music dictionary : Cp - Cz

If any detail is incorrect or incomplete please advise us, using our dictionary amendment form.

If you would like to support our work writing and maintaining the teaching resources on this site please click on the donate button and follow the online instructions - thank you for your contribution.

C.P.abbreviation of codigo postal (Spanish m.: postcode, zip code)
c.p.abbreviation form of colla parte
C-popan abbreviation of 'Chinese pop'. The term refers to Chinese popular music
  • C-pop from which this extract has been taken
cps, c.p.s.cycles per second, a unit of frequency equivalent to 1 hertz or Hz
cptr(s)abbreviation of 'computer(s)'
Crabbreviation of Credo (Latin), 'Creed'
Craarsee krar
Craba(French f.) or bodega, bagpipe found in the Laguedoc region of southern France
Crab canona piece of counterpoint in which one part is identical to another, but backwards
Crab movementbackwards movement of a melody
Crachat(French m.) spit, spittle
Cracken(German n.) cracking
Cracker(German m.) cream cracker, cracker
Cracker barrela large, cylindrical container, usually made of staves bound together with hoops, with a flat top and bottom of equal diameter, usually holding crackers, a commonly purchased food item. People supposedly would gather round cracker barrels for conversation in old-time general stores
Crackleusually the result of wear of the stylus and/or the surface of a vinyl record, audible as short high-pitch sounds
Cracknela variety of hard, crisp biscuit
small pieces of crisply fried fat pork, cracklings
Cracoviakor Krakowiak, a lively duple time Polish dance from Krakow, which is characterised by frequent syncopations
Cracovienne(French f., from the Polish Krakowiak) a lively duple time Polish dance from Krakow, which is characterised by frequent syncopations
Cradle-songlullaby, nana (Spanish f.), Ninna-nanna (Italian), Wiegenlied (German), berceuse (French)
Cran(French m.) notch, hole, pluck (courage)
Cranberry (s.), Cranberrys (German pl.), Cranberries (English pl.)Schneeball (German), Wollige Sneeuwbal (Dutch), European Species: Viburnum opulus, V. lantana (European highbush cranberry, Crampbark). Cranberry is found as a large bush used for arrows and fruit. The German name translates as 'snowball'
(English, German f.) cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), a small edible red berry
Cranbrook Colony
a small artists colony based in Cranbrook, Kent around their homes at 2 Waterloo Terrace, 'the old studio', High St and a building known as the Willseley Hotel
Cranioscopythe interpretation of personality from the shape of the skull and its surface irregularities, popularised by Franz Joseph Gall (1758-1828) a neuroanatomist and physiologist
Crannog(Irish) an ancient Celtic lake dwelling
Craps(English, German n.) a gambling game using dice (the player throwing the dice is a crapshooter; playing the game of craps is termed colloquially as 'shooting craps')
Crapule(French f.) villain
crapuleux (m.), crapuleuse (f.)(French) sordid, foul
Craquelé(German n., French f.) craquelure [corrected by Michael Zapf]
Craquelierung(German f.) crazing (pattern of fine cracks in paint or varnish)
Craquelurethe pattern of fine cracks in paint or in the varnish of stringed instruments, due to the paint shrinking and becoming brittle as it ages or movement of the underlying material
Craquelure anglaiseexcessive cracking in the surface of English paintings of the eighteenth century, due to the use of bitumen as a medium
craquement(French) crack, cracking, snap, snapping, striking
craquer(French) to crack, to snap, to creak (floorboard), to split, to break down (figurative), to give in
craquer une allumette(French) to strike a match
Crash cymbalsa pair of cymbals held by leather straps and hit together to make a loud, metalic crashing sound
see 'clash cymbals'
crashen(German) to crash
Crashkurs(German m.) crash course (expedited course of learning or training)
Cravo(Portuguese m.) harpsichord family
Crayon(French m.) pencil
Crayon à bille(French m.) ball-point pen
Crayon de couleur(French m.) colouring crayon
Crayon optique(French m.) light pen
Crayon printa matte-surfaced black & white photograph that is hand coloured with a crayon specially manufactured for that purpose
CRC checkabbreviation for 'cyclic redundancy check', an error correction code that is recorded in each sector of a magnetic disk and used to catch errors in the data
CRC-Prüfung(German f.) crc check
Creaky voicealso called laryngealisation or, in singing, vocal fry or glottal fry, a special kind of phonation in which the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx are drawn together; as a result, the vocal folds are compressed rather tightly, becoming relatively slack and compact, and forming a large, irregularly vibrating mass. The frequency of the vibration is very low (20-50 pulses per second, about two octaves below normal voice) and the airflow through the glottis is very slow. A slight degree of laryngealisation, occurring e.g. in some Korean consonants is called "stiff voice"
Créateur (m.), Créatrice (f.)(French) creator
créateur (m.), créatrice (f.)(French) creative
Creative jazzthe communitarian spirit of the 1960s spawned the hippie communes, rock music's extended "families" of musicians, and the militant groups of black activitists. That spirit entered free jazz in the form of organizations that grouped musicians sharing the same aesthetic intents. By the end of the 1960s there was at least one in every major city. By far the most influential came to be Chicago's Association for the Advancement of Creative Musicians (AACM), founded in 1965. Its members shared the "creative" view (born with the most radical experiments of New York's free jazz) that music was about sound, not about musical conventions, musical tradition or musical virtuosity. Thus rhythm, melody and harmony became marginal factors: if emphasized at all, they were mere postmodern devices to reflect on the nature of jazz itself. But more often than not "creative" music was a close relative of the classical avantgarde. Basically, these Chicago musicians experimented a fusion of instrumental color, free improvisation and western-style composition, that largely transcended stylistic boundaries
Creativityperhaps the most significant interpretation of the conception of "creativity in art" which has appeared in the history of ideas, and certainly the one most fruitful for the aesthetician, is that couched in terms of freedom
Crécelle(French f.) rattle, ratchet, Ratsche, raganella
Crèche(French f.) a public nursery
creciendo(Spanish) crescendo
Credenza(Italian f.) a low cupboard, usually of walnut, with panelled doors and drawers above
(Italian f.) a sideboard, usually one resting on the floor without legs
Credibility(English, German f.) the quality of being believable or trustworthy
credits may consist of the composer, lyricist and arranger, or a word such as 'anonymous', 'traditional', 'folk song', etc.
composer creditplace flush right with the page margin, it is not horizontally aligned with the tempo marking
arranger creditplaced below the composer credit, and also not horizontally aligned with the tempo marking
lyric creditplaced flush left with the page margin, horizontally aligned with the composer credit
Credo(English, German n., from the Latin, literally 'I believe') third item of the Ordinary of the Mass, a statement of belief also known as the Apostles' Creed or the Nicene Creed
Crèe-coeur(French) heartbreak, bitter disappointment
Creedanglicised form of Credo
Creek Stomp Dance(Southeast Native Americans) a dance performed for the Green Corn ceremony
Crellareccia(Italian) a wedding dance in the sonata per la sposa of Alta Sabina
Crembalum(Latin) Jew's harp
Creme(German f.) cream
Crème(French f.) cream
Creme auf der Haut verschmieren(German) to apply cream to one's skin
Crème brûlée(English, German f., from French f., literally 'burnt cream') a custard with a crust of caramelised sugar
Crème de la Crème(German f.) crème de la crème (French f.)
Crème de la crème(French f.) the élite, the pick of society, the cream of society
Creme double(German f.) double cream
Crème fraîche(German f., French f.) whipped cream and buttermilk heated to 24-29 C (usually bought commercially made)
crémé(French) cream
cremeartig(German) cream-like
cremefarben(German) cream-coloured, cream (colour)
Creme-Lidschatten(German m.) cream eyeshadow
Cremeparfüm(German n.) cream perfume
Cremerouge(German n.) cream blush
Cremeschnitte(German f.) slice of cream cake, cream slice
Cremetiegel(German m.) cream jar
cremeweiß(German) cream-white
cremig(German) creamy
Cremonasmall town in Italy celebrated as having been the home of many renowned violin makers including Amati, Stradivarius, Guarnerius, etc., and whose instruments are often called Cremonas
or Cromorna, a reed-stop in an organ, both forms of the name being a corruption of the German word Krummhorn
Cremonese mandolinesee 'mandolin, mandoline'
Creolea descendant of European settlers in the West Indies, Cnetral or South America, and particularly, white descendants of French settlers in the southern United States
a native language combining the traits of multiple languages, i.e., an advanced and fully developed pidgin
Créole(French m./f.) Creole
Creole kizombasee kizomba crioula
Creole waltzor Vals, a variation on the waltz, which is danced in three, but with steps more usually associated with a tango
Creolizationthe Swedish anthropologist Ulf Hannerz (1992) introduced this concept as a development in linguistics and anthropology. A 'creole culture' is a culture which developed out of an interaction process of two or more different cultures in such a way that the new culture better serves as meaning system to sustain communal life in the context in which it developed, then the cultures from which it has been constructed. Creolization points to the processes that underlie the development of a 'creole culture'
"... when one claims to defend globalization or the universal, attention must be paid to a great contradiction ; in reality, there are two kinds of universal: that which corresponds to domination by a single law, a single model, and then the other, that which allows each person, as a singular individual, to be in contact with the other singularities. It is the nature of exchange itself to assume the preservation of singularity. If we spoke the same language, and shared the same culture, we would have nothing to exchange" (Michel Serres, Nouvel Observateur, 04/11/93)
Crêpe(German m., French m.) - or, in English, 'crepe'; in German m., Krepp - a gauze-like silk fabric embossed with fine wrinkles, paper or rubber manufactured with similar small wrinkles [corrected by Michael Zapf]
(German f., French f.) thin pancake
Crêpe de Chine(German m., French m.) or, in English, Canton crepe, a kind of crêpe, usually light in colour and originally made of raw silk
Crêpe lisse(French f.) a smooth gauze-like silk fabric, sometimes used for repairing torn pages in valuable books
Crêpe Marocain(German m.) (crepe) marocain (a dress crepe, similar to Canton crepe or crêpe de Chine)
Crepe marocain(French m.)
Crêpe papertissue paper that has been coated with sizing and then creped to create gathers
Crêperie(German f., French f.) crêperie
Crêpe Suzette(German f.) crêpe suzette
Crêpe suzette(English, French m.) crepes flamed in a sweet orange-and-lemon flavoured liqueur sauce
Crépon(French) a thick firm heavy crêpe fabric
Creppinsee 'crespin'
Crépuscle(French) twilight
cres.abbreviated form of crescendo
cresc.abbreviated form of crescendo
crescendieren(German) to perform a crescendo
Crescendo(German n.) a passage that is performed with a crescendo
(English) another term for rhetorical climax
crescendo(English, from the Italian, literally 'growing') growing increasingly loud, lauter werden, anwachsend (German), anschwellend (German), en croissant (French)
swellswell, messa di voce (Italian), mise de voix (French)
crescendo e incalcando poco à poco(Italian) increasing the tone and hurrying the tempo by degrees
crescendo molto molto(Italian) growing much louder
Crescendo pedalon the organ, a pedal mechanism that draws all stops successively up to 'full organ'
on some early pianos, a mechanism which altered the tone by raising or lowering the lid of the piano, or opening and closing slots in the side of the case
crescendo poi diminuendo(Italian) increasing, then diminishing, the tone
crescendo poco à poco(Italian) increasing the tone little by little
Crescentsee chapeau chinois
Crescentadea war or military expedition under the flag of Turkey, for the defence or extension of Islam
Crescent saing(Burmese) a set of brass/copper gongs, suspended on a crescent shaped frame
crescere(Italian) to sing sharp
Crespinor 'creppin', a fine, linen cap
Cretan lyraa bowed lyra, similar to the Turkish kemençe, with three strings (which may be tuned a-e-a or a-d-a) which the player touches with his nail from the side
Cretian luteor laoúto, similar to both the oud and the mandolin
Cretonne(English, German m./f.) a heavy unglazed cotton, linen, or rayon fabric, colourfully printed and used for draperies and slipcovers
Creutzfeldt-Jakob-Krankheit(German f.) Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)
crever de jalousie(French) to be green with envy
Crew(English, German f.) a group of people working to a common purpose (for example, a ship's crew, a film crew, etc.)
Crewmitglied (s.), Crewmitglieder (pl.)(German n.) crew member
CRIabbreviation of 'Composers Recordings, Inc.'
Criant(French) garish, full of discordant colour
criard (m.), criarde (f.)(French) bawling, shouting (a term applied particularly to the quality of the tone of a voice)
(French) garish, full of discordant colour
Cribbage(English, German n.) a card game for from two to four players in which the score is kept by inserting small pegs into holes arranged in rows on a small board
Cricket(English, German n.) an outdoor game played with bats, a ball, and wickets by two teams, each of 11 players
Cricketball(German m.) cricket ball
Cricketmannschaft(German f.) cricket team
Cricketschläger(German m.) cricket bat
Cricketspiel(German n.) cricket match
Cricketspieler(German m.) cricketer
Cri de coeur(English from the French) a heart-felt utterance of anguish or passion
the correct form in French is cri du coeur
Criersmany tradesmen were itinerant, either because the tradesman was too poor to establish a business, or because of the nature of his work. Through most of the eighteenth century and into the nineteenth (and indeed from the Middle Ages) hawkers went through the streets, most crying their wares, some merely begging. Their wares were carried in baskets, on their heads, or strapped to their bodies. London cries are represented by many prints, notably The Cryes of the City of London drawne after the life by M. Lauron (1653-1702). Marcellus Lauron (or Laroon) was the first artist to sign his sketches of the criers. The poverty of the clothes of many betrays the lack of poetry in their condition, although street criers are celebrated in ballads, popular songs (including, in the nineteenth-century, music-hall songs) and even art music, such as The Cryes of London by Orlando Gibbons. Laroon captured in his prints not only the occupations of the criers but also their characters
Criessee 'street cries'
Crime passionnel(French) a crime dictated by the passions
Crimpen(German n.) crimping
Crimpingthe action or result of pressing or pinching into small regular folds or ridges
impressing men into the army, navy or merchant marine
Crimpwerkzeug(German n.) crimping tool
Crimpzange(German f.) crimping pliers, crimping tool
Crin(French m.) (horse)hair, crine (Italian m.), Haar (German m.) (used on bows for violins, etc.)
Crine(Italian m.) (horse)hair, crin (French m.), Haar (German m.) (used on bows for violins, etc.)
Crini dell'arco(Italian m. pl.) bow hair, Bogenhaare (n. pl.), crins de l'archet (French m. pl.)
Crinolinefabric of stiffened silk or cotton, used as a foundation to support the edge of a hem, the top of a sleeve etc; formerly used for the lower two thirds of underskirts to extend them
Crins de l'archet(French m. pl.) bow hair, crini dell'arco (Italian m. pl.), Bogenhaare (n. pl.)
Criollo(Peru) the result of the mixing of existing native music in Peru with Hispanic influences. The Spaniards who arrived in Peru established themselves primarily along the central and northern coastal areas. They brought many new elements and rhythms to Peru, as well as the Spanish guitar
Crise d'adolescence(French) emotional growing-pains
Crise de coeur(French) an emotional crisis
Crise de conscience(French) an overwhelming moral doubt
Crise de nerfs(French) a nervous breakdown, an attack of hysteria
Crise d'urticaire(French f.) nettle rash
Crisis (s.), Crises (pl.)(Latin from the Greek) the turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in a plot
Crispé(French) tense
Criterion (s.), Criteria (pl.)(Greek) a distinctive mark, a standard or rule against which something is to be judged
Critic (from the Greek kritikós, literally 'one who discerns') a person who offers judgement or analysis, value judgement, interpretation, or observation. The term can also be used to describe an adherent of a position disagreeing with or opposing the object of criticism
  • Critic from which this extract has been taken
Crítica (s.), Críticas (pl.)(Spanish f.) criticism, review, critique
Crítica acerba(Spanish f.) scathing criticism
Critical band(in acoustics) a range of frequency-ratios which is less than a minor third across much of the audible spectrum, but considerably wider in the lower registers. If the interval between two pure tones is greater than a critical band, there will be no roughness in the sensation; as the interval is further decreased the roughness will at first increase, then the notes will sound like they are fusing into one rough sound; then the sensation will be of one tone of varying amplitute (beating); then the roughness will decrease as the rate of beating decreases, slowing down to zero as the interval approaches unison
[taken from] [link corrected by Michael Zapf]
Critical editionas defined by Robert Spencer: "[an edition] where the original page has been reset or re-engraved, but remains a faithful copy in which nothing has been changed. During this century the word Urtext (German for 'original text') has been used strictly for this type of transcription. If critical comment is added to help the player, the Urtext becomes a critical edition. The vital point is that any editorial addition must be clearly distinguishable from the original music. Modern editions which do not show this distinction should not be used - they should be burnt!"
Crítica literaria(Spanish f.) literary criticism
Critical readingcareful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument. Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to reserve close reading for the artistic analysis of literature
criticar(Spanish f.) to criticize, to gossip, to backbite, to review (write a criticism of a book, film, etc.)
Criticismas applied to the arts, the evaluation of a work of art and/or of its execution
Bishop Cirilo Franco, who was probably Portuguese, objected to the use of a cappella chorus in church music. Alexandre Bellow reports that João IV de Portugal (1603-1656) wrote a criticism of the bishop's idea in Denfensa de la Musica Moderna (Lisbon, 1649) which is one of the earliest surviving books of music criticism. João was a patron of music and the arts, and a considerably sophisticated writer on music; in addition to this, he was a composer. During his reign he collected one of the largest libraries in the world, but it was destroyed in the Lisbon earthquake of 1755. He also wrote a defense of Palestrina
Crítico (m.), Crítica (f.)(Spanish) critic
crítico (m.), crítica (f.)(Spanish) critical
Crítico de arte (m.), Crítica de arte (f.)(Spanish) art critic
Crítico de cine (m.), Crítica de cine (f.)(Spanish) film critic
Crítico de danza (m.), Crítica de danza (f.)(Spanish) dance critic
Crítico de libros (m.), Crítica de libros (f.)(Spanish) book critic
Crítico de música (m.), Crítica de música (f.)(Spanish) music critic
Crítico de teatro (m.), Crítica de teatro (f.)(Spanish) theatre critic
Critico di danza(Italian m/f.) dance critic
Critico musicale(Italian m./f.) music critic
Critico teatrale(Italian m/f.) theatre critic
Critique(French f.) a critical essay, a considered assessment (usually more substantial than a review)
Critique de musique(French f.) musical citicism
Critique musical(French m./f.) music critic
critiquer(French) to criticize
Croatian music
Croatian-style polkasee 'Slovenian-style polka'
Croce uncinata(Italian f.) swastika
quaver(French f.) a quaver (eighth note), one eighth the time value of a whole note or semibreve
Croche pointée(French f.) a dotted quaver, a dotted eighth note
Croches binaires(French f.) even or straight quavers (eighth notes)
Croches ègales(French f.) even or straight quavers (eighth notes)
Croches ternaires(French f.) jazz or swung quavers (eighth notes)
Crochet(French m.) (square) bracket
(French m.) a kind of knitting done with a single small hook instead of a pair of needles, often made into shawls and blankets
on early pedal harps, small metal Ls which are drawn by the action towards the neck to shorten the sounding length of the harp
Crochet (s.), Crochets (pl.)(French m.) the flag attached to the tail of a note to show its length, for example, one flag for a quaver (eighth note), two flags for a semiquaver (sixteenth note), etc.
Crocketa carved decorative feature carved in a leaf shape and projecting from the angles of a spire, pinnacle or gable
Crofta small filing cabinet of the late eighteenth century specially designed to be moved about easily in the library; it had many drawers and a writing top
Croisagethe overlapping of pin and comb tooth tips in a cylinder musical box, specifically the tips of the treble teeth must be just a shade higher than those of the bass teeth
croisé (m.), croisée (f.)(French, literally 'crossed') cruzado (Portuguese), one of the directions of épaulement where the crossing of the legs takes place with the body placed at an oblique angle to the audience. The disengaged leg may be crossed in the front or in the back
croisée(French) in ballet, a position with the body at an oblique angle and the working leg crossing the line of the body
croiser(French) to cross
croiser les bras(French) to fold the arms
croiser les jambs(French) to cross the legs
croiser les mains(French) (in keyboard playing) to cross the hands
Croissant(English, German n. from French m., literally 'crescent') a rich, crescent-shaped roll made by rolling flakes of butter into the dough
croix(French f., literally 'cross') an alternative to the modern sharp sign introduced by Petrus de Cruce (fl. c. 1290) that persisted through to the mid-eighteenth century, in Thomas Arne's Sonatas (1756)
Croix de guerre(French) a military decoration of both France and Belgium, where it is also known as Oorlogskruis (Dutch). It was first created in 1915 in both countries. The decoration was awarded throughout World War I and again during World War II. The Croix de guerre was also commonly bestowed to foreign military forces allied to France and Belgium
crollando la testa(Italian) shaking her head
quaver(Italian f., Spanish f.) a quaver (eighth note), one eighth the time value of a whole note or semibreve
cromático (m.), cromática (f.)(Spanish, Portuguese) chromatic
cromatico, cromatica, cromatici, cromatice(Italian) chromatic
Cromatismo(Spanish m., Italian m.) chromaticism
Crome(Italian f. pl.) quavers, eighth notes
Crom-horn(German) or Krumm-horm, a reed stop in an organ
Crommo(Italian) a choral lamentation
Cromornaa characteristic organ reed stop with a tonal quality resembling that of an oboe
Cromorne(French m., Italian m.) crumhorn
see 'cromorna
Cromorno(Spanish m.) crumhorn
Cronus(in Greek mythology) the supreme god (until Zeus dethroned him) who was the son of Uranus and Gaia in ancient Greek mythology and is identified with the Roman god Saturn
Crook (s.), Crooks (pl.)adaptor (Spanish), curva (Spanish), pezzo di reversa (Italian), Krummbogen (German), corps de rechange (French)
(called 'bocal' in the USA) a short metal tube, sometimes holding a reed, that reaches from the player's mouth to an entry point on a woodwind instrument. In the case of the oboe and bassoon, the crook forms part of the acoustic length of the instrument. In the case of the recorder, particularly bass and larger bass recorders, it does not
a length of metal tube used to extend the length of part of the tubing, or interchangeably, on a brass instrument, thereby altering the pitch of the instrument, the bent variety often referred to as "pigtail" crooks, while the straight variety are called 'shanks'
in the late nineteenth century, two trumpets were used in symphony orchestras. The older valved instrument (usually pitched in F but which could be crooked down as far as C, one octave below the newer instrument) had a fuller tone while the newer shorter length B flat/C instrument (which could not be crooked and which appeared first on the Continent of Europe) was more agile and had a more incisive attack. Some commentators suggest that Dvorak's New World Symphony trumpet parts were written originally for the older valved instrument crooked to E (as specified in the original manuscript), but others believe that this is a mistake and that Dvorak actually wanted trumpets in C
Croona soft low form of singing or humming, often associated with lullabies
a singing style popular in the 1920-1950 period where the singer sang into a microphone and was accompanied by a dance band
Croonera singer who croons
Crooninga style derived from the Bel Canto of Italian Opera, but with the emphasis on vocal nuances and phrasing as opposed to volume. Some crooners, most notably Frank Sinatra and Bing Crosby, incorporate other styles into their music, such as Jazz, Blues and Dixieland. Crooning was the dominant form of music from the late 1920s to the early 1960s
Croppingthe elimination of part of an image during a phase in its reproduction
Croquembouche(French) a dessert made up of filled profiteroles, stacked in a pyramid and coated with a (spun sugar) caramel
Croque-note(French) an unskilled musician
croquer(French) to sketch (for example, a design)
Croquettes(French pl.) cooked foods moulded into cylinders, panéed and deep fried
Croquis(French m.) a rough sketch (for example, a design)
Croquis à l'échelle(French m.) scale drawing
Crossto move on stage, from one point to another, particularly to one diametrically opposed
Cross-accenta rhythmic variation where the stresses are moved from the strong to the weak beats and strong beats are further weakened either by replacing them with rests or by joining them to the previous beat with a tie
syncopation is one form of cross-accent designed to suppress the main accent, but in such a way as to place the accent between the beats instead of upon them
Crossbarthe upper support or yoke, that anchors the strings on a lyre
Cross blownsee 'side blown'
Cross-body lead
Crossbredwolle(German f.) cross-bred wool (wool from cross-breed animals)
Crossbrille(German f.) sport goggles
Crosscut sawhandsaw that cuts at right angles to the grain (or major axis)
Crossed rhymein long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line
Crossfadethe gradual fading out of one sound or track, while another is faded in so creating a seamless transition between two sounds
see 'fader'
Cross-fingeringsee 'forked fingering'
Cross fleury(in heraldry) a cross adorned at the ends with flowers, generally with fleur-de-lis, trefoils, etc.
Cross flutea transverse flute, for example, the modern orchestral flute
Cross-garteringstrips of linen wound round the braies to hold them in position
Cross harpsee 'blues harp'
Crossingthe space at the intersection of the nave, chancel and transepts of a church
Crossing handscruzar las manos (Spanish), mani incrociate (Italian), volteggiando (Italian), Hand übersetzen (German), Übergreifend (German), croiser les mains (French)
Crossing towera tower above the crossing, where the nave and chancel meet the transepts
Crosslauf(German m.) cross country running
Cross-media advertisingan arrangement where opportunities to advertise in several different types of media are offered by a single company or a partnership of various companies
crossmediale Werbung(German f.) cross-media advertising
Crossnote tuningopen tunings are designed to give a major chord with open strings. If a guitarists wants to play minor chords as well, open tunings must be adapted to allow this by lowering the pitch of one of the strings forming the open chord by a semitone (a half-step). To avoid the relatively cumbersone designation 'Open D minor', 'Open C minor', such tunings are sometimes called 'crossnote tunings'. The term also expresses the fact that, by fretting the lowered string at the first fret, it is possible to produce a major chord very easily
Crossovera merging of styles, in particular, a song or a record intended for one market that sells more widely, crossing over to another
a fictional crossover is the placement of two or more otherwise discrete fictional characters, settings, or universes into the context of a single story
classic moves from Balboa, a form of swing dance that started as early as 1915 and gained in popularity in the 1930s and 1940s
printing across the gutter or from one page to the facing page of a publication
Crossover thrasha term used in the 1980s to described the first wave of bands that mixed hardcore punk (or more specifically the part of it called thrashcore) and thrash metal. Today the term punk metal is used to describe the genre of music that fuses elements of Punk Rock and heavy metal as well
Crosspickinga technique for playing various stringed instruments using a plectrum or flatpick in a rolling, syncopated style across three strings
Cross polkasee Wienerkreuz
Cross potentalso known as a crutch cross, a form of heraldic cross with crossbars or "crutches" at the four ends
Cross-relationa cross-relation is a chromatic succession that has been split between two voices. That is, one of the notes in the chromatic succession has been displaced by an octave or more. In progressions, cross-relations can produce a harsh sound as a result of the interval of the major 7th formed by the two notes. The dissonance is most noticable when the notes of the cross-relation are in the outer voices. To lessen the effect of the dissonant interval, put one note of the cross-relation in an inner voice
also called false relation or English dissonance, a harmonic effect in Western tonal music, in which a note (usually the third degree of the scale) precedes the same note flattened by a semitone in a different part in the following chord
Cross-rhythmthe juxtaposition of simultaneous but conflicting rhythmic patterns
several commentators attempt to distinguish cross-rhythm from polyrhythm - the latter is, in effect, more 'vertical' while the former is more 'horizontal', where the combination is such that they cross rather than coincide with one another, so that the pattern that is created emphasises their points of divergence or opposition rather than their connection
see 'hemiola'
in jazz ballad playing, for example, there is commonly a triplet-crotchet (quarter-note) rhythm that implicitly continues through the 4/4 meter and is 'tapped-into' from time to time
Crossroad dancesthe two major venues of Irish musical expression were the crossroad dances and the céilí. The crossroad dances were professional and semi-professional in nature, while the céilí were more informal gatherings of family and friends for partying in general, with music, singing, dancing and the telling of tales
Cross staff beaming
cross staff beaming(in French, barre d'accroche entre deux portées, in German Systemübergreifende Balkung) also cross-staff beaming, beaming where multiple staves (most commonly bass and treble clef) are used to write a musical phrase
Cross-step waltza partner dance performed to waltz music
Cross stick (technique)the rimshot should not be confused with the 'cross stick' technique, in which the tip of a drumstick is placed on the head near one of the bearing edges and the shaft of the stick is struck against the rim opposite the tip, creating a dry, high pitched "click" similar to a set of claves
Cross-strung harpsee 'harp'
Cross-talkundesired interference between nervous system pathways, particularly those engaged in emotions and speech production
Crotalone of the oldest types of bell, a small perforated sphere, usually of metal, inside which are loose jingling pellets
Crotale(French f.) singular of crotales
Crotales(English, French f. pl., German f. pl.) finger cymbals (although these are generally significantly lighter than crotales), antique cymbals, crotali (Italian), cymbales antiques (French), Antike Zimbeln (German), crotalos or platillos antiguos (Spanish)
(English, Franch f. pl., German f. pl.) antique cymbals, crotales are tuned metal discs that are constructed mainly of bronze or brass. Crotales have a very distinctive high, bell-like sound and can easily cut through the heaviest orchestrations. Crotales are generally available in octave sets and are accurately pitched unlike finger cymbals which do not have a definite pitch. Antique cymbals can be either design. The usual crotale range is two octaves from C6 to C8 (middle C is C4). Finger cymbals are lighter than crotales, smaller and are generally found in pairs.
Repertoire: Debussy - L'Apres Midi d'un Faune; Adams - Short ride in a fast machine
Crotali(Italian m. pl.) crotales, antique cymbals
Crotalo(Italian m.) singular of crotales
Crótalo (s.), Crotalos (pl.)(Spanish m.) antique cymbal
Crotaluman ancient Greek, and later Roman, instrument, similar to castanets or clappers, made of wood, bone, bronze, etc. and used particularly to accompany dancing
Crotchetquarter note (US), semiminima (Italian), nera (Italian), quarto (Italian), noire (French), Viertel (German), negra (Spanish)
crotcheta quarter note, a note one quarter the time value of a whole note or semibreve
Crotcheton early pedal harps, small metal Ls which are drawn by the action towards the neck to shorten the sounding length of the harp
Crotchet restquarter rest (US), pausa di semiminima (Italian f.), soupir (French m.), Viertelpause (German f.), silencio de negra (Spanish f.), pausa de negra (Spanish f.), silencio de semiminima (Spanish m.), pausa de semiminima (Spanish f.)
crotchet rest orcrotchet resta quarter rest, a rest one quarter the time value of a whole rest or semibreve rest
Crotta(Italian f., German f.) Chrota (German f., German f.), Chrotta (German f., French f.), crwth
[entry amended by Michael Zapf]
Croupier(English, French m., German m.) someone who collects and pays bets at a gaming table
Croustadeempty pastry case
Croûtea bed or cushion of fried or toasted bread
Croûton (s.), Croûtons (pl.)(English, German m., French m.) a cube of fried bread
Crowbara straight bar of iron or steel, with the working end shaped like a chisel and often slightly bent and forked, used as a lever
Crowdera performer on the crwth, although the term was applied later to a fiddler
Crowding effectin typrography, the tendency for small letters to be difficult to read when they are in close proximity to one another
Crowding-Effekt(German m.) crowding effect
Crowd surfingCrowd surfing
to initiate a crowd surf it's much like a stage dive in the sense that you have to get on top of the crowd. This is usually done by either asking someone to give you a boost on the crowd or by putting your hands on the person in front of you and climbing up their back. You then spread your body out like you would after a dive and then surf to where you want by rolling your body
  • Crowd surfing from which this information (and the cool graphic) come
Crowlean ancient English bass wind-instrument
Crowley, Robert
stationer, poet, polemicist and Protestant clergyman who was among the Marian exiles at Frankfurt. He was the author of the The Psalter of Dauid newely translated into Englysh metre in such sort that it maye the more decently, and wyth more delyte of the mynde, be reade and songe of al men. Wherunto is added a note of four partes.... (pub. by Richard Grafton and Stephen Mierdman in 1549), the first complete psalter into metre in the English language and also the first English psalter with harmonised music. In fact, Crowley supplied a single tune to be used to the whole series, a piece of plainchant (the 7th Gregorian tone) harmonized in four parts with the plainchant in the tenor
Crownon a piano, the slight forward curvature of the soundboard
the name, used in English, for the top of the bell proper and the main node of its vibrations
Crowthersynonymous with 'crowder'
croyant (m.), croyante (f.)(French) (a Christian) who both accepts the beliefs of his faith
croyant et pratiquant (m.), croyante et pratiquante (f.)(French) (a Christian) who both accepts the beliefs of his faith and is scrupulous about religious observence
Crozetinseln(German pl.) Crozet Islands
Crozet IslandsÎles Crozet (French), or, officially, Archipel Crozet (French), a sub-antarctic archipelago of small islands in the southern Indian Ocean. They form one of the five administrative districts of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands
Crozierpastoral staff; a processional staff with the head in the form of a shepherd's crook
Crt.abbreviation of 'cornet'
Crta.abbreviation of carretera (Spanish f.: road)
Cru(French) growth (of a vine), a vineyard or group of vineyards
cruauté(French) ruthlessness, absence of sentimentality
Crucifixa representation of the cross on which Christ was crucified
Crucifixuspart of the credo of the Mass
Cruciformcross shaped
Cruciverbalista compiler or solver of crossword puzzles
crudele(Italian) cruel
Crudité(French f.) crudeness (of language)
Crudités(French f. pl.) raw vegetables eaten as an appetizer at the beginning of a meal
Crue(German f.) crude silk, écru silk, hard silk, unscoured silk (silk where fat, waxes and, in the case of Mulberry silk, about 3-5% silk gum are removed)
cruel(French) cruel
Cruisergewicht(German n.) cruiserweight (a weight division in boxing)
Cruisergewichtler(German m.) cruiserweight (person)
Cruit(Irish) crwth
Cruitiné(Irish) harpist, player of the crwth
Crumhorn(German root, krumm meaning crooked) a wind-capped double-reed hook-shaped instrument with finger holes and a range of about a ninth
Crunkspecific type of hip hop music, based out of the Southern United States, particularly on the eastern side of Atlanta, Georgia and its birthplace of Memphis, Tennessee
  • Crunk from which this extract has been taken
  • Crunk
Crupezia(Greek) wooden clogs worn by Greek musicians
Crusadeseries of military campaigns waged by Christian countries in the Holy Land from the 11th to the 13th century to recover the area from Islam; used more generally for any military campaign on behalf of the church
Cruseide(German f.) crude silk, écru silk, hard silk, unscoured silk
Crushon the piano, two notes, the interval of a semitone (half-step) apart, played simultaneously
Crushed noteapoyadura corta (Spanish), apoyadura breve (Spanish), apoyatura corta (Spanish), apoyatura breve (Spanish), acciaccatura (Italian), Zusammenschlag (German), pincé étouffé (French)
Crushleder(German n.) crushed leather
Crusticin German auftaktlos, of a phrase that begins on the downbeat of a bar and ends at the end of a bar; a phrase that starts and ends in the middle of a bar is said to be anacrustic [entry extended by Michael Zapf]
Crust punkthe extreme evolution of hardcore punk. The genre might be considered hard to listen to and very abrasive, using elements of anarcho-punk and grindcore to create a unique sound that can either be fast and leaning to grindcore, or slow and mopey and/or melodic. It was originally called stenchcore. Although not the same genre, crust is closely related to d-beat, black metal, anarcho-punk, thrashcore and grindcore
  • Crust punk from which this extract has been taken
Crutch crosssee 'cross potent'
Crutched Friarsalso known as the Brethren of the Holy Cross; not actually considered to be a mendicant group and were much involved with running hospitals
Cruth(Saxon) crwth
Crux (s.), Cruces (pl.)(English, German f., from Latin) a puzzle, an obscure point, a difficult point, the central point (of a problem), the most important part (of an argument)
Crux ansata(Latin) the form of cross known in Egypt as an ankh
Cruzadas, las(Spanish) the Crusades
cruzado(Portuguese) croisé (French)
cruzar(Spanish) to cross
Crwth(English, German f. from the Welsh) the ancient lyre of Northern Europe modified by the addition of a fingerboard and the application of the bow. It was played in France, England, Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, where it survived longest, and where it was used from the tenth century to the end of the sixteenth century to accompany classical or bardic poetry (cerdd dafod) with unique Welsh string music (cerdd dant). The music, like the poetry, was composed upon rigorous and conservative principles. The poets, instrumentalists and singers were part of an all-embracing bardic system. During the early seventeenth century, the crwth lost its prestige as the bardic system was abandoned and players provided new, European-style, music until the crwth fell out of use in the late eighteenth century
Crypta chamber or vault beneath the main floor
Crystallophonea musical instrument that produces sound from glass
Crystal organglass harmonica
CSabbreviation of Cantiones sacrae - Collection of sacred songs by Thomas Tallis and William Byrd (1575)
c.s.(Italian) an abbreviation of colla sinistra or col sinistra meaning 'with left hand', a direction found in keyboard music
(Italian) an abbreviation of con sordino or con sordini meaning 'with mute', 'with mutes' or 'muted'
CSAabbreviation of Conseil supérieur de l'audiovisuel (French: French broadcasting regulatory body)
Csakanalso, at the time, called flûte douce, an early keyed recorder popular in nineteenth-century Vienna, invented by Anton Heberle. Heberle's published works for csakan include 8 volumes of light pieces, a fantasy, a sonata, a Sonata Brillante (all solo works), two volumes of small duets, a concertino with string trio and two horns, and a set of variations with string quartet and two horns. Heberle's example was rapidly imitated by numerous Viennese composers of the day including Franz, Kargl, Ernst Krämer (1795-1837), Hunyadi, W. Klingenbrunner, Gebauer, Anton Stadler (1753-1812) - the clarinettist to whom Mozart dedicated his clarinet concerto - and Anton Diabelli (1781-1858) - publisher of works by Beethoven and Schubert. And there were virtuosic csakan and piano transcriptions of Donizetti, W.A. Mozart, Franz Xaver Mozart, Rossini, Johann Strauss, and Weber overtures
Csardas(German m.) csárdás (Magyar), czardas (English)
Csárdás(Magyar) also czardas (English) or Csardas (German m.), a national Hungarian dance in two sections, the first slow and sad (also called the lassu, from lassan, 'slow'), the other fast and fiery (called fris, from the German frisch, 'fresh', 'brisk', 'lively')
CScabbreviation of 'Candidate of Historical Sciences'
c clef(German m.) a clef sign which marks the position of the note C on the staff, for example, the alto clef
CSCM, C.S.C.M.abbreviation of 'Certificate of the State Conservatorium of Music (NSW)'
C sharp
note C sharp
the sharpened key note of the scale of C major, which in 'fixed do' solfeggio is called di, do diesis (Italian), Ces (German), ut bémol (French)
C sharp majordo diesis maggiore (Italian), ut dièse majeur (French), Cis dur (German), do sostenido mayor (Spanish)
key of C sharp majorthe key of 'C sharp major'
the scale of C sharp
the scale of 'C sharp major'
C sharp minordo diesis minore (Italian), ut dièse mineur (French), Cis moll (German), do sostenido menor (Spanish)
key of C sharp minorthe key of 'C sharp minor'
Csilinkasee tilinka
c clef(Dutch) a clef sign which marks the position of the note C on the staff, for example, the alto clef
Csounda computer programming language for dealing with sound. It is called Csound because it is written in the C programming language, as opposed to some of its predecessors. Csound was written at MIT by Barry Vercoe, based on an earlier language called Music360, developed by Max Matthews at Bell Labs. It is free software, available under the LGPL
  • Csound from which this extract has been taken
CTreferring to the catalogue of music by Frédéric François Chopin (1810-1849) prepared by Józef Micha Chomiski and Teresa Dalila Turo
Ctabbreviation of Contratenor (German), 'countertenor'
CTenabbreviation of 'counter-tenor'
[entry supplied by Ed Batutis]
Cto(Italian) an abbreviation of concerto
CT scannerCT or 'computed tomography' is a medical imaging method employing tomography. Digital geometry processing is used to generate a three-dimensional image of the inside of an object from a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation. The word "tomography" is derived from the Greek tomos (slice) and graphein (to write). It was later known as 'computed axial tomography' (CAT or CT scan) and body section röntgenography. Although most common in medicine, CT is also used in other fields, such as nondestructive materials testing. Another example is the DigiMorph project at the University of Texas at Austin which uses a CT scanner to study biological and paleontological specimens
CT-Scanner(German m.) CT scanner
Cúathe rhythmic stick pattern of the Puerto Rican bomba style, functioning sometime as a clave
Cuaderno(Spanish m.) issue, number, part, exercise book, notebook
breve(Spanish f.) a breve, a double whole note equal to two semibreves (whole notes)
Cuadrante(Spanish m.) quadrant, sundial, square pillow
cuadrar(Spanish) to square, to agree, to tally, to suit
cuadrarse(Spanish) to stand to attention, to dig in one's heals
Cuadricula(Spanish f.) squares, crisscross pattern
cuadricular(Spanish) to square, to divide into squares
Cuadro(Spanish m.) table, square, frame, scene (theatre), description, picture, bed, patch, plot (of ground), panel, chart, graph, staff (personnel)
Cuadro (flamenco)(Spanish m., literally 'staff') group of flamenco performers, including dancers, singers, and guitarists
cualquier bicho viviente(Spanish) everyone
cualquier cosa antes que eso(Spanish) anything but that
cuando llegamos a la altura de la plaza(Spanish) when we reached the square
cuando quiera que(Spanish) whenever
cuando salió en escena aquello fue la apoteosis(Spanish) the audience went wild when she came on stage (colloquial)
cuando te decidas, avísame(Spanish) let me know when you make up your mind
Cuanegrosa Mexican dance of African origin in which the slaves and land workers, as a form of protest, joke and fun, enjoy themselves by ridiculing the rich land owners, hoping for freedom and equality
cuanto antes(Spanish) as soon as possible
cuanto antes, lo antes posible(Spanish) as soon as possible
¡cuánto me alegro!(Spanish) I'm so happy! I'm so pleased!
¿cuánto pagas de alquiler?(Spanish) how much rent do you pay?
¿cuántos años tienes?(Spanish) how old are you?
cuarenta(Spanish) forty
Cuarta(Spanish f.) interval of a fourth, quarta (Italian f.), Quarte (German f.), quarte (French f.), cuarta (Spanish f.)
Cuarta aumentada(Spanish f.) augmented fourth, an interval of six semitones (half-steps)
Cuarta disminuída(Spanish f.) diminished fourth, an interval of four semitones (half-steps)
Cuarta justa(Spanish f.) perfect fourth, an interval of five semitones (half-steps)
Cuarteto(Spanish m.) quartet (of musicians), quartetto (Italian m.), quatuor (French m.), Quartett (German n.)
(Spanish m.) also called cuartetazo or Tunga-tunga, a musical genre from Córdoba, Argentina which is rhythmically similar to the merengue
Cuarteto de cuerdas(Spanish m.) string quartet
Cuarteto de piano(Spanish m.) piano quartet, a group of four instruments of which one is a piano
Cuarteto doble(Spanish m.) double string quartet, a group of eight string players (4 violins, 2 violas and 2 celli)
Cuartetazo(Spanish m.) see cuarteto
Cuartifusa(Spanish f.) garrapatea (Spanish), quintuple croche (French), one hundred and twenty-eight note, quasihemidemisemiquaver
cuarto(Spanish) fourth, four
Cuatrillo(Spanish m.) quadruplet (group of notes), quartolet (French)
Cuatro(Spanish m., literally 'four') Creole guitar of South America and the West Indies, derived from the Spanish guitar, made out of pine or cedar wood, with four pairs of strings usually of nylon, the cuatro is usually strummed rather than plucked
(Spanish, literally 'four') Puerto Rican guitar, usually carved from solid blocks of laurel wood, used in country music, originally having only four strings, until in about 1875 when its stringing was changed to 10 strings, 5 double courses. It too is derived from the Spanish guitar
Cuatro orchestra(Puero Rico) the original cuatro orchestra (1960s) was formed of primero cuatro concertino, segundo cuatro concertino, cuatro bajo, cuatro rítmico and cuatro tradicional. The modern cuatro orchestra consist of the following: cuatro soprano, cuatro tenor, cuatro alto, cuatro bajo
  • Cuatro from which this information has been taken
Cuban hip hop
Cuban hip motionsee 'Latin hip motion'
Cuban musiclike so many things in Cuba, the music of that island derives mainly from Spain and Africa: from the colonizers and from the slaves whom the former imported until well into the nineteenth century. The indigenous people, having been mostly killed off by the 16th Century, left little mark on the musical culture. In a small island country where the African population at times has exceeded the European population and where customs, food, and language have been profoundly influenced by Africans, it is no surprise that Cuban popular music, and even academic music, carries with it today the sounds of Africa in its rhythms, melodies, structure, and language.
Cuban ritualistic musicCuban music that derives its influences from the rituals of the Yoruba, Bantu, Efik and Fon
Cuban rumbasee rumba
Cuban stickssee claves
Cuban tom tomsbongos
Cubeba berry from Java which resembles peppercorn and tastes somewhat like allspice
Cubo de la basura(Spanish m.) dustbin, garbage can
Cubopgenre of late 1940s, blend of Afro-Cuban rhythms and Afro-American jazz
cubrir las apariencias(Spanish) to keep up appearances
Çubuksee davul
Cucharas(Spanish f. pl., literally 'spoons') initially used to play the palitos accompaniment to the cajones in the early rumba styles and still used today in folkloric ensemble performances
Cuckoo pipeor 'cuckoo whistle', a simple two-note wind-instrument; it is interesting to observe that though the musical 'cuckoo' has a fixed interval between the two notes it can produce, the real bird has a call the interval of which narrows over the course of a season
Cuckoo whistlesee 'cuckoo pipe'
Cuculo(Italian m.) cuckoo pipe
Cuddlecorethe more punk-influenced variants of 'twee pop'
Cuddle positionin dance, also known as Varsouvienne or Skating Position, in which the man and woman are side-by-side with one of the man's arms placed across the woman's back
Cuea signal given by a conductor to bring in a player or a section
the round dance equivalent of 'call', a signal to execute a dance figure
CuecaBolivian flirting dance, slow and sensual
(short for zamacueca) Chilean dance written in 6/8 time with the accompaniment in 3/4 time, originally danced with handkerchiefs only, but recently it has enjoyed popularity on the ballroom floor
the northern cuecain this version there is no singing in the accompanying music which is played with only trumpets, tubas and drums
the Chiloé cuecain this version the steps are shorter and that the singer has a more important role than the instruments
Cuello agarrotado(Spanish m.) stiff neck
Cue notesnotas guia (Spanish), notine (Italian), petites notes précédent l'entrée d'instrument (French), réplique (French), Stichnoten (German)
added to separate playing or singing parts, small notes belonging to another part to indicate to the player after a rest of a considerable length, where he or she should start singing or playing again. The cue may be shown in the part (with smaller notes) or above the part on a small staff
¡cuéntaselo a tu abuela!(Spanish m.) pull the other one! (colloquial)
Cuento(Spanish m.) short story, tale
Cuerthe round dance equivalent of a 'caller', a person giving the signal to execute a dance figure
Cuerda(Spanish f.) string, corde (French), corda (Italian), rope, spring, chord (geometry)
(Spanish f.) voice
(Spanish f.) the set of three drums that form candombe. Individually the three drums are called tambor piano, tambor chico and tambor repique
Cuerda abierta(Spanish f.) open string
Cuerda alícuota(Spanish f.) aliquot string
Cuerda baja(Spanish f.) bass string
Cuerda bordón(Spanish f.) drone string
Cuerda de acero(Spanish f.) steel string
Cuerda de guitarra(Spanish f.) guitar string
Cuerda de hilo(Spanish f.) nylon string
Cuerda de la ropa(Spanish f.) clothes-line
Cuerda de latón(Spanish f.) brass string
Cuerda de los presos(Spanish f.) chain-gang
Cuerda de metal(Spanish f.) metal string
Cuerda de nailon(Spanish f.) nylon string
Cuerda de resonancia(Spanish f.) sympathetic string
Cuerda de seda(Spanish f.) silk string
Cuerda de tripa(Spanish f.) gut string
Cuerda floja(Spanish f.) tightrope
Cuerda melódica(Spanish f.) treble string
Cuerdas(Spanish f. pl.) strings (i.e. orchestral section)
(South America) a feature of candombe, drum ensembles that include dozens of drummers and feature the three cuerda drum sizes, tambor repique, tambor chico and tambor piano
Cuerdas vocales(Spanish f. pl.) vocal chords
Cuerdo (m.), Cuerda (f.)(Spanish) sane person
cuerdo (m.), cuerda (f.)(Spanish) prudent, sensible, sane (person)
Cuerna(Spanish f.) antlers, horns, hunting horn, cor de chasse (French m.), cornet (French m.)
Cuerno(Spanish m.) horn (for example, the horn of an animal used to make a musical instrument), antler, horn (musical instrument), cor (French m.)
Cuerno basset(Spanish m.) basset horn, corno di bassetto (Italian m.), Bassetthorn (German n.), cor de basset (French m)
Cuerno de caza(Spanish m.) hunting horn, cor de chasse (French m.)
Cuerno de vaca(Spanish m.) cow horn, corno di toro (Italian m.), Stierhorn (German n.), cor de vache (French m.)
Cuero(Spanish m.) skin, hide, leather, skin (person), wineskin
Cuero cabelludo(Spanish m.) scalp
Cuerpo(Spanish m.) body (of an instrument), body (anatomical), body or group (of people, students, etc.), figure, build (constitution), trunk
Cuerpo de baile(Spanish m.) corps de ballet (French)
Cuerpo de bomberos(Spanish m.) fire brigade
Cuerpo del libro(Spanish m.) main body of the book
Cuerpo de sanidad(Spanish m.) medical corps
Cuerpo diplomático(Spanish m.) diplomatic corps
Cuerpo inferior(Spanish m.) pezzo inferiore (Italian m.), lower joint (of a wind instrument), Unterstück (German n.), Fußstück (German n.), troisième corps (French m.), patte (French f.)
Cuerpo medio(Spanish m.) pezzo di mezzo (Italian m.), middle joint (of a wind instrument), Mittelstück (German n.), second corps (French m.), cuerpo superior (Spanish m.)
Cuerpos celestes(Spanish m. pl.) heavenly bodies
Cuerpo superior(Spanish m.) pezzo di mezzo (Italian m.) middle joint (of a wind instrument), Mittelstück (German n.), second corps (French m.), cuerpo medio (Spanish m.)
Cuerta(Spanish f.) (interval of a) fourth
Cuervo(Spanish m.) raven, priest
Cuesta(Spanish f.) a plain sloping gently up to the crest of a cliff or steep escarpment
Cuestión batallona(Spanish f.) vexed question
Cuffia(Italian f.) headphone
CugenaoChinese leaf reed
Cugino carnale(Italian) first cousin
Cuíca(Italian f., English, German f., French f.) Brazilian friction drum with a stick, attached to the middle of the drumhead and projecting from inside the shell, which is rubbed by the player with a piece of damp cloth or cotton, held between the thumb and forefinger. The friction on the stick causes the head of the cuica to vibrate and 'squeak'. The pitch of the squeak can be changed by applying pressure to the drum head and changing the tension. The cuica is often used to accompany the samba
Cuir(French m.) leather
Cuirasse musclée(French) a breast-plate modelled on the male nude torso, adopted by the Romans from the Greeks
Cuir bouilli(French m.) leather boiled until soft which is then moulded into the desired shape before being allowed to dry and harden
cuire à l'étouffée(French) to braise
cuire à l'étuvée(French) to braise
Cuisine(French) style of cooking
Cuisse(French f.) leg
Cuisse de poulet(French f.) leg of chicken
Cuiteseide(German f.) cuite or boiled-off silk (silk boiled in hot soap solutions to which a mild alkali may be added, so as to remove completely the sericin or silk gum which component is responsible for the harsher feel of raw silk. Removal of the sericin gives silk its soft, elegant lustre)
Cuius regio, eius religio(Latin) one of the principles agreed as part of the Peace of Augsburg (1555): "Rulers of the 225 German states could choose the religion (Lutheranism or Catholicism) of their realms according to their consciences, and compel their subjects to follow that faith."
Cuivre(French m.) copper, brass
(French) m. an instrument of the brass section in a band or orchestra, more particularly, the horn
Cuivré(French m.) brassy, a term applied to a particular sound produced on the French horn
in music for French horn, the marking cuivré is often found in stopped passages which are played loud, brassy, and stopped, but you can play cuivré open too
(French) coppery
Cuivre jaune(French m.) brass
cuivrer(French) schmettern
Cuivres(Danish, French m. pl.) brass (for example, orchestral section made up of brass instruments)
Culasse(French f.) double joint, butt
Culdeealso Kuldee or Céli Dé (literally 'vassals of God') formed a monastic order with settlements in Ireland, Scotland and England. In early Irish manuscripts the name is Cele De, that is, God's sworn ally. Thence the term was Latinized to Coli dei, leading to Boece's culdei, which term seems to have been applied generally to monks and hermits. They seem especially to have promoted the care of the poor and the sick, and were interested in the musical part of worship
  • Culdee from which some of this information has been taken
Cul-de-lampe (s.), Culs-de-lampe (pl.)(French) a bracket or pendant of an inverted conical shape, an ornament used to fill up a page of a printed book, a tail-piece
Cul-de-sac(from the French) a blind alley (although the correct word in French is impasse)
Culo 'e puyaalternative name for the redondo
Culotte(French) a pair of informal women's wide flared trousers so designed as to resemble a full skirt when the wearer is standing still, a divided skirt
Culpa in contrahendo(English, German f.) or 'precontractual culpability', a Latin expression meaning "obligations in negotiation". It is an important concept in contract law for many civil law countries (including Germany), which recognise a clear duty to negotiate with care, and not to lead a negotiating partner to act to his detriment before a firm contract is concluded
Culte du moi(French) the placing of one's own interests before that of others
Cultural absolutisma philosphical position that declares a society's culture to be of supreme ethical value, and advocates ethnocentric adherence to one's own cultural norms as an ethically correct attitude
[taken from]
Cultural animateura term that is applied to a hybrid form of curatorial practice, where the traditional model of curator is redefined as a combination of traditional curator, producer, networker and agent for change
Cultural Revolution (China)a slogan introduced by Mao Zedong in 1940, noted again by Liu Shaoqi in 1958, and used more frequently in connection with leftist attacks on the "cultural front" in late 1965 and early 1966. The expression was used to denote the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, a political campaign officially inaugurated in August 1966 to rekindle revolutionary fervour of the masses outside formal party organizations. As the old culture both of China and of socialist China were swept away by revolutionary fervour new works were written including the Cultural Revolution 'anthem', Sailing the Seas Depends on the Helmsman, a Mao poem put to music, as well as Mao 'quotation songs' (yulu ge), revolutionary Beijing Operas (geming xiandai jingxi) and ballets (geming xiandai baleiwuju)
the Cultural Revolution decade (1966-76) can be divided into three periods:
1966-69from the militant Red Guard phase to the Ninth National Party Congress
1969-71the period of the zenith and demise of Lin Biao
1971-76the period of Mao's declining health and the ascendancy of the Gang of Four (Jiang Qing (Mao's fourth wife), Zhang Chunqiao, Yao Wenyuan, and Wang Hongwen)
at the August 1977 Eleventh National Party Congress, the Cultural Revolution was declared officially to have ended with the arrest in October 1976 of the Gang of Four
Cultural symbola symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works
Cultureboth "culture" and "civilization" derive their original meaning from Latin: from cultura which referred to the cultivation of the soil, and from civis which referred to the status of citizenship. In Latin, however, both words also acquired secondary meanings. Cicero, for example, used cultura in a transferred sense when he identified cultura animi ("culture of the soul") with philosophy or learning generally. Civis denoted not only the fact of Roman citizenship, but also its superiority over the primitive condition of the foreigner or barbarian. In each case the acquired as well as the literal meaning has lingered on into modern times, although the words "culture" and "civilization" themselves did not gain currency in European thought until the second half of the eighteenth century. The inherited meanings were, however, soon joined by others. Indeed, even before the last decade of the eighteenth century, the proliferation of meanings led the German philosopher Johann Gottfried von Herder to remark of "culture" that "nothing was more indeterminate than this word"
the customs, values, worldview, attitudes, expressive behaviours, and organization of a group, their way of life, which is learned through observation and imitation, not inherited genetically
"Culture - what a word! Up to a few years ago it meant two or three related things easy to grasp and keep apart. Now it is a piece of all-purpose jargon that covers a hodge-podge of overlapping things. People speak and write about culture of almost any segment of society: the counterculture, to begin with, and the many subcultures: ethnic cultures, corporate cultures, teenage culture, and popular culture. An editorial in 'The New York Times' discusses the culture of the city's police department, and an article in the travel section distinguishes the culture of plane travel from the bus culture. On a par with these, recall the split between the 'two cultures' of science and the humanities, which is to be deplored - like the man-and-wife 'culture clash', which causes divorce. Artists feel the lure - no, the duty - of joining an adversary culture; for the artist is by nature 'the enemy of his culture', just as he is (on another page of the same journal) 'a product of his culture'. In education, the latest fad is multiculturalism, and in entertainment the highest praise goes to a 'cross-cultural event'. On the world scene, the experts warn of the culture wars that are brewing. At the bottom of the pile, 'culture', meaning the well-furnished mind, barely survives." Jacques Berzun: From Dawn to Decadence, (2000)
Culture of the Song Dynasty
Cultus(Latin) an organised system of relgious ceremonial (for example, the veneration of saints)
Cum(Latin) with
Cumacosee 'Venezuelan drums'
Cumbean African dance from Guinea. Fused with Andean Indian and European elements the cumbe became the cumbia which began as the local dance music of the black community of the Atlantic coast of Columbia. The dance is said to be the result of a courtship process between black male slaves and the Indian women native to Colombia. The marked limping step represents the chains placed around the slave's left foot. This dance is very popular in Panama, Venezuela, Peru and it is considered the national dance in Columbia
Cumbiasee cumbe
Cumbia panameñaPanamanian cumbia
Cumbia villera(literally 'shantytown cumbia') Argentinean cumbia born in the villas miseria (shantytowns) around Buenos Aires and then popularized in the villas of other large urban settlements
a family of Turkish banjo-like lutes
standard cümbüsshort neck, fretless, tuned like an oud
saz-cümbüslong neck, tie-on frets, tuned like the popular Turkish instrument the baglama saz
cura-cümbüslike the baglama saz model but higher pitched like a cura saz
tambur-cümbüsextra-long neck, tuned like the Turkish tambur
yayli tambur - cümbüslike the tambur model, but played much like a cello with a bow
guitar-cümbüsfretted, tuned like a guitar
mando-cümbüsfretted, small, tuned like a mandolin
cum cantu(Latin) with song, with singing
cum discantu(Latin) with song, with singing
Cumfa(Guyana) African-based dance/music/song ritual form found in Guyana
cum grano salistaken with a grain of salt (figurative)
Cuminasee kumina
Cum laude(Latin) with praise, with distinction (always as the result of an examination), with honour
Cum laude magnum(Latin) with great success
Cummerbund(from the Persian) a wide cloth band worn as a waist sash, part of traditional male dress in India, Iran and South America, later adopted by men as an alternative to a waistcoat and by women as a belt
cum notis variorum(Latin) (an edition of a text) which includes all the conjectures of previous editors
cum privilegio (as imprimendum solum)(Latin) with privilege (of exclusive printing rights)
Cum Sancto Spiritu(Latin) part of the Gloria, one of the divisions of the mass
Cumulative songa song whose verses are built from earlier verses, usually by simply adding a new stanza to the previous verse
Cuña anticlónica(Spanish f.) ridge of high pressure
Cuñada(Spanish f.) sister-in-law
Cuñado(Spanish m.) brother-in-law
Cuneiform scriptone of the earliest known forms of written expression. Created by the Sumerians, from about the thirty-fourth century BC, cuneiform writing began as a system of pictographs. Over time, the pictorial representations became simplified and more abstract. Cuneiforms were written on clay tablets, on which symbols were drawn with a blunt reed called a stylus. The impressions left by the stylus were wedge shaped, thus giving rise to the name cuneiform ("wedge shaped")
Cunfraternita(Corsica) fraternities, some dating back to the twelfth century, of singers who specialise in performing traditional Corsican polyphony
Cunningham, Merce (b. 1919)avant-garde American choreographer and dancer used Zen, Dadaism and input from the American composer John Cage (1912-1992), as an influence in a method of arranging the order, number of repetitions, direction and spacial relation of preconstructed dance phrases using dice, cards, coins, etc., a method known as 'Chance Operation'
Cunuca(Andes, South America) a percussion instrument similar to a conga drum
Cununo(Colombia) a drum, usually played with bare hands, that uses a wedge-hoop construction for attaching and tightening the single drum skin, as found in Benin, West Africa
Cununo mayor(Colombia) larger cununo
Cununo menor(Colombia) smaller cununo
CununúColombian jungle drum
CUNYabbreviation of 'City University of New York'
Cuota (s.), Cuotas (pl.)(Spanish f.) membership fees, dues, installment, payment, quota, share (quota), toll (Mexico: road toll)
Cuota inicial(Spanish f.) deposit, down payment
Cuotas atrasadas(Spanish payments
Cuotas de producción(Spanish production quotas
Cupmute used in brass instruments
part of the mouthpiece used in brass instruments
a vessel used for holding liquids that are to be imbibed
(English, German m.) a trophy offered to prize winners in a sports event
Cupgröße(German f.) cup size (of a bra)
Cup-Größe(German f.) cup size (of a bra)
Cupidin Roman mythology, the god of love who was the son of Venus (counterpart of the Greek god Eros)
Cupido(German m.) Cupid (god)
Cuplés(Spanish, literally 'couplets') a style of song that exists in Spain to this day, although it is now seen as a bit archaic
Cupo(Italian) dark, sombre, morose
Cupola(Italian) a domed roof (especially a glazed dome or lantern)
Cupped mouthpiecethe shallower, cup-shaped mouthpiece for brass instruments
Cup shakea shake or fissure between the annual rings of a tree, found oftenest near the roots
Cupulecup-shaped structure of hardened bracts at the base of an acorn
cura(Latin) edited by, by order of
Curasmallest of the Turkish baglama or saz family, about 75 cm long
Curaçao (s.), Curaçaos (pl.)(German m.) a resident of the popular island resort in the Netherlands Antilles of the same name
(English, German m.) a liqueur, originally from The Netherlands, made from eau-de-vie, sugar and to give the liqueur a distinctive flavour, the dried peel of sweet and sour oranges. It was originally colourless, but it is best know now in its blue form, although also available in green or pink
Curaçao bluessee tambú
Cura-cümbüssee cümbüs
Curandero (m.), Curandera (f.)(Spanish) charlatan (English, French m.), mountebank, ciarlatano (Italian), cerretano (Italian), saltimbanco (Italian), Scharlatan (German m.), person falsely claiming knowledge or skill (particularly a fake doctor), an unfinished or superficial performer
[German translation provided by Michael Zapf]
Curbatathe smaller of two drums used in the Barlovento region of coastal Venezuela (played with the mina drum and laures)
Curd cheesea low fat soft cheese, approx. 11% fat
Curé(English, German m., French m.) a (French) parish priest
Curia(Latin) the group of ecclesiastical officials forming the entourage of the Pope (or of any bishop)
Curiosa(Latin pl.) remarkable objects, rareities
Curiosa felicitas(Latin pl.) beauty of style which is the result of thought and care
Curlersa hair iron or hair tong is a tool used to change the structure of the hair with the help of heat, either to reduce or overcome its natural tendency to curl (in which case they are called 'straightening tongs') or to give naturally straight hair curls (in which case they are known as 'curling irons'). In addition, styling irons, that can be used to both straighten and curl the hair, let the stylist straighten one portion of the strand while curling the other
Curlewa large brownish wading bird
Curling(English, German n.) a game played on ice in which heavy stones with handles are slid toward a target
(English, German n.) the tendency of certain materials to curl back on themselves when unwound from a roll, or of other originally flat materials exposed to light or damp to curl up
Curling spielen(German) to curl (to play curling)
Curlingstab(German m.) curling tongs
Curlingstein(German m.) curling stone (used in the sport of curling)
Curly-Coated Retriever(English, German m.) an English breed having a tightly curled black or liver-colored coat; retrieves game from land or water
Curragh(Irish) a coracle, a wickwork and hide boat
Currenciesa currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of goods and services. It is a form of money, where money is defined as a medium of exchange rather than e.g. a store of value. A currency zone is a country or region in which a specific currency is the dominant medium of exchange. To facilitate trade between currency zones, there are exchange rates i.e. prices at which currencies (and the goods and services of individual currency zones) can be exchanged against each other. Modern currencies can be classified as either floating currencies or fixed currencies based on their exchange rate regime
Currendaner(German) a school or choir boy, who might perform in processional events
Currende(German) schoolboys or choristers, chanting plainchant in procession through the streets, particularly at Christmas and other festivals
Currendschüler(German) a school or choir boy, who might perform in processional events
Currens saltatio(Latin) coranto
Currente calamo(Latin) (written) straight off, without pausing to think
Curriculum (s.), Curricula (pl.)(English, German n., from Latin) a regular course of training at a scvool or university, the description of such a course
Curriculum Vitae(German n., from Latin) curriculum vitae
Curriculum vitae(English, German n. (dated), from Latin) the course of one's life (autobiographical summary often attached to an application for a post)
Currulaoa secular dance, usually performed by a man and a woman, featuring the common African-derived characteristic of male pursuit and female retreat, found in the Pacific coast regions of Colombia and Ecuador and that feature the marimba, guasá, cununo mayor, cununo menor and bombo
Curry(English, German n.) any dish, especially a stew made with various kinds of meat or seafood, flavoured with curry powder
Curryaroma(German n.) curry flavouring, curry flavour, curry aroma
Curryblätter(German pl.) curry leaves
Currygericht(German n.) curry dish
Currygewürz(German n.) curry
Curryhuhn(German n.) curried chicken
Currypaste(German f.) curry paste
Currypulver(German n.) curry powder
Curryreis(German m.) curried rice
Currysoße(German f.) curry sauce
Currysuppe(German f.) curry soup
Currywurst(German f.) curried sausage, curry sausage
Cursivea style of script in which the letters are joined, the hand said to be running or flowing, although strictly some argue that the term is more correctly applied to a script in which the pen need not be lifted for any individual letter, the joining of pairs of letters being more correctly the use of a ligature
Cursor(English, German m.) a blinking line on a computer screen which indicates where the next character typed will appear, or the movement of which is controlled with a mouse
Cursus(Latin) a type of rhythmical cadence used at the end of a sentence in Greek or Latin prose
Cursus honorum(Latin) a sequence of junior posts leading to a position of high authority
Cursus litterarum(Latin) or ductus litterarum, the process by which the true readings of a text are corrupted by copying
Curtain callor 'walkdown', the bow made by the singers and conductor at the end of a scene or act of an opera
Curtain musicsee 'act tune'
Curtalsee dulcian
Curva(Spanish f.) crook
Curva della meccanica(Italian f.) harmonic curve (pertaining to the shape of the bridge on a stringed keyboard instrument)
Curved walk
Curvilinearin architectural history, the second phase of the English Decorated style, of the mid to late 14th century
Curwen handsignsthough generally credited to John Curwen (1816-1880), hand signs, as a form of musical notation, have been traced back as far as the ancient Hebrews and Egyptians. Hand signs are effective as a pedagogical tool because they visually and kinaesthetically reinforce the high/low and intervallic relationship between the pitches being sung; the notation is called chironomic or 'oratorical'. In the nineteenth century, John Curwen developed hand signs to go with the solfege syllables (do, re, mi, etc.). Kodály integrated these hand signs into his teaching methods. Hand signs are a way of giving a physical placement for a vocal pitch. The low do begins at your midsection. Each pitch is then above the previous one. Thus, you have the hand signs going up when the pitch goes up. The upper do is at eye level
Curwen hand signs
Cuscinetto(Italian m.) plate, cup, Deckel (German m.), plateau (French m.)
(Italian m.) cushion
Cushion dancean old dance in which a participant selects a partner by dropping a cushion before him or her
Custodia(Italian f.) (instrument) case (e.g. for a violin), astuccio (Italian), Kasten (German - for a violin, cello, etc.), Etui (German - for a flute, oboe, etc.), étui (French), housse (French - case or cover)
Custodydetention, holding by the police
subsection of a province within the Franciscan order
Customer relationship managementor CRM, a software-based technique designed to select and manage customers in order to maximise their long-term value to an enterprise. The term covers several aspects of customer relationships, such as: campaign management systems, call centres, interactive voice response systems, e-commerce, point-of-sale, and sales automation. The intention is to understand and anticipate the needs, preferences, and buying habits of existing and potential customers
Customisingthe process of modifying products or services to meet the requirements of individual customers
Customizing(German n.) customising
Custom palette(in gilding) the leather made from the skin and bones of rabbits. A glue which will set to an extremely strong jelly. The leather is "conditioned" by rubbing it with the "roughed" tissue pages from an empty gold leaf book. This powder coating prevents the leaf from holding too tightly to the leather
Custos (s.), Custodes (pl.)
custos or direct(from Latin, literally 'guardian', 'watchman', 'keeper', 'preserver' or 'attendant') guidon (French m.), Notenzeiger (German m.) or 'direct', placed at the end of each staff, or when the clefs change, the custos indicates the pitch of the next note. It looks like half a note and the beam goes up. It is merely a piece of information, so it need not be sung. In the sixteenth century, the custos was known as the 'index' or 'director'
Cutin African American music, repetition on the level of the beat, ostinato, and the harmonic sequence
(English, German m.) an incision
(German m.) morning suit
Cutawayas applied to the guitar, where the back of the instrument has been carved out or cutaway, for example, to allow easy access to the frets while reaching over the body. A double cut guitar away has both sides cut away. Many people just refer to 'single cut' and 'double cut' guitars
(German m.) morning suit
Cutawaysor 'cutouts', a term that refers to the removal of fabric from a garment in a controlled fashion - these may be irregular or regular shapes within the design
Cut drumsee boula
Cut-in indexor step index, in printing, a style of index in which the divisions are cut into the edge of the book in steps
Cutoutssee 'cutaways'
Cutter (m.), Cutterin (f.)(German) editor
Cutter(English, German m.) a person who cuts out shapes from rolls of material to form the parts of a garment
(German m.) craft knife, box cutter, utility knife, Stanley knife, carpet knife, stationery knife
Cut timesee alla breve
Cuttingin hip hop music, 'cutting' is a disc jockey technique used to loop records. Originated by DJ Grandmaster Flash the technique consists of "manually queueing up duplicate copies of the same record in order to play the same passage, cutting back and forth between them." (AMG) This is necessary to isolate and extend breaks into breakbeats
in the days of vinyl records, to "cut a record" was to record a performance because, in order to 'record' the performance, grooves were physically cut into the original acetate master
(German n.) scarification (by cutting)
  • Cutting from which this extract has been taken
Cut-upin the organ, the height of a flue pipe mouth
Cutworkembroidery in which the design is outlined in a buttonhole stitch and the intervening material is cut away
Cuvée(English, German f./n., French f.) a quantity of wine, particularly one of superior quality which as been reserved for special customers
Cuvette(French f.) pedestal, base or plinth of a column as on a harp, zoccolo (Italian m.), Fuß (German m.), socle (French m.)
CV, C.V., c.v.abbreviation of curriculum vitae (Latin: résumé - a summary of a person's life, including, where appropriate, their work, experience, posts hled, honours received, publications, teaching, education, and so on)
CVOabbreviation of 'Commander of the Royal Victorian Order'
c.voc.(Italian) an abbreviation of colla voce
ČWthe catalogue Petr Il'ič Čajkovskij (New Edition of the Complete Works [Moscou: Muzyka; Mayence: Schott]) of music by Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893)
Cwm(Welsh) a deep rounded hollow with steep sides, a natural amphitheatre (see cirque)
Cyan(English, German n., from Greek kuanos, literally 'dark blue') also called in English, aqua or blue-green, a greenish blue, one of the subtractive primary colours
Cyanblau(English, German n.) cyan blue (former name of 'cyan')
Cyanotypea type of photographic print in a blue monochrome. Sir John Hirchel invented the process in 1842, so he could make copies of his scientific notes. Cyanotype paper is made photosensitive by coating it with ferric ammonium citrate and potassium ferricyanide. This solution soaks into the paper's fibres rather than resting on its surface as with most other emulsions. When exposed to light through contact printing with a negative, the iron compounds break down by oxidation. The exposure is then printed out, which causes a further reaction between the new iron salts and the potassium ferricyanide. Ferroprusate is formed in the areas that were exposed to light yielding a photographic image in Prussian blue. Sometimes these colours can range from a blue-black to purple if variations in processing are made. Variants such as kallitypes, palladium, and platinum prints utilise the same basic iron salt chemistry. Architectural blueprints are also made through this process
Cybercorevirtually synonymous with 'Industrial metal'
Cyberneticsthe science in which communication and control systems in electronic and mechanical devices are studied and compared with those in biological systems
Cyberphobiaan irrational fear of computers or technology
Cyberphobie(German f.) cyberphobia
Cyberspace(English, German m.) the notional environment in which communication over computer networks occurs. The term is currently used to describe the whole range of information resources available through such networks
Cyclein general use, a literary cycle is any group of closely related works. Literary cycles refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries
in music, a cycle is a section which is repeated or repeatable indefinitely, with the end of a preceding repetition leading to the beginning of a succeeding repetition. Cycles may be melodic, harmonic, rhythmic, or based on some other musical dimension. Cycles may begin at any point in a composition or in relation to another cycle, contain or consist of cycles, and may be varied upon repetition
several movements or pieces designed to be played in succession, for example, a song cycle, a cycle of operas, the five movements of the mass (Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus and Agnus dei)
  • Cycle from which the second extract has been taken
Cycle des quartes, le(French m.) circle of descending fourths
Cycle des quintes, le(French m.) circle of ascending fifths
Cycle of fashion
taken from Taste and Fashion by James Laver (1945)
indecent10 years before its time
shameless5 years before its time
outré1 year before its time
smart - 
dowdy1 year after its time
hideous10 years after its time
ridiculous20 years after its time
amusing30 years after its time
quaint50 years after its time
charming70 years after its time
romantic100 years after its time
beautiful150 years after its time
Cycles per secondabbreviated cps or c.p.s., the frequency with which, or number of times per second that, the waveform of a periodic sound repeats exactly so giving the perception of a particular pitch
see 'Hertz'
Cyclical formsee 'cyclic form'
Cyclic centsee 'cent'
Cyclic formor 'cyclical form', a work in which some or all of the movements, although separate in themselves, share common or related material. Particular examples of music commonly written in this form include the sonata, symphony and concerto
Cyclic massa mass in cyclic form. In contrast to the long-held view that the cyclic mass originated in polyphonic settings, it is now clear that unified cycles of plainchant masses existed for several hundred years before the first documented polyphonic mass
cyclische Vorm(Dutch) cyclic form
Cyfarwydda Welsh professional storyteller. The equivalent Irish term is an ollamh
Cygneta young swan
Cyhydedd hira syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively. The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx, with X's indicating unrhymed lines
Cyhydedd naw bana syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length
Cyklus(German m.) or Zyclus, cycle
Cylindersee 'barrel'
Cylinder music boxa music box, fitted with one or more tuned metal music combs, actuated by pins on a cylinder, usually made of brass, which is turned by a spring-powered mechanism or with a hand-operated crank
Cylinder pressa press that uses a hard metal cylinder to provide pressure to transfer an image from a printing plate onto a sheet of paper. These presses came in many types and sizes to accomplish a wide variety of tasks. Throughout the 19th century most were steam powered. They evolved into the rotary press where the plate migrated from the press bed onto the cylinder itself
Cylindertrom(Dutch) cylindrical drum
Cylindre(French m.) piston (valve), rotary values (on French horns), pistone (Italian m., Spanish m.), Pumpventil (German n.), Ventil (German n.), piston (French m.), pistón (Spanish m.)
(French m.) player piano roll
Cylindre à rotation(French m.) rotary valve (on a brass instrument), válvula rotatoria (Spanish f.), válvula rotativa (Spanish f.), cilindro rotativo (Italian m.), Drehventil (German n.), Zylinderventil (German n.)
Cylindrical borethe tube of an instrument which, along its length, retains a fixed diameter, for example, the trombone and trumpet (ignoring the flared bell which forms a relatively short length of the instrument's bore)
Cyla-diarean Albanian double whistle, one pipe without holes acting as a drone while the second has six holes
Cym.abbreviation of 'cymbals'
Cymaa moulding of a cornice, whose profile is a line partly convex and partly concave
Cymaticsa term coined by the Swiss scientist Hans Jenny for the study of wave phenomena. It is typically associated with the physical patterns produced through the interaction of sound waves in a medium
  • Cymatics from which this extract has bene taken
Cymbalin the organ, a high-pitched mixture
Cymbal (s.), Cymbals (pl.)cymbales (French), Becken (German), piatti (Italian), cinelli (Italian), cimbalos (Spanish), platos (Spanish)
a percussion instrument consisting of a thin metal plate struck with a beater or, where each has a strap inserted in the centre, held in the player's hands allowing the two halves to be brought together sharply, before being held apart
there are various types of cymbal:
clashhand-cymbals used in the orchestra, traditionally employed in pairs, each having a strap in the bell of the cymbal which is how they are held, and for which the term clash cymbals is correct
crashthe term 'crash' cymbals is usually reserved for suspended cymbals which produce a loud, sharp, but comparatively short-duration "crash" used mainly as an occasional accent effect
ridea type of cymbal that is a standard part of most drum kits. Its function is to maintain a rhythm, rather than to provide accents. A right-handed drummer will normally have the main ride cymbal handy to the right hand
a type of cymbal and stand used as a typical part of a drum kit by percussionists in jazz, rock and roll, and other forms of contemporary popular music
Chinain western music, china type cymbals are cymbals deliberately manufactured to have a "trashy", offensive, and explosive tone. Their origins can be traced back to the gong in both sound and shape, and thus they are given their name 'china'
Persiana metallic cymbal-like percussion instrument but much larger in diameter with cup- or bell-shaped plates, also known as sanj, senj, zang, chalab and boshqabak
antiquealso called 'tuned cymbals', their timbre is entirely different from modern orchestral cymbals, more like that of small hand-bells or of the notes of the keyed harmonica. They are not struck full against each other, but by one of their edges, and the note given in by them is higher in proportion as they are thicker and smaller
sizzlea cymbal to which rivets, chains or other rattles have been added to modify the sound
splasha small cymbal used for an accent in a drum kit, splash cymbals and china cymbals are the main types of 'effects cymbals'
Sagates/Zillsfinger cymbals used in oriental and middle-eastern dance
Cymbal(German n.) cimbalom
Cymbale(French f.) cymbal, cimbalo (Spanish),
(French f.) a mixture stop in an organ with a very acute quality of tone
Cymbale à pédale(French f.) foot-operated cymbal
Cymbale charleston(French f.) or charleston (French), hi-hat, high hat
Cymbale chinoise(French f.) china cymbals
Cymbale cloutée(French f.) sizzle
Cymbale de batterie(French f.) crash cymbal, splash
Cymbale frappée(French f.) crash cymbal
Cymbales(French f. pl.) cymbals
Cymbales antiques(French f. pl.) antique cymbals
Cymbales chinois(French f. pl.) Chinese cymbals
Cymbales digitales(French f. pl.) or crotales, finger cymbals
Cymbales doucement frôlées(French f.) cymbals touched genetly
Cymbales frappées avec baguettes(French f.) cymbals beaten with sticks
Cymbales frottées(French f.) striped cymbals
Cymbales, laissez vibrer les(French f.) ringing cymbals
Cymbales solo(French f.) cymbals alone
Cymbales sur tiges(French f. pl.) rivet or sizzle cymbals
Cymbales turques(French f. pl.) Turkish cymbals
Cymbale suspendue(French f.) suspended cymbal
Cymbalier(French m.) one who plays the cymbals, cimbalero (Spanish), cymbalista (Italian)
Cymbalista(Italian) one who plays the cymbals, cimbalero (Spanish), cymbalier (French)
Cymbalomsee cimbalom
Cymbalsplural of 'cymbal', usually used in pairs where, one held in each hand, they are clashed together
Cymbal tongssee 'metal castanets'
Cymbalum (s.), Cymbala (pl.)(Greek kýmbalon, hollow vessel, provides the Latin for 'a bell struck by hand with a hammer'). In earlier times it meant cymbal. Since cymbals were slightly convex with a hemispherical center, they bore a resemblance to the cuplike bell. Some cymbals eliminated the rim entirely and thus were exact hemispheres
Cymbalumsee cimbalom
Cymbalum orale(Latin) Jew's harp
Cymbel(German) cimbel, a mixture stop in an organ with a very acute quality of tone
Cymbelstern(German m.) also spelled Zimbelstern, a series of small bells found on some organs, usually high-pitched and not tuned to specific intervals, which ring in a random sequence when activated. It adds a festive sparkle to larger registrations and is used on joyous occasions. Some have a decorative star that rotates while the bells are ringing, hence the name Stern, the German for star
Cymru am byth(Welsh) Wales forever!
Cynghanedd (s.), Cynganeddion (pl.)(Welsh) the basic concept of sound-arrangement within one line, using stress, alliteration and rhyme. The various forms of cynghanedd show up in the definitions of all formal Welsh verse forms, such as the awdl. Cynghanedd has been used from very early times and continues in common use today
Cyninga king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford
Cypress(European Species: Cupressus sempervirens (Italian cypress) American Species: Taxodium distichum (Southern cypress, Swamp cypress): Average Weight: 20 pounds per cubic foot) a soft wood found mostly in Italian pieces and musical instruments. Cypress chests and boxes were imported into England in great numbers during the 15th and 16th centuries where they were known as "Cyprus" boxes. Italian Cypress is both lighter and harder than its American cousins
Cyprus folk music
Cyprus, Medieval music ofsee 'medieval music of Cyprus'
Cyrch a chwtaa Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet. The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line
Cyrillic scriptthe majuscule Byzantine script which the Slavs borrowed in the eleventh century, supplemented, and adapted to their own linguistic needs. The original Slavonic script, devised by St Cyril, is scientifically known as 'Glagolitic' (glagolica). The Cyrillic alphabet is used to write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian
cyrillisch(German) Cyrillic
Cyrillus(German) Cyril
Cywdda fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym
Cywdd deuair hirionin Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables. The first line has a masculine ending and the last line a feminine ending
Cywdd llosgyrnoga type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme
Cz.abbreviation of 'Czech'
Czakansee csakan
Czar(Russian) the emperor of Russia
Czárdásmisspelling of csárdás
Czarevitch(Russian) the oldest son of the czar
Czarina(Russian) the wife of the czar
Czaritza(Russian) the more correct word for the wife of the czar
Czar kolokol(Russian, literally 'Emperor bell') commonly but incorrectly called the 'King of Bells'. Weighing 222 tons and completed in 1735, it is the largest bell ever cast. It was still in its casting pit when a fire in 1737 caused a large chunk to be broken off. It was raised in 1836 and placed on a pedestal beside the Tower of St. Ivan in the Kremlin, where it stands to this day
Czech hip hop
Czernowitz(German n.) Chernivtsi, Chernovtsy (a city of southwest Ukraine in the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains near the Romanian border)
Czimbala Hungarian dulcimer
Czimbaloma Hungarian dulcimer
Czimbalona Hungarian dulcimer
c. 8vaabbreviated form of coll'ottava