If you would like to support our work writing and maintaining the teaching resources on this site please click on the donate button and follow the online instructions - thank you for your contribution.
abbreviation of 'doctor', Docteur (French: doctor)
abbrevated form of Doktor (German: doctor)
(Dutch) hand-cranked barrel organ, usually of the barrel or cardboard music type
a Polish ceremonial dance with a march-like opening followed by an Obertass
a coarse, unbleached linen
Drache (s.), Drahcen (pl.)
(German m.) dragon, drake (archaic)
(German m.) hang-glider, kite, dragon (familiar term for 'wife'), gorgon (figurative), vixen (quarrelsome woman)
(German) to hang-glide
(German n.) hang-gliding
(German n.) dragon's blood
(German n.) dragonboat
(German n.) Chinese dragon boat festival
(German n.) Chinese dragon boat race
(German n.) hang-gliding
Drachenflieger (m.), Drachenfliegerin (f.)
(German) hang-glider (person)
(German f.) deltoid
(German n.) Dragon House (Potsdam)
(German f.) dragonhide pelt
(German n.) dragonhide leather pelt
(German f.) dragon's lair
(German m.) dragon's breath
(German n.) kite flying
(German m.) dragon slayer, dragonslayer
(German f.) drachm, dram (eighth of an ounce), drachma (former Greek currency)
marked by extreme severity or cruelty, especially about laws or governments
from the late 19th century until the middle of the 20th century, drafting linen, also known as drafting cloth, was commonly used as an alternative to wood-pulp and rag papers in creating technical drawings
(German m.) draft mode
on a side-drum, where two rapid strokes come before the main one
a very rare type of singer. They are considered 'weird' sopranos because their vocal cords are so special that they have the range and agility of a coloratura, and the stamina and power of a dramatic soprano. Their upper notes extend to E-flat or higher (staccato F6 in the Queen of the Night's arias) and they have the ability to hold notes for a long period of time
a situation where the words and actions of the characters of a work of literature have a different meaning for the reader than they do for the characters. This is the result of the reader having a greater knowledge than the characters themselves
a poem in which a poetic speaker addresses either the reader or an internal listener at length. It is similar to the soliloquy in theare, in that both a dramatic monologue and a soliloquy often involve the revelation of the innermost thoughts and feelings of the speaker
(English, German) or dramaturge, the member of staff in a German opera house who combines many functions including programme editor, script editor, libretto adapter, press officer and maybe even actor or producer
the art of dramatic composition and the representation of the main elements of drama on the stage. Some dramatists combine writing and dramaturgy when creating a drama. Others work with a specialist, called a dramaturg, to adapt a work to the stage. Dramaturgy can also be defined, more broadly, as shaping a story or like elements into a form that can be acted. Dramaturgy gives the work or the performance a structure. More than actual writing, a dramaturg's work can often be defined as designing
(French m.) a drama that is designed primarily to illusated some doctine or theory
(French m.) a play about every day life (what, in English, might be called 'kitchen-sink' drama)
(English, German f.) comedy-drama, a theatre show, film or TV show that could be labelled both a comedy and a drama
(French m., literally 'fair drama') eighteenth-century French comedies performed at the Paris fairs, an ancestor of opéra comique
(French m.) an alternative term for a serious opera, opera seria
(German f.) dramatic theory
(Italian m.) drama
(Italian m.) a comic or humorous drama
(Italian m., literally 'jocular drama' or plural drammi giocosi) an Italian term applied to a type of comic opera originating about 1750, with plots filled with sentiment, pathos and tragedy rather than traditional lighthearted comedy
(German) to go west, to snuff it (slang), to kick the bucket (colloquial), to fall apart
(German n.) bargaining money, forfeit money
(German) to fork out (colloquial: provide money)
(German) to eat away
drauflos feuern auf
(German) to blaze away at (soldiers, guns)
(German) to blast away (with gun)
(German) to rattle away, to babble away
(German) to rattle on
(German) to blast away (with gun)
(German) to gabble away (geese, people)
(German) to fit on, to fit in to
(German) to fall for it (colloquial)
(German f.) plan, topview, aerial view, top view, plan view
drauf und dran sein, ... zu tun
(German) to be about to do ...
(German) to pay extra
consort of the Pandava Princes, in the Mahabharata
(German) outside, out of doors, afield, outdoors, out there, in the open, abroad (archaic: outside, outdoors), out front (outside the entrance)
draußen am Fenster lauschen
(German) to eavesdrop outside the window
(German) to stay out
draußen in der Welt
(German) out in the world
(German n.) outdoorness
Draußen tobt ein Sturm.
(German) It's blowing a gale outside.
once, the aboriginal tongue of all India, but now spoken primarily in only the southern regions of that subcontinent
on an accordion, pulling the bellows apart to draw air in through the reeds whose valves are open
(German f.) Dravidian language
at the beginning of the nineteenth century, the English ballad was an 'art song', that is, original compositions by composers of the period, borrowing neither text nor music from pre-existing sources. Although first heard in theatres to an orchestral accompaniment, they were published as 'parlour songs' for voice and piano and later with guitar accompaniment. By the latter half of the nineteenth century, the Victorian drawing-room ballad had emerged, heavy with sentiment, using only simple harmonic progressions and with quasi-religious undertones in both words and music. A number of the songs from Sullivan's 'Savoy Operas' were modified to make them more suitable for the Victorian home. In Patience, the corpulent middle-aged spinster, Lady Jane, incurred W. S. Gilbert's cruel mockery in the ballad Silver'd is the raven hair at the beginning of Act 2, accompanying herself on a double bass as she sings grimly a text alluding to her aging figure. When the song was issued as a drawing-room ballad the lyrics were changed; In the twilight of our love had been turned into a popular parlour ballad
getting faster, stringendo (Italian), beschleunigtes Tempo (German), en pressant (French)
drawknobs turn the different kinds of organ pipe sounds on or off. Pulling the knob out turns the stop on and pushing it in turns it off. Some builders use stop tabs which flip up and down in place of drawknobs
a type of handstop which moves the register when it is pushed in or drawn out
the draw stops, on an English organ, are generally grouped in the following order:
a paper book cover which is attached to the sewn book by gluing the spine
(English, Dreadnought-Gitarre (German f.)) a term used to describe one of the shapes for a 'traditional' acoustic guitar, where the body style is quite large and full, so contributing to a bigger sound
a music genre that combines simple 'House' with elements of 'Trance' set over a pounding 'techno' drum beat
a type of alternative rock that originated in the early 1980s. Several varieties of dream pop emerged, primarily in Britain. These included 'shoegazing', 'space rock', 'Britpop' and 'twee pop'
or visio, a genre of poetry popular in the Middle Ages. By convention, a fictionalized version of the writer goes to sleep in a pleasant, natural springtime setting (May mornings being particularly popular). He has a dream that he relates to the reader
(German n.) ménage à trois, love triangle, eternal triangle
(German f.) triangle wave
(German) three and a half
(German f.) Trinity
(German f.) trinitarianism
(German n.) tripartite agreement
(German f.) threesome, triplet, group of three, triad, trio
(German) three things, three kinds, three sorts of, three different
(German f.) triple pack
(German m.) three step (Slowfox, Foxtrot)
(German n.) triple pack
(German n.) triple pack
(German m.) strip of three
(German m.) triple meter, triple time
(German) three-fold, triple, of three ranks (reference to an organ), ternary, treble, trebly, triplex, threefold, triplicate, triple fold, thrice (archaic)
dreifach gemahlene Seife
(German f.) triple-milled soap
(German m.) triplicate
(German f.) triple bond
(German n.) triple fold, treble
(German m.) triple murder
dreifaches Munus Christi
(German n.) triple office of Christ
(German m.) triple stop (on a stringed instrument)
(German m.) triple consonant
(German m.) triple murder
(German f.) triple glazing
(German) thrice (archaic)
(German f.) Trinity
(German n.) Trinity Sunday
(German f.) Holy Trinity Church
(German m.) three-colour printing
(German) three-coloured, tricoloured, in three colours, tricolour
(German n.) three-field system
(German f.) three-field (crop) rotation
(German f.) right-hand rule
(German f.) right-hand rule
Dreifuß (s.), Dreifüße (pl.)
(German m.) tripod, trivet, tribrach, three-legged stool
(German n.) tripod stand
(German n.) three-course menu
(German) three-course (meal)
(German) trio, for three voices
Dreigespann (s.), Dreigespanne (pl.)
(German n.) troika, triumvirate (figurative)
Dreigestirn (s.), Dreigestirne (pl.)
(German n.) triumvirate
(German) in the octave two above middle C (c'''-b''')
(German f.) three-line octave
(German n.) top C
drei gestrichene Teelöffel
(German) three level teaspoons, three level teaspoonfuls
(German n.) Tripartite System, three-tier school system
(German f.) The Threepanny Opera (English), L'opera da tre soldi (Italian), L'opéra de quat'sous (French)
(German f.) an opera expressing social satire in modern popular idiom (the term deriving from the theatre-opera by Brecht and Weill)
Die Dreigroschenoper (The Threepenny Opera) is a revolutionary work of musical theatre (not in fact an opera), adapted from an eighteenth-century English ballad opera, John Gay's The Beggar's Opera, by German dramatist Bertolt Brecht and composer Kurt Weill, in collaboration with translator Elisabeth Hauptmann. Premiering on August 31, 1928, at Berlin's Schiffbauerdamm Theatre, Die Dreigroschenoper offers a socialist critique of the capitalist world
(German m.) three-square hollow scraper, triangular hollow-ground scraper
(German) triangular, three-sided
(German m.) triangular scraper
(German m.) triangular scraper
(German m.) little kid (colloquial)
Dreiklang (s.), Dreiklänge (pl.)
(German m.) a triad (a chord consisting of the tonic, its third and fifth), a common chord
(German f.) three-form entry school
(German n.) Epiphany, Twelfthtide
(German m.) Three Kings Day, Twelfth Day, (feast of the) Epiphany
(German f.) family of three
drei Kreuze machen
(German) to feel relieved
drei Kreuze schlagen
(German) to feel relieved
(German f.) three-nation tour
(German m.) triphthong
(German n.) triplex cable (a cable used for residential or commercial service drops consisting of two or three insulated conductors spiralled around a bare neutral wire which provides support for the cable)
(German n.) three-line diagram
(German) three times, thrice (archaic), triply
Dreimal auf Holz!
(German) Knock on wood!
Dreimal auf Holz geklopft!
(German) Touch wood!
Dreimal darfst du raten.
(German) You have three guesses.
Dreimal darfst du raten, was ...
(German) No prizes for guessing what ...
dreimal hoch für
(German) three cheers for
(German) triple, three times
dreimal in der Woche
(German) thrice weekly
dreimal pro Tag
(German) three times a day
dreimal so viel
(German) three times as much
(German) to trisect
(German m.) three-ring circus
(German m.) bark (ship), barque
drei Monate nach Sicht
(German) at three months
(German) trimonthly, quarterly
(German) in it, in them
(German f.) bonus, give-away
(German) to allow
(German f.) three-note chord
(German) to lay about one, to swipe
(German m.) trefoil
(German pl.) thruppence (dated: three pence, threepence)
(German n.) threepenny bit
(German) three-phase (prefix)
(German m.) triple point
(German m.) three-phase alternating current, three-phase current, three-phase AC
(German) three-phase, triphase, tri-phase
(German) triphasic, three-phase
(German) tripolar, three-pole, three pin
Dreirad (s.), Dreiräder (pl.)
(German n.) tricycle, three wheeler, trike (colloquial), velocipede
(German) last but two, antepenultimate, third from last
(Italian m.) right
Drittperson (s.), Drittpersonen (pl.)
(German f.) third party
(German m.) second runner-up
(German) third-rate, tertiary, third rate
(German f.) third language
(German pl.) Third World countries
(German) third most important
(English, French m.) computer drive (a storage device from which data can be read and to which data can be written)
(German) to drive (golf)
where music is performed with a strong forward motion as the energy intensifies
a syncopated note, one that begins on a weak beat and is held through to the next accented beat, thus anticipating the accent
(German f.) driving range (golf)
(German n.) drive-in theatre
(German n.) drive-in restaurant
(German n.) drive-in restaurant
(Croatia) the island tanac is similar to the balun dance in Istria, the peninsula in the northern part of coastal Croatia. It is believed that some elements of an older dance, the tanac, which was widely danced in the nineteenth century in Croatia, have been adopted in the drmes couples-dance, which is similar in some details to the Hungarian czardas. This is the best-known and most popular dance in north-western Croatia, and two basic dance figures are performed. The first is done in small steps with relatively little movement through the dance area, but with marked vertical shaking of the entire body (drmati in Croatian means to shake, hence the name of the dance). In the second figure, the dancers rotate at unusual speed
1/360 part of an octave. The Angle was proposed by Moritz Dröbisch in the nineteenth century as a cycle of 360 degrees to the octave. Andrew Pikler has suggested this name in his article Logarithmic Frequency Systems (1966)
(French m.) freedom of the a city, free admission to an organisation, etc.
Droit de seigneur
(French m.) also droit du seigneur, droit de cuissage or droit de jambage, a term now popularly used to describe the purported legal right of the lord of an estate to deflower its virgins. The term is often interpreted today as a synonym for ius primae noctis, although it originally referred to a number of other rights as well, including hunting, taxation, and farming
(French m.) Arabian camel, dromedary (Camelus dromedarius)
Dromedar (s.), Dromedare (pl.)
(German n.) Arabian camel, dromedary (camel) (Camelus dromedarius)
(Spanish m.) Arabian camel, dromedary (Camelus dromedarius)
(German) trumpet (found in Marthin Luther's German translation of the Bible)
or 'travelling fugue', an irrational impulse to wander or travel without purpose
(German f.) dromomania
(German f.) dromon (Byzantine warship)
an abnormal fear of walking about
(German f.) dromophobia
Dromos (s.), Dromoi (pl.)
(Greek, literally 'avenue or entranceway to a building') Greek modal types (for example, minoré, rasti, houzam, hijaz, ousak, niaventi, sabak, tabachaniotiko, etc.) many of which have taken their names from the Turkish makam system
a dromotropic agent is one which affects the conduction velocity of the AV node, and subsequently the rate of electrical impulses in the heart
(English, German f.) a note fixed in pitch held throughout the performance of a melody
a pipe on the bagpipe, or a string on the hurdy-gurdy that when speaking serves this function
a persistant bass on tonic, or tonic and dominant, that is sustained throughout a piece
(English, German m.) a person who lacks good judgment (slang)
also known as drone music, drone-based music, drone ambient or ambient drone, and sometimes simply dronescape or drone, dronology describes music dominated by sustained sounds and tones. Although the 'drone' can be traced beyond traditional Irish music and American bluegrass to the ancient music of Central Asia and India, the point of departure which led to modern 'dronology' is the 1960s work of pioneers like Tony Conrad, LaMonte Young, and Terry Riley
(German f.) dodo (Raphus cucullatus - now extinct)
on the guitar, where the low E string is tuned down to D
(German f.) drop-down list (on a computer screen)
(German f.) drop-down list (on a computer screen)
back in the late 1930s, Kenny Clarke, the father of be-bop drumming, got tired of playing like Buddy Rich - boom boom boom boom on the bass drum. He took the main beat away from the bass drum and put it up on the ride cymbal. The beat became lighter. The bass drum was then used only for kicking accents. It was called "dropping bombs"
a radiosonde dropped by parachute from a high-flying aircraft to measure weather conditions and report them
drop voicings are formed by taking a close position voicing and dropping one of the notes down an octave. A drop 2 voicing is formed by dropping the second to the top note in the close position chord. Drop voicings are normally formed from ordinary seventh chords or sixth chords, and they do not generally contain any extensions or alterations
(German n.) printing mechanism, printed matter, publication, printed work
(German f.) pressure sore
(German f.) line of print, print line, printed line
(German f.) pressure area
(German f.) pressure increase
(German m.) impression cylinder, printing cylinder
Drudenfuß (s.), Drudenfüße (pl.)
(German m.) pentagram, pentacle
(English (US), French m., German m.) hardware and chemist's shop
Druide (m.), Druidin (f.)
(German f.) (Druids') grove
(German f.) druidism
(English, German f.) a percussion instrument, generally a hollow cylindrical frame with a skin or membrane, called the drum head, at one or both ends, which is struck with the hands or with a drumstick
kettle drums timpani
Pauke (s.), Pauken (pl)
kleine Trommel Rührtrommel Marschtrommel Schnarrtrommel
piccolo snare drum
tamburo piccolo tarole
military snare drum
cassa rullante tamburino tamburo rullante
Rührtrommel Wirbeltrommel Tenortrommel
caisse roulante tambourin
caja rodante caja redoblante
bass drum Turkish drum
tamburo grande tamburo grosso gran cassa
drums may be classified according to the type of sound they produce when struck with a mallet, stick or the hand:
instruments producing sounds of definite musical pitch such as the kettledrum
instruments that produce a sound of indefinite pitch
drums may be classified according to their shape and mode of construction:
instruments having a skin stretched over one end of the resonant cavity, the other being open, for example, tambourine, darabukkeh, etc.
instruments consisting of a cup-shaped receptacle of metal, wood or earthen-ware entirely closed by a skin or vellum stretched across the opening, as in the kettledrum
a receptacle in the shape of a cylinder closed at both ends by skins, as in the bass drum, side drum, etc.
Drum and bass
fast paced polyrhythmic electronic dance music that is primarily instrumental. It is divided in sub-genres known as: 'jump-up', hard step', 'tech-step', 'hardcore', 'happy hardcore', 'ragga', 'darkside', 'ambient/intelligent'
a group that plays anything from jazz to orchestral, military to popular music while marching on a football field, without being a true marching band, is called a drum and bugle corps. All drum corps perform on brass and percussion instruments only, and some corps perform on bugles in the key of G, while others perform on brass instruments in multiple keys, depending on the group. Drum and Bugle Corps are known for maximizing power and pagentry in their performances, while performing incredibly difficult programs
a type of repeated-note bass accompaniment common in the galant style
any single strike on a single drum, drum machine, or a series of beats on various percussion instruments creating a rhythmic or metric pattern. Many drum beats define or are characteristic of specific music genres
(Western Arctic Native People) usually performed at a festival honouring deceased relatives, the drummers, wearing costumes and masks, stand or sit in a half circle and sing and play their drums, while the dancers (male and female) dance in a half circle in front of them
a subgenre of drum & bass sometimes referred to as "edits" or "choppage". The term came into widespread use c. 2000, when drumfunk itself began to expand. The hallmarks of drumfunk records are complex breakbeats which sound as though they are being played live on a drumkit, but are actually comprised of samples which have been processed and rearranged electronically
also called 'kettle gong', this version of the deep basin gong indigenous to Indochina and environs in made in bronze. It was first used around the time of Christ by aboriginal tribes (the Miao) in regions bordering on the south of China for a war summons and to accompany prayers for rain. Its stylized, decorative flat head, in the centre of which a 12-rayed sun radiates 21 concentric zones containing geometric designs, suggests the taut skin of a drum. Some gongs possess ornamental frog figures symbolizing fertility, others the a bird figure (the egret). Many of the gongs that have survived are still used
a membrane stretched over one or both of the open ends of a drum. The drumhead is struck with sticks, mallets, or hands so that it vibrates and the sound resonates through the drum
(English, Drumkit German n.)) also 'drum set' or 'trap set', a specific group of non-pitched percussion instruments usually consisting of a kick drum, floor tom, two tom-toms, a snare drum, a hi-hat cymbal and a ride cymbal
once commonly employing the bass clef, today a neutral staff of two parallel vertical lines is usually preferred. Each line and space of the staff represents a different instrument making up the 'drum-set'
or drumstick, an item used to hit percussion instruments, including but not only drums, to produce sound. Some specialized drum sticks are called beaters, mallets, or brushes. The French composer Hector Berlioz (1803-1869) was the first to indicate, in his percussion parts, the type of stick required, whether wooden, leather covered or sponge head
Drum stick from which part of this extract has been taken
also known as drum tab, a tablature in use for drums
(English, German) or, in English, Druze, an adherent of an esoteric monotheistic religious sect living in the mountains of Syria and Lebanon
Druse (s.), Drusen (pl.)
(German f.) geode (a hollow, usually spheroidal rock with crystals lining the inside)
Drüse (s.), Drüsen (pl.)
(German f.) gland (anatomy)
(German m.) dregs of wine
(German) adenoid (prefix)
(German) adenoid, adenoidal
(German) glandular, glandularly
(Hindustani) fast laya (tempo), usually the climax of a performance
Dr. Isaac Watts (1674-1748) was an English minister who published several books: Hymns and Spiritual Songs, in 1707, The Psalms of David in 1717. The various Protestant denominations adopted his hymns, which were included in several hymnals, at that time
a divinity presiding over forests and trees, a wood nymph
(German f.) dryad
or drynacking, slang or colloquial term for music-copying by hand (expression used since c. 1920s) (entry prompted by Steve Waters)
the Ukrainian vargan
dealers in a range of chemical products, including glue, varnish, dye and colourings. They might supply salt or chemicals for preserving food and sometimes also sold pickles, dried meat or related items. The name drysalter or dry-salter was in use in the United Kingdom by the early eighteenth century when some drysalters concentrated on ingredients for producing dyes, and it was still current in the first part of the twentieth century
in percussion parts, an abbreviation of 'dead stroke'. A dead stroke is achieved by holding the mallet on the instrument after the attack to dampen the vibration. Dead strokes are commonly notated with a plus sign (+) over the note. Ringing notes in a passage with dead strokes can be indicated with a circle (o) over them; this is not necessary but can help to clarify. D.S. or staccato dots are other common indications for dead stroke. These notations are not standard and should be explained at the top of the score and part
D.S. al segno
(Italian) abbreviation of dal segno al segno meaning 'from sign to sign'
abbreviation of 'Doctor of Science/Historical Sciences'
in German usage, the notes D, Eb, C and B which correspond to one form of the name of Dmitri Dmitrievich Shostakovich (1906-1975), namely D. SCHostakovitch, which appear as a motiv in his musical works
Jamaican roots electronic music, created by skillful, artistic re-engineering of recorded tracks. Dub emerged when sound system DJs began taking away the vocals from songs so that people could dance to the beat alone. Soon, pioneers like King Tubby and Lee Scratch Perry began adding new vocals over the old beats; the lyrics were rhythmic and rhyme-heavy. After the popularity of 'reggae' died down in the early 1980s, derivatives of 'dub' dominated the Jamaican charts. These included 'ragga' and 'dancehall', both of which remained popular in Jamaica alone until the mainstream breakthrough of American 'gangsta rap' (which evolved out of dub musicians like DJ Kool Herc moving to American cities). 'Ragga' especially now has many devoted followers
(Swedish) a pair of vertical lines at the end of a section of a work which if preceded by a pair of vertical dots, called repeat dots, indicate that the section should be played twice
putting all the elements of sound, dialogue, sound effects and music, on to one soundtrack
sound in motion pictures is generally taken for granted by audiences, but the soundtrack digested in the cinema is seldom that which was recorded when the photographed images were taken. Dialogue is invariably re-recorded later; off-screen sound effects are added; on-screen sound effects replaced or enhanced; aural atmospheres are created; and the whole soundtrack made available without dialogue for foreign sales. This whole process is the province of the dubbing (originally "doubling") editor, often credited as sound editor or latterly, and pretentiously, as sound designer [extract taken from Independent obituary of Alan Bell, editor of classic film soundtracks (21 August 2006)]
(German m.) or Rundholzstab (German m.), dowel, wooden rod, plug, brad, peg
(German n.) dowel lubricant
(German m.) dowel head
(German f.) dowel crown
(German) to dowel, to plug, to peg
(German n.) dowel lubricant
(German f.) dowelled joint
(German) thou wouldst conjure up (archaic)
Du bewegst dich auf ausgefahrenen Gleisen.
(German) You're in a rut.
Du bewegst dich auf dünnem Eis.
(German) You're treading on thin ice, You're skating on thin ice. (figurative)
(German) bad (dubious), dubious, shady, equivocal, shaky (figurative)
(German n.) bad debt
(German pl.) dubious methods
(German pl.) shady practice
Du bist als Nächstes dran.
(German) You're next.
Du bist am Zug.
(German) It's your move.
Du bist der Nächste.
(German) You're next.
Du bist dran.
(German) It's your turn. It's your shot.
Du bist gefragt.
(German) This is your chance.
Du bist mein Ein und Alles.
(German) You mean the world to me.
Du bist mir ein feiner Freund!
(German) A fine friend you are!
Du bist noch nicht trocken hinter den Ohren.
(German) You're still wet behind the ears.
Du bist unausstehlich!
(German) You're a pain in the neck!
Du bist unbezahlbar!
(German) You are priceless!
Du bist wohl aus Dummsdorf!
(German) You must be stupid!
Du bist wohl nicht recht gescheit.
(German) You must be out of your mind.
a backward shudra community of Gujarat
(German n.) rolled gold
(German f.) duplicate copy, duplicate, doublet (counterfeit gem made of two pieces)
(German) to double (fold something double)
(German f.) doubling
(German m.) a person from Dublin
(German f.) doubloon
(German f.) doublure (an elaborately decorated leather flyleaf in a book)
(English, German n.) an acetate disc - usually 12", 10" or 7" in diameter - used in mastering studios for quality control and test recordings before proceeding with the final master, and subsequent pressing of the record to be mass produced on vinyl
(German) You need not be afraid. You need not fear.
Du brauchst mich gar nicht mit (so) großen Augen anzusehen.
(German) You needn't look at me with those big eyes.
Du brauchst nicht zu ...
(German) There is no need for you to ....
Du brauchst nicht zu gehen.
(German) You needn't go.
Du brauchst unbedingt Hilfe.
(German) You definitely need help.
a miniature stylus-operated synthesizer invented in 1967 by Brian Jarvis. It consists of a metal keyboard played by touching it with a stylus - each note being connected to a cheap voltage-controlled oscillator via a different-value resistor - thus closing a circuit. Some three million Stylophones were sold, mostly as children's toys
(English, German n.) formerly Ragusa, a city of southern Croatia on a promontory jutting into the Adriatic Sea
(Jamaica) although derived from reggae, 'dub techno' is downtempo, thick and echo-drenched 'techno', but not necessarily containing the signature reggae 'One-drop'
Duc (m.), Duchesse (f.)
(French) duke, duchess
(Italian m.) the leader of a group
(Croatia) a folk dance with energetic jumps, found in the northern part of Croatia
(Latin, literally 'bring with you') an order to produce a document or documents to the court
(Spanish f.) shower
(Spanish) to have a shower
(German f.) Duchenne muscular dystrophy
(French f.) a chaise-longue with a concave head and foot curving round along the open side
(French f.) a chaise-longue consisting of two arm-chairs joined by a matching upholstered stool which can be removed
(French f.) a set of covers for a dressing-table (usually, one large and two small mats)
(French) lustrous and smooth (satin fabric, etc.)
(German f.) satin weave
(English, German m.) or cotton duck (from Dutch doek, 'linen canvas'), sometimes duck cloth or duck canvas, commonly called 'canvas' outside of the textile industry, is a heavy, plain woven cotton fabric. There is also linen duck, which is less often used
Johannes de Grocheio (c. 1300) refers to a dance form, a "light and fast cantilena", which he calls the ductia in his manuscript of c. 1300. However, no extant manuscripts contain pieces labelled as such. He describes the ductia as like the estampie but more regular. Perhaps this refers to an estampie with verses all of the same length. There are a few examples (generally labelled simply as dances) that fit this description
referring to hand-written manuscripts, the order and direction in which the pen strokes were made, which make up a letter or neumatic symbol
melodic movement, or order of successive notes, which may be:
direct, i.e. ascending
reversus or revertens
reversed, i.e. descending
circumcurrent, i.e. ascending and descending
(German m.) duct, passage
(Latin) the process by which the true readings of a text are corrupted in copying
see ' duct flute'
(Spanish f.) doubt
(Poland, Hungary, Latvia) a primitive bagpipe from the sixteenth century has its origins in the Near East. In Hungary it was, up to the sixteenth century, an instrument of the hussars (cavalry), when it was replaced by the shawm (töröksíp). A single bagpiper was often the 'whole orchestra' at weddings, carnivals and dances. Herdsmen bagpipers gave homage to the Christ-child in Nativity plays
the Hungarian duda has three pipes: the melody-pipe, the assistant or 'contra' pipe and the drone or 'bass' pipe. Air is blown into the leather bag through the mouthpiece made of reed or elder. The bag is made out of a single goat, sheep or dog skin with the fur on the inside. The chanter and contra pipes are connected to the bag through a common attachment. The drone is attached separately. The Hungarian bagpipe produces three notes at the same time, two from the chanter and 'contra' pipe, and a third from the drone
Du da drüben!
(German) You there!
(Spanish) to doubt
Du darfst es niemandem sagen, nicht einmal deiner Mutter.
(German) You can't tell anyone, not even your mother.
ancient Croatian bagpipe
(French) from the beginning
(German n.) Dudelange (a commune with city status in southern Luxembourg)
(German m.) barrel organ, radio
(German m.) bagpipe, cornamuse, hornpipe
(German) to play on the bagpipe, to tootle (a contemptuous term for playing badly on the flute, etc.), to yodel (Viennese)
Dudelsack (s.), Dudelsäcke (pl.)
(German m.) cornamusa (Italian f.), piva (Italian f.), bagpipe(s), Sackpfeife (German m.), cornamuse (French f.)
(French) in the height of fashion, in the very latest fashion
(French) bottom, downstairs
(French) top, upstairs
Dudler (m.), Dudlerin (f.)
(German m.) bagpipe-player, bagpiper, yodeller (Viennese)
(Spanish) doubtful, dubious
or duduk, Armenian oboe dating to Armenia's pre-Christian times that is made of apricot wood and capable of sustaining drone notes for long periods of time. The düdük's range is only one octave and requires considerable skill to play, its dynamics being controlled by constantly adjusting lips and fingers. The düdük has a warm, soft, slightly nasal timbre and is used in folk songs and dance music
flute of Western Bulgaria, 20 - 100cm long, with six finger holes
(Italian) two strings, a term used in piano music to indicate that the soft pedal (called una corde, one string) should be released, or, on an instrument with three strings, where the pedal shifts the hammers under the strings, that the soft pedal should be pressed halfway down
(Italian) a term used in string playing for playing the same note on two strings simultaneously
(Italian) two choirs, two choruses
Due film con un solo biglietto
(Italian) double bill
(English, French m.) a contest to the death between two people
(German n.) duel, affair of honour, affaire d'honneur
Duellant (s.), Duellanten (pl.)
(German m.) dueller, duellist
(Spanish m.) duel, mourning
(Spanish m.) musical duel (a competition between musicians to determine which is the finer player, for example Johann Jakob Froberger vs Matthias Weckmann (1650), Georg Friedrich Händel vs Domenico Scarlatti (1707), Johann Sebastian Bach vs Louis Marchand (1717), Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart vs Muzio Clementi (1781), Ludwig van Beethoven vs Daniel Steibelt (1800), Franz Liszt vs Sigismund Thalberg (1837)
(English from the Spanish dueña) owner, proprietress, landlady, chaperon
(Spanish m.) owner, proprietor, landlord
(Italian) two pedals are to be used
(Italian m.) colon (punctuation mark)
Du erkennst es, wenn es soweit ist.
(German) You'll know it when it happens.
duetto (Italian), Duett (German), duo (French)
a piece of music for two players, sometimes on a single instrument such as a piano
an organ work to be played on two independent manuals
a vocal work performed by two singers
strictly speaking, the distinction between a duo and a duet is as follows: a duo is for two instruments of the same type while a duet is for two different instruments or two voices, although it is not uncommon for two performers playing violin and piano being called a 'violin and piano duo'
less common than Anglo and English concertinas, the features all duet concertina systems have in common are:
button layouts that provide the lower (bass) notes in the left hand and the higher (treble) notes in the right, with some overlap (like a two-manual organ)
they are unisonoric (each key produces the same note on press and draw)
(Spanish m.) duet for two instruments (which may be the same or different, i.e. two violins, or violin and cello)
(Spanish m.) duet for one voice with accompaniment (usually a piano)
Duett (s), Duette (pl.)
(German n.) (vocal) duet(s)
a short duet
(Italian m.) duet
Duetto da camera
(Italian m., literally 'chamber duet') popular from the late seventeenth century, a duet for two voices because, by the mid-eighteenth century, an important element of opera, for example, the love duet
Du fehlst mir.
(German) I miss you.
Nubian frame drum
(German m.) duffel
(German m., archaic) duffel coat
(German m.) duffel coat
also known as aravanamuttu, a group performance popular among the Muslims of Malabar. Duffmuttu is staged as a social event during festivals and nuptial ceremonies. The artistes beat on frame drums called Duffu, the leader of the group sings the lead, while the others form the chorus and move in circles. The songs are often tributes to martyrs, heroes and saints
(German f.) enfleurage (a process in making perfume in which odourless fats or oils absorb the fragrance of fresh flowers)
(German f.) scented soap
Duftstoff (s.), Duftstoffe (pl.)
(German m.) scent, fragrance, perfume, aromatic substance
(German pl.) fragrance strips
(German f.) aromatherapy
(German n.) toilet water, eau de toilette
Duft wilder Blumen
(German m.) bouquet of wild flowers
(German f.) fragrance, whiff
named after Louise Dugazon (18 Jun. 1755-22 Sep. 1821), a noted French mezzo-soprano, for whom many opera roles were created, the term is used to describe voices suited to these roles as they relate to different periods in her long career: jeune Dugazon, première Dugazon, forte première Dugazon, mère Dugazon
Du gehörst zu mir.
(German) You belong to me.
(German) thou goest (archaic, poetic)
Du gehst mir auf die Nerven.
(German) You're a pain in the neck.
Du gehst mir sehr ab!
(German) I miss you a lot!
Du genierst dich.
(German) You are embarrassed.
Du geruhtest es zu tun.
(German) You condescended to do it.
small kettledrum worn around the waist by Baul performers in Bangladesh and India during the singing of philosophical and devotional songs
(German) It's your deal. (card games)
Du gibst nie auf das Acht, was ich sage.
(German) You never pay attention to what I say.
Du gleichst deinem Bruder.
(German) You resemble your brother.
(German) You lucky thing! (female)
(German) You lucky thing!, You lucky thing! (male)
Du hältst dich wohl für witzig, was?
(German) You think you're funny, do you?
Du hast Besuch.
(German) You have a visitor. You have visitors.
Du hast das Mundwerk am rechten Fleck.
(German) You know all the answers.
Du hast das Pulver nicht erfunden.
(German) You won't set the world on fire.
Du hast davon gewusst!
(German) You knew about it!
Du hast den Nagel genau auf den Kopf getroffen!
(German) You hit that nail square on the head!
Du hast dich nicht gerade mit Ruhm bekleckert.
(German) You haven't exactly covered yourself with glory.
Du hast dich prachtvoll erholt.
(German) You've made a splendid recovery.
Du hast die Wahl.
(German) It's your choice.
Du hast doch gesagt, ...
(German) You said that ...
Du hast doch nicht etwa Angst?
(German) You're not scared, are you?
Du hast doch noch das ganze Leben vor dir.
(German) You've still got all your life in front of you.
(Tibetan) duixie has two meanings because dui can mean 'upper' or 'highland'. The term refers therefore both to the round dance popular in rural areas of Ngamring, Dingri, Lhaze, and Sagya counties, and to a tap dance performed by the urban population after the folk dance in dui areas was introduced into Lhasa
founded in Lancashire, the community started with `choirs' in private houses, reorganised in 1757 when a house for single brethren was obtained, and houses for the single brethren and single sisters were built, then enlarged. A trombone band was formed, a school for girls built in 1760, and another for boys in 1766
pair of Indian drums similar to tabla
du (kleiner) Hosenmatz
(German) my little darling, my little chap, my little fellow
Du kommst drüber hinweg.
(German) You'll get over it.
Du könntest eine Pause vertragen.
(German) You could use a break. (colloquial)
(German) ductal, ductile
(German f.) ductility
(German m.) style, characteristic style, ductus (paleography)
a name sometimes erroneously applied to the Dolcan
(Spanish m.) sweet
(Spanish) sweet, fresh (water), soft, gentle
(Latin) home, sweet home
Dulce et decorum est pro patria mori
(Latin) it is pleasant and proper to die for one's country
Spanish for doulce memoire
from the early fifteenth century, this instrument is one of the earliest string keyboards. The only source of information is a manuscript treatise by Arnault de Zwolle c. 1440. It is essentially a keyed dulcimer whose action is a precursor of certain early pianos and in many ways similar to the clavichord. A staple-shaped 'hammer' carries a slip of wood hinged to the key at the back, and when a key is depressed it is thrown up against the strings and returns instantly. There are no dampers, and it is possible, played sensitively, to obtain limited dynamics, which gave it an advantage over the harpsichord which was being developed at the same period. Some people believe the mysterious chekker, the eschequier and the dulce melos to be one and the same instrument. There is also good evidence (Henry George Farmer: Studies in
Oriental Music I & II, Frankfurt 1986 Institut für Geschichte der Arabisch-Islamischen Wissenschaften) that the chekker (or chekkers) was the shaquira, a 'stringed organ' mentioned by Arab theorists of the ninth century. There is mention of a dulce melos being used in Spain in 1490 to celebrate Corpus Christi
(Spanish) sweetly, gently, softly, delicately (entry provided by Weed)
see dulciana principal
or dulcitone, a piano-like musical instrument with hammers that strike tuning forks
dulciana (Italian f.), Dulzian (Getrman m.), douçaine (French f.), a bassoon-like family of instruments from the 17th- and 18th-centuries, also called the curtal or bajón. The dulcian combines the conical expanding bore of the shawm with the two folded parallel bores of the sordune and kortholt. There is a variant, called the gedackt dulcian, which has a differently bore shape, a stopper on the end which rounds the sound and an exterior covered in leather to further reduce the resonance
(Latin) a metal organ stop, of 8 ft. register, with a sharp, thin tone
(Latin) a small reed stop, of 8 ft. register, on the organ with a soft, delicate tone
(Italian f.) a small bassoon, dulcian, Dulzian (Getrman m.), douçaine (French f.)
the dulciana principal or Dulcet is the octave above the dulciana, i.e. of 4 ft. length
or Dulcet, a delicate, sweet-toned organ stop of 4 ft. scale
(English, German m.) a box shaped instrument across which strings are stretched, the strings being struck with a pair of small wooden hammers, occasionally the term is applied to an instrument (really a pasltery or zither) on which the strings are plucked with the fingers or with a plectrum
scholars have tried to distinguish between psaltery and dulcimer, proposing that a 'psaltery' is plucked while a 'dulcimer' is hit, and that both belong to a generic 'zither' family (distinct from specific instruments called 'zither' by their players); but this usage is an abstraction and has no basis in the traditional use of these names: there are plenty of illustrations where psalteries are hit and traditions where dulcimers are plucked
a movement was a religious sect of the Late Middle Ages that originated in the Apostolic Brethren. The Dulcinians (sometimes called "Dulcinites") and Apostolics were inspired by Franciscan ideals, influenced by the Joachimites, but were considered heretical by the Catholic Church. The name derives from the movement's leader, Fra Dolcino of Novara (c.1250-1307), who was burnt as a heretic on the orders of Pope Clement V. The Apostolic/Dulcinian sects can be viewed as a manifestation in North Italy of the older Cathar movement, that was also suppressed by a Papal crusade and was finally eliminated around the time of the assault on the Dulcinians
a silent piano without hammers or strings, designed to be used for silent practice
lute of the Tartar people
in 1793, John Gunn describes the change that had taken place in the taste about ornaments in general and
the flattement technique especially; the latter was now looked upon as old fashioned. "The Modern refinements in the performance of music, however multifarious and complicated they might be thought, have certainly not increased the number of what may be called graces, but on the contrary, have considerably reduced their number, and greatly simplified them. The performers of the old school had much more of what may be called the graces of the finger, than the modern, which cultivates more expression and powers of the bow, and management of tone. There was formerly in use a numerous list of graces, some with and others without characters to represent them, and for the most part discontinued. Among these was the dumb shake, on stringed instruments, corresponding to what the French call Flattement, on the flute, and in our language, I think, called Sweetenings, ... like [in] the dumb shake, [the finger is] producing a trembling palsied expression, inconsistent with just intonation, and not unlike that extravagant trembling of the voice which the French call chevrotter, to make a goat-like noise; for which the singers of the Opera at Paris have so often been ridiculed."
in English theatre tradition, a dumb show is a masque-like interlude of silent pantomime usually with allegorical content that refers to the occasion of a play or its theme, the most famous being the pantomime played out in Hamlet (III.ii). Dumb shows might be a moving spectacle, like a procession, as in Thomas Kyd's The Spanish Tragedy (1580s), or they might form a pictorial tableau, as one in the stilted Shakespeare collaboration, Pericles, Prince of Tyre (III,i) - a tableau that is immediately explicated at some length by the poet-narrator, Gower. Dumb shows were a Medieval element that continued popular in early Elizabethan drama, but by the time Pericles (c 1607-08) or Hamlet (ca. 1600-02) were aired, they were perhaps quaintly old-fashioned: "What means this, my lord?" is Ophelia's reaction. In English masques, purely musical interludes might be accompanied by a dumb show
(French) belonging to the highest rank in society, aristocratic
Du meine Güte!
(German) Good Lord! My goodness! Oddsbodikins! (archaic)
Dumka (s.), Dumky (pl.)
(English, German f., from Czech dumat, literally 'to ponder') a Slavonic folk ballad from Ukraine, alternately slow and quick, often in a minor key
this dance form might never have gained international familiarity but for Antonin Dvorák (1841-1904)
who used it in his Piano Quintet in A, Op. 81, in his Piano Trio in E Minor, Op 90 "Dumky" (1891), which has six movements each based on a dumka, and in a string sextet. The same form can be found elsewhere, for example, in Franz Liszt's Second Hungarian Rhapsody
(German) most stupid, dumbest (colloquial), stupidest
dumm wie Bohnenstroh
(German) as daft as a brush, (as) thick as two short planks (colloquial)
dumm wie Brot
(German) (as) thick as two short planks (colloquial)
in printing, a sample of a proposed job made up with the actual materials and cut to the correct size to show bulk, style of binding, etc. Also a complete layout of a job showing position of type matter and illustrations, margins etc.
also called a 'traveling piano', a mechanical device upon which a keyboard player can practice which produces no sound
silent organ pipes used purely for show
also 'dumpe', 'domp' or 'dompe', a sixteenth- and seventeenth-century slow, melancholy old English dance form usually in 4/4 time, of which there are about something over twenty examples, the title's meaning possibly that mentioned in Ralph Roister Doister, the comedy written by Nicholas Udall (1504-1556), namely a melancholy induced by love
(German) to bob up and down (boat, etc.)
(German) dark (during dawn or dusk)
(German) dull, dully, musty, muted, hollow (sound), tubby sound, dead (lifeless, for example, sound), dead (flat), stifling (atmosphere), with a thud, gloomy, vague, muffled (sound)