cantabile. The Italian root is cantare (literally, 'to sing') and so the 'i' in cantible is illogical. Unfortunately, cantible is widely used and like cappella (correct) and capella (incorrect) the wrong spelling is almost as widespread as the correct one
Canti carnascialeschi(Italian) fifteenth- and sixteenth-centuries Florentine carnival songs
Cantica(Italian pl.) canticles, hymns
Canticae(Latin pl.) canticles, hymns
Canti carnascialeschi(Italian pl.) song of carnival week
Canti carnevali(Italian pl.) song of carnival week
Canticchiandosee canterellando
canticchiare(Italian) to hum, to sing
Cantici(Italian pl.) canticles, hymns
Canticlecantico (Italian m.), Lobgesang (German m.), cantique (French m.), cántico (Spanish m.)
(from the Latin, canticulum, (diminutive of canticum, 'a song') and canere, 'to sing') used in the English Catholic translation of the Bible as the equivalent of the Vulgate canticum in most, but not all, of the uses of that word; for where canticum is used for a sacred song, as in the ten canticles found in the Breviary (Hohelied Salomonis German n.), it is always rendered 'canticle', whilst in other connections (e.g. Gen., xxxi, 27, secular songs; Job, xxx, 9, song of derision; Is., xxiii, 15, "harlot's song") it is rendered 'song'. The Authorized Version does not make such a distinction, but regularly translates from the Hebrew and the Greek 'song'
  • Canticle from which this extract has been taken
Cantico(Italian m.) canticle, hymn, Lobgesang (German m.), cántico (Spanish m.), cantique (French)
Cántico(Spanish m.) canticle, hymn, cantico (Italian m.), Lobgesang (German m.), cantique (French)
Canticum(Latin, German m.) canticle, hymn
Cantidad(Spanish f.) quantity, amount, sum, number, figure, lots of (familiar: also other terms for unspecified but large quantities, namely 'hundreds', 'thousands', 'millions', 'masses', 'tons', 'loads', 'so many', 'so much', and so on)
cantidad(Spanish) a lot
Cantidad adicional(Spanish f.) supplement (to a book, newspaper, etc.)
Cantidad aproximada(Spanish f.) rough amount, approvimate amount
Cantidad de cartas recibidas(Spanish f.) number of letters received
Cantidad de libros(Spanish f.) thousands of books (colloquial), loads of books (colloquial), tons of books (colloquial)
Cantidad de pagar(Spanish f.) amount to pay, payment
Cantidades industriales(Spanish) loads, tons
Cantiga(s)(Spanish f.) a Spanish or Portuguese folk song
(Spanish f.) a thirteenth-century monophonic Spanish vernacular song, often dedicated to the Virgin Mary
(Spanish f.) medieval poem
Cantiga de amigoa particular genre of Spanish medieval poetry, intended to express the female perspective on absent love
Cantigas de Santa Mariaa manuscript, of which several copies survive, that represents the epitome of one of the richest Mediterranean medieval musical phenomena by its formal and thematic coherence, its breadth, and the great beauty of its miniatures. For its elaboration, Alfonso X enlisted some thirty artists in the fields of poetry, music, calligraphy, and illumination. Coordinating and supervising the work of these artists, he was himself active in the artistic creation of these cantigas. It is well worth noting that the artists with whom Alfonso surrounded himself were from three different religions. Christian, Muslim, and Jewish, and that they all practiced their art together in perfect harmony, despite their differences
Cantilena(Spanish f., Italian f., in the last case meaning a 'lullaby' or 'sing-song') smooth, melodious vocal style, although the term can be applied also to instrumental music
a vocal exercise using solfeggio
the melody part in a vocal ensemble, usually the top part
a polyphonic song not based on a cantus firmus, a form used especially for polyphonic songs by English composers of the late thirteenth to early fifteenth centuries.
(Spanish f.) or cantinela, song
Il Cantilena is the oldest known literary text in the Maltese language. It dates from the fifteenth century (no later than 1485, the death of its author, and probably from the 1470s) but was not found until 1966 or 1968. Il Cantilena is a poem attributed to one Petrus (or Pietrus or Pietro or Pietru or Peter) Caxaro. It was recorded by Caxaro's nephew, Brandano, in his notarial register (Dec. 1533-May 1563)
  • Cantilena from which this extract has been taken
Cantilena (s.), Cantilenae (pl.)(Latin) narrative song, a term applied to both religious and secular songs
Cantilenaccia(Italian) a vulgar song
Cantilena ductiasee ductia
Cantilena formall forms of the cantilena type begin and end with a refrain, hence they are also called 'refrain song'
cantilenare(Italian) to sing little songs (usually derogative)
Cantilena romana(Italian) the Roman chant
Cantilenas(Spanish) cantilliation
Cantilena scotica(Italian) a Scotch air, a Scotch tune
Cantilene(German) cantilena
Cantilène(French) cantilena
Cantileverbracket or beam, etc. projecting from a wall to support a balcony, etc.
beam or girder fixed at one end only
Cantilever bridgebridge made of cantilevers projecting from piers and connected by girders
Cantillatio(Latin) a declamatory style of singing or chanting
Cantillation(from the Latin, cantillatio) unaccompanied chanting in free rhythm as in Jewish liturgical chant
Cantimplora(Spanish f.) water bottle, canteen
Cantina(Spanish f.) buffet, cafeteria, refectory (university), canteen (factory), mess (barracks), bar (much of Latin America), trattoria (Argentina, Uruguay), churn (Colombia: for making butter)
Cantinasa family of song forms from Cadiz that include alegrias, romeras, mirabras, rosas and caracoles. The term is thought originally to describe medieval songs from Galicia in Northern Spain
Cantine(French f.) canteen, mensa (Italian f.) , Kantine (German f.), cantina (Spanish f.), comedor (Spanish m.)
Cantinela(Spanish f.) song, anthem, antienne (French)
cantinflear(Spanish) to babble (familiar)
Cantino(Italian m.) top string on a stringed instrument, for example, the top e" string of a violin, Sangsaite (German), Singsaite (German), chanterelle (French)
the higher of two strings tuned in octaves on the lower courses of some baroque guitars. The higher courses tend to be tuned in unisono except the top string which will be a single course
Cantio(Latin) a religious, monophonic, Latin song of the later Middle Ages
Cantionala collection of sacred songs or a hymnbook
the term is used especially for Czech collections (kancionály) and German Lutheran hymnbooks of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries - the first collection published in cantional style was published by Lucas Osiander (1534-1604) and appeared in 1586 - the style is associated particularly with three composers, Hans Leo Hassler (1564-1612), Michael Praetorius (1571-1621) and Johann Hermann Schein (1586-1630)
Cantional style(of sacred songs or hymns) plainly chordal, rhythmically straightforward settings with the tune in the top voice
Cantio sacra (s.), Cantiones sacrae (pl.)(Latin) sacred song, motet, anthem
Cantique(French m.) canticle, cantico (Italian m.), Lobgesang (German m.), cántico (Spanish m.)
(French m.) since the middle of the sixteenth century, the word cantique has generally referred to a short, easy and popular song in the French language, used to express religious sentiment
(French m.) a hymn, inno (Italian m.), Hymne (German f.), hymne (French m.), himno (Spanish m.)
Cantique des Cantiques(French m.) Solomon's Song (biblical)
Canto (s.), Cantos (pl.)(Italian m., German m., Spanish m.) air, song, melody, singing
(Italian m., Spanish m.) the art of singing
(Italian m.) the highest part in concerted music (the part that carries the tune)
(Italian m.) the soprano voice
(Italian m.) the highest string on a string instrument
also called 'descant', on an accordion, pertaining to the right (melody) side of the instrument
(English, Italian m., German m.) a sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to a chapter in a novel
Canto a cappella(Italian m.) vocal church music without instrumental accompaniment
Canto Ambrosiano(Italian m., Spanish m.) Ambrosian chant
Canto a mi caballero(Spanish m.) a monophonic Spanish folksong which inspired Antonio de Cabezón (Cabeçón) (1510-1566) to arrange it for keyboard, Cristóbal de Morales. (c1500-1553) to use it as a basis for a four-part Missa Dezilde al cavallero and Nicolas Gombert (c.1495-c.1560) to use it as a cantus firmus in his only setting of a Spanish text
Canto anglicano(Italian m., Spanish m.) Anglican chant
Canto armonico(Italian m.) a vocal composition in two, three or more parts
Canto carnascialesco(Italian m.) singular form of canti carnascialeschi
Canto cromatico(Italian m.) song, melody, singing in chromatic intervals or chromatic passages
Canto del gallo(Italian m.) a cock-crow
Canto de órgano(Spanish m.) polyphony from the Renaissance and Baroque periods
Canto de velada(Spanish m.) Spanish evening song
Canto fermo (s.), Canti fermi (pl.)(Italian m., literally 'fixed melody') plain chant, cantus firmus, choir singing in unision on a simple, plain melody, often given as a basis for counterpoint
Canto figurato(Italian m.) or cantus mensurabilis, an elaborately decorated vocal style usually associated with a coloratura or coloraturo
Canto funebre(Italian m.) a funeral song
Canto fúnebre(Spanish m.) a funeral song
Canto gregoriano(Spanish m., Italian m.) Gregorian chant
Canto hispánico(Spanish m.) also canto visigótico or canto mozárabe, Spanish chant
Canto hondo(Spanish m.) see cante hono
Canto litúrgico(Spanish m.) liturgical song
Canto litúrgico ortodoxo ruso(Spanish m.) Russian Orthodox liturgical song
Canto livre(Portuguese m.) Portuguese modernized fado
Canto llano(Spanish m.) plainchant, plainsong
Cantometricscantometrics arose out of 'The Cross Cultural Study of Expressive Style', a multi-disciplinary research programme, formed under the direction of Alan Lomax in 1961. The term refers to a system for the measurement of singing style which had been devised jointly by Lomax and musicologist Victor Grauer, to test a number of hypotheses formed by Lomax during his collecting work. These were; that the dominant values of societies fundamentally influence how their members sing; that this influence applies wherever folksong is found in its natural state; and that the world distribution of singing styles is patterned on the world distribution of human societies
Canto mozárabe(Spanish m.) also canto visigótico or canto hispánico, Mozarabic chant
Canton(English, French m.) a district (in France), a sovereign state (as part of the Swiss confederation)
(English) to put (troops) into quarters
Canton crepecrêpe de Chine (French m.)
Cantonese operaone of the major Chinese opera categories that originated in southern China's Cantonese culture. In the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368), innovations such as specialized roles (dan, female, sheng, male, and chou, clown) were introduced into traditional zaju (variety plays) to produce 'Yuan dynasty opera' which continues today as Cantonese opera. It is popular in Guangdong, Guangxi, Hong Kong, Macau, Singapore and Malaysia. Like all versions of Chinese opera, it is a traditional Chinese art form, involving music, singing, martial arts, acrobatics, and acting
Cantonmentlodging assigned to troops, (historically) permanent military station in India
cantonner(French) to billet (military)
Cantonnier(French m.) roadman, road mender
Canto nuevo(Spanish m.) Bolivian pop-folk music which evolved out of Chilean nueva canción
Canto parlato(Italian m.) speech-song
see Sprechgesang
Canto plano(Italian m.) plainchant
Cantopopa colloquial abbreviation of 'Cantonese pop music', a form of popular music that is a subgenre of 'C-pop'. It is also known as 'HK-pop', short for 'Hong Kong pop'. Cantopop draws influence not only from other forms of Chinese music, but from a variety of international styles, including jazz, rock and roll, rhythm and blues, electronic music, Western pop music and others. By definition, Cantopop songs are almost invariably performed in Cantonese
  • Cantopop from which this extract has been taken
Canto popular(Spanish m., literally 'popular song') Uruguayan singer-songwriter nativist music
Canto primo(Italian m.) first soprano, first treble
Cantor(Spanish m.) singer
cantor(Spanish) singing
Cantor (m.), Cantora (f.)(Portuguese) singer
Cantor (m.), Cantrix (f.)(English, Latin) the director of music in a Lutheran church (in German: Kantor)
the leading singer or precentor in a synagogue
church choir leader
a singer or chanter who in the Mass is the one who calls out the first part of the song or hymn, to which others respond
Cantor choralis(Latin m.) precentor, leader of the choir
Cantorcicos(Spanish m. pl.) child singers, choristers
Cantor-compositor(Portuguese m.) singer-songwriter
Cantore(Italian m.) a chorister, a singer, a poet
Canto recitativo(Italian m.) recitative, declamatory singing
Cantorei(German) a party, or class of choristers, the dwelling reserved for the cantor
Cantoren(German) chanters, a choir of voices
[corrected by Michael Zapf]
Cantor figuralis(Latin) oratorio singer, conductor of a choir
Cantoria (s.), Cantorie (pl)(Italian) a gallery for singers or musicians, usually in a church. Two outstanding examples are those by the sculptors Andrea della Robbia and Donatello in Florence cathedral, both of which have richly carved marble panels
Cantoris(Latin) a term applied in Anglican church music that refers to the half of the choir sitting on the cantor's side of the church, that which sits on the left side of the congregation, i.e. the north side. The other half of the choir is referred to as the decani which is to the right of the congregation, i.e. the south side, nearest the dean
Canto salmódico(Spanish m.) psalm tune, hymn
Canto de vaquería (s.), Cantos de vaquería (pl.)(Spanish m.) Colombian cowboy song
Canto secondo(Italian m.) second soprano, second treble
Canto visigótico(Spanish m.) also canto mozárabe or canto hispánico, Visigothic chant
Cantrice(Italian f.) female singer
canturrear(Spanish) to hum, fredonner (French)
Canturreo(Spanish m.) humming, fredonnement (French)
Cantus(Latin) song, melody, singing
(Latin) also called chant, monophonic unaccompanied music of Eastern and Western Christian liturgy
Cantusthe melody at the top of a polyphonic piece, often set over a tenor line, popular in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
Cantus Ambrosianus(Latin) Ambrosian chant
Cantus coronatus(Latin) an embellished trouvère chanson
Cantus figuralis(Latin) synonymous with cantus mensurabilis
Cantus figuratus(Latin) a cantus firmus accompanied by a figurate, figured or florid counterpoint
synonymous with cantus mensurabilis
Cantus firmus (s.), Cantus firmi (pl.)(English, German m., from the Latin, literally 'fixed melody') a borrowed melody, originally from Gregorian chant, used as the slow-moving basis for a new work in which upper, faster-moving melodies are set in counterpoint against it, particularly common during the period from the fourteenth to seventeenth centuries
the cantus firmus in sacred compositions of the early Middle Ages expresses belief in the absolute. Only through submission to its laws does man become free to participate in the essential. In secular motets, the tenor still stands for the primacy of the sacred reference, which increasingly loses its importance in the Renaissance (secular tenors) and experiences a short revival in the form of the German chorale
  • Cantus Firmus discussed in the context of strict or species counterpoint
Cantus-firmus massin the fifteenth century, a setting of the mass where the movements are given some unity through the use of pre-existing musical material derived from plainchant, secular melodies, themes derived from the hexachord or through the use of solmization, or 'motto themes'. It has been suggested (Chew, Geoffrey. The Early Cyclic Mass as an Expression of Royal and Papal Supremacy. Music and Letters 53 (July 1972): 254-69) that, given the choice of cantus firmus in many early English cyclic masses, many were intended to be associated with the king and certain royal rituals. Following decades of problems plaguing the Papacy, a number of cantus firmus masses written at this time, particularly those with references to military symbolism, were probably written in support of recovering Papal power
Cantus fractus(Latin, literally 'broken melody') in the fifteenth century, a rhythmicized form of plainchant
Cantus Gregorianus(Latin) Gregorian chant
Cantus lateralis(Latin) music in which the parts are written separately in a region of the page, hence lateralis, literally 'side-by'side'
Cantus mensurabilis(Latin, literally 'measured song') mensurable song in contradistinction to cantus planus, i.e. music consisting of notes of different and fixed time-values, where the singers had to agree to a time-unit of definite speed before they could achieve unanimity, particularly with the new canto figurato. The first known treatise on the subject was written by Franco of Cologne (eleventh and twelfth centuries)
Cantus mensuratu(Latin) mensurable or measured chant, which should be distinguished from cantus planus (plain chant)
Cantus mollis(Latin) music consisting of the hexachordum molle, formed of the notes f, g, a, b flat, c and d
Cantus naturalis(Latin) music consisting of the hexachordum naturale, formed of the notes c, d, e, f, g and a
Cantus Planus(German m.) cantus planus
Cantus planus(English, from the Latin, literally 'plain chant') plainchant, plainsong
Cantus supra librum(Latin) a term that loosely means 'singing according to the rules', the rules that underlay the tradition of improvised polyphony in England involving three voices singing in a primarily parallel style
Canular(French m.) hoax
Canunsee kanun
Canut(French pl.) a Lyonnais silk worker, often working on Jacquard looms, canuts were primarily found in the Croix-Rousse neighbourhood of Lyon in the nineteenth century. Although the term generally refers to Lyonnais silk workers, silk workers in the commune of l'Arbresle are also called canuts. The canuts were the subject of songs by Aristide Bruant (1851-1925) and Éric La Blanche
Canvasstrong coarse cloth used for sails, tents, oil-painting, and painted scenery for the stage
a painting on canvas, esp. in oils
Canvasrock(German m.) canvas skirt
canvassto solicit votes, especially from a constituency electorate
to ascertain the opinions of
to seek custom from
to propose (an idea or plan, etc.)
Canyengueor cañiegue, a very old way of dancing the tango or the milonga, where the steps are short and strongly accentuated on the beat of the music
Canyon (s.), Canyons (pl.)(English, German m.) or gorge, a narrow chasm with steep cliff walls, cut into the earth by running water
Can y prophwyd Davydd(Welsh) the song of David, the Prophet
Canzerogen(German n.) carcinogen
Canzo(Provençal) a song
Canzo a ballo(Italian m.) a song for dancing
Canzona (s.), Canzoni (pl.)(Italian) or canzone, a medieval verse form designed to be set to music and formed of one or a group of two or more identically-structured stanzas, each stanza comprising the frons (with two identical pedes) and the sirma (with two equal voltae)
(Italian) also called canzona francese or canzona da sonar, a sixteenth- and seventeenth-century instrumental genre in the manner of a French polyphonic chanson, characterized by the juxtaposition of short contrasting sections
(from the Provençal, canzo meaning 'song') a term applied to any of several types of secular vocal music
Canzonaccia(Italian) a vulgar song, a trivial song
Canzoncina(Italian) a short song, a short canzone
Canzone (s.), Canzoni (Italian pl.), Canzones (English pl.)(English, Italian f.) in literature, an Italian term meaning 'lyric' or 'song', which includes Provençal troubadour poems and the lyrics of Dante, Petrarch, and other thirteenth- and fourteenth-century Italian poets, relating to love or the praise of beauty. The Italian canzone was orginally a stanza or group of identically-structured stanzas designed to be set to music. The ballata was a less complex form of the canzone. Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called 'canzones'
the term canzone is also used interchangeably with canzona, an important Italian instrumental form of the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Often works designated as such are canzoni da sonar; these pieces are an important precursor to the sonata. Terminology was lax in the late Renaissance and early Baroque music periods, and what one composer might call canzoni da sonar might be termed canzona by another, or even fantasia. In the work of some composers, such as Paolo Quagliati, the terms seem to have had no formal implication at all
  • Canzone from which the comment above has been taken
Canzone(Italian f.) song, strain (song,), psalm
(Italian f.) a term used by Mozart to describe a serious aria and a short, simple solo song
Canzone artistica(Italian f.) art song
Canzone blues(Italian f.) blues song
Canzone classica(Italian f.) oldie (classical song)
Canzone conviviale(Italian f.) drinking song
Canzone d'amore(Italian f.) love song
Canzone da ballo(Italian f.) dance song
Canzone di guerra(Italian f.) war song
Canzone di successo(Italian f.) oldie (hit)
Canzone d'i Zampognari(Italian f.) also known as 'Sicilian Bagpiper's Carol' or 'The Star Carol', the Italian title alludes to the southern Italian bagpipe known as zampogna which has been played by shepherds, who come into the villages during the Christmas season. This carol's striking resemblance to Handel's He Shall Feed His Flock Like a Shepherd, from the Messiah leads to the speculation that Handel heard this melody, with its characteristic harmony of parallel thirds, during his visit to Naples in 1708
Canzone famosa(Italian f.) oldie (famous song)
Canzone napoletanasee villanella
Canzone popolare(Italian f.) popular song, folk song
Canzone sacra(Italian f.) psalm, sacred song
Canzone sentimentale popolare(Italian f.) torch song
CanzonetKanzonette (German f.)
when the madrigal was imported into England in the late sixteenth century, the term canzonetta went along with it, anglicized to canzonet. Many compositions of the English Madrigal School were entitled canzonets, and although Thomas Morley (1557/8-1602) referred to it specifically as a lighter form of madrigal in his writings, canzonets in England are almost indistinguishable from madrigals: they are longer than Italian canzonettas, more complex, and more contrapuntal
Canzonetta(Italian) Kanzonette (German f.) or canzonet
in music, a canzonetta (pl. canzonette or canzonettas) was a popular Italian secular vocal composition which originated around 1560. In its earlier versions it was somewhat like a madrigal but lighter in style; but by the eighteenth century, especially as it moved outside of Italy, the term came to mean a song for voice and accompaniment, usually in a light secular style
(Italian) a term used by Mozart to describe a serious aria and a short, simple solo song, for example, the set of five by Joseph Haydn for voice and piano, on English texts (1794)
sometimes the term canzonetta is used by composers to denote a songlike instrumental piece; a famous example is the slow movement of the Tchaikovsky Violin Concerto
  • Canzonetta from which some of this information has been taken
Canzone villanesca alla napolitanasee villanella
Canzoniere(Italian m.) a collection of songs or lyric poems, the equivalent of the Portuguese cancioneiro and the French chansonnier
Caoba(Spanish f.) mahogany, mogano (Italian m.), Mahogani (German n.), acajou (French f.), bois d'acajou (French m.)
Caoine(Gaelic, literally 'lament') until recently, it was traditional in many parts of Ireland and Scotland for mourners to caoine at a graveside, or in the home of the deceased person to mourn their passing. Often an older woman in the community was hired to lead the dirge, joined by other family members and friends who were grieving. The sound of this mourning wail is a particularly solemn type of mouth music
Caoutchouc(French m.) rubber, rubber band (elastic band)
Caoutchouc mousse(French m.) foam rubber
caoutchouté(French) rubberized
caoutchouteux (m.), caoutchouteuse (f.)(French) rubbery
CAPabbreviation of Certificat d'aptitude professionnelle (French: required for employees who do not have a college degree)
Capa soft brimless hat usually with a peak, head-covering worn in a particular profession, cap as a sign of membership of a sports team, mortarboard, top for a bottle (jar, pen, camera lens, etc.)
(French m.) cape, headland, course (direction)
(Catalan f.) note head
from Nepa, dancing bells that are attached to the ankles of chiledren and correspond to the Indian ghungru
  • Cap from which this extract has been taken
cap.abbreviation of 'capacity'
Capabilityability, power, undeveloped or unused faculty
Capable(English) competent, able, gifted
capable(French) able, capable
capable de ...(French) able to ..., capable of ...
capable de faire(French) able to do, capable of doing
capable de tout(French) likely to do anything, behaviour that is entirely unpredictable
Capable ofhaving the ability, fitness, etc. for, admiting of (explanation, etc.)
CapachosColombian maracas
Capacité(French f.) ability, capacity
Cap-a-pié(French, old term) from head to foot (a reference to full armour)
Capasso barsee 'capotes'
Cape(English, French f., German n.) or cloak, any long sleeveless outer garment fastening about the neck
Cape Breton fiddlinga lively regional violin style which falls within the Celtic Music idiom. Cape Breton Island's fiddle music was brought to North America by Scottish immigrants during the Highland Clearances. These Scottish immigrants were primarily from Gaelic-speaking regions in the Scottish Highlands and the Outer Hebrides. Although fiddling has changed considerably since this time in Scotland, it is widely held that the tradition has been better preserved in Cape Breton
Capellaincorrect spelling of cappella
Capellán(Spanish m.) chaplain
Capelle(French) chapel
Capellmeister(German m.) see Kapellmeister
Caperjump or run playfully, prank, illicit activity (slang)
Capetiansany member of the Capetian dynasty, a Frankish dynasty founded by Hugh Capet that ruled from 987 to 1328
Capetinger(German pl.) Capetians
Cape Verdean hip hop
Capeverdean kizombasee kizomba crioula
Capeverdean musicCape Verde is known internationally for morna, a form of folk music usually sung in Creole-Portuguese, accompanied by clarinet, accordion, violin, guitar and cavaquinho. Morna has primarily European roots, but the islands also boast funana and batuco music that are more closely related to West African styles
Capgras syndromeor Capgras delusion, a rare disorder in which a person holds a delusional belief that an acquaintance, usually a spouse or other close family member, has been replaced by an identical-looking impostor
Capgras-Syndrom(German n.) Capgras delusion, Capgras syndrome
Capias(Latin) a writ that authorizes a sheriff to arrest and person or seize goods
Capilla(Spanish f.) chapel, chapelle (French), Kapelle (German), cappella (Italian)
(Spanish f.) choir
Capilla ardiente(Spanish f.) chapel of rest, funeral chapel
Capilla flamenca(Spanish f.) the Flemish chapel that accompanied Charles V (1500-1558), considered the first King of Spain though in fact his son was the first to use that title, on his travels throughout his northern empire and his kingdom in Spain, and brought the finest polyphonic treasures back to the Iberian peninsula
capillaire(French) hair (lotion, etc.), capillary (narrow tube)
Capilotadea ragout or stew of game or chicken
cap in handhumbly
Capirola Lutebookan illuminated manuscript prepared in the 1520s, which is considered to be one of the most important sources of lute music of the early sixteenth century. The Lutebook contains the earliest known examples of legato and non-legato indications, as well as the earliest known dynamic indications. The pieces vary from simple studies suitable for beginners on the instrument, to immensely demanding virtuoso pieces. There are also 13 ricercars in the book, which alternate passages in brilliant toccata style with passages in three-part counterpoint similar to that of the vocal music of contemporary composers such as Jacob Obrecht. In addition to music by Capirola (and others - Capirola evidently transcribed several pieces by other composers for the book), the Lutebook contains a preface which is one of the most important primary sources on early sixteenth-century lute-playing. It includes information on how to play legato and tenuto, and how to perform ornaments of various types, how to choose the best fingering for passagework. It also includes very practical details such as how to string and tune the instrument
Capiscolus(Latin) an obsolete term for a chanter, or precentor of a choir
Capistrum(Greek) a device used to relieve the strain on the cheeks when blowing ancient trumpets
Capitaine(French m.) captain
Capital(French m.) capital (in a business), stock (figurative)
the head or crowning feature of a column
capital (m.), capitale (f.)(French) major, fundamental, capital (letter)
Capitale(French) capital (city, letter)
Capitalisme(French m.) capitalism
Capitaliste(French m./f.) capitalist
capitaliste(French) capitalist
cap it all, toafter everything else
Capitaux(French m. pl.) capital (in a business)
capiteux (m.), capiteuse (f.)(French) heady
capitonné(French) padded
capitular(Spanish m.) to capitulate, to surrender, to reach an agreement, to give in
(Spanish) of the chapter
Capitulare(German f.) capitulary
Capitularium(Latin) capitulary
Capitularya series of legislative or administrative acts emanating from the Frankish court of the Merovingian and Carolingian dynasties, especially that of the first emperor, Charlemagne
Capitulation(English, French f.) give in, surrender
Capítulo(Spanish m.) chapter, area, episode (of a series on radio or television)
Capítulo aparte(Spanish m.) separate chapter, separate area
esto merece un capítulo aparte (Spanish: this deserves a separate chapter)
Capo(Italian) head, beginning, first part, leader, the top
Capoabbreviated form of capotasto
Capocchia(Italian) note head
Capo-cordiera(Italian m.) sillet du bas (French m.), Untersattel (German m.), (on a violin, etc.) the lower saddle takes the pull of the tailgut off the edge of the belly
Capodaster(German) capotasto
Capodastère(French m.) capotasto (English, Italian), Kapodaster (German), barre (French)
Capo d'astro(English corruption of the Italian) capotasto
Capodastro(English corruption of the Italian) capotasto
Capoeiraa Brazilian martial arts/dance style, developed by the slaves to teach one another how to defend him or herself, in which the music is as unusual as the instruments used to perform it. Capoeira takes place in a roda (circle) usually made up of other capoeiristas or bystanders standing or sitting in a circle
there are two main distinct styles of capoeira:
Angolaassociated with Vicente Ferreira Pastinha (1889-1981) also known as Mestre Pastinhacharacterised by slow, low play with particular attention to the rituals and tradition of capoeira
Regionalassociated with Manuel dos Reis Machado (1900-1974) also called Mestre Bimbacharacterised by fluid acrobatic play, where technique and strategy are the key points
capoeira contemporânea
capoeira atual
there are, today, many fusion styles, which mix the Angola and Regional traditions. Some refer to this as capoeira atual, or capoeira contemporânea
Capo d'opera(Italian) a composer's finest or best work
Capoeiristaspractitioners of capoeira
Caporal(French m.) a cigarette made from a kind of light shag tobacco, a kind of light shag tobacco
Caporale(French m.) corporal
Capot(French m.) bonnet (of a car)
Capotasto(Italian m.) the nut (at the top of the fingerboard on a string instrument), Obersattel (German m.), sillet (du haut) (French m.)
barre (French), capodaste (French), Kapodaster (German), a device that clamps to the neck of a plucked string instrument (e.g. a guitar) thereby changing its tuning by shortening the sounding length of every string. More recent capos have been designed that barre only specific strings, leaving the remainder unbarred
Capote(French f.) hood (of a car), condom
capoter(French) to overturn
Capotes(capotes meaning "head" (capo) of "key" or "tapper" (tanto)) or 'capasso bar', relating to the piano, a heavy metal bar that bridges the strings just before they tie off at the tuning pins. It keeps the strings in place, much as the fingerboard nut on a violin does
Cappa magna(Latin) or cappamagna (Italian), a long ceremonial cloak with train and hood worn by senior dignitaries of the Church
Cappella(Italian) chapel
Cappella, asee a cappella
Cappella musica(Italian) chapel or church music
Cappella Sistinathe papal choir of the Sistine chapel
Cappello cinese(Italian m.) or mezza luna, bell tree
Cappuccino(Italian m.) black coffee topped with frothed hot milk or cream
Câpre(French f.) caper (ingredient in cooking)
Capriccietto(Italian) a short capriccio
Capriccio (s.), Capricci (pl.) (Italian, German n.) in the sixteenth century, a madrigal
(Italian, German n.) in the early seventeenth century, a keyboard work often employing fugal imitation
(Italian, German n.) in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, similar to a canzona, ricercar or toccata
(Italian, German n.) the title of virtuoso technical studies for the violin composer by Niccolò Paganini (1782-1840)
(Italian, German n.) Telemann's Capriccio for flute and continuo from Der getreue Music-Meister alternates fast and slow passages
Pietro Locatelli (1695-1764) composed the Arte del violino, opus 3, twelve concertos for the instrument, which incorporate twenty four technically demanding capriccios which could function as extended cadenzas, but are now usually extracted and played in isolation from the concertos
(Italian, German n) from the nineteenth century, a quick, light, sometimes fanciful composition, a jeu d'esprit
capriccio, asee a capriccio
capricciosamente(Italian) in a lively style, capriciously
capriccioso(Italian) capricious, in a capricious style
Caprice(French m., German f., English) capricho (Spanish), capriccio (Italian), Grille (German)
(French m., German f., English) whim
(French m., German f., English) a quick, light, sometimes fanciful composition, capriccio
Capricho(Spanish m.) caprice
caprichoso (m.), caprichosa (f.)(Spanish) capriciously
capricieusement(French) capriciously
capricieux (m.), capricieuse (f.)(French) capricious, temperamental, capriccioso
Caprihose(German f.) Capri trousers
Capri pantsCapri trousers
Capri trouserscalf-length loose pants, slightly tapered to the mid calf, often having a slit on the outside of the leg bottoms
Capstan screwson a piano, specially shaped brass wood-screws, located near the end of the keys, providing an adjustable contact point between keys and action
Capsula(Italian f.) or copri-ancia (Italian m.), windcap (musical instrument), Windkapsel (German f.), bocal (French m.), capsule (French f.), cápsula (Spanish f.)
Cápsula(Spanish f.) capsula (Italian f.), copri-ancia (Italian m.), windcap (musical instrument), Windkapsel (German f.), bocal (French m.), capsule (French f.)
Capsule(French f.) capsule (pill)
(French f.) windcap (musical instrument), capsula (Italian f.), copri-ancia (Italian m.), Windkapsel (German f.), bocal (French m.), cápsula (Spanish f.)
Captador magnético(Portuguese) pick-up, as found on electric guitars
Captainmilitary and naval ranks
or 'captain of industry', head of a large industrial company
(German m. - Switzerland) captain
capter(French) to tap (water), to pick up (signal), to win (figurative), to capture (figurative)
Captif (m.), Captive (f.)(French) captive
captif (m.), captive (f.)(French) captive
Captiva Island(English, German) an island in Lee County in southwest Florida, USA, located just offshore in the Gulf of Mexico
captiver(French) to captivate
Captivité(French f.) captivity
Captivity narrativea narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom
Capture(French f.) capture
capturer(French) to capture
Capuche(French f.) hood
Capuchon(French m.) hood, cap (of a pen)
Caput lupinum(Latin) an outlaw
Caput mortuum(Latin, literally 'dead head') the residue that remains after prolonged distillation, red oxide of lead used as a pigment
Capybarasee 'Kyma'
Caquetage(French m.) cackle
caqueter(French) to cackle
Caqueteuse(French f., literally 'gossip-seat') or caquetoire, a chair with a triangular seat, narrow back and widespread arms
Caquetoiresee caqueteuse
car(French) because, for
Cara(Spanish f.) face
CaráSouth American maracas
cara a(Spanish) facing
cara a cara(Spanish) face to face
Carabalènsee laras
Carabine(French f.) rifle
Carabiniere (s.), Carabinieri (pl.)(German m., Italian m.) Italian policeman armed with a rifle
CaracachásSouth American scraper
Caracole(French) in riding, a half-turn to the right or left
caracoler(French) to prance
Caracolesa flamenco style from Cadiz that belongs to the cantiñas group
Carácter(Spanish m.) character, Charakter (German m.), carattere (Italian m.), caractère (French m.)
Caractère(French m.) character, specific ambiance, Charakter (German m.), carattere (Italian m.), carácter (Spanish m.)
a dance based on a specific national or traditional architype or on the movements associated with a particular trade or way of living
Caractères de musique(French m. pl.) all the marks or symbols used in the notation of music
Caractères d'imprimerie(French m. pl.) block letters
Caractériel (m.), Caractérielle (f.)(French) disturbed child
caractériel (m.), caractérielle (f.)(French) character
caractérisé(French) well-defined
caractériser(French) to characterize
carácteristico (m.), carácteristica (f.)(Spanish) characteristic, typical
caractéristique(French) characteristic
Carafe(French f., from the Arabic) decanter (for wine), an ornamental glass bottle for holding water, a jug
caraïbe(French) Caribbean
Caraïbes, les(French) the Caribbean
Carajillo(Spain) small clapper
Carambolage(French m.) multiple smash-up
Caramel(English, French m., from the Spanish) burnt sugar or syrup used as a flavouring or colouring, light brown (colour)
carameliser(French) to caramelize
Caramillo(Spanish m.) chalumeau
Caramusa(Corsica) a bagpipe made of wood, leather and reed
Carapace(English, French f.) shell
carapax(German m.) carapace
Carat(English, French m.) a unit of weight for precious stones (200 mg.), measure of pruity of gold (pure gold = 24 carats)
Caratagegold jewellery is usually described in terms of caratage (or karatage), which is an indication of its gold content, for example 18 carat or 18K. Alternatively, the gold content can be described in terms of ‘fineness’, which is the gold content expressed in parts per thousand, for example 750 (which is 18 carat or 75.0% gold)
Carattere(Italian m.) character, characteristic, type, quality, degree, emphasis, caractère (French m.), Charakter (German m.), carácter (Spanish m.)
Caratteristico(Italian f.) characteristic
caratteristico(Italian) characteristic, quaint (picturesque)
caratterizzare(Italian) to characterize
Carátula(Spanish f.) mask, theatre (figurative)
Caravan(English, German m.) a procession (of wagons or mules or camels) traveling together in single file
Caravane(French f.) caravan, trailer (US)
Caravangespann(German n.) car and caravan
Caravaning(English, German n.) or, in English, 'caravanning', the practice of taking holidays in a caravan
Caravanserai(French, from the Persion) an Oriental inn with a courtyard where caravans can put up
Carbonband(German n.) carbon ribbon
Carbone(French m.) carbon, carbon copy
Carbonfaser(German f.) carbon fibre
Carbon fibrealso 'carbon-fibre' (UK), 'carbon-fiber' (US) or 'carbon fiber' (US), a material that has small fibres or "hairs" of carbon added for strength. The base material is typically plastic, which can be moulded and shaped as required
carbon inkblack ink in which the major colouring matter is soot
carboniser(French) to burn (to ashes)
Carbonlesspressure sensitive writing paper that does not use carbon
Carbonnadea meat dish, stewed in beer
Carbon paperpaper coated on one side with a layer of a loosely bound dry ink or pigmented coating, usually bound with wax. It is used for making one or more copies simultaneous with the creation of an original document
Carbon ribbontype of printer and typewriter ribbon similar to carbon paper that is commonly used with impact printers
Carbonstahl(German m.) carbon steel
Carbon steelrepresenting 90% of world-wide production, carbon steel is the most widely used kind of steel (often containing a little manganese) with a carbon content of less than 2 percent and usually of less than 1 percent
Carburant(French m.) (motor) fuel
Carburateur(French m.) carburettor
Carcajada(Spanish f.) burst of laughter
Carcan(French m.) yoke (constraint)
Carcere(Italian m.) prison, imprisonment (punishment)
Carcerato(Italian m./f.) prisoner
Carceriere(Italian m./f.) gaoler
Carcasse(French f.) carcass, frame (car, furniture)
Carceleras(Spanish, 'prisoner's song') a type of tonás, originally sung by incarcerated gypsies held in the prisons of Andalucia
Carcinogen(English, German n.) a cancer-causing substance or agent
carcinogen(German) carcinogenic
Carciofo(Italian m.) artichoke
Carcoma(Spanish f.) woodworm
Cardboard musicsee 'book music'
cardiaco(Italian) cardiac
Cardiaque(French m./f.) heart patient
cardiaque(French) heart
Cardigan(English, German, m., French m.) knitted jacket that is fastened up the front with buttons or a zipper
Cardinal(English, French m.) senior member of the Roman Catholic Church clergy one of the college that elects the Pope
small scarlet North American songbird
seventeenth-century women's hooded shoulder cape
a vivid red, which gets its name from the cassocks worn by cardinals
Cardinality(in tuning theory) the number of degrees in a scale
Cardinal numbernumber denoting quantity (e.g. 1, 2, 3, etc.), as opposed to an ordinal number (e.g. first, second, etc.)
Cardinal pointsfour main points of the compass - N. (for north), S. (for south), E. (for east), W. (for west)
Cardinal virtuesalso called the four pagan virtues, fortitude, justice, prudence and temperance. In contrast, the three spiritual or Christian virtues are fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love, charity)
Cardine(Italian m.) hinge
Cardiologo(Italian m.) heart specialist
Cardiologia(Italian f.) cardiology
Cardiophobiaa fear of developing heart conditions, a fear of developing heart disease
Cardo(Italian m.) thistle
Cardoonsouthern European plant (Cynara cardunculus) having spiny leaves and purple flowers cultivated for its edible leafstalks and roots
Card photoa photograph, usually albumen, pasted onto stiff paperboard. Early photographs were made on thin sheets of paper that suffered from extreme curling due to the emulsion on one sided drying at a different rate than the plain paper back. They were pasted to paperboard to prevent this curling. Card photos almost always had borders and came in a range of set sizes so they could more easily be collected in albums. Each size had its own name with the most popular varieties being the cartes de visite, the 'cabinet card', and the 'stereo-view'
Card stockalso called cover stock, pasteboard or pressboard, a stiff heavyweight paper used when durability is needed. It can be manufactured in a thick single sheet but it usually consist of many thinner sheets of paper pressed or pasted together. Each layer is referred to as a ply
Cardy(German f.) cardoon
carece de aptitudes para el ballet(Spanish) she shows no talent for ballet
Caremèrathe autochtonous horn of Gascony, similar to the albora
Carême(French m.) Lent
Carence(French f.) inadequacy, deficiency (lacking)
Carenza(Italian f.) lack, scarcity
caressant (m.), caressante (f.)(French) endearing, caressing, tenderly
Caresse(French f.) caress
caresser(French) to caress, to stroke, to cherish (hope)
Caressingmimoso (Spanish), zalamero (Spanish), lusingando (Italian), schmeichelnd (German), caressant (French)
touching or stroking gently or lovingly
Carestia(Italian f.) famine, dearth
Caret(Latin, literally 'it is wanting') a proofreading symbol in a line of writing used to show that something has been omitted at that point (the missing words are written above the line or in the margin)
^, petit chapeau (French m.), Caret-Zeichen (German n.)
exponentiation operator, as, for example, 10^2, exponential notation for 100 - i.e. 10 to the power of 2)
on VDUs, the vertical or slanted blinking bar or > that shows where the user is when creating notes or typing text - sometimes called a cursor or insertion point
see musical symbols page
Caret-Zeichen(German n.) ^, caret, petit chapeau (French m.)
Carezza(Italian f.) caress
carezzando(Italian) in a caressing, tender style
carezzevole(Italian) in a caressing, tender style
carezzevole(Italian) accarezzevolmente (Italian), accarezzevole (Italian) or accarezzando (Italian), caressing, coaxing, liebkosend (German), en caressant (French), câlin (French)
(Italian) in a caressing, tender style
carga agobiante para él, una(Spanish) a terrible burden on him
Cargaison(French f.) cargo
Cargo(French m.) cargo boat
(English, German m.) goods carried on a ship, boat or aircraft
Cargo culta cult is focused on obtaining the material wealth of the advanced culture through magical thinking, religious rituals and practices, believing that the wealth was intended for them by their deities and ancestors
Cargohose(German f.) cargo trousers
Cargo-Kult(German m.) cargo cult
Cargo pantsor 'cargo trousers', much like regular khaki pants, but designed originally for tough, outdoor activities
Cargorock(German m.) cargo skirt
Cargo skirtmuch like regular khaki skirt, but designed originally for tough, outdoor activities
Car hornklaxon or trompe d'auto (French), Autohupe or Hupe (German), clacson (Italian), bocina (Spanish)
as a musical instrument, most famously employed in George Gershwin's An American in Paris, tuned in A, B, C and D, although in the majority of cases the horn is not expected to be tuned
cariato(Italian) decayed (tooth)
Caribbean musicthe music of the Caribbean is a diverse grouping of musical genres. They are each syntheses of African, European, Indian and native influences. Some of the styles to gain wide popularity outside of the Caribbean include reggae, zouk, salsa and calypso
  • Caribbean music from which the information about the Cuban carnival has been taken
Carica(Italian f.) office, (electrical) charge
caricare(Italian) to load, to charge (electrical), to wind up (a clock)
Caricato(Italian) exaggerated, caricatured
(Italian) in music, particularly, overwhelmed with embellishments, dissonances and instrumentation)
Caricatura(Italian f.) caricature
caricatural(French) caricature-like
Caricature(French f.) caricature
Carico(Italian m.) load, cargo in a ship), loading
carico(Italian) loaded, dark (colour), wound (up) (clock), charged (battery)
carico di(Italian) loaded with
a carico di (Italian) to be charged to (an account), to be dependent on (a person)
Carie(French f., Italian f.) cavity, decay (tooth)
carie, la(French) tooth decay
carié(French) decayed (tooth)
Cariglione(Italian m.) musical box
CarillionAnglicised form of carillon
Charles Scott Zimmerman advises that this spelling is 'considered a mis-spelling in all English-speaking carillon cultures except that of Australia' (personal communication)
Carillon(French m., German n.) a mixture stop in an organ, combining a stopped flute and one or more ranks of high-pitched pipes tuned to the harmonics of the desired note, so named because, when played staccato, they are imitative of small bells
(Italian m.) musical box
a composition that is imitative of that played on bells
(Italian m., English, French m., German n.) bell or bells
(from Latin, quadrilionem) four stationary bells commonly used in France to indicate the time. Three high-pitched bells chimed the quarter-hours, while a fourth- and deeper-toned one tolled the hour
Gordon Slater writes that a carillon bell is cast in bell bronze and then tuned very carefully by paring metal away, usually from the bell's inside surface. Correctly tuned, the partial tones comprising the bell's sound are in such harmonious relationship to each other that many bells so tuned may be sounded together, in a variety of chords, with a concordant and pleasing result. A carillon is an instrument of at least twenty-three such bells that are played from a keyboard that permits a considerable control of expression through variation of the touch. Where the action is electric or the bells are actuated via a pinned drum, etc. neither of which allows the player to vary the dynamics through touch, properly that instrument should not be termed a carillon
Carillón(Spanish m.) chime, carillon (Italian m., French m.)
Carillon à clavier(French m.) carillon, sets of bells operated through a keyboard or pedals
Carillon a tastiera(Italian m.) carillon
Carillon de verre(French m.) glass chimes
Carillón de viento(Spanish m.) wind chime
Carillón de viento de bambú(Spanish m.) bamboo wind chime
Carillón de viento de metal(Spanish m.) metal wind chime
Carillón de viento de vidrio(Spanish m.) glass wind chime
carillonner(French) to chime, to peal the bells, to ring the bells
Carillonneur(French m.) or cariloneur, a term widely applied to the player of the chimes or carillon
Cariloneursee carillonneur
Carimbó(Portuguese) an African drum made of a hollow trunk and covered with a deerskin
an exotic Brazilian dance accompanied by the beat of the carimbó drum. In the dance, which came originally from the Brazilian region of Pará, a woman throws her handkerchief on the floor and her male partner must attempt to retrieve the handkerchief using solely his mouth
carino(Italian) pretty, agreeable
Cariocaa dance similar to the samba, choreographed for the Fred Astaire's movie Flying Down to Rio (1933), where he paired with Ginger Rogers for the first time. It was based on earlier versions of a stage dance with the same name by Fanchon and Marco. The word carioca itself refers to inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro
Cariola(German f. - Austria) wheelbarrow
Carisma(Italian m.) charisma
carismatico(Italian) charismatic
Carisoa Virgin Island variety of calypso
Carità(Italian f.) charity, affection, tenderness, feeling
Caritas(English, German f., from Latin) Christian charity
caritatevole(Italian) charitable
caritatif (m.), caritative (f.)(French) charitable
Carlingue(French f.) cabin (plane)
Carloadin the printing industry, a truck load of paper weighing 40000 pounds
Carmagnole(French) a Savoyard revolutionary round dance and song named after a short coat from Carmagnola in Piedmont, northern Italy
Carmañola(Spanish) carmagnole
Carmeliteorder of mendicant friars originally founded in Palestine in the 12th century, then reformed in Europe in the 13th century after the failure of the Crusades; also known as the White Friars
Carmen(Latin, literally 'song' or 'poem') vocal line in a Middle Ages or Renaissance composition, poem, ode
instrumental music derived from vocal chansons
an opera in four acts by Georges Bizet (1838-1875) produced in Paris in 1875
carn.abbreviation of 'Carnival'
Carnage(English, French m.) death and destruction, for example that associated with battle
Carnagione(Italian f.) complexion
Carnaio(Italian m.) shambles, complete mess (figurative)
carnale(Italian) carnal
carnassier (m.), carnassière (f.)(French) flesh-eating
Carnatic flutesee kazhal
Carnatic musicthe classical music that originated in the South Indian region of present day Karnataka. Lyrics in Carnatic music are largely devotional; most of the songs are addressed to the Hindu deities
Carnaubawachs(German n.) carnauba wax
Carnauba waxhard yellowish to brownish wax from leaves of the carnauba carnaubeira palm (Copernicia prunifera) used especially in floor waxes and polishes
Carnaval(Portuguese, French m.) carnival
Carnavalesco(Portuguese) the master costume designer for a samba school, escuela de samba
Carnet(German n., French m.) notebook, book (of tickets, etc.), a small booklet (of official documents)
Carnet de chèques(French m.) chequebook
Carnet de notes(French m.) school report
Carnet de Passages (en Douane)(German n., French m.) required in many countries around the world, a customs document that identifies your motor vehicle
Carnival(from the Latin, carnem levare, 'putting away meat as food') the period before Lent, a period associated with sumptuous festivity (as in Venice) and licentiousness (as in Rome). The origins of carnival date back to the ancient Greek spring festival in honour of Dionysus, the god of wine. The Romans adopted the celebration with Bacchanalia (feasts in honour of Bacchus, the Roman equivalent to Dionysus), and Saturnalia, where slaves and their masters would exchange clothes in a day of drunken revelry. Saturnalia was later modified by the Roman Catholic Church into a festival leading up Ash Wednesday. It quickly evolved into a massive celebration of indulgences before the period of 40 days of personal reflection, abstinence, and fasting until Easter
(in Portuguese, carnaval) the origin of Brazil's carnival goes back to a Portuguese pre-Lent festivity called entrudo, a chaotic event where participants threw mud, water, and food at each other in a street event that often led to riots (an event quite similar to today's Andean carnival). Rio's first masquerade carnival ball (set to polkas and waltzes) was in 1840. Carnival street parades followed a decade later with horse drawn floats and military bands. The samba now so closely associated with the Brazilian carnival wasn't part of carnival until 1917. The samba is a mix of Angolan semba, European polka, African batuques, with touches of Cuban habanera and other styles, a result of the arrival of black Brazilians (primarily from Bahia) to the impoverished slums or favelas surrounding Rio following the abolition, in 1888) of slavery in Brazil. Today the carnival is organized by the escolas de samba (samba schools). They first appeared in 1928. Much more than musical groups, they are in fact, neighbourhood associations that provide a variety of community needs such as educational and health care resources
in Santiago de Cuba, cabildos and neighbourhood groups took to the streets in June and July in masked celebrations known as fiestas de mamarrachos, which extended from St. John's Day (June 24) to St. Ann's Day (July 26). In Havana, the cabildos held public celebrations on the Dia de los Reyes, or Epiphany (January 6), thus creating that city's first Black carnival. In both cities, these Catholic holidays were opportunities for the public display of African dress, dance and musical instruments. Carnival has of course expanded from these beginnings, adding such elements as floats, allegorical dances, figures from contemporary popular culture, and dance bands. Yet there is a constant re-historicizing of the event, with reminders of its African roots. In the Havana carnival, for example, one can still see carved guardian figures similar to those that appeared in old cabildo processions described by the nineteenth-century observer Fernando Ortiz. In another sort of historical reminder, carnival in Cuba now coincides with July 26 (St. Ann's Day). It was on that date in 1953 that Fidel Castro and his troops attacked the Moncada barracks in Santiago while the city was absorbed in celebration. Cuban carnival now commemorates that event nationally
Carnival songsee canto carnascialesco
Carnyx (s.), Carnyces (pl.)(English, German f.) a long Celtic trumpet made of beaten bronze and held vertically so that the sound travels from more than three metres above the ground. It was known through much of Europe from about 200 BC to 200 AD and was widely depicted - notably on the Gundestrup bowl which shows three carnyces being played simultaneously. The best surviving part of a carnyx was found in North East Scotland and exhibits local design elements. The end of the instrument is in the form of a wild boar's head, and it has a movable tongue and lower jaw. The original instrument is now owned by the National Museums of Scotland
  • The Carnyx from which this information has been taken
Carol(from the French word caroller, a circle dance accompanied by singers, in turn derived from the Latin choraula) English medieval strophic song, dramatic, lyrical or narrative formed of verses coupled with a refrain, called a 'burden'
a term applied today, in English, to any Christmas song, of which the French equivalent is the noël (noëls pl.) and the German, the Weinachtslied (Weinachtslieder pl.)
carolto sing joyously
Carola(German f., Italian f.) in French carole or carole medievale (French f.), a round dance of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries of which there is no surviving example, which was replaced in the mid fourteenth century by the basse dance
caroláre(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) to carol, to sing, to revel
Carole (medievale)(French f.) carola (Italian f., German f.)
Caroletta(Italian f.) a little dance
Carolina beach musicsee 'beach music'
Carolina Shagsee 'shag'
Carolina Starone of the big circle figures danced by all couples in one large circle facing the centre which are traditionally associated with square dancing
Carolingian balladsthe French Song of Roland and the Castilian Epic of El Cid present a series of morphological, phraseological, and more general similarities. These are believed to confirm the warm relations that prevailed between the French and the Castilian thrones during the eleventh and twelfth centuries, and also to the close religious affinities of these two during this time. Furthermore, the Carolingian ballads, the sole Castilian epic-lyric, came into being, demonstrating the Castilians' interest in songs composed across the Pyrenees. Despite the similarities, there are significant differences between the two, both in metric style and in the degree to which they recount actual events of the time, in other words, the historicity of the narrated stories. The Castilian epic preserves more traditional elements, which have survived intact in South America and also among the Spanish Jews. This older epic heroic element is deeply rooted in the literary sentiment and the national consciousness of those peoples
[corrected by Michael Zapf]
Carolingianreferring to the reign of Charlemagne (AD 768-814)
Carolingian erac.742-814, the time of Charlemagne, a period when the Roman liturgy spread through the Frankish empire
Caroller(French, derived from the Latin choraula) a circle dance accompanied by singers
Caron(see small letter s with caron, š) also known as a haček (or háček), wedge, inverted circumflex, inverted hat, a diacritic placed over certain letters to indicate present or historical palatalization, iotation, or postalveolar pronunciation in the orthography of some Baltic, Slavic, Finno-Lappic, and other languages
Carotte(French f.) carrot
carotter(French) to swindle (slang), to wangle (slang)
Carousel organor 'fairground organ', band organ used on a carousel or merry-go-round
Carpaccio(English, German m./n.) a dish of raw beef, veal or tuna traditionally thinly sliced or pounded thin served as an appetiser, antipasto (Italian) or hors d'oeuvres (French)
Carpe(French f.) carp (fish)
Carpe diem(Latin, 'seize the day') seize the opportunity, make the most of the moment
in classical literature, the term refers to a common moral or theme that the reader should make the most out of life and should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition
Carpentariagolf(German m.) Gulf of Carpentaria (a wide shallow inlet of the Arafura Sea in northern Australia)
Carpenter effectsee 'ideomotor effect'
Carpenter-Effekt(German m.) ideomotor effect
Carpeta thick fabric for covering floor or stairs, a thick covering (for example, carpet of snow)
to cover with or as with carpet, to reprimand (colloquial)
Carpet-bagtravelling-bag, originally made of a carpet-like material
Carpet-baggerpolitical candidate, etc. without local connections (colloquial: especially US)
unscrupulous opportunist
Carpetingmaterial for carpets, collective term for carpets
Carpet slippersoft slipper
Carpet-sweeperhousehold implement for sweeping carpets
Carpette(French f.) rug
Carphologiasee 'carphology'
Carphologythe movements of delirious patients, as if searching for or grasping at imaginary objects, lint-picking behaviour, or picking the bed-clothes
Carport (s.), Carports (pl.)(English, German m.) or, in English, car port, a garage for one or two cars consisting of a flat roof supported on poles
Carpus (s.), Carpi (pl.)(English, German m., Latin from Greek) also 'wrist', 'wrist joint', 'radiocarpal joint', 'articulatio', a joint between the distal end of the radius and the proximal row of carpal bones
Carraca(Spanish f.) or matraca (Spanish f.), ratchet, raganella (Italian f.)
Carrageen, Carrageenan, Caragheen(English, German n.) a food additive made from a purified extract of red seaweed (also called Irish moss), commonly used, as a natural emulsifier and thickening agent, in ice cream and other dairy products, toothpaste, beer, processed meat, diet sodas, and soy milk
Carrara marbleused since the time of Ancient Rome (for example, the Pantheon and Trajan's Column in Rome are constructed of it), many sculptures of the Renaissance, such as Michelangelo's David, were carved from this highly-prized marble. For Michelangelo at least, Carrara marble was valued above all other stone, except perhaps that of his own quarry in Pietrasanta. The same marble was used for London's Marble Arch and the Duomo di Siena
Carraramarmor(German m.) Carrara marble
Carrara-Marmor(German m.) Carrara marble
carraspear(Spanish) to clear one's throat
Carré(French m.) square, patch (of ground)
carré(French) square (in form), straightforward (figurative)
Carreau(French m.) (window) pane, tile (wall, floor), check (design), diamonds (cards)
breve(French) a breve (double whole note) equal to two semibreves (whole notes)
Carrefour(French m.) crossroads
Carrelsmall cubicle for a reader in a library
(German n.) booth
Carrelage(French m.) tiling, tiles
carreler(French) to tile
Carrelet(French m.) plaice (fish)
carrément(French) straight, (say) straight out
Carretera de cuota(Spanish - Latin America) toll road
Carrier(English, German m.) someone whose employment involves carrying something, someone who carries an infectious agent and thereby passes it to others
Carrière(French f.) career, quarry
Carrière jalonnée de succès(French f.) a career marked out with successes, a career punctuated with successes
Carrière jalonnée d'obstacles(French f.) a career marked out with obstacles, a career punctuated with obstacles
Carrociosee 'bell carriage'
carrossable(French) suitable for vehicles
Carrosse(French m.) (horse-drawn) coach
Carrosserie(French f.) body(work) (car)
Carrossier(French m.) body-builder (vehicles)
Carrousel(French) a roundabout, a merry-go-round, a rotating display for a shop window, a festive tournament
Carrozza (s.), Carrozze (pl.)(Italian f.) a coach, a cab
Carrure(French f.) build, calibre (figurative)
Carsharing(German n.) car sharing, carsharing
Car sharingas a means of reducing traffic congestion, two or more unrelated people share a single vehicle as a means travelling to work, etc.
Car-Sharing(German n.) car sharing
Carta(Spanish f.) letter, document, menu (restaurant), (wine) list, map, chart (nautical), card (playing card)
Carta abierta(Spanish f.) open letter
Carta adjunta(Spanish f.) covering letter
Carta assorbente(Italian f.) blotting paper
Carta astral(Spanish f.) birth chart (astrological)
Carta blanca(Spanish f.) free hand, carte blanche
Cartable(French m.) satchel
Carta certificada(Spanish f.) registered letter
Carta de acompañamiento(Spanish f.) letter of introduction
Carta de amor(Spanish f.) love letter
Carta da lettere(Italian f.) writing paper
Carta da musica(Italian f.) music paper
Carta da parati(Italian f.) wallpaper
Carta de crédito(Spanish f.) credit card
Carta de muestra(Spanish f.) sample letter
Carta de naturaleza(Spanish f.) naturalisation papers
Carta de presentación(Spanish f.) letter of introduction
Carta de recomendación(Spanish f.) reference (letter supporting somebody's application for a job, etc.), letter of recommendation
Carta de vinos(Spanish f.) wine list
Carta di credito(Italian f.) credit card
Carta explicatoria(Spanish f.) covering letter
Cartagenerasa toque libre song form, fandango-based, that takes it name from the area of origin, Cartagena
Carta igienica(Italian f.) toilet paper
Carta urgente(Spanish f.) express letter, special-delivery letter
Carta velina(Italian f.) tissue paper
Carta vetrata(Italian f.) sandpaper
Carte(French f.) card, map, (nautical) chart, menu (in a restaurant)
Carte blanche(French) a free hand, absolute freedom of action
Carte de crédit(French f.) credit card
Carte des vins(French f.) wine list
Carte de visite(French f., literally 'visiting card') (business) card
or 'album card', introduced by the Frenchman Andre Adolphe Eugene Disdore in the 1850s, originally a photograph pasted to a rigid 2 1/2 by 4" card, that was intended to serve as a visting card
Carte d'identité(French f.) identity card
Carte du jour(French f.) menu of the day
Carte grise(French f.) (car) registration card
Cartel(French m.) a written agreement between warring parties under which prisoners of war may be exchanged
(French m.) an agreement made between corporations to work together in addressing mutual business concerns such as price fixing, supply limits, and sales quotas, all to stifle competition (and which now are generally considered illegal)
(French m.) in music, an obsolete term for the first sketch of a composition or of a full score
Cartel boxa large cylinder musical box first made in Geneva, Switzerland
Cartella(Italian) small enamelled board on which musical exercises were written and then erased
Cartelle (s.), Cartelles (pl.)(Italian) hides or large clothes prepared and varnished and provided with musical staves upon which music could be written and, when necessary, effaced
Cartellino (s.), Cartellini (pl.)(Italian m.) a painted representation of a small paper scroll, often bearing an inscription
Cartellone(Italian, literally 'a large placard') a large play-bill, a printed list of operas to be performed during a particular season
Cartephiliaan archaic term used in the early 20th century to describe postcard collecting
Carte postale(French f.) postcard
Carterton established in 1894, in Oxfordshire, by the philanthropist and entrepreneur William Carter. An attempt to draw industrial town-dwellers back to the land, and to make them self-sufficient. The land was divided into plots of 6 acres and sold for £20 an acre with bungalows costing from £120. Many of the settlers were retired soldiers and 'refugees' from the towns. Carterton soon made its name in the market gardening world. Black grapes from Frenchester Nurseries and the famous Carterton tomatoes were sold at Covent Garden Market. There are still a few of the original tin or asbestos settlers' bungalows in the town. The village flourished, with a tin mission church and the first large building - The Emporium - being built in 1911 with an upstairs room for meetings and dances. The village expanded rapidly following the building of an airfield in 1935
Cartes(French f. pl.) (playing) cards
Carthusiana monastic order founded in Chartreuse, in France, in the 11th century; a contemplative order whose brethren were bound to vows of silence and renunciation of the world
Cartilage(English, French m.) firm flexible connective tissue, which is replaced progressively by bone in adulthood
Cartilago(German f.) cartilage
Cartina(Italian f.) a part containing only one solo for a voice of a choir
(Italian f.) small piece of paper
Carton(French m.) cardboard, (cardboard) box
Cartón(Spanish m.) carton (milk, cigarettes, etc.), cardboard, tray (for eggs)
Carton à dessin(French m.) portfolio
Cartón con abrefácil(Spanish m.) easy-open carton
Cartone animato (s.), Cartoni animati (pl.)(Italian m.) animated cartoon (film)
Cartonnage(French m.) cardboard packing
cartonné(French) hardback (book)
Cartonnier(French m.) an ornamental cabinet used to store prints, drawings, etc. (it has large flat drawers upon which the drawings and pictures can lie unfolded
Cartón ondulado(Spanish m.) corrugated cardboard
Carton-pâte(French m.) pasteboard
Cartón piedra(Spanish m.) papier mâché
Carton-pierre(French m.) papier mâché made to imitate stone
Cartoon (s.), Cartoons (pl.)(English, German m./n.) a humorous or satirical drawing published in a newspaper or magazine, a diagram of the rug design that weavers follow when knotting an oriental rug, a film made by photographing a series of cartoon drawings to give the illusion of movement when projected in rapid sequence, a full-size design for a window or panel, a full size drawing of the mosaic which can include colour and andemento
Cartoonist(German m.) artist who draws cartoons
Cartouche(French f.) cartridge, carton (of cigarettes)
an oval or rectangular outline enclosing a proper name in Egyptian hieroglyphics
a framework for an inscription simulating a sheet of paper with the ends rolled
in cooking, a round cover of greaseproof paper
Cartouchière(French f.) cartridge-belt
Cartularyvariant of 'chartulary'
Cartwheela feature of the French can-can, a handspring in which the body turns over sideways with the arms and legs spread like the spokes of a wheel