music dictionary : Ch - Chn

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CHabbreviation of 'Companion of Honour'
Ch.abbreviation of 'choir organ', 'choir', Chor (German: choir), choeur (French: choir)
Chaabipopular Arabic music, also known as shaabi, sha-bii or sha'bii. Chaabi was originally performed in markets, but is now found at any celebration or meeting. In Morocco, for example, chaabi songs typically end with a leseb, a swift rhythmic section accompanied by syncopated clapping
Chabara(Korean) see bara
Chabarowsk(German n.) Khabarovsk (the administrative center and the largest city of Khabarovsk Krai, Russia. It is located some 30 km from the Chinese border)
Chablis(English, German m.) Chablis wine (the Chablis region is the northernmost wine district of Burgundy, France)
Chabretta(French f.) bellows-blown bagpipe from Limousin region of France
Chabrette(French f.) bellows-blown bagpipe from Limousin region of France
Chacal(French m.) jackal
Chácaras(Spanish) large castanets from the Canary Islands
Chacareraa folk dance and music originated in the northwest of Argentina in the nineteenth century. Chacarera is still played and danced in many provinces of Argentina, specially in Catamarca, Salta, Tucumán, Santiago del Estero, and Jujuy, and it can be also found in the south of Bolivia. Each Province has it own flavour of chacarera with subtle differences, mainly in the steps (Chacarera doble, Chacarera larga, etc)
Chacarráfandango dance from Tarifa, in southern Spain, performed by two women and one man
Chác-chásalso called chullus (chew-use), a shaker, made from dozens of sheep or goat hooves, tied to a strip of cloth and either worn on the wrists or hand-held
Chace(French) a fourteenth-century French term for 'canon', particularly two- and three-voice canons that imitated bird calls or the sounds of instruments, etc.
Chacháthe smaller of the two heads of the batá drums
Cha-cha bellthe small bell mounted on the timbales and used for the chachachá, guajira and similar styles
Cha-Cha-Cha(German m.) cha-cha-cha, chachachá (Spanish)
Cha-cha-chasee chachachá (Spanish)
Chachachá(Spanish) or 'cha-cha-cha', a dance and musical style evolving from the Nuevo Ritmo of the danzón style. Enganadora, by Cuban bandleader and violinist Enrique Jorrin, is generally considered to be the first chachachá, in 1953. As a dance, cha cha became popular in the 1950s and 1960s and is descended from mambo through triple mambo. It is in 4/4 time and follows a rhythmic pattern two crotchets (quarter-notes), three quavers (eighth-notes) and a quaver rest (eighth-rest)
Chacona(Spanish f.) chaconne
Chaconne(English, German f., French f.) or, in English, 'chacony', a slow stately dance with variations, popular during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, generally in triple time, played over a ground bass, similar to the passacaglia (Italian) or passecaille (French), that originated in Latin America in the late sixteenth century
Chacony(old English) chaconne
chacun (m.), chacune (f.)(French) each (one), every one, everyone
chacun à son goût(French) every man to his taste
the more usual form, in French, is à chacun son goût
chacun à son métier(French) every man to his trade, let the cobbler stick to his last (figurative)
Chadera(German n.) Hadera (a city located in the Haifa District of Israel)
Chador(English, German m.) a cloth used as a head covering (and veil and shawl) by Muslim and Hindu women
Chadrachamodern, popular Cuban music
Chafing-dish(from the Old French chauffer, "to make warm") a kind of portable grate ("a dish of Coles") raised on a tripod, originally heated with charcoal in a brazier, and used for foods that required gentle cooking, away from the fierce heat of direct flames. The chafing dish could be used at table or for keeping food warm on a buffet. Double dishes that provide a protective water jacket are known as bain-marie and help keep delicate foods such as fish warm while preventing overcooking. A chafing-dish heated by a small spirit-lamp is known in French as a veilleuse
Chagas diseaseenfermedad de Chagas (Spanish), mal de Chagas (Spanish), also called American trypanosomiasis, a tropical parasitic disease particularly found in the Southern American continent
Chagas-Krankheit(German f.) Chagas disease
Chaghanaalso called 'Turkish crescent', chapeau chinois or 'jingling johnnie', a ceremonial staff of ancient Central Asian origin which was adopted by the Turks and gained importance following their capture of Constantinople, when the crescent became the emblem of Turkish power. This symbolic and highly ornate staff is surmounted by a crescent and a metal ornament shaped like a Chinese hat. Attached are two horsehair tassels, and hanging at different points are a considerable number of bells and crotals which jingle as the staff is carried in procession. The chaghana was highly valued by Europeans as a war trophy during periods of conflict with Turkey and was incorporated in miltary bands following the Turkish custom. It still exists today
Chagrin(French m.) sorrow, acute vexation, mortification, something that troubles the mind
(German n.) shagreen (the rough hide of a shark or ray, covered with numerous bony denticles and used as an abrasive and as leather - formerly made from a horse's back, or that of an onager (wild ass))
Chagrin d'amour(French m.) the distrewss that results from an unhappy love-affair
chagriné(French) accorato (Italian) sorrowful, grieving, worried, bothered, distressed, betrübt (German)
chagriner(French) to distress, to grieve, to upset, to worry, to bother
Chagrinleder(German n.) shagreen (the rough hide of a shark or ray, covered with numerous bony denticles and used as an abrasive and as leather - formerly made from a horse's back, or that of an onager (wild ass))
Chahut(French m.) row, din
a noisy dance resembling the cancan
chahuter(French) to make a row, to be rowdy with
Chahuteur (m.), Chahuteuse (f.)(French) rowdy
Chai(English, German m.) a beverage made by brewing tea with a mixture of aromatic spices
(English, German n. from Hebrew) a symbol and word that figures prominently in Jewish culture and consists of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet Het and Yod
Chail(Hebrew, literally 'bored through') pipe or flute (1 Samuel 10:5)
Chain(in tuning theory) a chain is a type of linear tuning which is theoretically infinite on both ends, for example 'Pythagorean'
see 'chains'
Chaîné(French f.) chain, channel (television, satellite, etc.)
Chaîne de fabrication(French f.) production line
Chaîne de montage(French f.) assembly line
Chaîne de montagnes(French f.) mountain range
Chaîne hi-fi(French f.) hi-fi system
Chaînés(French f. pl., literally 'chains', 'links') or deboulés (French), rolar (Portuguese), in dance, an abbreviation of the term tours chaînés déboulés, a series of rapid turns on demi-pointes in a straight line or in a circle
see 'chains'
Chaînette(French f.) small chain
Chain formbinary form extended with more sections, for example ABCD, and particularly when including repeated sections, AABBCCDD
Chain mailflexible and luxury fabric of many interwoven metal rings, used in suits of armor: a similar version called 'Oroton' was popularized by Versace in the 1980s
Chaînon(French m.) link (in a chian)
Chain perforationsa term applied to the 'breaking up' of otherwise long perforations for when long sustained notes are called for on automatic music players using a paper roll. The long perforation is broken up into a series of small perforations set close together in a line down the roll which makes the roll stronger and less likely to tear or wrinkle. The separations are so small that the air-actuated tracker action does not detect them, seeing the perforations as being continuous. The resultant note is therefore unbroken
Chain rhymethe linking together of stanzas by carrying a rhyme over from one stanza to the next
Chainschaines (French), Ketten (German), catene (Italian), cadenas (Spanish)
a percussion instrument made of lengths of metal chain. Schoenberg used chains in Gurrelieder
Chainsea white long-sleeved undertunic of fine linen worn in the early Middle Ages. In feminine costume it was ground-length. Later it developed into the shirt and the chemise
ChaintanyaBengali religious reformer of the 15th century AD., who is worshipped by his followers as an incarnation of Sri Krishna
Chair(French f.) flesh
Chair à saucisses(French f.) sausage meat
chair, (couleur)(French) flesh-coloured
Chair de poule(French m.) goose-flesh
Chaire(French f.) pulpit (in a church), chair (university)
Chairman (m.), Chairwoman (f.), Chairmen (pl.), Chairwomen (, German) also chair, the person who acts as the senior member of the board of a company, as the presiding officer of a meeting or assembly, or as the adminstrative head of an academic department in a university
Chair organan obsolete term for 'choir organ'
Chaise(French f.) chair
(French f.) a light four-wheeled carriage
(German f.) chaise longue, jalopy (colloquial), banger (colloquial: old car)
Chaiselongue (s.), Chaiselonguen (pl.)(German f./n.) chaise-longue
Chaise-longue(English, French f.) a day-bed, a kind of sofa with a back but one end
(French f.) deck-chair
Chaitifolk songs of Uttar Pradesh, sung in the month of Chaitra (March-April)
Chajchas(South America) a rattle made from goat or sheep hooves
Chakachatraditional rhythm from Kenya
Chakasien(German) Khakassia (a federal subject of the Russian republic located in south central Siberia)
Chakkigrinding wheel or mill
Chakra(English, German n.) one of the seven centres of spiritual energy in the human body according to yoga philosophy
Chal.abbreviation for chalumeau, an instruction in a clarinet part that the player should transpose the wirrten notes down an octave. The instruction is cancelled with the marking Clar.
Chalanin Indian classical music, the characteristic movement of notes in a raga
Chaland(French m.) barge
Chalazion(English, German n.) inflammed lump in a meibomian gland (in the eyelid), which usually subsides, but may need surgical removal
Chalazium(German n.) chalazion
Chalcedonian churcheschurches that accept the definition given at the Council of Chalcedon (451 AD) of how the divine and human relate in the person of Jesus Christ. While most modern Christian churches are Chalcedonian, in the 5th - 8th centuries AD the ascendancy of Chalcedonian Christology was not always certain. The dogmatical disputes raised during this Synod led to the Chalcedonian schism and as a matter of course to the creation of the non-chalcedonian body of churches known as Oriental Christianity. The Chalcedonian churches were the ones that remained united with Rome, Constatinople and the three Greek Orthodox patriarchates of the East (Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem), that under Justinian at the council in Trullo were organised under a form of rule known as the Pentarchy. The majority of the Armenian, Syrian, Coptic, and Ethiopian Christians rejected the Chalcedonian definition, and are now known collectively as Oriental Orthodox. However, some Armenian Christians (especially in the region of Cappadocia and Trebizond inside the Byzantine Empire) did accept the decisions of the Council of Chalcedon and engaged in polemics against the Armenian Apostolic Church, and churches of the Syriac tradition among the Eastern Catholic Churches are also Chalcedonian
chalcedonische Kirchen(German pl.) Chalcedonian churches
Chalcedonya translucent or grayish semi-precious stone that is a variety of banded quartz
Chaldäer(German pl.) Chaldeans
Chaldeaa Hellenistic designation for a part of Babylonia, mainly around Sumerian Ur, which became an independent kingdom under the Chaldees. It pursued military campaigns against the foreign ruling dynasties ruling southern Mesopotamia, mainly the Akkadians and the Babylonians. It became a Babylonian colony in the early days of Hammurabi, but retained special status in relation to other cities ruled by Babylon in the region. The 11th dynasty of the Kings of Babylon (6th century BC) is conventionally known to historians as the Chaldean Dynasty. Their kingdom in the southern portion of Babylonia lay chiefly on the right bank of the Euphrates. Though the name came to be commonly used to refer to the whole of Mesopotamia, Chaldea proper was the vast plain in the south formed by the deposits of the Euphrates and the Tigris, extending to about four hundred miles along the course of these rivers, and about a hundred miles in average width
  • Chaldea from which this extract has been taken
Chaldeanof or relating to Chaldea or its people, language, or culture
ancient astrologers, originally based in Babylon, a city in Mesopotamia (Iraq), the birthplace of western astrology
a member of the Chaldean Catholic Church, a uniate church of the Roman Catholic Church
a wise man skilled in occult learning
Chaldean wisdomamong Greeks and Romans, the synonym of divination through the position and movements of planets and stars
Châle(French m.) shawl
Chaleco(Spanish m.) vest, waistcoat, sleeveless sweater, body warmer, cardigan (South America)
Chaleco antibalas(Spanish m.) bulletproof vest
Chaleco de fuerza(Spanish m.) straitjacket
Chaleco reflectante(Spanish m.) (high visibility) reflective vest, fluorescent vest (also known as a safety vest)
Chaleco salvavidas(Spanish m.) lifejacket
Chalemie(French) a pipe
Chalet(English, German n., French m.) chalet, a small wooden house of a Swiss peasant
Chaleur(French f.) heat, warmth (intensity, colour, etc.), passion
chaleureusement(French) with warmth
chaleureux (m.), chaleureuse (f.)(French) warm
Chalgaa form of Bulgarian popular music drawing from Balkan folk traditions and incorporating Turkish, Greek, and Roma (gypsy) influences, as well as motifs from Balkan traditional music, flamenco and klezmer music. Often indistinguishable from Bulgarian pop music, it remains popular with the proletariat - music played in dance clubs and pubs. The word chalga comes from a Turkish word pronounced chalguh, which means 'playing' or 'music' and is itself derived from Arabic
  • Chalga from which this extract has been taken
Chalgazhiaa type of musician, normally a Tsigani (gypsy), who could play virtually any type of music usually from memory, but to which he added his own distinctive beat or rhythm
Chalghia Middle-Eastern instrumental ensemble generally found accompanying maqam singing, which features santur, a type of hammer dulcimer, and the jawzah, a spike-fiddle
Chalicethe cup for holding the wine at the ritual of the Eucharist
Challaha loaf of yeast-leavened egg bread, usually braided, traditionally eaten by Jews on the Sabbath, holidays, and other ceremonial occasions
Challenge(French m.) contest
chalm.abbreviation of chalumeau
Chalmeausynonymous with chalumeau
Chalmeysynonymous with chalumeau
Chaloupe(French f.) launch, boat
Chalumeau (s.), Chalumeaux (pl.)(French m.) blowlamp, blowtorch
(English, German n., French m.) or ciaramella (Italian f.), cennamella (Italian f.), Schalmei (German f.), Hirtenpfeife (German f.), pipeau (French m.), simple rustic reed pipe, ancestor of clarinet, with 6 to 8 finger holes
(French m.) shawm
(French m.) the double-reed chanter of a bagpipe
the lowest register (the first octave from the fundamental) playable by instruments of the clarinet family
the direction 'chalumeau' in music for clarinet or basset horn directs the player to 'play the music an octave lower than written'
Chalut(French m.) trawl-net
Chalutier(French m.) trawler
Chalzedon(German m.) chalcedony
Chamsee 'Cham dance'
Chamadethe sounding of a drum to ask for a parley
chamadesee en chamade
Chameleonlizard of Africa and Madagascar able to change skin color and having a projectile tongue
a changeable or inconstant person
Chamäleon(German n.) chameleon
chamäleonartig(German) chameleon-like, like a chameleon
Chamamépolkas, mazurkas and waltzes came to Argentina with the immigrants, where they became mixed with African and Amerindian music. Chamamé emerged from this mix, a ravishingly beautiful, evocative folk style that emanated from the Corrientes and Misiones provinces of Argentina's far north east
chambarder(French) turn upside down
Chambera prefix used to describe smaller-scale musical activities
in the organ, a room housing the pipes that opens into the main room
Chamber jazza fusion of impressionistic jazz and European classical music
Chamberlainan officer of the royal household responsible for the Chamber, meaning that he controled access to the person of the king. He was also responsible for administration of the household and the private estates of the king. The Chamberlain was one of the four main officers of the court, the others being the Chancellor, the Justiciar, and the Treasurer
Chamber musicmúsica de cámara (Spanish), musica da camera (Italian), Kammermusik (German), musique de chambre (French)
music, including part songs, instrumental trios, quartets, etc., generally written to be played or sung one-to-a-part, geenrally in a domestic setting, or possibly in a small hall to an audience
Chamber operaan opera of intimate character often accompanied by a chamber orchestra
Chamber orchestraa small orchestra generally employing the forces that would have been usually in the second half of the eighteenth century
Chamber organa pipe organ designed for continuo use with a limited number of ranks. As a domestic instrument in England, the chamber organ was often perceived to be as much a piece of furniture as an item of musical equipment
Chamber sonataalso called sonata da camera (Italian) or Kammer Sonate (German), a suite from the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, composed mainly of dance movements, generally for two or more soloists with accompaniment
Chamber symphonya symphony for a small ensemble of players
Chambre(French f.) room, bedroom, chamber (politics, court)
chambré(French) brought to room temperature
Chambre à air(French f.) inner tube
Chambre à coucher(French f.) bedroom
Chambre à deux lits(French f.) double room
Chambre à un lit(French f.) single/double room
Chambre d'amis(French f.) spare ou guest room
Chambre forte(French f.) strong-room
chambrer(French) to bring (wine) to room temperature
Cham Danceassociated with some sects of Buddhism, a lively dance which employs dancers wearing masks and ornamented costumes. The dance is accompanied by music played by monks using traditional Tibetan instruments. The dances often offer moral instruction relating to non-harm to sentient beings and are said to bring merit to all who observe them
Chameau(French m.) camel
ChamferAbkantung (German f.), Phase (German f.), Randel (German n.), chanfrein (French f.), smusso (Italian m.), a bevelled surface at an edge or corner
Chamois(English, French m.) the European antelope or mountain goat, the skin of which is used as a wash-leather (when it is pronounced and sometimes written 'shammy')
Chamoisleder(German n.) chamois leather
Chamoisleder für Reinigungszwecke(German n.) chamois leather for cleaning
Chamomileany of several plants of the aster family, with scented leaves and small daisylike flowers; the dried leaves and flowers were used in herbal cures
Chamonge guitarmade from a cooking pot strung with metal wires, it is one of the instrument particularly associated with the Borana who live in Kenya near the Ethiopian border. Their music reflects Ethiopian, Arab and other traditions
Chamorropertaining to the indigenous native islanders of the Mariana Islands consisting of Guam, Saipan, Rota, and Tinian
(English, German n.) an indigenous native islander of the Mariana Islands
Chamoru(German n.) Chamorro
Champ(French m.) field
(English, German m.) abbreviation of 'champion' (colloquial)
Champagne(English, French m.) white sparkling wine from the Champagne region of Eastern France
(English) pale cream colour
Champagner(German m.) champagne, champagnes, bubbly (colloquial)
champagnerfarben(German) champagne-coloured
Champagnerflasche(German f.) champagne bottle
Champagnerglas(German n.) champagne glass
Champagnerherstellung(German f.) champagne production
Champagnerlaune(German f.) festive mood
Champagnersorbet(German n.) champagne sorbet
Champagnerwein(German m.) champagne wine
ChamparaKosovar Albanian small metallic finger cymbals
Champ de bataille(French m.) battlefield
Champ de courses(French m.) racecourse
Champeta criollaAfro-Colombian music style and dance from Cartagena, on the Caribbean coast, it is a combination of indigenous rhythms, Caribbean beats and African influences, with lyrics that are usually satirical; also known as terapia criolla
champêtre(French) villanesco (Italian), agreste (Italian, Spanish), campestre (Italian), rural, rustic, pastoral, ländlich (German)
see danse champêtre
see fête champêtre
Champignon (s.), Champignons (pl.)(German m., French m.) mushroom, fungus (caused by damp)
Champignoncremesuppe(German f.) mushroom cream soup, cream of mushroom soup
Champignon de Paris(French m.) button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus brunnescens)
Champion(French) person who fights or argues on behalf of another or for a cause, person who surpasses all his or her rivals
Champion (m.), Championne (French f.)(English, German, French) champion, champ (colloquial)
Champlevé(French, 'raised field') Grubenschmelz (German m.), a form of enamel work in which the metal ground is engraved or hollowed out, the hollows being filled with opaque coloured enamel which is then fired
ChamriengCambodian vocals
Chamsasee hamsa
Cham-Tanz(German m.) Cham Dance
Chanaqin(German n.) Khanaqin (a city in eastern Iraq, south of Kurdish regions)
Chancay culturea cultural grouping settled on the north central coast of Peru in the period 1000-1500 AD. The group is characterised by a distinctive ceramic style, typically an elongated jar with a face painted on a small neck. Numerous large cemeteries are known from this culture and the pattern of grave goods suggests marked social stratification. The group was conquered by the Inca empire in the sixteenth century
Chancay-Kultur(German f.) Chancay culture
Chançaya village and commune in the Indre-et-Loire département of central France
Chance (s.), Chancen (German p.)(English, German f., French f.) luck, prospect, break, opportunity, venture (archaic), shot (as in best shot), good luck, chance (probability)
Chance für einen Neubeginn(German f.) chance for a new beginning
Chancel(from Latin, cancelli 'lattice') part of the apse, the word 'chancel' is a reference to the carving or construction of the rood screen often includes latticework, which makes it possible to see through the screen partially from the nave into the chancel. The 'chancel' itself is that part of a church around the main altar used by the priests and open to the choir and often enclosed by a lattice or railing
Chancel archthe arch, generally stone, at the west end of the chancel
Chancel screensee jubé
chanceler(French) to stagger, to falter (figurative)
Chancelier(French m.) chancellor
Chance musicsee 'aleatoric'
Chancengleichheit(German f.) equal opportunities, equal opportunity
chancenlos(German) no-win, without a chance
Chance operationssee 'aleatoric'
chanceux (m.), chanceuse (f.)(French) lucky
Chan-chikisee atarigane
Chancre(French m.) canker
Chandail(French m.) sweater
Chandelier(French m.) candlestick
in English, a branched candle-holder, suspended from the ceiling and often ornamented with cut-glass lustres
Chandelle(French f.) candle
Chanelkostüm(German n.) Chanel suit
Chanel-Kostüm(German n.) Chanel suit
Changa harp from Iran that dates back to about 2000 BC. The strings are attached to a soundbox but rather than coming from a crossbar, they are attached at an oblique angle from a neck at one end of the soundbox
also called chang ko'uz and temir chang, a Jew's harp which has a flexible, thin lamella extending through the center of the iron frame to the handle
the ancient Uzbek chang dates as far back as the Middle Ages. Up to forty-two wire strings are stretched across a wooden trapezoidal body. The musicians produce stirring clinking sounds by striking the strings with two cane or bamboo sticks
Changdanin Korea traditional music, cyclic rhythm patterns played on percussion instruments
Changeany order in which a number of bells are struck, other than that of the diatonic scale
in harmony, modulation
in the voice, mutation
Change(French m.) (foreign) exchange
Changeablea term applied to chants that may be sung either in a major or minor mode of the key or tonic in which they are written
changeant (m.), changeante (f.)(French) changeable
Changed note(sometimes called a changing note, a non-harmonic passing note, nota cambiata (Italian), Wechselnote (German), note changeante (French), note changée (French)
the term was introduced in the seventeenth century for an accented passing note, but which has come now to mean an unaccented non-harmonic note that is quitted by a leap of a 3rd downwards (or by extension a 3rd upwards)
Changeless system(in tuning theory) Ptolemy's name for the Perfect Immutable System (PIS), [systema teleion ametabolon] the amalgamation of the Greater Perfect System and the Lesser Perfect System into one "complete" system
Changement d'amure de la clé(French m.) change of key signature
Changement de chiffres indicateurs(French m.) change of time signature
Changement de position(French m.) shift position (on a string instrument), cambiamento di posizione (Italian m.), Lagenwechsel (German m.)
Changement de vitesses(French m.) gears
Changement enharmonique(French m.) enharmonic change
Changements(French m. pl.) in dance, short for changements de pieds
Changements battu(French m. pl.) see royale
Changements d'accords(French m. pl.) changes
Changements de pieds(French m. pl., literally 'changing feet') a small or large jump in which the feet change position in the air
changer(French) to change
changer d'avis(French) to change one's mind
changer de direction(French) to change direction
changer de jeu(French) to change the stops in an organ or harmonium
changer de nom(French) to change one's name
changer de place(French) to change places
changer de vitesses(French) to change gear
changer d'idée(French) to change one's mind
Change-ringingWechselläuten (German n.), Variationsläuten (German n.), the ringing of a peal of church bells by a team of ringers, developed in England in the fifteenth century. It is a method of ringing tower bells or handbells for producing changes in the note sequences in sets of bells of various sizes. With four bells there are 24 possible changes; with eight, 40,320; and with twelve, 479,001,600. It is estimated that it would take nearly 36 years to ring, sequentially, the full number possible on a set of 12 bells; each bell rope is pulled by one member of the team; the term is also used to describe a peal performed by a team of hand-bell ringers
Changesthe set of chord changes (progressions), or harmonies, contained in the central theme or melody around which a piece has been built. In jazz, for example, changes refers to the set of harmonies around which an improvisational performance of that piece will be based
short for 'rhythmic changes'
short for 'chord changes'
the varied or altered passages produced by a peal of bells (see 'change-ringing')
Changeur automatique(French n.) change machine
changez(French) change (imperative)
Changgo(Korea) double headed wooden drum
ChanggukKorean dramatic song
changieren(German) to shimmer (in different colours), to iridesce
changierend(German) iridescent
Changing notesee 'changed note'
Chang Jiang(English, German m.) also Chang or Yangtze, the longest river of Asia which flows eastward from Tibet into the East China Sea near Shanghai
Chang ko'uzsee chang
Changóin Yorùbá mythology, Shango (Xango), or Changó in Latin America, is one of the most popular Orisha, (also spelled Orisa and Orixa) a spirit that reflects one of the manifestations of Olodumare (God). He is the focus of a number of South American and Caribbean festivals
Changüían early form of Cuban music, characterised by its strong emphasis on the downbeat, as well as being fast and very percussive. It is usually performed with an instrumentation that includes très, bongos, güiro, maracas, and the marímbula
Chanfrein(French f.) Randel (German n.) Abkantung (German f.), Phase (German f.), smusso (Italian m.), chamfer, a bevelled surface at an edge or corner
Channelsee 'release', 'bridge'
(in electronics) a channel is a path for passing data. In MIDI, channels are used to separate different lines of a song that are going to play together. Each channel, which can contains note and non-note event data, is assigned to a single instrument in any particular instant of time. One channel is usually reserved for a percussion voice. Most MIDI devices can support up to 16 MIDI Channels at one time
Channelizetransmit, move from one channel to another
channelized(English, German) moved from one channel to another, transmitted
Chanoine(French m.) canon
Chanson(French f.) song
(English, German m., French f., from the Latin cantio, via the Provençal canso, French, literally 'song') a style of fourteenth- to sixteenth-century French song for voice or voices, often with backing instrumental accompaniment; the structure could be like the troubadour canso (see above), through-composed (i.e. free form) or by the fourteenth century, normally following one of the formes fixes. While some three-part pieces written before 1520 were given a fourth part, the majority of concordant three- and four-part chansons show the reverse: four-part chansons before 1550 were most often turned into three-part pieces by removing a line, usually the contratenor
in the fifteenth century, the 'instrumental chanson' used one or more voices from the source forme-fixe chanson and added two or more repetitive and rhythmically dense parts as counterpoints against the source material; however, borrowed melodic lines were only used in part and never taken in entirety. This allowed for greater freedom and flexibility in instrumental chanson compositions. Phrase lengths varied more, since there were no textual considerations in instrumental music. Note values were often shortened to create more rhythmic uniformity among the parts. Sequential and repetitive devices were more common in the instrumental chansons in comparison to their vocal models, but such devices were commonly found in large sacred vocal works, where a more abstract relationship between the text and music invited the use of sequences and repetitive designs in the music. While instrumental music depends on a strong performance tradition, the most prominent pieces of instrumental music from the early sixteenth century were still composed by singer-composers who approached the instrumental medium from a vocal standpoint. Without true predecessors, instrumental works in the mid-sixteenth century either continued to borrow from vocal models or were newly invented
Chanson à boire(French f.) drinking song
Chanson à danser(French f.) see troubadour
Chanson à personnages(French f.) Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning
Chanson à refrain(French f.) chanson in which the refrain is repeated after each couplet
Chanson à succès(French f.) hit song
Chanson à toile(French f.) chanson de toile
Chanson d'amour(French f.) love song
Chanson de charme(French f.) crooning
Chanson de croisade(French f., literally 'crusade song') Medieval song or lay on some aspect of the crusades, most commonly associated with the troubadours
Chanson de geste (s.), Chansons de geste (pl.)(French f., literally 'a song of deeds') lengthy Old French poems written between the eleventh and fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and their feudal lords that were sung, or rather declaimed from memory, by a minstrel to the accompaniment of a vielle (a mediæval fiddle played with a bow) or a lyre. Over eighty texts survive, of which the most popular today is the Chanson de Roland (French: The Song of Roland)
Chanson de marche(French f.) marching song
Chanson de marins(French f.) sea shanty
Chanson de toile (s.), Chansons de toile (pl.)(French f.) or chanson à toile, spinning song, weaving song
Chansonette(French f.) or chansonnette, little song, light-hearted song
Chanson folklorique(French f.) traditional folksong
Chansonier(German m.) chansonnier
Chansonnette(French f.) or chansonette, little song, light-hearted song
Chansonnier(German m., French m.) a song- or ballad-writer, a writer of satirical songs or lampoons
(French m.) a medieval French collection of songs, a song book
(French m.) the earliest chansonniers preserve the work of the troubadours, trouvères, stilnovisti and Minnesinger, manuscripts variously furnished with illuminations, music, even fanciful biographies of the poets
Chanson paillarde(French f.) bawdy song
Chanson populaire(French f.) traditional or popular song
Chanson pour boire(French f.)a term for a French drinking song, frequently coupled with chanson pour danser (or "song for dancing"). It was used in from about 1627-1670. It is different from the air à boire primarily by the period the term was used, and that chansons pour boire are usually for one voice with lute accompaniment, and airs à boire are for multiple voices with lute accompaniment
Chanson pour danser(French f.) a song for dancing
Chanson rustique(French f.) traditional folk song, the model for many noël-parodies, chanson rustique existed in both monophonic and polyphonic versions and are said to have been the invention of Mathieu Gascongne and Antoine de Févin. Few sixteenth-century chansons rustiques survive, although some of the popular monophonic tunes can be reconstructed from polyphonic chansons that incorporate the original. These preexisting tunes are most often found as a cantus firmus in the tenor of the new work, with or without new text added to the free voices; as two cantus firmi in canon surrounded by new material; as a cantus firmus in the superius; or paraphrased in multiple voices. Polyphonic chansons rustiques prior to 1500 show more contrast between the new and preexistent material, while those after 1500 integrate imitation more carefully. Composed works in this manner indicate that the division between popular and courtly style was beginning to dissolve
Chanson sans paroles(French f.) song without words
Chansons avec des refrains(French f. pl.) refrains found in chansons à refrain appear interpolated in other works, often with their own melodies, or borrowed (with or without music) in chansons avec des refrains
Chanson spirituelle(French f.) the French equivalent of the Italian madrigale spirituale, the chanson spirituelle is a spirtual song encouraged and disseminated by the Calvinists for performance in the home. Except for one collection, all extant chansons spirituelles are in the form of text, meant to be set to well-known secular songs. The exception is a collection by Jacques Buus from 1550. Four of his pieces are based on preexisting works. In these chansons Buus's method of composition involves the reshaping of a tune by compression or fragmentation, which is then surrounded by new material. In an earlier secular chanson anthology (1543), Buus parodies eight models. Typically, he either quotes the existing material exactly and surrounds it with new material, or treats each voice as a model to be paraphrased, with one in particular dominating
Chant(from 'plainchant', 'plainsong') plainchant manuscripts began to survive in some quantity in Western Europe from about 890. There were some isolated and intriguing examples prior to this period, but they pose many difficulties of interpretation. Generally speaking, as chant evolved from the medieval era into modern times, its rhythm became more regular and less varied. This fact is partly conjectural, as early chant notation did not include rhythm. The medieval era saw the creation of many varieties of plainchant, especially if one includes those of Byzantine provenance. Even restricted to Western Europe there was Roman chant, Ambrosian (Milanese) chant, Mozarabic (Spanish) chant, Sarum (English) chant, and even Cistercian (a monastic order) chant. The type of chant mainly identified with "Gregorian" today is what might be called Carolingian chant, the style installed in France under Charlemagne, with the help of advisors from Rome
see 'Christian Chant'
Chant(French) singing
(French m.) song, hymn
the vocal line or voice part of a song as opposed to the accompaniment
Chantage(French m.) blackmail
Chantage psychologique(French m.) emotional blackmail
Chant anglican(French m.) Anglican chant
chantant(French) tunable, cantabile, in a singing style
Chant à plusiers voix(French m.) part-song
Chant à répondre(French m.) call and response
Chant des oiseaux(French m.) bird-song
Chant des Partisansthe Chant des Partisans was the most popular song in Free France. Based on a Russian song written by Anna Marly, it was written in London in 1943. Joseph Kessel and Maurice Druon wrote the French lyrics. Performed by Anna Marly and broadcast by the BBC, it was then adopted by the maquis. After the war the Chant des Partisans was so popular that it was proposed as the new national anthem of France. Indeed, for a short time, it became the unofficial national anthem
Chant de triomphe(French m.) a song of victory, a triumphal song
Chant du départthe Chant du Départ (French, 'Song of departure') is a revolutionary and war song written by Étienne Nicolas Méhul (music) and Marie-Joseph Chénier (words) in 1794. It was the official anthem of the First Empire. The song was nicknamed "brother of the Marseillaise" by Republican soldiers. It was presented to Robespierre, who called it "magnificent and republican poetry way beyond anything ever made by the Girondin Chénier"
Chant du 14 juilleta poem written by Marie-Joseph Chénier (1764-1811) which, in 1791, was set for for three voices, men's chourus and wind orchestra by François-Joseph Gossec (1734-1829). The song was sung in the Écoles Normales until the Second World War
chantée(French) in a singing style, sung
Chant en ison(French f.) a form of psalmody in which only two different notes are employed
Chanterone who chants
(English, German m.) the fingered melody pipe on a bagpipe, as opposed to the drones
Chanter(Anglicized form of 'cantor') the superintendent or leader of a cathedral choir
chanter(French) to sing
chanter à livre ouvert(French) to sing at sight
chanter avec âme(French) to sing with a lively and impassioned expression, with feeling or with taste
chanter à vue(French) to sing at sight
chanter comme une seringue(French slang) to sing badly, with a grating voice, out of tune
Chanterelle(French f.) top string on a stringed instrument (for example, the top e" string of a violin, or the top string on a lute, etc.), cantino (Italian), Sangsaite (German), Singsaite (German)
chanter en canon(French) to sing a round
Chanter en choeur(French) choral singing
chanter faux(French) to sing out of tune, with poor intonation
chanter juste(French) to sing in tune, with perfect intonation
Chanterres(French) the singers of songs or ballads in the medieval period
chanter trop bas(French) to sing flat
chanter trop haut(French) to sing sharp
Chanteur (m.), Chanteuse (f.)(French) singer
Chanteur compositeur(French m.) singer-songwriter
Chanteur de charme (m.), Chanteuse de charme (f.)(French) crooner
Chanteur interprète(French m.) singer-songwriter
Chanteur soloiste(French m.) solo singer, vocal soloist
Chantey(from the French chanter, 'to sing') shanty
Chant funèbre(French m.) lament, dirge. funeral song
Chant hispanique(French m.) Spanish chant
Chantier(French m.) building site
Chantier naval(French m.) shipyard
Chantillywhipped cream, sweetened and flavoured with vanilla
Chantilly lacenamed after the northern French town of Chantilly, a finely decorative floral lace sewn onto a sheer hexagonal mesh ground
Chantilly saucea sauce is mainly used on poultry dishes
Chantilly-Sauce(German f.) chantilly sauce
Chant mozarabe(French m.) Mozarabic chant
Chant nuptial(French m.) wedding song
chantonnement(French) humming
chantonner(French) to hum, to croon (to sing softly)
Chantoosieslang term for a 'female singer' (corruption of chanteuse (French f.))
Chantorsynonymous with 'chanter', the precentor in a choir
Chant parlé(French m.) speech-song
see Sprechgesang
Chant pastoral(French m.) a pastoral song
Chant profane(French m.) profane song
Chantre(French m.) chanter, cantor, precentor, singer
Chantreriesee 'chantry'
Chantryor 'chantrerie', a endowed chapel where masses are said for the souls of the donors
Chantry chapelor 'chantrerie', a chapel in which masses for the soul of a dead person are recited
Chantry priestspriests who are appointed to sing in the chantry
Chant sacré(French m.) sacred song
Chant sans paroles(French m.) song without words
Chants des marins(French m. pl.) Breton sailor songs
Chant sur le livre(French m.) an extemporised counterpoint added by one or more singers to the canto fermo sung by another, identical to contrappunto alle mente
Chantuellesee bélé
(Trinidad and Tobago) as calypso developed, the role of the griot (traveling musician in West Africa) became known as a chantuelle and eventually, calypsonian
Chantwell(Windward Islands, Caribbean, corruption of chantuelle) the female singer who sings the socially aware or satirical lyrics in 'Big Drum' music and is accompanied by dancers in colourful skirts and headresses
  • Big Drum from which this extract has been taken
Chant Wisigothique(French m.) Visigothic chant
Chantyalternative spelling of 'shanty'
Chanukah(English, German n.) also Hanukkah, Chanukka, Hanukah, Chanukah
an eight-day Jewish holiday commemorating the re-dedication of the Temple of Jerusalem in 165 BC
Chanvre(French m.) hemp
ChanzMongolian long-necked spiked lute with an oval wooden frame and snakeskin covering stretched over both faces. The three strings are fixed to a bar, which is inserted in the body. The instrument is struck or plucked with a plectrum made of horn or with the fingers. As the tones do not echo, every note is struck several times
Chanzythree-stringed Tuvan bowed string instrument
Chaos(English, French m., German n.) utter confusion, disorder, havoc, mayhem, turmoil, anarchy (figurative: disorder), mess, a term applied to music that lacks a clear structure
Chaostage(German pl.) chaotic days, chaotic period, meeting of the lunatic fringe
Chaos und Verwüstung anrichten(German) to wreak havoc
Chaos verursachen(German) to cause chaos, to cause mayhem
Chaot (m.), Chaote (m.), Chaotin (f.), Chaoten (pl.), Chaotinnen ( anarchist
Chaotic hardcoresee 'mathcore'
chaotique(French) chaotic
chaotisch(German) bedlam, chaotic, messy, helter-skelter, shambolic (colloquial), chaotically
chaotischer(German) more chaotic
chaotisches Durcheinander(German n.) bedlam
chaotischste(German) most chaotic
chaotische Turbulenz(German f.) bedlam
Chapfrom Thailand, a pair of small cymbals. Held in the right and left hands and struck together either with the flat surfaces facing each other or at a right angle. Immediately after striking they are held slightly apatt to allow them to reverberate
  • Chap from which this extract has been taken
Chapa(Spanish f.) (metal) plate
chapado a la antigua(Spanish) old-fashioned
chaparder(French) to filch
Chaparejos(Spanish m. pl.) stout leather trousers worn by cowboys as a protection against thorny scrub
Chaparral(Spanish) a dense undergrowth of thorns, brambles, etc. as commonly found in Texas and Mexico
Chapati(Hindi) a small flat unleaved bread made of flour
Chapbooka generic term to cover a particular genre of pocket-sized booklet (usually of 24 pages bearing a paper cover illustrated with a woodcut generic to the content), popular from the sixteenth through to the later part of the nineteenth century. No exact definition can be applied. Chapbook can mean anything that would have formed part of the stock of chapmen, a variety of pedlar. The word chapman probably comes from the Anglo-Saxon word for barter, buy and sell. The term chapbook was formalised by bibliophiles of the nineteenth century, as a variety of ephemera. It includes many kinds of printed material, such as pamphlets, political and religious tracts, nursery rhymes, poetry, folk tales, children's literature and almanacs
see 'patterer'
  • Chapbook from which part of this extract has been taken
chapear(Spanish) to plate (to cover with metal)
Chapeau(French m.) hat
Chapeau-bras(French m.) a three-cornered hat, designed to be carried under the arm
Chapeau chinois(French m.) alternatively, Turkish crescent, bell tree, albero di sonagli or Schellenbaum, an instrument met in some marching bands, which consists of a staff (called the 'carriage'), a crescent with two horse-tails, and a metal ornament like a Chinese hat, to the latter parts being attached a number of small bells, which will sound when the staff is shaken
Chapeau claque(German m., French m.) opera hat
Chapela part of a church with a separate altar, which may be dedicated differently to the church as a whole
a self contained building dedicated to worship, the saying of prayers or the celebration of masses for the dead, but which does not serve the functions of a parish church
a church which serves parochial needs, but which is dependent upon another church within the parish, sometimes called a chapel of ease
a group of musicians associated with a private chapel or church the cost of which would be met by a person of some considerable rank, for example, a king, queen, other members of the royal family, duke, cardinal, bishop, etc.
Chapelet(French m.) rosary, string (figurative)
Chapel masterEnglish equivalent of Kapellmeister (German), maestro di cappella (Italian), maestro di capilla (Spanish), maître de chapelle (French)
[entry corrected by Michael Zapf]
the director of music in a church or the person whose duty it is the compose music for a church or for a private chapel
Chapelle(French f.) chapel, cappella (Italian), Kapelle (German), capilla (Spanish)
Chapelle ardente(French f., literally 'burning chapel') chapel of rest, a chapel used for the lying-in-state of a distinguished person
Chapel RoyalChapel Royal referred originally not to a building but an establishment in the Royal Household. It is a body of priests and singers to serve the spiritual needs of the Sovereign. Over time the term has become associated with a number of chapels used by monarchs for worship over the centuries. Today the two main Chapels Royal are located at St James's Palace in London: The Chapel Royal and The Queen's Chapel. Since such establishments are outside the usual diocesian structure, they are known as royal peculiars
Chapelure(French f.) crumbs made from dried bread
Chaperon (s.), Chaperone (German pl.)(English, German n., French m., literally 'little hood') a woman, usually someone older, who accompanies a young unmarried woman on social occasions usually for the sake of propriety
Chaperoneerroneous spelling of chaperon
Chaperonfunktion(German f.) chaperone function
chaperonner(French) to chaperon
Chapiteau(French m.) big top (circus), capital (column)
Chapitre(French m.) chapter, subject (figurative)
chapitrer(French) to reprimand
Chaplaina priest who was paid an annual wage to serve in a parish church or dependent chapel
Chapletflower arrangement (wreath) consisting of a circular band of foliage or flowers for ornamental purposes
a band worn around the head, made of metal with repoussé decoration or embellished with gemstones and pearls
a moulding in the form of a string of beads
a term used commonly to designate Roman Catholic prayer forms which use prayer beads (but are not necessarily related to the Rosary)
Chapman (s.), Chapmen (pl.)itinerant seller of chapbooks, broadside ballads, and other items in early modern Britain
Chapman Sticka guitar-like musical instrument devised by Emmett Chapman in the early 1970s. He set out to create an instrument designed for the tapping technique and the first production model of the Chapman Stick was shipped in 1974
Chapia hoe (a tool for cultivation), used on Curaçao to perform tambú
chaps.abbreviation of 'chapters'
Chapterthe members of a religious house in their corporate capacity, corporate ecclesiastical bodies in the Roman Catholic, Anglican and Nordic Lutheran churches
the members of any corporate body responsible for an ecclesiastical institution
a meeting of the members of a religious institution
a subdivision of a written work, usually numbered and titled
any distinct period in history or in a person's life
a series of related events forming an episode
administrative division of an organisation, usually local to a specific area
Chapter housea place of assembly for the members of a monastery, cathedral or collegiate church, for the discussion of business
chaque(French) each, every
Char(French m.) tank (military vehicle), float (carnaval), cart, chariot
Charabia(French m.) gibberish
Char-à-banc(French m.) in English 'charabanc', a vehicle for carrying a large number of passengers, with all the seats facing forward, what, today, would be called a 'coach' or 'motor-coach'
Charactercollective qualities or characteristics that distinguish a person or thing, carattere (Italian m.), Charakter (German m.), caractère (French m.), carácter (Spanish m.)
in literature, any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation. E. M. Forster describes characters as "flat" (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or "round" (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of growth and change during the course of the narrative). The main character of a work of a fiction is typically called the protagonist; the character against whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the antagonist. If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's "side-kick"). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist. These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the tritagonist
Character dancingCharaktertanz (German m.), a style of dancing derived from national, traditional or folk dances, for example, mazurka (Polish), csárdás (Hungarian), bolero (Spanish), gigue (French). The term character dance also refers to roles that are largely mimed or comic such as the role of Dr. Coppélius in the ballet Coppélia (1870) by Léo Delibes (1836-1891)
Character indelibilis(German m.) indelible character
Characteristic interval(in tuning theory) the largest and nominally uppermost interval in the tetrachord - the size of this interval is the principal determinant of the genus, as diatonic, chromatic or enharmonic
Characteristic noteor 'characteristic tone', the leading note
a note (tone) that distinguishes a particular key from its near relations
Characteristic tone(US) characteristic note
Characterizationan author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to make the character more vivid and realistic
Character piecea musical piece representing a definite mood, impression, location, event or personality
Charactersthe signs employed in the notation of music
Charade(English, French f.) riddle in which each syllable of a word, and finally the word itself, forms part of a brief dramatic scene (although originally the term was used too for a written puzzle along similar lines)
(French f.) mummery
Charakter(German m.) character, carattere (Italian m.), caractère (French m.), carácter (Spanish m.)
Charakteranlage(German f.) disposition
Charakterbariton(German m.) comic baritone
see 'Fach'
Charakterbass(German m.) or Bassbariton, bass-baritone
see 'Fach'
Charakterbeschreibung(German f.) delineation of character
Charakterbeurteilung(German f.) appreciation of character
Charakterbild (s.), Charakterbilder (pl.)(German n.) character sketch
charakterbildend(German) character moulding
Charakterdarsteller (m.), Charakterdarstellerin (f.)(German) actor of complex parts, character actor, character actress (f.)
Charaktereigenschaft (s.), Charaktereigenschaften (pl.)(German f.) characteristic, character attributes
Charakter einer Person(German m.) character of a person
Charakterfehler (s./pl.)(German m.) fault in character, defect in character, defect in one's character, defect of character, character flaw, character defect
charakterfest(German) high principled, steadfast, steadfastly
charakterfester(German) more high principled
Charakterfestigkeit(German f.) grit
charakterisieren(German) to characterise
charakterisierend(German) characterising
charakterisiert(German) characterised
Charakterisierung (s.), Charakterisierungen (pl.)(German f.) characterisation, definition
Charakteristik (s.), Charakteristika (pl.)(German f.) characteristic, characteristics
Charakteristikum(German n.) feature
charakteristisch(German) discriminatory, symptomatic, characteristic, characteristically, symptomatically, distinguishing, distinctive, representative, significant, specific, typical
charakteristische Eigenschaft(German f.) attribute
charakteristische Note(German f.) characteristic note
charakteristischer Unterschied(German m.) distinction
charakteristisches Gebäude(German n.) landmark building
charakteristisches Merkmal(German n.) feature
charakteristisch für(German) typical of
charakteristisch für einen Briten(German) British
Charakterkomik(German f.) character comedy
Charakterkomödie(German f.) character comedy (play, genre)
charakterlich(German) temperamentally (as regards disposition)
charakterlos(German) unprincipled, lacking character, characterless, spineless (figurative)
charakterloser(German) more unprincipled
charakterloseste(German) most unprincipled
Charakterlosigkeit(German f.) lack of character, characterlessness
Charakterlump(German m.) scoundrel
Charaktermangel(German m.) character flaw
Charaktermerkmale(German pl.) personal characteristics
Charakterneurose(German f.) character neurosis
Charakterorientierung(German f.) character orientation
Charakterrolle(German f.) character part
Charakterschwäche (s.), Charakterschwächen (pl.)(German f.) weakness of character
Charakterskizze(German f.) sketch of a character, character sketch, vignette
Charaktersopran(German m.) comic soprano
see 'Fach'
charakterstark(German) incorruptible
Charakterstärke(German f.) strength of character, grit
Charakterstück (s.), Charakterstücke (pl.)(German n., literally 'character pieces') pieces that represent definite moods, impressions, scenes, people or events
Charakterstudie(German f.) character study, sketch of a character
Charaktersyndrom(German n.) character syndrome
Charaktertanz(German m.) character dance
[entry provided by Michael Zapf]
see 'character dancing'
Charaktertenor(German m.) (dramatic) comic tenor
see 'Fach'
Charaktertest(German m.) character test, test of character
charaktervoll(German) full of character
Charakterzeichnung(German f.) character drawing
Charakterzug (s.), Charakterzüge (pl.)(German m.) trait, lineament, character trait, feature, characteristic, streak
Charanga(Spanish f.) a brass band, a din, a racket, a hullabaloo, informal dance (Latin America)
a genre of Cuban dance music popular in the 1940s, heavily influenced by son and performed on European instruments such as the vioin and flute
Charanga a la francesaa Cuban musical group, developed in the early twentieth century, which played danzón and danzonete (a combination of the danzón and the Cuban son), and later chachachá
Cuban groups that interpret the danzón style, initially called charanga francèse, French-influenced in their instrumentation with flute, strings section and rhythm section of string bass, European tympani (which later became the timbales) and the güiro. This chamber music ensemble performed a repertoire of minuets, waltzes and contradanses at the parties and grand balls of the elite. Many flautists continued using the 5-key flute developed by Georg Tromlitz of Bavaria in the early nineteenth century, instead of the more modern Boehm flute, because of its warm sound, its subtlety, and its facility in the fourth octave, as well as because of a desire to keep with tradition
Charanga bellthe smallest of the mounted timbale bells, used for the tipico charanga style
Charanga orchestrathe first charanga orchestra was formed at the turn of the twentieth century by Antonio María Romeu. These orchestras play lighter and faster versions of the danzón without a brass section, emphasising flutes, violins, and piano. The movement climaxed in the 1930s
Charanga-vallenato1980s mixture of salsa, charanga and vallenato
Charangothe first charangos, from Potosi (Bolivia), a mountain once fabulously rich in minerals as well as the city that prospered around it before the earth was stripped of its wealth, were almost certainly made of wood in the style of a vihuela and had a vaulted back. But the Andes, while rich in minerals, are poor in forests. Over time, as it became a typical instrument of what are now Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru and part of northern Chile and Argentina, the charango came to be made from the shells of the quirquincho, the abundant Bolivian relative of the armadillo, or, in the valleys, carved from solid wood. Although charangos are made in a variety of sizes, the instrument best known today is small enough to be cradled in the musician's arms. It carries five double strings, the third, or middle, of which includes the bass string and its octave, an arrangement that at least one author traces to 1780. The same author, Campos Iglesias, traces the name to the quechua charaancu (dried tendon) and the aymara chara ancu (leg tendon), and relates it also to the quechua words chajhuancu (noisy) and chajhuncu (joyful). The charango is strummed with the middle finger or plucked, for different effects such as accompanying the lead musician or carrying a melody. The standard charango has a smaller cousin called waylacho (also hualaycho, or maulincho) as well as two larger relatives ronroco and rocongo both large and lower sounding
Charangóna larger charango also called the ronroco
Charanguista (s.), Charanguistas (pl.)musicians who play instruments of the charango family
Charbon(French m.) coal
Charbon de bois(French m.) charcoal
Charbonnages(French m. pl.) coal-mines
Charcuterie(French f.) pork-butcher's shop, (cooked) pork meats
Charcutier (m.), charcutière (f.)(French) pork-butcher
Chardon(French m.) thistle
Charente(English, German f.) a department in western France named after the Charente River which rises in the foothills of the Massif Central and flows about 354 km (220 mi) westward to the Bay of Biscay
Charfreitag(German m. - Switzerland) Good Friday (the Friday before Easter Sunday)
[corrected by Michael Zapf]
Karfreitag (German m.: Good Friday)
Charge(French f.) load, burden, charge (military, judicial), responsibility
(German f.) batch, lot
chargé(French) busy (day), coated (tongue)
Chargé de mission(French m./f.) head of mission
Chargé d'affaires (s.), Chargés d'affaires (French pl.)(English, German m., French m./f.) ambassador's deputy, envoy in a minor country
Chargé de cours(French m./f.) lecturer
Chargement(French m.) loading, load (objects)
Chargen(German pl. - Austria) enlisten men
Chargen mischen(German) to batch-mix
Chargenspieler(German m.) character actor
charger(French) to load, to charge (attack), to charge (battery)
Charges(French expenses, service charges
Charges sociales(French f. pl.) social security contributions
Charikawia dance music form of the Garifuna of Honduras and Belize
Chariot(French m.) trolley, cart
Charis (s.), Charites (pl.)(English, from Greek) the goddesses of charm, beauty, nature, human creativity and fertility. They ordinarily numbered three, from youngest to oldest: Aglaea (Beauty), Euphrosyne (Mirth), and Thalia (Good Cheer). In Roman mythology they were known as the Gratiae (Graces). Although the Graces usually numbered three, according to the Spartans, Cleta, not Thalia, was the third, and other Graces are sometimes mentioned, including Auxo, Charis, Hegemone, Phaenna, and Pasithea
  • Charites from which this information has been taken
Charisma (s.), Charismata (French pl.), Charismen (German pl.)(English, German n., from the Greek kharis, 'grace') power to charm or attract others, a spiritual gift (religious), a special grace (religious)
Charismatiker (m.), Charismatikerin (f.)(German) charismatic person
charismatique(French) charismatic
charismatisch(German) charismatic
charismatische Bewegung(German f.) charismatic movement
charismatischer Anführer(German m.) charismatic leader
charitable(French) charitable
Charité(French f.) charity
(German f.) Charité Hospital (famous hospital in Berlin)
Chariten(German pl.) charites
Charivari(French) to extemporise music of a violent discordant nature (sometime including the use of tin kettles, fire-tongs, penny whistles, etc). Also termed 'rough music' or 'mock music' (England), scampanata (Italian), Katzenmusik (German), shivaree (U.S.), chiasso (Italian) and 'Calthumpian Concert' (U.S.)
for more information refer to Customs in Common by E. P. Thompson - chapter VIII - Rough Music
Charkhaspinning wheel
Charkiw(German n.) Kharkov (former capital of the Ukraine, a city in northeastern Ukraine)
Charkow(German n.) Kharkov (former capital of the Ukraine, a city in northeastern Ukraine)
Charkulaevery aspect of the culture of the Braj region of Uttar Pradesh is associated with Lord Krishna, so it would have been impossible for any dance form or song, story or legend of Braj to have remained untouched by the Krishna legend! So with the charkula dance, a folk dance of the Braj area, which has also finds its origin in this legend. It is believed that the charkula dance celebrates the happy victory over Indra by Krishna and the cowherd community of Braj. This dance, therefore, became a symbol of happiness as well as joyful rapture. Krishna raised the mount Gobardhan and as if to re-enact the Gobardhan, Leela the dancing damsel of Braj, raises the 60 kg charkula on her head while performing the charkula dance. Wearing long skirts that reach her toes and a blouse, the dancing damsel covers her body and face with the odhani and with its lighted lamps on her head and lighted lamps in both the hands, she dances, synchronizing her steps with the beat of the drum. Her movements are limited because of the heavy load on her head. She cannot bend her body, nor can she move her neck. In spite of these limitations the slim, sturdy and courageous dancer dances, gliding, bending, pirouetting to the tune of the song. The climax is reached when enraptured by the collective merriment of the occasion, the singers also starts dancing and, with the swift beat of music and movement, the onlookers find themselves carried away by the rejoicings
Charla(Spanish f.) talk, chat, informal lecture, address
Charlador(Spanish m./f.) chatterbox
charlador(Spanish) talkative
charlar(Spanish) to talk, to chat
Charlatan(English, French m.) ciarlatano (Italian), cerretano (Italian), saltimbanco (Italian), Scharlatan (German m.), curandero (Spanish m.), curandera (Spanish f.), person falsely claiming knowledge or skill (particularly a fake doctor), an unfinished or superficial performer
[German translation provided by Michael Zapf]
Charlatán (m.), Charlatána (f.)(Spanish) chatterbox, gossip, charlatan, bigmouth, trickster, charmer
charlatán (m.), charlatána (f.)(Spanish) talkative, gossipy
Charlataneria(Spanish f.) verbosity, talkativeness, sales patter
(742-814 AD)
(English, German f.) also Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus (meaning Charles the Great), arguably the founder of the Frankish Empire in Western Europe, Charlemagne was the elder son of Pepin the Short (714--768: reigned 751-768) and his wife Bertrada of Laon (720-783); he was the brother of the Lady Bertha, mother of Roland (who may have been the same Roland, the legendary hero of medieval minstrelry, the title character of the 12th century Song of Roland, which recounts Roland's final stand against the Muslims during the Battle of Roncevaux Pass). Charlemagne later became the first Carolingian king
Charles-Bonnet-Syndrom(German n.) Charles Bonnet syndrome
Charles Bonnet syndromea disease that causes patients to have complex visual hallucinations
Charleston(English, German m.) a social dance characterized by a lively syncopated rhythm, cut-time with rhythmic pattern repeating over two bars (measures) quaver (quarter note), quaver rest (eighth note rest), followed by a quaver tied to a minim (eighth note tied to an half note)
Charleston(Italian m.) or Charleston cymbal, a term used in some European orchestrions and dance organ for the hi-hat pedal
Charlestón(Spanish m.) Charleston
Charleston-Becken(German n.) Charleston cymbal
Charlestonmaschine(German f.) hi-hat pedal
charmant(German) charming, adorable, pretty, winsome, suave, alluring, debonair, charmingly
charmant (m.), charmante (f.)(French) charming
charmante Dame(German f.) winsome lady
charmanter(German) more charming
charmantes Benehmen(German n.) charming manner
charmanteste(German) most charming
charmant lächeln(German) to give a charming smile
Charme(German m., French m.) charm, allure, congeniality
Charm offensiveespecially in a political or diplomatic field, a campaign of deliberately using charm and flattery in order to achieve some goal
Charmeoffensive(German f.) charm offensive
charmer(French) to charm
Charmeur(German m.) charmer, enchanter, ladykiller, smoothy (colloquial), wheedler (US)
Charmeur (m.), Charmeuse (f.)(French) a charmer
charmeur (m.), charmeuse (f.)(French) fascinating
Charmeuse(French f.) a soft smooth fabric (usually of silk) with a satin-like surface
charnel (m.), charnelle (f.)(French) carnal
Charnier(French m.) mass grave
Charnière(French f.) hinge
charnu(French) fleshy
Charpente(French f.) framework, build
charpenté(French) built
Charpentier(French m.) carpenter
Charpoy(Hindi) a light Indian bed, a camp-bed
Charretier(French m.) carter
Charrette(French f.) cart
Charrette à bras(French f.) handcart, barrow (wheelbarrow)
charrier(French) to carry
Charrue(French f.) plough
Chart(English, German m./n.) diagram, detailed plan, a visual display of information, a map designed to assist navigation by sea or air
colloquial or jazz term for a full score, lead sheet or arrangement
Charta(German f.) charter
Charta emporeticaa kind of paper that was very soft and porous, used by pharmacists as a filter. It was also used as packing paper
Chartalsee dhrupad
Chartbreaker(German m.) chart topper
Charte(French f.) charter
Charter(German m., French m.) charter flight
Charterdienst(German m.) charter service
Charterflug(German m.) charter flight
Charterfluggesellschaft(German f.) charter airline
Charterflugzeug(German n.) charter aircraft, charter plane, chartered plane, chartered aircraft
Chartergeschäft(German n.) charter business
Chartermaschine(German f.) chartered aircraft, chartered plane
Chartern(German n.) chartering
chartern(German) to charter, to hire
Chartern eines Flugzeugs(German n.) temporary chartering of an aircraft
charternd(German) chartering
charterte(German) chartered
Charter-Urkunde(German f.) charter
Charter-Vertrag(German m.) charter agreement
Chartervertrag(German m.) charter, charter contract, charter party, charter-party
Chartist(English, German m.) a 19th-century English reformer who advocated better social and economic conditions for working people
chartorientierter Spekulant(German m.) chartist (a person who relies on the price charts to make investment decisions)
Chartreuse(English, German f.) a liqueur flavoured with orange peel, hyssop and peppermint oils, is made in France by Carthusian monks at a monastery near Grenoble, France. There are two varieties - the green is 110 proof and is said to contain over 230 botanicals, while the yellow, coloured with saffron, is 86 proof and contains fewer herbs
yellow green, a shade of green tinged with yellow (having the yellowish green colour of Chartreuse liqueur)
Charts(German pl.) charts (pop music)
Chart topperin popular music, an extremely popular recording identified by its inclusion in a ranked list of top selling records, records getting the most air play, etc.
Chartular (s.), Chartularien (pl.)(German n.) cartulary, chartulary
Chartularyor cartulary, a register, or record, as of a monastery or church
or cartulary, an ecclesiastical officer who had charge of records or other public papers
Charumera(Japan, name derives from the Portuguese charamela) an oboe with a wheat straw reed, used by night-time noodle vendors, which probably derives from the Chinese suona brought to Japan sometime in the sixteenth century
  • Charumera from which this information has been taken
Charvakamaterialist school of thought known by the name of its preacher
Charybdis(English, German f.) in Greek mythology, a whirlpool off the Sicilian coast, opposite the cave of Scylla
Chasápikosalternative name for hasapiko
Chasaren(German pl.) Khazars (a semi-nomadic Turkic people who dominated the Pontic steppe and the North Caucasus from the 7th-10th century AD)
Chaschuri(German n.) Khashuri (a town in central Georgia)
Chase(English, German n./f.) chases are most often associated with blues and jazz performances, occurring during improvisations where one player performs a melodic riff and other members in the band take up the theme, often adding additional phrases, each trying to outplay the others
[entry amended by Michael Zapf]
an iron or steel frame containing letterpress type or block images, that when locked together for printing on a press bed, create a form
Chase The Rabbitone of the figures unique to, or traditionally associated with, square dancing
Chase the Rabbit/Lady Round the Ladyone of the two-couple figures danced in a circle of four people traditionally associated with square dancing
Chase The Squirrelone of the figures unique to, or traditionally associated with, square dancing
Chaskowo(German n.) Haskovo (a province in southern Bulgaria, neighbouring Greece and Turkey to the southeast)
chasquear los dedos(Spanish) to snap one's fingers
Chasquido(Spanish, literally 'crack' or 'snap') an effect musically employed and clearly explained in the guitar works of the Uruguayan composer Guido Santorsola
Chassawjurt(German n.) Khasavyurt (a city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia)
Chasse(French f.) hunting, shooting (with a gun), chase (pursuit), hunt (searching)
(French f.) in a hunting style
short for chasse-café, a liqueur or spirit taken after coffee (in French, the correct term is pousse-café
Chassé(French, literally 'chased') in dance, a series of steps in each of which one foot literally chases (i.e. displaces) the other foot out of its position
Châsse(French f.) shrine, reliquary
chasse, Cor de(French m.) hunting horn
Chasse-cousin(s)(French f.) an inferior dinner served with bad wine, designed to discourage unwelcome guests
Chassé-croisé(French f.) a dance movement in which partners repeatedly change places (the term is used more generally in a figurative sense, for situations where people or objects are repeatedly changing places)
Chasse d'eau(French f.) (toilet) flush
Chasse-neige(French m.) snow-plough
Chassepot(English, French) named for the French inventor, Antoine Alphonse Chassepot (1833-1905), a breechloading rifle introduced into the French army in 1866
Chassepotgewehr(German n.) chassepot
chasser(French) to hunt, to chase away, to get rid of (smell, staff, etc.)
Chasse sous-marine(French f.) underwater fishing
Chasseur(French m.) page-boy, fighter (plane), a tout (for a night-club or similar establishment)
Chasseur (m.), Chasseuse (f.)(French) hunter
Chasseur alpin (s.), Chasseurs alpins (pl.)(French m.) a member of a French light infantry regiment, all experienced mountain climbers
Chassidicof or pertaining to a Jewish sect (Chassidism) that developed in the 18th- and 19th-centuries in Poland and the Ukraine. The theoretical structures and conceptual framework for music are found in the Zohar which includes angelic harmonies, secret melodies, a disregard for art music and inspired melodies and rhythms as music is spontaneously sung while participants revel in a state of ecstasy
Chassidim(German pl.) also, in English, Hassidim, Hasidim, Chassidism or Chasidim, a Jewish sect that developed in the 18th- and 19th-centuries in Poland and the Ukraine
chassidisch(German) Hassidic, Chassidic, Chasidic, Hasidic
Chassidismalso Hassidim, Hasidim or Chasidim, a Jewish sect that developed in the 18th- and 19th-centuries in Poland and the Ukraine
Chassis(English, German n., from the French, châssis) the frame on which a canvas is stretched, the framework of a car, bus, etc.
Châssis(French m.) (window) frame, (car) chassis
chaste(French) chaste
Chasteté(French f.) chastity
Chastushkihumorous, often anti-establishment Russian folk songs
Chasubleitem of mass vestments; simple loose sleeveless garment with an opening for the head
Chat(English, German m.) colloquial term for 'informal conversation'
Chat (m.), Chatte (f.)(French) cat
Châtaigne(French f.) chestnut
Châtaignier(French m.) chestnut tree
châtain(French) chestnut (brown)
Chateau(English, German n.) château
Château (s.), Châteaux (pl.)(French m.) castle (see comment below), palace (see comment below), manor, a large French mansion
a château (plural châteaux) is a manor house or residence of the lord of the manor or a country house of nobility or gentry, with or without fortifications, originally - and still most frequently - in French-speaking regions. Where clarification is needed, a fortified château (that is, a castle) is called a château fort, such as Château fort de Roquetaillade. Care should be taken when translating the word château into English: it is not used in the same way as "castle" is in English, and most châteaux are more appropriately described as "palaces" or "country houses" in English than as "castles". For example, the Château de Versailles is so called because it was located in the country when it was built, but it does not bear any resemblance to a castle, so it is usually known in English as the Palace of Versailles. The urban counterpart of château is palais, which in French is applied only to grand houses in a city. This usage is again different from that of the term "palace" in English, where there is no requirement that a palace must be in a city, but the word is rarely used for buildings other than the grandest royal residences
  • Château from which the second entry has been taken
Chateaubriand(French) head of the fillet of beef
Château d'eau(French m.) water-tower
Château en Espagne(French m.) castle in Spain, a day-dream of extreme good fortune
Château fort(French m.) fortified castle
Chat foruma moderated chat group with a well-defined purpose, for example, offering support for a particular piece of software
Chat-Forum(German n.) chat forum
Chatgroup(English, German f.) primarily meant to refer to direct one-on-one chat or text-based group chat (formally also known as 'synchronous conferencing'), using tools such as instant messengers, Internet Relay Chat, talkers and possibly MUDs
Chat-Group(German f.) chat group
Châtelain (m.), Châtelaine (f.)(French) lord of the manor, lady of the manor
Châtelaine(French f.) a bunch of keys, etc, worn suspended from the waist
Chatham-Inseln(German pl.) Chatham Islands
Chatham Islandsa group of ten Pacific Islands east of New Zealand
châtier(French) to chastise, to refine (style)
Châtiment(French m.) punishment
Chaton(French m.) kitten
Chatouillement(French m.) tickling
chatouiller(French) to tickle
chatouilleux (m.), chatouilleuse (f.)(French) ticklish, touchy
Chatoyance(English, German f., French f.) chatoyancy, iridescence, variable in colour or lustre (a term applied to materials like shot silk, certain jewels, etc.)
Chatoyancy(English from French oeil de chat, literally 'cat's eye') the property of movement, illumination or opalescence found within many gemstones which are always cut en cabochon, for example moonstone and tigers eye
Chatoyanthaving a changeable, varying lustre or colour
chatoyer(French) to glitter, to shine like a cat's eyes
Chat, pas desee pas de chat
châtrer(French) to castrate
chatten(German) to chat
Chatter (m.), Chatterin (f.), Chatter (pl.)(German) chatterer
Chattinghaving an informal conversation
in popular music, one of many alternative Jamaican terms for what in other parts of the world is called 'rapping', 'toasting' or 'Deejaying'
Chaturanga Hindustani classical music composition with four distinct features - khayal, bols of tabla, sargam and tarana
Chatzozerah(Hebrew) the straight trumpet (Psalms 98:6)
Chauchaa giant wild pod up to two feet long that is dried and filled with seeds or beans. It is used as a rattle in traditional Andean melodies
Chaucerismin the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the "feel," and verbal patterns from an older century - a verbal or grammatical anachronism
Chaud(French m.) heat
chaud (m.), chaude (f.)(French) warm (literally and figurative), hot
chaudement(French) warmly, (dispute) hotly
Chaud-froid(French m.) a culinary dish composed of cooked chicken served cold in jelly or sauce
Chaudière(French f.) boiler
Chaudron(French m.) cauldron
Chauffage(French m.) heating
Chauffage central(French m.) central heating
Chauffant(French) pan of hot salted water used for reheating foods
Chauffard(French m.) reckless driver (pejorative)
chauffer(French) to heat, to heat up
Chauffe-eau(French m.) water-heater
Chauffeur (m.), Chauffeuse (f.)(English, German, French) a servant paid to drive a car
in France, the term is applied also to an owner-driver
chauffieren(German, dated) to chauffeur
chauffierend(German) driving
chauffiert(German) driven, chauffeured
Chaume(French m.) thatch
Chaunteralternative spelling of 'chanter'
Chaussée(German f., French f.) road, roadway, causeway, country road, highway
chausser(French) to put on (shoe, shoes), to put shoes on (or onto) a child
chausser bien(French) to fit well
Chausse-pied(French m.) shoehorn
Chausseur(French m.) shoemaker
Chaussette(French f.) sock
chaussieren(German) to macadamise
chaussierend(German) macadamising
chaussiert(German) macadamises
Chausson(French m.) slipper, bootee (of a baby)
Chausson (aux pommes)(French m.) turnover, apple turnover
Chaussure (s.), Chaussures (pl.)(French f.) shoe
Chaussures de ski(French f. pl.) ski boots
Chaussures de marche(French f. pl.) hiking boots
Chaussures vernies(French f.) patent leather shoes
Chautalsee dhrupad
Chau van(Vietnam) mediums' trance songs, an ancient form of goddess worship
chauve(French) bald
Chauve-souris (s.), Chauves-souris (pl.)(French f.) bat
Chauvin (m.), Chauvine (f.)(French) chauvinist
chauvin (m.), chauvine (f.)(French) chauvinistic
Chauvinisme(French m.) chauvinism
Chauvinismor jingoism, fanatical patriotism
Chauvinismus(German m.) chauvinism, jingoism
Chauvinist (m.), Chauvinistin (German f.)(English, German) fanatical patriot, jingoist
chauvinistisch(German) jingoistic, chauvinistic, chauvinist
Chaux(French f.) lime
chavirer(French) to capsize (boat)
Chavittunatakoma Christian musical drama from Kerala in Southern India that evolved at the turn of the sixteenth century during the Portuguese colonization and bears many traces of the European Christian 'miracle play'. In this musical drama, the actors wear Greco-Roman costumes and even the stage props show foreign influences. In the past, the Chavittunatakom was performed on open stages, though sometimes the interior of a church was also a venue. It is performed in a language that is a colloquial mix of Tamil and Malayalam
Chazzanutcantorial singing
chbrabbreviation of 'chamber'
che(Italian) who, than, which
Cheap(archaic) to buy or sell (which meaning survives in the London street name Cheapside)
costing little, low in price or cost, or lower in price than might be expected
brassy, tastelessly showy, tawdry, gaudy, garish, flashy
embarrassingly stingy, reluctant to spend money, sometimes to the point of forgoing even basic comfort
Cheb(Arabic, literally 'young') a singer of raï, a form of folk music, originated in Oran, Algeria from Bedouin shepherds, mixed with Spanish, French, African-American and Arabic musical forms, which dates back to the 1930s and has been primarily evolved by women in the culture
Check-actionthe check is a contrivance in the pianoforte that prevents the hammers from rebounding
checken(German) to check, to clock (colloquial: notice)
Check-in(English, German m./n.) the process of confirming one's arrival at hotels or airports
Check-in-Bereich(German m.) check-in area (for example, at an airport)
Checkinga term for the cracking found in lacquer finished guitars Checking is the result of the wood of a guitar expanding and contracting with changes in temperature and humidity. The term is also used more generally for a small splits that might form in a piece of timber that is not properly seasoned
Check-in-Schalter(German m.) check-in counter, check-in desk
Checklist(English, German f.) a list of items (names or tasks etc.) to be checked or consulted
Checkliste(German f.) check list
Checkpoint(English, German m.) a place (as at a frontier) where travellers are stopped for inspection and clearance
Checksuma digit representing the sum of the digits in an instance of digital data, used to check whether errors have occurred in transmission or storage
Checksumme (s.), Checksummen (pl.)(German f.) checksum
Cheddar(German m.) cheddar (cheese)
Cheddar cheesea hard smooth-textured cheese, originally made in Cheddar in Somerset, England
Cheddarkäse(German m.) cheddar cheese
Cheekthe shortest side of a harpsichord, connected to the bentside and opposite the spine, usually to the right (treble) side of the wrestplank
Cheerfulalegre (Spanish), giovale (Italian), lustig (German), gai (French)
in good spirits, noticeably happy, bright pleasant
Cheerleaderor cheer-leader, one who leads cheers of applause, etc.
Cheerleader (m.), Cheerleaderin (f.), Cheerleader (pl.)(German) cheerleader
Cheerleadingthe organized use of song, dance and/or gymnastics to encourage crowds to cheer on sports teams at games and matches
Cheerleader-Rock(German m.) cheerleader skirt
Cheerleader skirtmost commonly, a short pleated skirt
Cheeseburger(English, German m.) a hamburger which has been topped with a thin sheet of melted cheese
Cheesecloththin, loosely-woven cloth
Cheesed (off)bored, fed up (slang)
Cheese-paringstingy (tight, for example, with money)
Chef (m.), Chefin (German f.)(German m., French m.) leader, head, head cook (in this case, short for chef de cuisine, although the full form is never used), chief (tribal), boss, employer, manager (m.), manageress (f.), principal, gaffer, top dog (colloquial) (familiar), guv (colloquial)
Chef-(German) senior (prefix)
Chefankläger(German m.) chief prosecutor
Chefarzt (m.), Chefarztin (f.), Chefärzte (pl.)(German) head physician, chief physician, senior consultant (hospital)
Chefassistentin(German f.) executive assistant (female)
Chef d'accusation(French m.) charge (judicial)
Chef d'attaque(French m.) orchestral leader, leader of a body of singers, concert master (U.S.)
Chef de choeur(French m.) choirmaster, choral director
Chef d'école(French m.) the founder of a 'school of art' (for example, the school of Rubens, etc.)
Chef de communard(French m.) staff cook
Chef de Cuisine(German m.) head cook, executive chef, chef de cuisine, head chef
Chef de cuisine(French m.) head cook, executive chef, head chef
Chef de famille(French m.) head of the family
Chef de file(French m.) (political) leader
Chef de gare(French m.) station-master
Chefdelegierter(German m.) chief delegate
Chef de Mission(French m., German m.) Chef de Mission
Chef de nuit(French m.) head night cook
Chef de Partie(German m.) chef de partie
Chef de partie
(French m.) also station chef or line cook, a chef who is responsible for a department of the kitchen
sauté chef
chef de saucier
responsible for all sautéed items and their sauce. This is usually the highest position of all the stations
fish chef
chef de poissonier
prepares fish dishes and often does all fish butchering as well as appropriate sauces. This station may be combined with the saucier position
roast chef
chef de rotisseu
prepares roasted and braised meats and their appropriate sauce
grill chef
chef de grillardin
prepares all grilled foods, this position may be combined with the rotisseur
fry chef
chef de friturier
prepares all fried items, position may be combined with the rotisseur position
vegetable chef
chef de entremetier
prepares hot appetisers and often prepares the soups, vegetables, pastas and starches. In a full brigade system a potager would prepare soups and a legumier would prepare vegetables
soup chef
chef de potage
in a full brigade system, prepares the soups
chef de tournant
also referred to as a swing cook, fills in as needed on station in kitchen
pantry chef
chef de gardemanger
they are responsible for preparing cold foods, including salads, cold appetisers, pâtés and other charcuterie items
chef de boucher
butchers meats, poultry and sometimes fish. May also be responsible for breading meats and fish
pastry chef
chef de pâtissier
prepare baked goods, pastries and desserts. In larger establishments, the pastry chef often supervises a separate team in their own kitchen or separate shop
  • Chef from which this information has been taken
Chef de pupitre(French m.) principal
Chef d'équipe(French m.) foreman, captain (sport's team)
Chef de Rang(French m.) chef de rang
Chef de rang(French m.) head station waiter
Chef de service(French m.) department head
Chefdesigner (m.), Chefdesignerin (f.)(German) chief designer
Chef des Stabes(German m.) chief of staff
Chef des Unternehmens(German m.) head of the business
Chef d'État(French m.) head of State
Chefdirigent(German m.) chief conductor, principal conductor, music director, musical director
Chef d'oeuvre (s.), Chefs d'oeuvre (pl.)(French m.) masterpiece, capo d'ôpera (Italian m.)
the f is silent
Chef d'orchestre(French m./f.) orchestral conductor, leader of an orchestra, concert master (U.S.)
Chef d'orchestre militaire(French m./f.) bandmaster
Chefdramaturg(German m.) head dramaturg, head dramaturge
Chefe do balé(Portuguese m./f.) mâitre-de ballet (French m.), maitresse du ballet (French f.)
Chefermittler (m.), Chefermittlerin (f.)(German) chief investigator, lead investigator
Chefetage(German f.) executive floor
Cheffe(German m.) top dog (colloquial)
Chefideologe(German m.) chief ideologist
Chefingenieur(German m.) chief engineer
Chefkoch (m.), Chefköchin (f.)(German) chef, head cook, head chef
Chefkochmesser(German n.) chef's knife
Chefkorrespondent(German m.) senior correspondent
Cheflektor(German m.) chief editor
Chef-lieu (s.), Chefs-lieux (pl.)(French m.) the chief town of a district, especially of a French département
Chefökonom(German m.) chief economist
Chefportier(German m.) bell captain
Chefredakteur (m.) , Chefredakteurin (f.)(German) chief editor, editor in chief, head editor
Chefredaktion(German f.) (chief) editorship, main editorial office
Chefsache(German f.) matter for the boss
Chefschreibtisch(German m.) executive desk, boss's desk
Chefsekretär (m.), Chefsekretärin (f.)(German) chief secretary, director's secretary, personal assistant
Chefsessel(German m.) executive chair, executive arm chair
Chef Sous(French m.) second in command, in the kitchen
Chefsprecher(German m.) anchor
Chefsteward (m.), Chefstewardess (f.)(German) purser
Chefsyndikus(German m.) general counsel
Cheftexter(German m.) copy chief
Cheftheoretiker(German m.) chief theoretician
Chefunterhändler (m.), Chefunterhändlerin (f.)(German) chief negotiator
Chefverteidiger(German m.) lead defence attorney
Chefvolkswirt (m.), Chefvolkswirtin (f.)(German) chief economist
Chef vom Dienst(German m.) duty editor
Cheikh(Arabic, literally 'old') a singer of chaabi (also called 'sha-bii' or 'sha'bii'), a popular music of North Africa
(French m.) sheikh
Cheiloschisis(English, German f.) or, in English, chiloschisis, cleft lip (a congenital cleft in the middle of the upper lip
Cheironomic notationor chironomic notation, symbols that represent the gestures of the hand that inform singers of the correct note to sing in a chant. Cheironomy (i.e. the hand signs themselves) was used in ancient Egypt and is evident today in isolated Jewish religious practice and other traditions lacking a written notation, including Vedic, Byzantine and Roman chants. Unheighted neume notation is sometimes called 'cheironomic notation', as it indicates the general melodic shape, rather than specific note pitches
Cheironomie(German f.) cheironomy
cheironomisch(German) cheironomic (notation)
Cheironomy(from the Greek khier, 'hand' and nomos, 'law') or 'chironomy', the use of hand signals to direct vocal music performance. Whereas in modern conducting the notes are already specified in a written score, in cheironomy the hand signs indicate melodic curves and ornaments
Chékereor abwe, a beaded gourd instrument of African origin used in Cuban music of the Lucumi, which are played, for example, in ceremonies celebrating ritual 'birthdays'
Cheke systema proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke (1514-1557), in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat, lake would be spelled laak, and so on. Silent e's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place
Chekkersee dulce melos
Chelsea Artists Colonybased in and around Manresa Road, Chelsea, London, and founded during the 1880s, a group of artists living in the rundown riverside area. Most of the members were also members of the New English Art Club
Chelseaporzellan(German n.) Chelsea ware
Chelsea warechinaware made in the mid-18th century at a factory in Chelsea, London, the finest example of which were inspired by Sèvres porcelain. Characteristic figure subjects were produced, as were miniatures for curtain tiebacks, scent bottles, dressing-table accessories, and toys
Chelys(from Greek, literally 'lyre') a name applied to members of the viol family during the 16th- and 17th-centuries
Chelys hexachordaa six-stringed member of the viol family, on which the fourth-third tuning is employed (as on other members of the viol family), described by Athanasius Kircher (1602-1680) in his important musicological work Musurgia Universalis (1650)
Chelys lyra(ancient Greek) using a tortoise shell covered by leather and the instrument used at weddings (epithalamia), symposia, and komoi (activities where men danced), it was played by women (hetairai or courtesans who entertained at the symposia) or by respectable women who played at weddings or for their own entertainment. It was believed to have been discovered by Hermes when, at the age of one day, he climbed out of his cradle and he found the shield of a turtle. He stretched the skin of a cow around it, fixed two horns through the holes were once the paws of the animal stood and he tied strings at the horizontal connection between the arms
Chemical breakssee 'Big beat'
Chemical paperpaper made by cooking wood chips in a bisulphate of lime or a caustic soda at high temperatures. This reduces wood into pure cellulose that can be further processed into different paper types. It is often bleached and sometimes combined with other types of fibres. It contains a high chemical residue that eventually causes paper made with this pulp to yellow and become brittle with age
Chemie(German f.) chemistry
Chemiebuch(German n.) chemistry book, book about chemistry, book on chemistry
Chemiefaser(German f.) chemical fibre, synthetic fibre, man-made fibre
chemiefrei(German) untreated
Chemikalie (s.), Chemikalien (pl.)(German f.) chemical
Chemiker (m.), Chemikerin (f.), Chemiker (pl.)(German) chemist
Chemin(French m.) path, road, way (direction)
Chemin de fer(French m.) railway
(French m.) a card-game resembling baccarat
Chemin de halage(French m.) towpath
Chemin vicinal(French m.) by-road
Cheminée(French f.) chimney, fireplace, mantelpiece, funnel (of a boat)
Cheminement(French m.) progress
cheminer(French) to plod, to progress (figurative)
Cheminot(French m.) railwayman
chemisch(German) chemical, chemically
chemisch behandelt(German) chemically treated
chemisch frei von(German) chemically free from
chemisch rein(German) chemically pure
chemisch reinigen(German) to dry-clean
chemische Analyse(German f.) chemical analysis
chemische Behandlung(German f.) chemical treatment
chemische Formel(German f.) chemical formula
chemische Reinigung(German f.) dry cleaner's, dry cleaning
chemisches Zeichen(German n.) (chemical) symbol (in the periodic table)
chemische Veränderung (s.), chemische Veränderungen (pl.)(German f.) chemical change
chemische Zusammenstellung(German f.) chemical composition
Chemischreinigung(German f.) dry cleaning
Chemischreinigungsechtheit(German f.) fastness to dry-cleaning
Chemise(English, originally French) woman's loose-fitting linen undergarment or long bodice, or any dress resembling these
(French f.) shirt, folder, (book) jacket
Chemise de bain(French f.) a linen gown worn in the bath for the sake of modesty
Chemise de nuit(French f.) a woman's nightgown
Chemisette(French f.) short-sleeved shirt, an ornamental panel of lace or muslin which fills the open neck of a woman's dress
Chemisier(French m.) blouse
Chemnitzer concertinasee 'Polka Box'
chemotherapeutisch(German) chemotherapeutic, chemotherapeutical, chemotherapeutically
Chemotherapie(German f.) chemotherapy
Chenal (s.), Chenaux (pl.)(French m.) channel
Chendaa cylindrical wooden drum from Kerala, Southern India
  • Chenda from which this extract has been taken
Chêne(French m.) oak
Chenet(French) a fire-dog, an andiron
Chengsmallest and highest-pitched of Chinese zithers, related to the ch'in and the Japanese koto
Chinese gong
ChengchengBalinese cymbals
Chengdu-Ebene(German f.) Chengdu Plain
Chengdu Plaina plain in Sichuan, China on which Chengdu is situated
ChengiTurkish female dancer
Chengkokor cengkok, patterns played by the elaborating instruments in the Javanese gamelan
  • Cengkok from which this short extract has been taken
Chenille(French f., from Latin canicula, 'little dog') caterpillar
(German f., French f., English) soft and luxurious to touch, silk, rayon, cotton or wool combined and tufted creating a velvet-like pile
Chenillette(French f.) tracked vehicle
Chennai(English, German n.) Indian city, formerly called Madras
Cheong-sam(Chinese) a long red dress worn by women in China on ceremonial occasions such as weddings, a tight-fitting dress in a quasi-Chinese style with a split at each side seam
Cheopspyramide(German f.) Pyramid of Cheops, Great Pyramid
Che ora è?(Italian) What time is it?
Cheptel(French m.) livestock
Chequewritten order to a bank to pay a stated sum from a specified account, printed form upon which this instruction is written
Chèque(French m.) cheque
Chèque déjeuner(French m.) Luncheon voucher. In France, spending on meals is considered a joint expense, with employer and employee each contributing half
Chèque de voyage(French m.) traveller's cheque
Chequerpattern of squares often alternately coloured
Chequeredmarked with a pattern of squares often alternately coloured, with varied fortunes (as in 'chequered career')
Chéquier(French m.) cheque-book
cher, chère(French) dear, expensive, a lot (of money)
chercher(French) to look for, to seek (help, peace, happiness)
chercher à faire(French) to attempt to do
chercher chicane à ...(French) to needle ...
chercher la femme(French, literally 'look for the woman') there's certainly a woman at the bottom of it (figurative)
chercher la petite bête(French) be finicky, be overfussy
Chercheur (m.), Chercheuse (f.)(French) research worker
Chère amie(French f.) a mistress (polite and inoffensive euphemism)
chèrement(French) dearly
Cherewa(Zanzibar) maracas made out of coconuts
Chéri (m.), Chérie (f.)(French) darling (as a form of address)
chéri (m.), chérie (f.)(French) beloved
chérir(French) to cherish
cher maître(French) dear master (as a form of address, sometime ironic)
Cherokee(English, German n.) a Native American people formerly inhabiting the southern Appalachian Mountains from the western Carolinas, the Iroquoian language spoken by the Cherokee
Cherophobia(German) an irrational fear of merriment or gaiety
Cherophobie(German f.) cherophobia
Cherry(German Kirsche, French Cerise, Dutch Kers, European Species: Prunus cerasus (sour cherry), P. avium (wild or bird cherry), American Species: P. serotina (black cherry): Average Weight: 35 to 50 pounds per cubic foot) Cherry was used for musical instruments, turned pieces, tool grips and spoons. Cherry is a good wood for making furniture
Cherrybrandy(German m.) cherry brandy
Cherry-Brandy(German m.) cherry brandy
Cherry brandycolourless spirit produced from the distillation of cherries, which is also known as Kirschwasser (German n.)
Cherrytomate(German f.) cherry tomato
Cherry tomatoa variety of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme) having small red to yellow fruits
Cheruba winged celestial being, the second of the nine orders of angels in medieval angelology
Cherub (s.), Cherubim (pl.), Cherubinen (pl.)(German m.) cherub, cherubim (plural form), cherubs (plural form)
Cherubisma genetic disorder of childhood that leads to prominence of the lower face and an appearance reminiscent of the cherubs
Cherubismus(German m.) cherubism
Cherté(French f.) high cost
Chesapeake Bay Retriever(English, German m.) American breed of dog having a short thick oily coat ranging from brown to light tan
che sarà, sarà(Italian) what will be, will be
Chest(in the anatomical sense) pecho (Spanish), petto (Italian), Brust (German), poitrine (French)
the part of body enclosed by the ribs (anatomical), a large strong box or small cabinet (for valuables, for medicines, etc.)
see 'wind chest'
Chesterkäse(German m.) Cheshire cheese (an English cheese)
Chestnut(Kastanie (German f.), Châtaigne (French), Kastanje (Dutch), European Species: Castanea sativa, American Species: Castanea dentata: Average Weight: 36 pounds per cubic foot) Chestnut is native to southern Europe, but was introduced to England by the Romans. The wood was widely used as a substitute for Oak (to which is very similar in appearance), especially in Mediterranean regions. The nuts were a major source of grazing for swine and were used as food by the poor. European chestnut, like its American cousin, is highly weather-resistant and is used by French farmers for outdoor applications
[corrected by Michael Zapf]
Chest of Viols(German m.) chest of viols
Chest of violsa set of six viols of various sizes (although commonly 2 trebles, 2 tenors and 2 basses) - used in the 16th- and 17th-centuries for consort playing
Chest organTruhenorgel (German f.), where full sized pipe organs were impractical, through reasons of space or expense, portable chests containing a small number of sets of pipes (called 'ranks'), fitted with a single keyboard, and with bellows generally placed on the top of the chest, were built to serve the functions of a larger instrument
[supplementary information by Michael Zapf]
Chest registerBrustregister (German n.), alternatively 'chest voice', 'chest tone' or Brustton (German m.), an adjustment that produces heavy tones suitable for loud singing and the lower range of the voice, where the singer feels the voice coming from the chest as opposed to the head
[supplementary information by Michael Zapf]
Chest tonethe vocal quality that characterises the chest register
Chest vibratodiaphragmatic vibrato or Zwerchfellvibrato (German n.), whether slow or fast, chest vibrato is a pitch-, intensity-, and timbre vibrato. Delusse writing in his L'Art de la Flûte Traversieres (c. 1760) writes: "There is yet another kind of Tremblement flexible, called Tremolo by the Italians, which, when used properly, adds a great deal to the melody. It is done only by "blowing" the syllables "Hou, hou, hou, hou, etc." actively with the lungs ..."
Corrette in his sonata for flute and continuo no. 5 op. 13 (c. 1735) entitles one of the airs Imitation du tremblant doux de l'Orgue, par Bordet and comments: "To play this piece in the correct style, ... you may also play it like the soft organ tremolo .... This is accomplished by causing the air to pulsate as it leaves the chest and passes through the throat, creating an effect similar to that of an organ valve."
[supplementary information provided by Michael Zapf]
Chest voicesee 'chest register'
chétif (m.), chétive (f.)(French) puny, under-developed, sickly-looking
Cheval (s.), Chevaux (pl.)(French m.) horse, vaulting horse (gymnastics)
cheval(French) horsepower (engine)
Cheval à bascule(French m.) rocking horse
Cheval-d'arçons(French m.) (gymnastique) horse
Cheval de bataille(French m.) a war-horse, a favourite subject, a favourite argument (implying that the subject or argument has been overworked)
chevaleresque(French) chivalrous
Chevalerie(French f.) chivalry
Chevalet(French m.) bridge (of a stringed instrument, piano, etc.), Steg (German m.), ponticello (Italian m.)
(French m.) easel
Cheval-glassa larger type of toilet mirror in a frame with four legs, also known as a horse dressing-glass (dated from the end of the eighteenth century)
Chevalier(French m.) knight
Chevalier d'industrie(French m.) an adventurer, a swindler, one who lives by his wits
Chevalière(French f.) signet ring
chevalin (m.), chevaline (f.)(French) horse, equine
Chevauchée(French f.) (horse) ride
chevaucher(French) to straddle
Chevaux de frise(French m. pl.) a rotating bar bristling with spikes set on the top of a wall to discourage entry, also a line of broken glass, barbed wire, etc. serving a similar purpose
chevelu(French) hairy
Chevelure(French f.) hair
Cheveretsee secretaire
Chevé rhythm syllablesÉmile-Joseph Chevé (1804-1864) the originator of a system that uses syllables to learn rhythm in music. This mnemonic approach is included in the Galin-Paris-Chevé sight-singing method widely used in France and which was incorporated into the method for teaching music to children developed by the Hungarian composer and teacher Zoltán Kodály (1882-1967). The Galin-Paris-Chevé method is named after Pierre Galin Exposition d'une Nouvelle méthode (1818)] and Émile-Joseph Chevé (1804-1864), Chevé's wife Nanine Paris and Nanine's brother Aimé Paris (1798-1866) [E. Chevé (Mme Nanine Paris) Méthode élémentaire de musique vocale (1864); E. Chevé (M. & Mme) Méthode élémentaire d'harmonie (1846); E. Chevé (M. & Mme) Exercices élémentaires de lecture musicale à l'usage des écoles primaires (1860)]
durationmodern rhythm namesFrench time names of Aimé Paris
aa = ah; é = eh; i = short i (as in tip)
simple time
crotchet (quarter note)tataa (sound: tah)
2 quavers (2 eight notes)ti-tita-té (sound: ta-teh)
4 semiquavers (4 sixteenth notes)tika-tikatafa-téfé (sound: ta-fa-teh-feh)
3 triplet quavers (3 triplet eight notes)tre-o-la 
quaver + 2 semiquavers (eight note + 2 sixteenth notes)ti-tikata-téfé (sound: ta-teh-feh)
2 semiquvers + quaver (2 sixteenth notes + an eighth note)tika-titafa-té (sound: ta-fa-teh)
semiquaver + quaver + semiquaver (sixteenth note + eighth note + sixteenth note)syn-co-pa 
semiquaver + dotted quaver (sixteenth note + dotted eighth note) tafa-é (sound: ta-fa-eh)
semibreve (whole note) taa aa aa aa (sound: tah-ah-ah-ah)
minim (half note)tootaa aa (sound: tah-ah)
dotted crotchet (dotted quarter note)tum 
dotted crotchet + quaver (dotted quarter note + eighth note)taam-titaa até (sound: tah-ateh)
dotted quaver + semiquaver (dotted eighth note + sixteenth note)tim-kata-éfé (sound: ta-ehfeh)
compound time
3 quavers (3 eighth notes)ti-ti-tita-té-ti (sound: tah-teh-ti)
crotchet + quaver (quarter note + eighth note)ta-ti 
quaver + 2 semiquavers + quaver (eighth note + 2 sixteenth notes + eighth note)ti tika ti 
4 semiquavers + quaver (4 sixteenth notes + eighth note)ti-ka-ti-ka ti 
6 semiquavers (6 sixteenth notes) tafa-téfé-tifi (sound: tafa-tehfeh-tifi)
dotted minim (dotten half note)toomtaa aa aa (sound: tah-ah-ah)
Chevé Rhythmus-Solfège(German n.) Chevé rhythm syllables
Chevet(French) the apse of a church
Cheveu (s.), Cheveux (pl.)(French m.) hair
des cheveux de jais (French: jet-black hair)
Cheville (s.), Chevilles (pl.)(French f.) tuning peg, wrest pin, tuning pin, pirolo caviglia (Italian), bischero (Italian), pirolo caviglia (Italian), Wirbel (German - peg), Stimmnagel (German m. - tuning pin, wrest pin), clavija (Spanish f.)
(French f.) ankle, pin, (wall) plug
Chevillier(French m.) pegbox, cavigliera (Italian f.), cassa dei bischeri (Italian f.), cassetta dei piroli (Italian f.), Wirbelkasten (German m.), clavijero (Spanish m.)
Chèvre(French f.) goat
Chevreau (s.), Chevreaux (pl.)(French m.) kid
Chevreuil(French m.) roe(-deer), venison
Chevron(French m.) rafter, a pattern like an inverted V, used in decorative art
chevronné(French) experienced, seasoned
chevrotant (m.), chevrotante (f.)(French) quavering, bleating, wobbling
Chévrotementsee 'bleat'
chevroter(French) to perform a chévrotement, to wobble, to perform a shake or trill badly
chez(French) at the house of, to the house of, among, in (about the characters found in a book, play, etc.)
chez le boucher(French) at the butcher's
Chez nous(French) at our house, at home
Chez-soi(French m.) home
chez-soi(French) at home, home
Chhandin Indian music, the pulse
ChhingCambodian finger cymbals
Chi(China) transverse flute
(Korea) reed pipe played horizontally like the daegeum
(Greek) Χ (upper case) or χ (lower case), the 22nd letter of the Greek alphabet
the circulating life energy that in Chinese philosophy is thought to be inherent in all things
Chiacchiera(Italian f.) gossip, chatter, idle talk, false rumour, unfounded report, nonsense
chiacchierare(Italian) to gossip, to chatter, to chat, to talk
Chiado(Portuguese) hiss
chiamandolo(Italian) calling
chiamare alle armi(Italian) to call up (call to join the armed forces)
Chiamata(Italian, literally 'call' or 'summons') in the seventeenth century, a fanfare-like piece written to imite hunting horns
curtain call, a singer's bow to audience applause
chiara(Italian f.) clear (tone), pure (tone or intonation), perfect (intonation)
Chiaramèlla(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) a kind of bag-pipe
chiaramente(Italian) clearly, neatly, purely
Chiaranzána(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) see chiarantána
Chiara quarta(Italian f.) perfect fourth
Chiara quinta(Italian f.) perfect fifth
Chiarezza(Italian f.) clarity, brightness, neatness, purity
Chiarina(Italian f.) species of trumpet, clarion
Chiarintána(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) a kinde of Caroll or song full of leapings like a Scotish gigge, some take it for the Almaine-leape
Chiarintanáre(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) to dance the chiarantána
chiaro (m.), chiara (f.)(Italian) clear, brilliant, unconfused
Chiaroscuro(Italian, literally 'light dark') in painting, the modelling of form (the creation of a sense of three-dimensionality in objects) through the use of light and shade. The introduction of oil paints in the fifteenth century, replacing tempera, encouraged the development of chiaroscuro, for oil paint allowed a far greater range and control of tone. The term chiaroscuro is used in particular for the dramatic contrasts of light and dark introduced by Caravaggio. When the contrast of light and dark is strong, chiaroscuro becomes an important element of composition
in music, a term used to describe the various levels of piano and forte
Chiasmus(English, German m., from Greek "cross" or "x") in rhetoric, chiasmus is the figure of speech in which two clauses are related to each other through a reversal of structures in order to make a larger point; that is, the two clauses display inverted parallelism. Chiasmus was particularly popular in Latin literature, where it was used to articulate balance or order within a text
  • Chiasmus from which this extract has been taken
Chiasso(Italian m., literally 'hubbub') charivari
Chiave(Italian f.) clef
(Italian f.) key (of a wind instrument), Klappe (German f.), clé (French f.), llave (Spanish f.)
(Italian f.) tuning key
Chiave altesee chiavette
Chiave dell'acqua(Italian f.) water key, Wasserklappe (German f.), clé d'eau (French f.), llave de agua (Spanish f.)
Chiave di baritono(Italian f.) baritone clef, a sign that shows the position of F on the staff (on the third line) or of C on the staff (on the top line)
Chiave di basso
bass clef(Italian f.) bass clef, a sign that shows the position of F on the staff (on the fourth line), Bassschlüssel (German m.), F-Schlüssel (German m.), clef de fa (French f.), clé de fa (French f.), clé de fa quatrième ligne (French f.), clef de fa quatrième ligne (French f.), clave de fa (Spanish f.), clave de fa en cuarta (Spanish f.)
Chiave di contralto
alto clef(Italian f.) contralo clef, a clef sign which marks the position of the note C on the staff (on the third line), the alto clef, viola clef, counter-tenor clef, chiave di Do3 (Italian f.), Altschlüssel (German m.), Bratschenschlüssel (German m.), clef alto (French f.), clef d'ut (French f.), clé d'ut (French f.), clef d'ut troisième ligne, (French f.), clé d'ut troisième ligne, (French f.), clave de do (Spanish f.), clave de do en tercera (Spanish f.), clave de contralto (Spanish f.)
Chiave di Do
C clef(Italian f.) a clef sign which marks the position of the note C on the staff, for example, the alto clef, viola clef, counter-tenor clef, chiave di Do3 (Italian f.), chiave di contralto (Italian f.), Altschlüssel (German m.), Bratschenschlüssel (German m.), clef alto (French f.), clef d'ut (French f.), clé d'ut (French f.), clef d'ut troisième ligne, (French f.), clé d'ut troisième ligne, (French f.), clave de do (Spanish f.), clave de do en tercera (Spanish f.), clave de contralto (Spanish f.) (Italian: chiave di Do3)
Chiave di Fa
F clef(Italian f.) bass clef (a clef sign that shows the position of F on the staff), in particular, chiave di Fa2 (Italian f.), Bassschlüssel (German m.), F-Schlüssel (German m.), clef de fa (French f.), clé de fa (French f.), clé de fa quatrième ligne (French f.), clef de fa quatrième ligne (French f.), clave de fa (Spanish f.), clave de fa en cuarta (Spanish f.)
Chiave di mezzosoprano
C clef(Italian f.) mezzosoprano clef, a sign that marks the position of the note C on the staff (on the second line)
Chiave di Sol
G clef(Italian f.) treble clef (in which case more properly chiave di Sol3), Violinschlüssel (German m.), G-Schlüssel (German m.), clef de sol (French f.), clé de sol (French f.), clef de violon (French f.), clé de violon (French f.), clave de sol (Spanish f.)
Chiave di soprano
C clef(Italian f.) soprano clef, Sopranschlüssel (German m.), Diskantschlüssel (German m.), clé d'ut 1re (French f.), clef d'ut 1re (French f.), clave de do en primera (Spanish f.), clave de soprano (Spanish f.)
Chiave di tenore
C clef(Italian f.) tenor clef, a sign that marks the position of the note C on the staff (on the fourth line), Tenorschlüssel (German m.), clé de ténor (French f.), clef de ténor (French f.), clé d'ut 4e (French f.), clef d'ut 4e (French f.), clave de do en cuarta (Spanish f.), clave de tenor (Spanish f.)
Chiave di violino
treble clef(Italian f.) violin clef or treble clef, chiave di Sol3 (Italian f.), Violinschlüssel (German m.), G-Schlüssel (German m.), clef de sol (French f.), clé de sol (French f.), clef de violon (French f.), clé de violon (French f.), clave de sol (Spanish f.)
Chiave di violino francese
treble clef(Italian f.) French violin clef, a sign that marks the position of the note G on the staff (on the bottom line), französische Violinschlüssel (German m.), clé de sol 1re (French f.), clef de sol 1re (French f.), clave de sol en primera (Spanish f.), clave de violín francés (Spanish f.)
Chiave trasportatesee chiavette
Chiavette(Italian f.) also called chiave alte or chiavi trasportate - a notation system widely used in the seventeenth century for voice parts whereby the notes were placed higher on the staff than they were meant to be performed (often a fourth or fifth higher) to avoid the use of ledger lines and excessive chromatic notation. This system is not specifically noted in the score and so has caused confusion in modern times. Its use can often be indirectly inferred via analysis. See Kurtzman, J. The Monteverdi Vespers of 1610 for examples
[entry supplied by Ed Batutis]
Chibola type of small onion no longer cultivated
Chic(French m.) style, elegance (of a superior kind)
chic(English, German, from French) smart, kind, elegant, stylish
Chica(Spanish) early form of fandango
Chicago bluesa form of blues music that developed in Chicago, Illinois by adding electricity, drums, piano, bass guitar and sometimes saxophone to the basic string/harmonica Delta blues. The music developed mainly as a result of the "Great Migration" of poor black workers from the South into the industrial cities of the North, and Chicago in particular, in the first half of the twentieth century
Chicagoer(German) of or pertaining to Chicago
Chicago housea style of house music. House music originated in a Chicago, Illinois nightclub called the Warehouse, which many hold to be the origin of the term "house music"
Chicago jazzsee 'Dixieland jazz'
Chicago soula form of soul music that arose during the 1960s in Chicago. Along with Motown in Detroit and hard-edged, gritty performers in Memphis, Chicago soul helped spur the album-oriented soul revolution of the early 1970s
ChicahuaztliMexican rain stick of Nahuatl origin
Chicane(French f.) zigzag
(French f.) a trick, a subterfuge, a quibble, trickery, cunnig, scheming
Chicano Literature, Chicana Literaturetwentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children - usually in English with short sections or phrases in Spanish
Chicano rock (music)rock music performed by Mexican American groups or music with themes derived from Chicano culture
chica que llama la atención(Spanish) very striking girl
Chichaan Afro-Peruvian music style with African and Andean elements, in particular rock and roll, cumbia and huayno
ChichasColombian maracas
chiche(French) mean
chiche de(French) mean with
Chi-chi(from the Hindi) a mincing English spoken by Eurasians in India
chichi(French) affected, pretentious, 'precious'
Chichis(French m. pl.) fuss
Chicken Dancethis oom-pah song, originally entitled Der Ententanz (in English, The Duck Dance), was composed in the 1950s by a Swiss accordionist Werner Thomas. It is not, as some believe, an Austrian folk dance
Chicken Picking(German n.) chicken picking
Chicken pickingor chicken pickin', a lead guitar style or technique used in country music where the plucked strings are pulled outward by the fingers of the dominant hand and the note played immediately dampened by decreasing the pressure of the other hand's finger on the fret
Chicken Scratch(German m.) chicken scratch
Chicken scratchalso known as waila music, a kind of dance music developed by the Tohono O'odham people. The genre evolved out of acoustic fiddle bands in southern Arizona, in the Sonoran desert
Chickin-pickinsynonymous with 'hybrid picking'
Chickweeda weed with juicy stems and small white flowers
Chicle sin azúcar(Spanish) sugar-free gum
ChicoAfro-Uruguayan candombe drum
Chicoree(German m.) chicory (for example, in coffee)
Chicorée(German m., French f.) endive, chicory (for example, in coffee)
Chicoréesalat(German m.) chicory salad
Chicorya perennial herb (Cichorium intybus) of the composite family, native to the Old World and widely naturalised in North America, having rayed flower heads commonly with blue florets. The dried, roasted, ground roots of this plant are used as an adulterant of or a substitute for coffee
Chicoténa hammered chordophone, also called salterio in Castile, ttun-ttun in the Basque country or generically "stringed drum". It seems to be derived from the medieval psalteries, producing the sound with a stick that hits a series of tense strings on a lengthened resonance box. When used indoors, it accompanies a three-holed pipe (the Basque txistu or Gascon flabuta), providing the pedal note, bass and rhythm
Chief(English, German m.) the boss, the top man, the head (man), the one in charge
Chien (m.), Chienne (f.)(French) dog (m./f.), bitch (f.)
Chien de garde(French m.) watch-dog
Chien-loup (s.), Chiens-loups (pl.)(French) wolfhound
Chiesa(Italian f., literally 'church') pertaining to the church, as in musica di chiesa, baroque chamber music, usually implying a four movement style of composition, alternately a slow, a fast, a slow and a fast movement, that contrasts with musica da camera or chamber music
concerto di chiesa (Italian: concerto for performance in church)
Chieuve(French) bagpipe from Berry
Chifforgan pipes that have a clear edge to the sound are often described as having 'chiff'. Any kind of pipe can have 'chiff' but principals almost always have this clear attack point
Chiffarobe(German f.) chifforobe
Chiffon(French m.) rag
(English, German m.) a diaphanous silk muslin
Chiffonier(English, German n., French m.) in France, a tall chest of drawers, not to be confused with a chiffonnier (see below)
(English) a low set of shelves with a mirror back and a marble top, the shelves used for books
Chiffonkleid(German n.) chiffon dress, chiffon gown
Chiffonnade(French) finely shredded, usually lettuce
chiffonner(French) to crumple, to bother
Chiffonnier(French m.) rag-and-bone man
Chiffonrock(German m.) chiffon skirt
Chiffons(French m. pl.) ornamental accessories of feminine dress
Chifforobea closet-like piece of furniture that combines a long space for hanging clothes (that is, a wardrobe or armoire) with a chest of drawers. Typically the wardrobe section runs down one side of the piece, while the drawers occupy the other side
Chiffrage(French m.) a time signature, figuring, marking, encoding, ciphering
Chiffrage à numérateur multiple(French m.) additive time signature
Chiffrage des mesures composées(French m.) compound time signature
Chiffrage des mesures simples(French m.) simple time signature
Chiffre (s.), Chiffres (French pl.), Chiffren (German pl.)(German f., French m.) figure (for example, as in 'figured bass'), code (cypher), secret code, box number (in a newspaper), key (to a code)
chiffré(French) figured, as in basse chiffré, figured bass
Chiffreanzeige(German f.) box number advertisement
Chiffre d'affaires(French m.) turnover
Chiffre de l'intervalle(French m.) the 'numerical value' of a melodic or harmonic interval, for example, unison (French, unisson), second (French, seconde), third (French, tierce), fourth (French, quarte), fifth (French, quinte), sixth (French, sixte), seventh (French, septième ), octave (French, octave), ninth (French, neuvième), and so on
Chiffre dénominateur(French m.) in musical notation, the lower figure (chiffre inférieur) of a time signature (chiffre indicateur) indicating the species of note length which when multiplied by the upper figure (chiffre numérateur or chiffre supérieur) will determine the total note length of a single bar or measure
Chiffre inférieur(French m.) the denominator (or lower figure) of a time signature
Chiffre numérateur(French m.) in musical notation, the upper figure (chiffre supérieur) of a time signature (chiffre indicateur) which when multiplied by the species of note length given by thelower figure (chiffre dénominateur or chiffre inférieur) will determine the total note length of a single bar or measure
Chiffrenummer (s.), Chiffrenummern (pl.)(German f.) box number
chiffrer(French) to set a figure to, to assess, to encode (a text)
Chiffres arabes(French m. pl.) Arabic numerals
Chiffres indicateurs(French m.) time signature
Chiffres romains(French m. pl.) Roman numerals
Chiffre supérieur(French m.) the numerator (or upper figure) of a time signature
chiffrieren(German) to encrypt, to codify, to encode
chiffrierend(German) codifying, encrypting, encoding
Chiffriergerät(German n.) scrambler
chiffriert(German) in cypher, in cipher, in code
Chiffrierung(German f.) codification, encryption
Chiffrierungsverfahren(German n.) cypher
Chiffrierverkehr(German m.) ciphony, cyphony (the use of cyphering for telecommunication signals, typically for confidentiality)
ChifloSpanish three hole flute from Aragon
Chifteliaa Kosovar Albanian three-stringed instrument from the same family as the saz
Chifonie(English, German f.) hurdy-gurdy (organistrum, symphonia, organica lyra, vielle à roue, 'wheel fiddle')
Chigi codexa music manuscript originating in Flanders. According to Herbert Kellman, it was created sometime between 1498 and 1503, probably at the behest of Philip I of Castile. It is currently housed in the Vatican Library under the call number Chigiana, C. VIII. 234
Chignon(English, German m., French m.) a bun (a large coil of hair wound round a pad and worn at the back of the head)
Chigovia(Mozambique) wind instrument similar to the ocarina
Chihuahua(English, German m.) named after the people of Chihuahua, Mexico, this dance is a combination of European waltz and polka. It is danced at festivals and in theatres, and has become popular since the 1910 revolution
Chijin(Japan) a double-headed drum widely used in folk performing arts of Amami
  • Chijin from which this extract has been taken
Chikara(India) a simple spike fiddle played with a bow in a fashion somewhat like a sarangi or saringda. There is also a smaller version known as chikari
Chikarithe drone strings in sitar, sarod and similar instruments
Chikarisaite(German f.) chikari (string)
Chilanzanesee timbila
Child Balladsa collection of 305 ballads from England and Scotland, and their American variants, collected by Francis James Child in the late nineteenth century. The collection was published as The English and Scottish Popular Ballads between 1882 and 1898 by Houghton Mifflin in 10 volumes
Childea child of noble birth
Childericone of a number of Merovingian kings: Childeric I (c.437-c.482), king of the Salian Franks; Childeric II (c.653-675) who was the king of Austrasia from 662 and of Neustria and Burgundy from 673 until his death, making him sole King of the Franks for the final two years of his life; Childeric III (died c.753) was the last king of the Franks in the Merovingian dynasty from 743 to his deposition in 751
Childerich(German m.) Childeric
Children's songs
Chile(English, German n.) a republic in southern South America on the western slopes of the Andes on the south Pacific coast
Chilene (m.), Chilenin (f.), Chilenen (pl.)(German) Chilean
chilenisch(German) Chilean
chilenisches Spanisch(German n.) Chilean Spanish
Chil-hyongeumsee geum
Chili(French m.) Chile
(German m.) chilli
Chiliasmus(German m.) chiliasm, milleniarianism
Chiliastic(from Greek khilias, a thousand years) relating to, or believing in, Christian millenarianism
chiliastisch(German) chiliastic
Chilien (m.), Chilienne (f.)(French) Chilean
chilien (m.), chilienne (f.)(French) Chilean
Chililihtlilarge pre-Hispanic Mexican flute
Chilipfeffer(German m.) chilli pepper
Chilipulver(German n.) chilli powder
Chilischoten(German pl.) chili peppers
Chilisoße(German f.) chili sauce
Chilladora flat-backed charango that is typically steel strung
chillen(German) to chill (out) (colloquial)
chillig(German) relaxed
Chillipulver(German n.) chilli powder
Chill-outalso 'Chill out', 'chillout' or just 'chill', a term derived from a slang injunction to relax, emerged in the early and mid-1990s as a catch-all term for various styles of relatively mellow, slow-tempo music made by contemporary producers in the electronic music scene
Chill-out-Room (s.), Chill-out-Rooms (pl.)(German m.) chill-out room
Chill out room(English) the earliest mentioned 'chill out room' was at the legendary Manchester nightspot, Konspiracy. In these rooms, visitors would find couches, comfortable pillows, psychedelic light shows projecting trippy images and music that was decidedly downtempo, especially when compared to what was going on a few feet away on the dance floor
Chilperic I
king of Neustria (or Soissons) from 561 to his death
Chilperich I.(German) Chilperic I
Chimaera(Greek) or 'chimera', a grotesque monster formed of the parts of different animals
a figment of the imagination, a fantasy
chimär(German) chimaeric
Chimäre(German f.) chimaera
chimärisch(German) chimaerical
Chimbor 'chime', the edge or brim of a cask, barrel, or the like, formed by the ends of the staves projecting beyond the head or bottom
Chimbanguelessee 'Venezuelan drums'
Chime(Early English chymme bells, from chymbals, derived from the Latin cymbala) a set of bells usually numbering up to 16 (but not more than 22) and hung stationary. They are played melodically - occasionally with simple harmony - either by automatic action, from an electric keyboard, or from a chime stand of wooden levers and sometimes pedals. If sounded automatically, the chime may be set off by clock action or by controls which permit designated periods of play
see 'chimb'
to 'chime' refers to the automatic ringing of the bells of the chime. In England it also refers to the ordinary swinging of a church bell in a limited arc (as opposed to the full circle of 360 degrees for bells in change ringing
Chimère(French f. from the Greek) a figment of the imagination, fantasy
chimérique(French) imagined, fanciful
Chimes(English, German pl.) or 'tubular chimes', suspended from a frame, a set of tubular bells arranged like a keyboard, each tuned to a definite pitch (from c' to f'' on the treble clef), sounded by means of a hammer
mark tree (also known as a 'chime tree' or 'set of bar chimes') is a percussion instrument used primarily for musical colour. It consists of many small chimes - typically cylinders of solid metal approximately 6 mm (one-quarter inch) in diameter - of varying lengths mounted hanging from a bar. The chimes are played by sweeping a finger or stick through the length of the hanging chimes. They are mounted in pitch order to produce rising or falling glissandos. Unlike tubular bells, another form of chime, the chimes on a mark tree do not produce a definite pitch, as they produce inharmonic (rather than harmonic) spectra
sometimes synonymous with 'orchestra bells' which are actually flat steel bars
a term used for harmonics produced on the guitar by lightly touching a string and plucking along the sounding length
Gerard Manley Hopkins refers to cynghanedd, a Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and internal rhyme, as chimes. Typically, the consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line - but the vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly
Chime tonesa term used for harmonics produced on the guitar by lightly touching a string, usually at or close to the twelfth fret, and plucking along the sounding length
Chimie(French f.) chemistry
Chiming barrelalso 'chiming cylinder' or 'chiming drum', part of a mechanism to enable the automatic ringing of chimes, a metal or wooden cylinder whose surface is perforated, often with thousands of holes, for receiving projecting pegs or cogs, is mounted on a horizontal axis, so that it may rotate. Formerly, this rotation was powered by a suspended weight whose cable unwound from the barrel shaft. The pegs engage levers attached by wire to hammers mounted outside the bells, and as the barrel revolves, the levers are pushed down, thereby pulling the hammers away from the bells. When the levers become disengaged, the hammers fall through a spring to strike the bells. Sometimes there are as many as five hammers per bell in order to permit the rapid repetition of a note
Chiming cylindersee 'chiming barrel'
Chiming drumsee 'chiming barrel'
chimique(French) chemical
Chimiste(French m./f.) chemist
Chimki(German n.) Khimki (a city in Moscow Oblast, Russia, situated just northwest of Moscow, at the west bank of the Moscow Canal)
Chimney flute pipeor rohrflute, half-stopped flute pipe with a tubular chimney at the top, which when played with a strong vibrato effect are called 'jazz flutes'
Chimpanzé(French m.) chimpanzee
Chimtaa percussion instrument from India, consisting of a long strip with jingles
Chimurengapopular style of music from the Shona people of Zimbabwe, based on Shona and Ndebele rhythms and spirituality, adapting the playing of the mbira (lamellaphone) and the hosho maracas
Chin.abbreviation of 'Chinese', chinesisch (German: Chinese)
Ch'inlong narrow Chinese zither with very smooth top surface, traditionally the most honored of Chinese instruments
China Clayor 'kaolin', a white clay mineral kaolinite (hydrous aluminum silicate), formed by the decomposition of aluminum silicates, particularly feldspar. The Chinese have used kaolin since the 7th century in the manufacture of porcelain. Today it is most widely used in the coating of papers to create a bright glossy surface
Chinaholzöl(German n.) China wood oil
Chinakohl(German n.) Chinese cabbage, Chinese leaves
Chinakohlsalat(German n.) Chinese cabbage salad, Chinese leaf salad
Chinakrepp(German n.) crepe de chine (anglicised form), crêpe de Chine (French m.), crêpe de Chines (French m.), woven from raw silk, an opaque fabric with a semi-dull lustre, and a texture that slightly crinkles and falls in a soft drape
China-Restaurant(German n.) Chinese restaurant
Chinarinde(German f.) cinchona bark, Peruvian bark, Jesuit's bark, Cartagena bark, china-bark (sources of the medicinal alkaloids quinine and quinidine)
Chinarindenbusch(German m.) cinchona shrub
China wood oilalso called tung oil, China wood oil is pressed from the seed of the Tung oil tree (Aleurites fordii), a deciduous shade tree native to China. It belongs to the Euphorbia Family (Euphorbiaceae) along with the candlenut tree (Aleurites molucanna), another species with seeds rich in unsaturated oils. For centuries tung oil has been used for paints and waterproof coatings, and as a component of caulk and mortar. It is an ingredient in ink and is commonly used for a lustrous finish on wood. Some woodworkers consider tung oil to be one of the best natural finishes for wood
Chin chinChinese 4 string banjo with aluminum body
Chine(French f.) China (country)
(French m.) rice-paper, china (vase, etc.)
Chine collé(French m.) or chine appliqué, a process in which a thin sheet of paper with a light dried coating of water soluble paste on its back is placed between an inked intaglio plate and a thicker sheet of moist paper during printing. When pulled from the plate after printing, a bond is formed between the two papers creating one single sheet. Traditionally a China paper made from bamboo was used, but the technique is possible with most thin papers. Though sometimes employed to create a finer impression on heavy stock, these papers were most often used to create a toned or colour backdrop to the image that normal printing papers did not offer. Chine collé was also used in a collage fashion to create decorative elements within an image
Chinese (s.), Chinesin (German f.), Chinesen (German pl.)(English, German) Chinese
Chinese bells
terms relating to Chinese bells and other related ideophones:
Bell pavilion a low structure of wood or masonry whose bell hangs a few feet off the ground. It is the housing in East Asia for the main temple bell
Ch'ingresting bella metal bowl placed open side up on a cushion and struck with a stick. It is used in Buddhist and Taoist services
Chung general name for all bells without clappers
Chung loubell towera municipal tower of moderate height whose bell signals the time of day, sounds the curfew, and warns of common danger
Feng Ling wind bell hung under corners of roofs of temples, pagodas, pavilions, public buildings, and private houses
Hsü Pan hanging resonant board used in monasteries for various signaling purposes. Producing a sort of ring, it might be regarded as a wooden substitute for the metal bell. Similar boards have been used in other parts of Asia and in Europe
Ling a small bell with clapper, hand-rung by Buddhist and Taoist priests
Lo circular brass gong
Mu Yü wooden fish of highly ornamented camphor wood, partly hollow with a loose wooden pellet inside. Struck with a knobbed stick, it produces a short ring of recognizable pitch
Pien Ch'ing chime of 16 L-shaped marble stones suspended in a framework in two rows of eight and used in the Confucian service in conjunction with the Pien Chung. They are struck with mallets. Dating from neolithic times, the Pien Ch'ing is one of the oldest of musical instruments
Pien Chung chime consisting of 16 tuned bronze bells placed in two rows of eight in a rectangular framework and played by priests using mallets. Dates to at least 2000 B.C.
Po Chungmetal counterpart of T'e Ch'ingsingle bell suspended in a framework, which is used in Confucian services. There are two Po Chung, one for spring and another for autumn
Ta Chunggreat bellterm applied to huge bells in temples, monasteries, or municipal towers
T'e Ch'ing single L-shaped slab of sonorous stone suspended in a framework and used in Confucian services. Each temple has two, as with the Po Chung
T'ish Ma, Yen Ma, Yü K'o small plates of metal, stone, or glass, hung under eaves or in doorways to jingle in the breeze. Of ancient origin, these wind chimes are now familiar to everyone
Yung, Yung Chung main bell (and largest) of the Confucian temple
  • Glossary from which this information has been taken
Chinese blocksee 'temple block', 'wood block'
Chinese crash cymbalsee 'crash cymbal'
Chinese crescentsee chapeau chinois
Chinese cymbalswith a shape quite different from ordinary cymbals, Chinese cymbals have a turned up edge. The sound is generally short and abrasive, though when struck with a stick, the sound is similar to a gong. Chinese cymbals are better than the tradition form when bowed using a cello bow which tmoves perpendicular to the plane of the cymbal across the edge, as the harmonics are obtained more reliably
Chinese hip hop
Chinese lutesee Yüeh ch'in
Chinese mouth organsheng
Chinese musicsee 'music of China'
Chinese operasee 'Beijing Opera', 'Kunqu Opera', 'Sichuan Opera', 'Qinqiang', 'Henan Opera' and 'Huangmei Opera'
Chinese orchestraan orchestra based mainly around traditional musical instruments from China
Chinese panpipe(s)sheng
Chinese pavilionTurkish jingle, Turkish crescent, Jingling Johnny or Mohamed's Banner
a musical instrument composed of a pole with several transverse crescent-shaped or otherwise shaped brass plates, generally terminating at the top with a conical pavilion or hat. On all the small parts are hung small bells, which the performer causes to jingle by shaking the instrument held vertically up and down
Chinese rock although often and inaccurately described as a style of music which combines Chinese musical instruments with techniques of Western-style rock and roll, Chinese rock typifies the essential nature of rock and roll music which in matters of attitude and lifestyle, it sees no borders or ethnic identity; therefore, Chinese rock music is in simplest terms, Chinese music with modern orchestration (with or without traditional Chinese musical instruments), exemplified by an attitude and a lifestyle not compliant to mainstream market and state-approved entertainment
Chinese scalechinese scale
although there are many so called 'Chinese scales', this five note scale is known particularly by this name
Chinese tom-toma drum with a slightly convex wooden shell and a rather thick head, nailed on and decorated, usually with dragons. The sound is rather 'darker' and 'flatter' than a conventional tom-tom. It is best used with a soft beater
Chinese violasee zhonghu
Chinese violinsee erhu
Chinese waxa white to yellowish-white, gelatinous, crystalline water-insoluble substance obtained from the wax secreted by certain insects, used chiefly in the manufacture of polishes, sizes, and candles
Chinesisch(German n.) Chinese
chinesisch(German) Chinese, Sino- (prefix)
chinesische Becken(German pl.) Chinese cymbals
chinesische Klassiker(German pl.) Chinese classics
chinesische Literatur(German f.) Chinese literature
Chinesische Mauer(German f.) Great Wall of China
chinesische Mundorgel(German f.) sheng
chinesische Pfanne (s.), chinesische Pfannen (pl.)(German f.) wok
chinesischer Amerikaner(German m.) Chinese American
chinesischer Gelehrter(German m.) Chinese scholar
chinesischer Gong(German m.) Chinese gong
chinesischer Pavillon(German m.) Chinese pavilion
chinesischer schwarzer Tee(German m.) congou (a grade of Chinese black tea, obtained from the fifth and largest leaf gathered from the shoot tip of a tea plant)
chinesischer Strahlengriffel(German m.) kiwi fruit
chinesischer Tee(German m.) China tea
chinesische Schrift(German f.) Chinese script
chinesische Schriftstücke(German pl.) Chinese writings
chinesische Schriftzeichen(German pl.) Chinese ideographs
chinesische Seide(German f.) China silk
chinesisches Gedicht(German n.) Chinese poem
chinesisches Neujahrsfest(German n.) Chinese New Year
chinesische Sprache(German f.) Chinese language
chinesisches Schriftzeichen(German n.) Chinese character
Chinesische Stachelbeere(German f.) kiwi fruit
chinesisches Wachs(German n.) Chinese wax
chinesisches Wohnboot(German n.) sampan (an Asian skiff usually propelled by two oars)
chinesisches Wort(German n.) Chinese word
Chinesischlehrer (m.), Chinesischlehrerin (f.)(German) Chinese teacher
chinesischsprachig(German) Chinese-speaking
Chinesischwörterbuch(German n.) Chinese dictionary
ChingCambodian and Thai finger cymbals
Ching ringor 'hi-hat sock jingle', a metal or wooden frame with tambourine jingles mounted upon it, that fits on top of a Hi-Hat
Ching-husmallest of Chinese bowed lutes
Chin restinvented by Louis Spohr (1784-1859) in 1820, a chin rest is attached to the lower part of the violin body to make up the difference between the depth of the violin body and the distance from the player's chin to his or her shoulder to assist in holding of the violin during playing
Chinin(German n.) quinine
Chinnoror chinor, an instrument of the harp or psaltery family referred to in the Bible
Chinois(French m.) Chinese (language)
(French m.) in cooking, a conical strainer
Chinois (m.), Chinoise (f.)(French) Chinese
chinois (m.), chinoise (f.)(French) Chinese
Chinoiserie(French) introduced to Europe in the late 1600s by the large scale arrival of imported goods and pictures from China, an European artistic style which reflects Chinese influence and is characterised through the use of fanciful imagery of an imaginary China, asymmetry and whimsical contrasts of scale, the use of lacquerlike materials and decoration. Chinoiserie's popularity peaked around the middle of the eighteenth century, when it was easily assimilated into rococo
Chinorsee chinnor
Chintz(English, German m.) cotton cloth, usually printed with flowery patterns, that has a slightly shiny appearance
Chinzumanasee timbila
Chiodo di garofano(Italian m.) clove
Chiocciola(Italian f.) or riccio (Italian m.), scroll, Schnecke (German f.), volute (French f., English), coquille (French f.)
the scroll is the carved spiral found just above the pegs at the very top of the neck of a violin, viola, etc. - if the instrument bears a carving of a face, animal, etc. then it is called a head and not a scroll
Chionophobiaan abnormal fear of snow
Chionophobie(German f.) chionophobia
Chios(English, German n.) or Khíos, an island in the Aegean Sea off the west coast of Turkey, that belongs to Greece
Chiot(French m.) pup, puppy
Chip(English, German m.) electronic equipment consisting of a small crystal of silicon semiconductor fabricated to carry out a number of electronic functions in an integrated circuit
(English, German m.) or 'crisp', a thin slice of potato, parsnip, etc. deep fried in vegetable oil
Chipanecasa triple-meter Mexican folk dance from the province of Chiapas
chiper(French) to swipe
Chipfabrik(German f.) chip plant (a factory making chips for electronic or electro-mechanical systems)
Chipkarte(German f.) chip card, smart card
Chip musicsee 'chiptune'
chipoter(French) to nibble (eat), to quibble
Chippendaleof or relating to an 18th-century style of furniture made by Thomas Chippendale (1718-1779), a British cabinetmaker remembered for his graceful designs (especially of chairs) which influenced his contemporaries
Chippendalestuhl(German m.) Chippendale chair
Chippingthe rough tuning of the strings during the piano making process
Chipping Camden
a community founded by C. R. Ashbee in this sleepy Cotswold town that became the home for the Guild of Handicrafts. Some 150 East End craftsmen moved into the town setting up workshops in the old silkmill just off the centre of town and renting accomodation throughout the town. The Guild had a major impact on the town both economically and socially, setting up a band, sports club, drama society and allotment association and building a swimming pool. Cheap mass produced imitations of their work led to the end of the Guild
Chips(German pl., French m. pl.) crisps
Chipsatz(German m.) chipset
Chipstüte(German f.) bag of crisps
Chiptune or chip music, music written in sound formats where all the sounds are synthesized in realtime by a computer or video game console sound chip, instead of using sample-based synthesis. The "golden age" of chiptunes was the mid 1980s to early 1990s, when such sound chips were the only widely available means for creating music on computers
Chiquenaude(French f.) flick
Chiqui-Chiquia popular music genre of the middle 1980s from Costa Rica
Chiquillo alzado(Spanish m.) cocky little brat (colloquial)
chiral(English, German) pertaining to chirality
Chiralität(German f.) chirality
Chiralitythe geometric property of a rigid object (or spatial arrangement of points or atoms) of being non-superposable on its mirror image
Chiraptophobiaan irrational fear of being touched
Chiraptophobie(German f.) chiraptophobia
ChirimíaSpanish reed instrument
Central American native wind instrument of the oboe family
Chirintána(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) see chiarantána
Chirographa legal agreement in which the text is entered twice, then the two halves separated with a zigzag cut and a half given to each party to the agreement; also called an indenture
Chirogymnastan apparatus whose object is to strengthen the fingers
Chiromancie(French f.) chiromancy, palmistry
Chiromancien (m.), Chiromancienne (f.)(French) palmist
Chiromancypsalmistry, telling fortunes by 'reading' the lines on the palm of the hand
Chiromant (m.), Chiromantin (f.)(German) chiromancer
Chiromantie(German f.) chiromancy, palmistry
Chironomic notationsee 'cheironomic notation'
Chironomie(German f.) chironomy
chironomisch(German) chironomic
Chironomy(from the Greek khier, 'hand' and nomos, 'law') to indicate the pitch of a note by the position of the hand relative to the body or a conducting desk, or by pointing to a specific part of the hand
Chiroplast(English, German m.) a mechanical device invented in Engliand in about 1815 by Johann Bernhard Logier (1777-1846). It was designed to prevent movements of the hand and arm. It secures a fixed hand position at the keyboard and ensures that only the fingers are involved in playing. Liszt is known to have recommended its use to some of his pupils
Chiropractica health care approach and profession that emphasizes diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mechanical disorders of the musculoskeletal system, especially the spine, under the hypothesis that these disorders affect general health via the nervous system. It is generally considered to be complementary and alternative medicine, a characterization that many chiropractors reject. The main treatment involves manual therapy including manipulation of the spine, other joints, and soft tissue; treatment also includes exercises and health and lifestyle counseling. Traditionally, chiropractic assumes that a vertebral subluxation or spinal joint dysfunction interferes with the body's function and its innate intelligence, a notion that brings ridicule from mainstream science and medicine
Chirp(slang) to sing
Chiropraktik(German f.) chiropractic
Chiropraktiker (m.), Chiropraktikerin (f.)(German) chiropractor, bonesetter (archaic)
chiropraktisch(German) chiropractic
Chiropraxis(German f.) osteopathy
Chirurg (s.), Chirurgin (f.), Chirurgen (pl.)(German) surgeon
Chirurgenhandschuh (s.), Chirurgenhandschuhe (pl.)(German m.) surgical glove
Chirurgenkittel(German m.) surgical gown
Chirurgenstahl(German m.) surgical steel
chirurgical(French) surgical
Chirurgie(German f., French f.) surgery
Chirurgie esthétique(French f.) plastic surgery
Chirurgien(French m.) surgeon
chirurgisch(German) surgically, surgical
chirurgische Behandlung(German f.) surgery, surgical treatment
chirurgische Gesichtsmaske(German f.) surgical face mask
chirurgische Instrumente(German pl.) surgical instruments
chirurgische Nadel (s.), chirurgische Nadeln (pl.)(German f.) surgical needle
chirurgische Naht (s.), chirurgische Nähte (pl.)(German f.) surgical suture
chirurgische Operation(German f.) surgical operation
chirurgischer Eingriff(German m.) surgical intervention, surgical operation, surgical procedure
chirurgischer Verband(German m.) surgical dressing
chirurgisches Instrument(German n.) surgical instrument
chirurgisches Messer(German n.) surgical knife
chirurgisches Nahtmaterial(German n.) surgical suture material
chitabbreviation of chitarrone (Italian)
Chitarra(Italian f.) guitar, Gitarre (German), guitare (French), guitarra (Spanish)
in the fifteenth century, the Italian chitarra and chitarino, the Spanish guitarra, the French quitare and quinterne and the English gyterne refer to the round-backed instrument that later developed into the mandolin. Only in the sixteenth century did many of these terms come to be used for members of the guitar family
Chitarra atiorbata(Italian f.) guitar with extra bass strings
Chitarra basso(Italian f.) bass guitar
Chitarra batente(Italian f.) guitar from Calabria (southern Italy), also known as 'Renaissance guitar'. The body is made from walnut or chestnut wood. It has four or five metal strings
Chitarra battente(Italian f., literally 'struck guitar') also known as the 'Italian guitar'. When used for the style of guitar playing used in or the instruments particularly associated with jazz, the Italian term chitarra battente is synonymous with the jazz guitar, chitarra jazz (Italian), Schlaggitarre (German), Jazzgitarre (German), guitare de jazz (French)
in the fifteenth century, the chitarra battente was a five course instrument (tuned a-d-g-b-e) with a sound box with a gently curved striped back (rather than flat), tied-on gut frets and a lute-like bridge glued to the soundboard used as an instrument to be strummed. By the sixteenth century, it was both plucked and strummed
an important string instrument in Italian popular music, chitarra battente is smaller than a classical guitar, now usually played with four or five metal strings and used mainly in Calabria to accompany the voice
Chitarra coll'arco(Italian f.) bowed-guitar
Chitarra decachorda(Italian f.) ten-string bass guitar which first appeared towards the end of the eighteenth century. The instrument had a series of extra strings off the neck (called 'floating' strings) attached to a separate tuning box. Such an instrument, made by Gérard J. Deleplanque (1782), has six single strings on the neck and four bass strings outside the neck. This type of guitar would become extremely popular in the second half of the nineteenth century and continued to be used through into the early twentieth century
Chitarra elettrica(Italian f.) eletric guitar
Chitarra hawaiana(Italian f.) Hawaiian guitar, Hawai-Gitarre (German), guitare hawaïenne (French)
Chitarra jazzsee chitarra battente
Chitarra spagñuola(Italian f.) guitar
the Italians first used the term chitarra spagñuola to identify a plucking style, that derived from vihuela technique, from the sixteenth-century Italian strumming style. Later the meaning of the term was widened to become a general term
Chitarrata(Italian f.) a piece for piano that imitates the guitar
Chitarrinain 1589, the Italian composer, producer, organist, diplomat, choreographer and dancer, Emilio de' Cavalieri (c.1550-1602), specified a chitarrina alla Spagnola and a chitarrina alla Napoletana for the lavish ballo that concludes the sixth Florentine intermedio. According to court documents they were sent up from Rome. Cavalieri was the director of all cultural activities at the Medici court between 1588 and 1600. This provides early documented use of these guitar-like instruments
Chitarrista(Italian m./f.) guitarist
Chitarrone(English, German f., Spanish, from the Italian, literally, 'big guitar') also called the arch-lute, a long-necked member of the lute family fitted with extra bass strings, used to accompany solo singers, which was popular in the 16th- and 17th-centuries
(Spanish) alternative name for the guitarrón, a very large, deep-bodied Mexican 6-string acoustic bass guitar played in Mariachi bands
Chitarrone modernoa plucked bass instrument specially designed in the early 1900s by Italian luthiers, their main goal being to create a bass with a sound that matched with the overall sound of a plucked string orchestra mainly of mandolins and guitars. Other makers saw the necessity of the chitarrone moderno, as a counterpart to the bowed bass of the violin family
Chitendesee bobre
Chitin(English, German n.) a tough semitransparent horny substance, similar to fingernails, the principal component of the exoskeletons of arthropods
Chitlin' circuitThe "chitlin' circuit" was the collective name given to the string of performance venues throughout the eastern and southern United States that were safe and acceptable for African American musicians, comedians, and other entertainers to perform at during the age of racial segregation in the United States (from at least the late 1800s through the 1960s). The name derives from the soul food item chitterlings (stewed pig intestines)
Chiton(Greek) a tunic worn by the ancient Greeks
in ballet, a similar costume worn by a dancer
Chitrali sitar(Pakistan) a sitar with 3 courses of steel strings, the first and third, a double course, and the second a single. Melody is played on the first course, while the other courses function harmonically and as drones
Chittaan enlivened mind
Chittarinasynonymous with chitarina
Chiucchiurlaja(Italian) a buzzing or humming sound
chiudendo(Italian) closing, ending with
chiudendo col motivo(Italian) concluding with the subject
Chiuffo(Italian m.) tuft (hair, feathers), forelock, tassel, group of trees, bunch, cluster
Chiuffolotto(Italian m.) bullfinch
Chiuffone(Italian m.) big tuft, shock-headed fellow (figurative), untidy person (figurative)
Chiurlare(Italian) the call of a cuckoo
Chiurma(Italian f.) crew
Chiurmàglia(Italian f.) mob, rabble
chiurmàre(Italian) to charm, to cheat, to inveigle
chiuso (m.), chiusa (f.)(Italian, literally 'closed') closed, stopped (as when a horn player places his hand in the instrument's bell)
see bocca chiusa
see canone chiuso
a conclusive ending in a fourteenth-century vocal work, in contrast to the more inconclusive ending, the aperto
the inconclusive ouvert or aperto in the fourteenth- and fifteenth-century vocal forms corresponds to the prima volta or first time bar we use today. In turn, the more conclusive clos or chiuso corresponds to the seconda volta or second-time bar
Chivalric romanceanother term for medieval romance
Chivalryan idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period. The word "chivalry" comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means "horsemanship". This code became of great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement, William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe, and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King
Chjam'è rispondi(Corsica) an improvised poetic joust, which requires a exceptional virtuosity from the performers
Chladni figuresChladni-Figuren (German pl.), chladnische Figuren (German pl.), named for Ernst Florens Friedrich Chladni (1756-1827). If sand is dusted on the surface of a horizontal metal plate and the plate is forced into motion by drawing a violin bow across one edge of the plate, the sand forms patterns or figures on the surface demonstrating the acoustic properties of the metal plate. This research was built on the early experiments of Robert Hooke (1635-1703) at Oxford University. On July 8th 1680, Hooke performed an experiment, putting flour on a glass plate, and bowing on the edge of glass. Hooke had observed that the vibrations of the glass plate were perpendicular to the plate's surface, and that the shape of patterns so produced depended on where the plate was bowed. This was the phenomenon rediscovered by Chladni in the eighteenth century, although Chladni used thin metal plates and sand. This demonstration was to influence the English scientist Michael Faraday (1791-1867) in his thinking about magnetic fields and lines of force
Chladni-Figur (s.), Chladni-Figuren (pl.)(German f.) Chladni figure
chladnische Figur (s.), chladnische Figuren (pl.)(German f.) Chladni figure
[entry provided by Michael Zapf]
Chlamys(Greek) a short cloak worn by men in Ancient Greece
Chleuhthe Chleuh (or Shluh) belong to the Masmuda branch of sedentary Berbers inhabiting the Grand-Atlas and Anti-Atlas Mountains and the plain of the Sous River Valley in southern Morocco
Chlodwig(German m.) the old form of 'Ludwig', Lewis, Clovis (kings of the Franks)
Chlor(German n.) chlorine
Chlorbleiche(German f.) chlorine bleach
Chlorbutanadienkautschuk(German m.) neoprene
Chlorbutadien-Kautschuk(German m.) neoprene
Chlore(French m.) chlorine
Chloren(German n.) chlorination
chloren(German) to chlorinate
chlorend(German) chlorinating
chlorfrei(German) chlorine-free
chlorhaltig(German) chlorinated (water), containing chlorine
Chloroform(English, German n.) or trichloromethane, a clear, colourless, heavy, sweet-smelling liquid, CHCl3, used in refrigerants, propellants, and resins, as a solvent, and sometimes as an anesthetic. Chloroform, once widely used in human and veterinary surgery, has generally been replaced by less toxic, more easily controlled agents
to treat with chloroform to anesthetise, render unconscious, or kill
chloroformieren(German) to chloroform
Chloropren(German n.) chloroprene
Chloroprenkautschuk(German m.) chloroprene rubber
Chlorung(German f.) chlorination
Chlorzink(German n.) zinc chloride, a white, water-soluble crystalline compound, ZnCl2, used as a wood preservative, as a soldering flux, and for a variety of industrial purposes, including the manufacture of cements and paper parchment