music dictionary : Fj - Fl 

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Fjärd(Swedish, German m.) a small, narrow, and irregular inlet of the sea with low banks on either side [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
fjärde(Swedish) fourth [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
crotchet(Swedish) crotchet or quarter note, a note one quarter the time value of a semibreve or whole note
crotchet rest orcrotchet rest(Swedish) crotchet rest or quarter rest, a rest one quarter the time value of a semibreve rest or whole rest
Fjatpangarriclan songs of the Indigenous Australians of Yirrkala
fjerde(Danish, Norwegian) fourth
crotchet(Danish) crotchet or quarter note, a note one quarter the time value of a semibreve or whole note
crotchet rest orcrotchet rest(Danish) crotchet rest or quarter rest, a rest one quarter the time value of a semibreve rest or whole rest
Fjord (s.), Fjorde (German pl.)(English, German m., Swedish, Norwegian) or fiord, a long narrow arm of the sea running between high cliffs [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
fjordartig(German) fjord-like, fiord-like
fjorten(Danish, Norwegian) fourteen
fjortendaglig(Norwegian) fortnightly
fjortendags(Danish) fortnightly
fjortende(Danish) fourteenth
fjorton(Swedish) fourteen
F-Klappe(German f.) F natural key (wind-instrument)
F clef(Swedish) a clef sign that shows the position of F on the staff, for example, the bass clef
flabbreviation of 'flute'
Fl.abbreviation of Flöte (German: flute), flauto (Italian: flute), flauti (Italian: flutes) or floruit (Latin: he flourished), flourished (or fl., synonymous with active, meaning the productive years of a composer)
[additional material supplied by Alain Naigeon]
Flabutathree-holed pipe from Gascony, similar to the Basque txistu but at a higher pitch. It is often accompanied by the rhythm of the ttun-ttun
flach(German) tabular, flat, vapid, vapidly, planar, even, flush, plane, cardboard (fictional character), shallowly, level, shallow
Flachatmigkeit(German f.) shallow breathing
flach auf einer Seite liegend(German) lying flat on one side
Flachbaggerung(German f.) shallow excavation, shallow digging, surface digging
Flachbandkabel(German n.) ribbon cable, flat ribbon cable
Flachbau(German m.) flat-roofed building
Flachbaugruppe(German f.) printed circuit board, PC board (short for 'printed circuit board')
Flachbeil(German n.) flat axe
Flachbett(German n.) flatbed, flat base
Flachbettauflieger(German m.) flatbed trailer
Flachbettscanner(German m.) desk scanner, flat bed scanner, flatbed scanner
Flachbild(German n.) bas-relief
Flachbildfernseher(German m.) flat-screen television, flat-screen TV, flatscreen TV
Flachbildschirm(German m.) flat-screen, flat-panel monitor, flat-panel display, flat screen, flat screen monitor, flatscreen monitor
Flachbogen(German m.) segmental arch
flachbrüstig(German) flat-chested
flachbusig(German) flat-chested (of a woman)
Flachdach (s.), Flachdächer (pl.)(German n.) flat roof
Flachdruck(German m.) flat screen printing
flachdrücken(German) to press flat
Fläche (s.), Flächen (pl.)(German f.) acreage, flat (land), area, expanse, face, surface, plane, stretch of land, surface area, fairway (golf)
flache Absätze(German pl.) low heels
flache Ahle(German f.) bradawl
flache Datei(German f.) flat file
flache Ebene(German f.) flat plain, flat plane
Fläche eines Dreiecks(German f.) area of a triangle
Fläche für den Abschlag(German f.) tee (golf)
Fläche Land(German f.) spread of land
Flächenbedarf(German m.) need for space, space needed, floor space required
Flächenbelegung(German f.) surface coverage
Flächenbelüftung(German f.) grid arrangement
flächenbezogen(German) site-specific
Flächenblitz(German m.) sheet lightning
Flächenbrand(German m.) wildfire, conflagration, extensive fire, hill fire
flächendeckend(German) area-wide, exhaustive, saturation, all-encompassing, spatially inclusive and comprehensive, regionwide, with blanket coverage (supply, vaccinations, advertising, etc.), comprehensive (network, supply), across the whole area, across the whole country, extensive, over a wide area, extensively, across the board
flächendifferenziert(German) spatially distributed
Flächeneinheit(German f.) unit of area
Flächenerosion(German f.) surface erosion
Flächenertrag(German m.) yield by acre, yield by hectare
Flächenfräsen(German n.) face milling
Flächengeometrie(German f.) surface geometry
flächengleich(German) coextensive (in area), of equal area
Flächengröße(German f.) area size
flächengrößte(German) (with the) largest area
flächengrößter(German) largest in area
flächengrößte Stadt(German f.) largest city in area
flächenhaft(German) extensive, extensively
Flächenheizung(German f.) panel heating
Flächenhobel(German m.) bench plane
Flächeninhalt(German m.) area, surface area, acreage, superficial extent
Flächenmalerei(German f.) surface painting (style)
Flächenmanagement(German n.) floor-space management
Flächenmaß (s.), Flächenmaße (pl.)(German n.) square measure
flächenmäßig(German) in size
flächenmäßig größter(German) largest in area
Flächenmustergenerator(German m.) pattern generator
Flächenrecycling(German n.) land recycling
Flächenschleifmaschine(German f.) surface grinder
Flächenstaat(German m.) territorial state
Flächenstilllegung(German f.) set-aside scheme, land set-aside
Flächentausch(German m.) relocation
Flächenträgheitsmoment(German n.) moment of inertia of an area
Flächenwinkel(German m.) plane angle
Flächenwirkung(German f.) surface effect
flächenzentriert(German) face-centred
flache Kurve(German f.) flat curve
flache Naht(German f.) flat seam
flacher(German) flatter
flacher Bauch(German m.) flat stomach
flacher Lastkahn(German m.) scow (ny of various flat-bottomed boats with sloping ends)
flache Schale(German f.) platter
flache Schuhe(German pl.) flats (shoes)
flache Schüssel(German f.) shallow bowl
flache Seite(German f.) flat (of blade)
flachfallen(German) to fall through (plan), to be cancelled (event)
Flachfeder(German f.) flat spring
Flachfeile(German f.) flat file, engineer's flat pointed file, tapered flat file, hand file, (engineer's) flat hand file
Flach-flöte(German f., literally 'shallow flute') flageolet, an organ stop with a rather thin tone
flach machen(German) to flatten
Flachschlitzschraubenzieher(German m.) plain screwdriver (not for cross-headed or Philips screws)
Flachfuß(German m.) flatfoot
flachfüßig(German) flat-footed, flat-footedly
flachgedrückt(German) flattened, pressed flat
Flachgehäuse(German n.) flat pack, flatpack
Flachgewebe(German n.) flat woven fabric
Flachglas(German n.) sheet glass, plate glass, flat glass
Flachgrab(German n.) flat grave
Flachgründungen(German pl.) shallow foundations
Flachheit(German f.) flatness, shallowness, platitude
flächig(German) two-dimensional, flat, extensively, planar, extensive
Flächigkeit(German f.) flatness
Flachkabel(German n.) flat cable, ribbon cable
Flachkopf(German m.) numbskull (colloquial)
Flachkopfklammer(German f.) brass fastener
Flachkopfniet(German m.) flat-head rivet
Flachkopfschraube(German f.) countersunk bolt, flathead screw, pan head screw
Flachkopfschraube mit Schlitz(German f.) slotted pan-head screw
Flachland(German n.) flat country, lowlands, plain
Flachländer (m.), Flachländerin (f.)(German) lowlander, plainsman (m.), plainswoman (f.)
flachmachen(German) to flatten
Flachmann(German m.) hip flask, flask, hipflask
Flachmaterial(German n.) flats
Flachmeer(German n.) shallow sea
Flachmeißel(German m.) cold chisel, flat chisel
Flachpinsel(German m.) flat brush, trim brush
Flachrelief(German n.) bas-relief
Flachrennen(German n.) flat race, flat racing
Flachriemen(German m.) flat belt
Flachrundkopfschraube(German f.) mushroom-head screw
Flachrundschraube(German f.) round-head screw
Flachrundzange(German f.) long nose pliers, needle nose pliers, snipe nose pliers, taper-nose pliers
Flachs(German m.) flax, linseed (Linum usitatissimum), kidding (humerous)
flachsartig(German) flaxen, flaxy
Flachsbaumwolle(German f.) flax cotton
flachsblond(German) flaxen, tow-headed, tow-haired
Flachsbluse(German f.) flax blouse
Flachschaber(German m.) flat scraper, square scraper
Flachschleifmaschine(German f.) surface grinding machine, flat grinding machine, face grinding machine
Flachschliff(German m.) surface grinding
Flachsee(German f.) shallow sea
flachsen(German) to wisecrack
Flachsenker mit Führungszapfen(German m.) piloted counterbore
Flachsenkung(German f.) counterbore
Flachserei(German f.) badinage, chaff, joking
flachsfarben(German) flaxen, tow-coloured
Flachsfaser (s.), Flachsfasern (pl.)(German f.) flax fibre
Flachsfaserband(German n.) flax ribbon
Flachsfeld(German n.) flax field, field of flax
Flachsfink(German m.) linnet (Carduelis cannabina)
Flachsgarn(German n.) flax yarn
Flachshaar(German n.) flaxen hair, flax-haired, flaxen-haired
Flachshemd(German n.) flax shirt
Flachsöl(German n.) flaxseed oil, flax seed oil
Flachspachtel(German m.) flat trowel
Flachsrock(German m.) flax skirt
Flachssamenöl(German n.) flaxseed oil, flax seed oil
Flachstahl(German m.) flat-rolled steel
flachste(German) flattest
Flachstelle(German f.) flat spot
Flachstich(German m.) satin stitch
Flachstiftstecker(German m.) flat-pin connector
Flachswolle(German f.) flax cotton
Flachtrudeln(German n.) flat spin
flach verlaufend(German) flat
Flachwagen(German m.) flat wagon (railway)
Flachware(German f.) flatware
Flachwäsche(German f.) flatwork
Flachwasser(German n.) shallow water
Flachwassersee(German m.) shallow lake
flach werden(German) to level off
flach wie ein Brett(German) as flat as a pancake
flachwurzelnd(German) shallow rooted
Flachzange(German f.) or Kneifzange (German m.), flat-nose pliers, flat pliers, flat tongs, flat nose pliers
flach zu Boden fallen(German) to collapse to the ground
Flackereffekt(German m.) flicker effect
Flackern(German n.) glint, flicker, flickering
flackern(German) to flare, to flicker, to glint, to bicker, to waver, to gutter (candle, flame)
flackernd(German) flaring, flickering, guttering
flackerndes Licht(German n.) quivering light, wavering light
Flackerschein(German m.) flickering light
flackert(German) flares, flickers
flackerte(German) flared, flickered
Flacon(French m.) bottle
Fladen(German m.) (large) oatcake (Scottish)
Fladenbrot(German n.) flatbread, pita, pita bread, pitta bread, bannock (bread), flat bread
fladern(German - Switzerland) to steal
Fladerschnitt(German m.) flat sawn
Flädlesuppe(German f.) pancake soup
Flädlisuppe(German f. - Switzerland) pancake soup
Flagcorchete (Spanish), coda (uncinata) (Italian), bandiera (Italian), crochet (French), Fahne (German), Fähnchen (German)
parts of the note
a note is a single sound of a particular pitch and length which is notated with a symbol made up of a notehead (in all cases), a stem or tail (in some cases) and a flag (in some cases), and which with notes bearing flags are grouped together using a beam
Flag.abbreviation of Flageolet (German), 'flageolet'
although this abbreviation may refer to the 'flageolet' (a wind instrument), when found in orchestral score or instrumental parts (for bowed or plucked stringed-instruments, the abbreviation is a reference to 'flageolet tones', 'flageolet notes' or harmonics
Flag carriagesee 'bell carriage'
Flagellant (s.), Flagellanten (pl.)(German m.) flagellant
Flagellantentum(German n.) flagellantism
flagellantisch(German) flagellantic
Flagellantismthe practise of scourging oneself as a public penance
Flagellantismus(German m.) flagellantism
Flagellant songsflagellantism was a thirteenth- and fourteenth-century Christian movement. It began as a militant pilgrimage and was later condemned as heretical. It is in 1260 that we first hear of the flagellants at Perugia. The terrible plague of 1259, the long-continued tyranny and anarchy throughout the Italian States, the prophecies concerning Antichrist and the end of the world by Joachim of Flora and his like, had created a mingled state of despair and expectation among the devout lay-folk of the middle and lower classes. The peak of activity was during the Black Death, which began about 1347, during which as much as a third of the population perished and which coincided with a major earthquake in Italy in 1348. Its followers were noted for including public flagellation in their rituals, striking themselves rhythmically to songs, known as Geisslerlieder, until blood flowed. Strongly put down, a similar movement arose again in 1399, again in northern Italy in the form of the "White Penitents" or Bianchi movement. This rising it said to have been started by a peasant who saw a vision and the movement became known as the laudesi from their constant hymn singing. At its peak a group of over 15,000 adherents gathered in Modena and marched to Rome, but the movement rapidly faded when one of its leaders was burned at the stake by order of Benedict XI. The Flagellant movement was but one of the manias that afflicted the end of the Middle Ages; others were the dancing-mania, the Jew-baiting rages, which the Flagellant processions encouraged in 1349, the child-crusades, and the like. And, according to the temperament of the peoples among whom it spread, the movement became a revolt and a fantastic heresy, a rush of devotion settling soon into pious practices and good works, or a mere spectacle that aroused the curiosity or the pity of the onlookers.
  • Geisslerlieder from which part of this information has been taken
  • Flagellants from which part of this information has been taken
see 'pilgrim songs (German)', laudesi
Flagellat(German m.) flagellate
Flagellation(German f.) flagellation
flagellieren(German) to flagellate
flagelliert(German) flagellated
Flagellum(German n.) scourge
Flageolet(French m.) the gendarme opponent of Guignol (the eponymous character in a French puppet show, devised by Laurent Mourguet, an unemployed silk-weaver from Lyon, between 1810 and 1812 for children)
(French m.) (haricot) (dwarf) kidney bean
a small flute stop in the organ, usually of 1 ft. or 2 ft. pitch, and composed of open wood pipes
(English, French m.) a small six- or sometimes seven-holed whistle rather like a recorder, sometimes with no thumbhole and sometimes with one or two thumbholes played with the thumb(s). Later flageolets were fitted with as many as six keys and the majority were in the key of D
Folk flageoletan instrument with up to five holes, played with one hand. Where there are five holes, two appear on the back, for the thumb and the upper surface of the little finger. This enables the player to hold and play the instrument with one hand. It was often played in combination with a tabor (a kind of frame drum) as an early kind of one-man-band
English flageoletan instrument with six or (rarely) seven holes, all sited on the front of the instrument. It is played with both hands
French flageoletalso called the Quadrille Flageolet, an instrument with originally six fingerholes: four on the front and two on the back for the players' thumbs. Played with both hands
Flageolet double(French m.) double flageolet
Flageolet-flutesee 'flute-flageolet'
Flageolet notesnotes (tones) that are the artifical harmonics or overtones of bowed and plucked stringed instruments, produced by drawing the bow lightly over the string (or in the case of a guitar or harp, plucking the string) while the player's finger is lightly in contact with it at an appropriate point on it
Flageolett(German n.) flageolet, chime (tone) (guitar harmonics)
Flageolet tones(US) flageolet notes
Flageolettton (s.), Flageoletttöne (pl.)(German m.) harmonic, artificial harmonic, flageolet note
Flageolett-Töne(German pl.) harmonics
Flageolettzaunkönig(German m.) musician wren (Cyphorhinus aradus), organ wren (Cyphorhinus aradus)
flagga(Swedish) flag (part of a note symbol)
Flagge (s.), Flaggen (pl.)(German f.) flag, ensign, flagstone, banner
flaggen(German) to fly a flag, to fly flags
Flaggendippen(German n.) dipping of the flag
Flaggengala(German f.) flag dressing
Flaggenkunde(German f.) vexillology (study of flags)
Flaggenleine(German f.) halyard (for flag)
Flaggenmast(German m.) flagpole, flagstaff
Flaggenparade(German f.) flag parade
Flaggenposten(German m.) flag post
Flaggenstockkopfverzierung(German f.) acorn
Flaggentuch(German n.) bunting
flaggenverbrennend(German) flag-burning
Flagge zeigen(German) to nail one's colours to the mast, to show one's colours
Flaggenverbrennung(German f.) flag burning
Flaggleine(German f.) halyard (for flag)
Flaggleutnant(German m.) flag lieutenant (Navy)
Flaggoffizier(German m.) flag officer (Navy)
Flaggschiff (s.), Flaggschiffe (pl.)(German n.) flagship
Flagioletto (s.), Flagioletti (pl.)(Italian m.) or fischiotto (Italian m.), flageolet
Flagrant(from Latin flagrare, 'to burn') something conspicuously offensive
flagrant (m.), flagrante (f.)(French) flagrant
Flagrante delicto(Latin, literally 'the the crime is blazing') caught red-handed, caught in the act
Flagshipstore(German m.) flagship store
Flagship-Store(German m.) flagship store
Flaira natural talent, distinctive and stylish elegance, a shape that spreads outward (flare of the bell of a brass instrument)
(German n.) atmosphere (of a place, room), aura (around a person)
(French m.) (sense of) smell, intuition (figurative)
flairer(French) to sniff at, to sense (figurative)
Flak(German f.) antiaircraft gun
Flakartillerie(German f.) antiaircraft artillery, anti-aircraft artillery
Flakein cooking, to break into natural segments
(German m.) flake (tobacco)
Flaketabak(German m.) flake tobacco
Flakfeuer(German n.) flak, ack-ack (colloquial)
Flakgeschütz(German n.) antiaircraft gun
Flakon(German m.) small bottle, vial
Flakon(German m./n.) flacon
Flamone of the twenty-six drum rudiments used in drumming music theory. It consists of two strokes on the side drum, the first short and second long
  • Flam from which this information has been taken
Flamadiddleone of the twenty-six drum rudiments. It consists of a regular 'paradiddle', combined with a 'flam'
  • Flamadiddle from which this information has been taken
Flamand(French m.) Flemish (language)
Flamand (m.), Flamande (f.)(French) Fleming
flamand, flamande(French) Flemish
Flamant(French m.) flamingo
flambant neuf(French) brand-new
Flambé(French m.) (a piece of Chinese porcelain) irridescent as a result of the application of a streaky glaze, or as the result of uneven firing
(French) to flame in alcohol
Flambeau (s.), Flambeaus (pl.)(German m.) chandelier, flambeau
Flambeau (s.), Flambeaux (pl.)(French m.) a lighted torch, a firebrand, a torch
Flambée(French f.) blaze, explosion (figurative)
flamber(French) to blaze, to shoot up (price of something), to sterilise, to singe
flambieren(German) to flambée, to flambé, to flame
flambierend(German) flambéing
flambiert(German) flambéed, flambé
flamboyant(German) flamboyant
Flamboyantin architectural history, the late Gothic style in France, characterised by long wavy tracery designs
flamboyer(French) to blaze
Flame (m.), Flamin (f.), Flamines (pl.)(German) Fleming (person from Flanders)
Flame (figure)Flamme (German f.), onde (French f.), marezzatura (Italian f.), also called 'flame top', a reference to figured maple with a dramatic grain pattern that resembling flames
Flame-holesthe decorative soundholes found on the viola d'amore and some members of the viol family
Flamenco(English, German m.) or cante flamenco, derives its name from the word flamenco, a term which in Spanish signifies gay and lively when applied to song or dance. It is said to have originated with the Spanish occupation of Flanders (1506-1714). Spanish soldiers who had been quartered in the Netherlands were styled flamencos. However, flamenco culture evolved over centuries, carried across Asia, the Middle East, Africa and the European continent by nomad gypsies. At its purest it is a form of song accompanied with one or two guitars and palmas (rhythmic clapping). Dance was later introduced and is now at the heart of flamenco. The movement settled in Southern Spain's gypsy communities, where it has been popular for over 400 years. The Andalusian Granada gypsy calls himself gitano (gypsy) while the Sevillian gypsy calls himself a flamenco. Flamenco has strict rhythmic rules essential to achieving the correct look. The styles, called palos in Spanish, include alegrias, soleares, bulerias, farruca, zapateado, tango and zambra. The dancer beats his foot and heel to produce a perfect zapateado while the heel work in flamenco is called taconeo. Jaleo refers to an accompaniment of palm clapping and cries of encouragement by the jaleadores and gives its name also to a kind of bulería from Extremadura, with monotone cadences and a strong rhythm for dancing. Although archaic, the style has resurfaced in the voices of gypsies from Extremadura. Malagueña shares with the fandango the rank of the principal dance of Andalusa
Flamenco - form : family : style (palos)
General terms
canteflamenco singing in a broad sense, and is often used to refer to a specific style of soleá
versean arrangement of a certain number of lines with a fixed length, meter or rhyme scheme
cambiothe last sung lines that conclude the style
compásbeat, rhythm, meter and measure, the basic element of flamenco rhythm, a recurring pattern of accented beats analogous to a bar of music which dictates the unique rhythmic structure of any given song form
por arribathe guitar accompaniment is based on the first-fret position of the chords E major and F major
por mediothe guitar accompaniment is based on the first-fret position of the chords A major and B-flat major
Gypsy (cante gitano) : Soleares family
Soleássung with verse of three or four eight-syllable lines. Some styles offer more freedom for structural changes, but there is usually a pattern that most singers follow insofar as isolating, repeating and linking lines of verse. The structure of a style normally determines whether three- or four-line verse can be used, but sometimes both are possible. Some of the most widely known styles are sung at the beginning of a recital with four-line verse. The so-called transitional styles are normally sung with three-line verse and less repetition of the lines of verse and typically lead to more dramatic forms that finish the recital and also normally use three-line verse
SolearesSoleares means 'solitude'; cante jondo, (a profound song covering both the dark and serious aspect of flamenco), the mother of flamenco song. It is a solemn dance that is very appropriate for bailaoras because its main elements are movements of a feminine nature. 12 beats per meter with accents on the 3rd, 6th, 8th, 10th, and 12th
Cañaclosely related to soleares, usually cante jondo in nature, one of the oldest forms of flamenco, and one of the purest and most beautiful
Alegríasfrom alegre, happy, which, in turn, comes from Latin, alicer, alecris; a joyful dance, belonging to the same category as the cantiñas and originated as a cante for dancing as well as the jotas of Cadiz, the folk music of Aragon brought to the Andalucian region by soldiers during the War of Independence in the early nineteenth century. Among its main characteristics are the richness of its guitar accompaniment, the demands of its difficult rhythm and its lively sound. It has a compás of 12 beats and is normally played in the key of A major. (compás means 'the characteristic rhythm of the form'). The dancing is characterised by its very marked escobillas (the section of the dance that includes the zapateado, a rhythmic combination of sounds made by stepping with the toe, sole and heel of the foot) and a quieter part that is known as silencio (silence). Another trait is the traditional call of tirititrán which is believed to have been invented by Ignacio Espeleta during a party at which he forgot the lyrics
Alegrías por rosasalso known simply as rosas, this alegrías is normally played in the key of E Major with a melody that is slow and melancholy
Buleríasfrom burlería, mockery, fun or from bullería, racket, shouting, din; a high-spirited song & dance from the gypsy quarter of the city of Jerez de la Frontera. It has a fast and lively rhythm - indeed, the fastest in all flamenco - and provides enormous scope for improvisation on the part of dancers, singers and guitarists alike. It is wild, frenzied and lively, but nevertheless contains the germ of sorrow that is almost always present in flamenco. It is often used to finish off songs in other styles, usually the soleá, although it also tends to be the dance that finishes off any flamenco get-together. In this case, the entire company gets together in a semi-circle in the centre of the room and, one by one, the performers come out to dance a section of the piece. Normally, it starts with a llamada (call, signal) and ends with the exit, with which the bailaor (dancer) returns to the position in the circle that he or she was previously occupying
Buleria al golphea style of bulerías which highlights the golpe or 'tap'
Buleria por soleaa slower variant of bulerías
Gypsy (cante gitano) : Seguiriya family
Seguiriyasa phonetic distortion of seguidilla, a diminuitive of seguida, an old dance form. It can be spelt in several ways: seguiriya (the most common), siguerilla, siguiriya; a cante jondo; its original name plaidera comes from the verb plair, meaning 'to cry'. This style is related to the music that the gypsies carried across Asia and North Africa and into Spain
Serranassame compás as siguiriyas, but played in E instead of A so has a different mood and texture, though some of the same variations can be transposed. It is believed to have originated as a nineteenth-century folk song whose story-type verses tell of life in the mountains among bandits and smugglers
Gypsy (cante gitano) : Tientos family
Tientosfrom the Latin templar meaning 'probe', 'sound out', 'examine', 'check how someone reacts', 'test' or 'provoke'; tientos is a style of flamenco song with the same structure as the tango, but with a very slow rhythm. The verses are stretched out and the metre is slowed down. It is a cante jondo that can be danced to
Zambras(zambra, meaning 'flute') a song and dance form which originated as a festive dance associated with the gypsies of Granada and possibly first performed in the Sacromonte region. As such, it is one of the most typical of the gypsy flamenco dances. This lively dance form, which dates from the fifteenth century, was originally Moorish in nature. It is generally danced only by women. Zambra is closely related to both the tientos and the tangos, with a speed somewhere between the two
Tangosfrom 'tang', onomatopoeia for a resounding noise; it also gives a sense of the dances swaying movement. Another possible source is tangir, which in turn comes from the Latin tangere, 'to touch'; the word tango refers to many unrelated musical forms from both sides of the Atlantic so that its exact origins are obscure, although any relation with the Argentinean tango can be ruled out. It may have been influenced by Cuban music, although it was evidently in Cádiz that this flamenco style began, a style that has a lively and heavily accented rhythm, often reserved as as a show piece usually for the end of a performance
Tanguillosdiminutive of tango; it is from Cadiz and from part from Extremadura, the section of Spain that borders Portugal. It is often called tanguillo de Cádiz. It has festive, playful and inconsequential lyrics, and it is usually performed at carnival time. As a dance it is stylish dance, graceful and roguish with a tempo faster than that of the tango
Zapateados(zapato meaning 'shoe') a dance form which requires extremely skilful heelwork, including sudden stops and starts in between accelerating passages. The compás continuously changes speed and, because the melody must always match the footsteps, dancer and guitarist need to be perfectly synchronized
Andalusian (cante andaluz) : Fandangos family
The fandango family is a style which has its roots deep in Spanish folkloric tradition, and which therefore precedes cante flamenco as we now know it. For some writers, this is the true source, although Arabian, American, even Portuguese sources have been suggested. It has a 12-count marking compás, and is in straight 3/4 time. Spanish fandangos gradually acquired more and more the character of flamenco, drawing on the individual contributions of many different cantaores. The Spanish variants include: verdiales and rondeñas malagueños (i.e. from Malaga); the fandango de Huelva; the granaína and media granaína; and the taranto, taranta and cartagenera from Almería (also called cantes de las minas). The fandango de Huelva, gave rise to fandangos naturales, with a true jondo flamenco flavor. Their popularity grew from the mid-nineteenth century
Fandangos de Huelvafrom the Portuguese fado, which means 'traditional dance and song', and from the Latin fatus, 'fate'; it is a musical form that is characteristic of Spanish folklore, which has experienced a process of aflamencamiento, changes that are undergone as a result of the influence of flamenco, as it established itself in the province of Huelva. Although other types of fandangos exist in other parts of Andalucía, the ones from Huelva are distinctive
Granadinas (Granaínas)a typical folkloric style from Granada, named for the river and for the narrow alleyway that goes up to the Sacramonte, the gypsy neighborhood outside the city
Andalusian (cante andaluz) : Media Granaínas
Granaínaa distortion of granadina, meaning 'from Granada'; it belongs to the category of the cantes del Levante and like the malagueña, it is based on the structure of the fandango. The granaína usually has an introductory ayeo, a melodic wailing using the word ay, which is not found in the media granaína. It is sung in a free style and is accompanied by a guitar in B. The music is elegant
MalagueñasMalagueña, from Málaga; at the heart of the cantes del Levante, songs from the south-east of Spain, the Levant, and originating in the mines, these cantes express deep suffering. Their urban variety tend to refer to love, life and death, and have their origins in the old Málaga fandangos. It became a recognised flamenco style in the first half of the nineteenth century. It is not a cante suitable for dancing, and it is melodically very rich. There are different types of malagueñas, named for their inventors, who came from the province of Málaga or from other provinces such as Cádiz. The form is cante "ad libitum" or free-style to a guitar accompaniment. It is generally finished off with an instrumental abandolao fandango
Verdialesfrom Los Verdiales, an olive-growing area in the province of Málaga, where a kind of olive known as verdial is grown. It is a fandango that lies within the category of the malagueñas, accompanied by groups of musicians called pandas performing on lutes, bandurrias, tambourines and castanets
MineraEl Rojo el Alpargatero, along with others, such as Pepe el Morato, were instrumental in developing a number of styles of cantes del levante; this happened at the end of the nineteenth century, while these artists worked in a bar in Cartegena. Maria Adela Párraga explains the origin of these cantes. She attributes them to an influx of miners from Jaén and Almería, bringing tarantos that mixed with the cantes de madruga of Cartegena. She suggests that cartageneras and mineras are the result of this mixture
Cartagenerasa toque libre song form which is fandangos-based and takes it name from Cartagena. It is one of the songs known as cante de levante and is believed to have evolved from the tarantas
Rondeñaanother free-form style that uses an alternative tuning for both 3rd and 6th strings
Tarantasanother free-form style which originated in the Province of Almeria but also associated with the neighbouring provinces of Jaen and Murcia. Taranta is a song of the miners, reflecting a sense of tragedy, deprivation and sorrow, whose melodies are dark and often discordant with open chords which lend this form a distinctive Oriental character. It should be noted that in flamenco terms, 'Oriental' is taken to mean 'Arabic'
Tarantosa flamenco dance accompanied by the cante that bears the same name, possibly invented by Carmen Amaya during the forties. Rosario, Antonio, Flora Albaicín and Fernanda Romero were her successors, spreading this style to become a major part of the repertoires of the finest bailaoras (female flamenco dancers). The cante is similar to the tarantas, another variation of the fandango that is also free of compás. One peculiar aspect of the taranto is its remate (the emphatic final part of each verse), both because of its introductory ays as well as those that are part of each of its coplas (poetic compositions, in verse, used as lyrics)
Folk-influenced or folkloric :
Farrucafarruca came originally from Galicia in Northern Spain. The name was the word they used to call the people from the north who went south to find work. In Arabic farruco means brave man, and the gypsy flamenco players probably related to it, because they also left their homes to find a new life. It is a spectacular male dance, one of the more recent forms of flamenco. It is never sung when played in the pure flamenco idiom. As a dance or as a guitar solo, it is strongly dramatic
Garrotín a song and dance form which is sensuous and happy. Much like the farruca, it originated in Northern Spain and has slow sections with sudden stops and starts which frequently build to a furious pace
The modern name for this form is petenera. Legend says there was a beautiful woman singer from Paterna de la Ribera (province of Cadiz) who was called Paternera because she came from that town. A lot of men fell in love with her and fought among themselves when they could not have her. Superstition says it's bad luck to play this form. legend says there was a beautiful woman singer from Paterna de la Ribera (province of Cadiz) who was called Paternera because she came from that town. Men fell in love with her and fought among themselves when they could not have her. Superstition says it's bad luck to play this form
Sevillanasmeaning 'from Sevilla', this traditional Andalusian folk song is derived from the seguidilla manchega (from La Mancha), with certain features drawn from flamenco. The dance is performed in pairs, in a series of four sevillanas. It was formerly danced in patios or houses used for neighbourhood gatherings, also known as corrales, and they have always been danced in romerias and other Andalusian feasts. This form is what most non-aficionados believe to be typical flamenco. It has evolved into a structured format consisting of a group of four short dances. Within each dance, there is a melodic theme which is sung or played three times and then ends with a sudden stop as the dancers strike a pose
Vallancicosa genre of Spanish song which dates from the fifteenth century. It is poetic and musical, once sung without accompaniment. The vallancico was originally a folk song, often devotional or romantic in nature. In the eighteenth century, this form expanded into a dramatic cantata with arias and choruses and, by the twentieth century, the use of the term had been restricted to the Spanish Christmas carol. Although not true flamenco, it is not unusual to find vallanciocos on modern flamenco recordings
El Vitoa song and dance form which began as an old Andalucian folk song. The melody is quite distinctive but it is a style rarely recorded by flamenco artists
Latin American-influenced :
Guajirasfrom guajiro, a white Cuban farmer, and their song; it is a cante de ida y vuelta, a conjunction of styles that began in Spain, travelled to the Americas with Spanish migrants, where they were influenced by Hispanic American folk music, before returning to Spain and being influenced, in turn, by flamenco music. Its origins lie in Cuban folk tradition. The style is rhythmic and joyful with lyrics evoking Havana and its inhabitants. It is normally played in the key of A major. Its rhythm is that of punto cubano, which was taken from Cuba to the Canary Islands where it blended with indigenous elements, It became very fashionable in the thirties and forties, and it was used to accompany the dance which the same name but which has now practically disappeared
Colombianasfrom colombiana, Colombian, native of Colombia; it is usually consider a form of cantes de ida y vuelta but it is not from Colombia but rather, it is a cante based on the Spanish rumba. It is one of the most popular cantes in Latin America
Rumbaonomatopoeic name for a vibrating, thundering noise; it is a style that has Hispanic American origins particularly the sugar and banana plantations of Cuba. As a flamenco cante it was unknown a little over half a century ago, but Catalan gypsies began spreading it from 1940 onwards. Their adaptation is known as rumba gitana or rumba flamenca. The dance is lively and festive. The guitarist employes the rhythmic slapping techniques taken from the South American style of playing and the strumming is characterized by damping the strings with the whole hand to provide for syncopation
Other forms :
Poloboth the caña (see above) and the polo appear to pre-date the soleá although they sound very similar. Their distinguishing feature is a repeated motif that was apparently once sung as a chorus, which involves reiterated ays sung in perfect agreement with matching guitar chords
Cantiñasfrom the Galician cantiña, 'song', or from the verb cantiñear, that is, 'to sing softly, improvising and playful'); a generic name for a range of cantes involving happy and lively music, such as caracoles, mirabrás, romeras and alegrías, all of which have generally brief coplas and are thought to be related to the old Cádiz jota. They are the cantes festeros (literally, 'feast or party songs') that became very fashionable in the cafés cantantes of the late 19th- and early twentieth century where drinks were served to the accompaniment of staged performances of singing, playing and dancing
Romancethe name given to the peoples and languages that are related to Latin. It is also known as corrido gitano, for the way in which it is sung, without any breaks. It is Castillian romance as it was assimilated by the gypsies, and converted into flamenco. It is rare for this style of song to be performed. The tonás are derived from the romance
Mirabrásits name comes from the chorus with which one of the lyrics of this cante usually ends although the origin of the word is uncertain; it may be a phonetic corruption of mira Blas, 'look Blas', or of mira y verás, 'look and you shall see'. This cantiña probably arose in Sanlúcar de Barrameda (Cádiz). It requires a great facility from the performers because it has demands rapid changes of tone and of octave. When danced the performers must follow closely the meter
Martinetealso called debla, carcelera or tonás; from martillo, 'hammer', or martinete, a blacksmith's hammer. The toná, the antecedent of the gypsy ballad, is considered the oldest flamenco cante. Martinetes, carceleras and debla are various forms of tonás, that may be distinguished one from the other by the themes of their lyrics and whether or not they have any guitar accompaniment. The martinete has a strong dramatic impact
Caracoles(Spanish, literally 'snails') the name comes from the lyrics of the chorus, in which the word caracoles is repeated time and time again. It belongs to the same group as the cantiñas and has the same beat. Although its origins are Andalusian, there was a time when it was thought to be from Madrid, there being many references to the Spanish capital in the lyrics. The dance, which has links with alegrías and the soleá, may be related to the classical caracoles which feature castanets. Caracoles were performed in the cafés cantantes and are most suitable for women
Romerasone of the group of song and dance forms known as cantinas. Romeras are almost identical to alegrias and, like the mirabrás, were most likely artificially conceived and created to add variety to the repertoire of songs performed in the cafe cantante of the late nineteenth century
Flamenco guitarlike the modern classical guitar, the flamenco guitar is an instrument of comparatively recent invention. Available evidence suggests that Antonio de Torres should be credited with the development and stabilization of the flamenco guitar in the 1850s, at the same period and in the same way he defined the classical guitar
there are three primary differences between the flamenco and classical instruments:
the classical guitar is typically made of rosewood, with a cedar or spruce top. The traditional flamenco instrument is made entirely of cypress, and is generally lighter in construction, giving it overall a lighter and more percussive sound. Some flamenco guitarists actually prefer the depth of the classical instrument for their solo playing, while others use a hybrid instrument
the flamenco guitar has plastic tapping plates called golpeadores. These protect the face of the guitar from the taps with the right-hand fingernails, a feature of the flamenco music
flamenco guitars still often have push-pegs (like a violin) for tuning. On the classical guitar, these have been replaced by geared machine heads
Flamenco fusionincluding 'New Flamenco' (Nuevo Flamenco), a flamenco music style that is influenced by other modern musical genres, the most notable of these being Rumba, Salsa, Pop, Rock and Jazz
Flamenco puroa term generally applied to mean 'genuine' or 'traditional' flamenco
Flamenco Rumba(English, German f.) also called Rumba Flamenca, Rumba Gitana, Gypsy Rumba or Spanish Rumba, a style of Flamenco music from Spain. Its style derives from the influence of Afro-Cuban Rumba brought back from Cuba to Spain in the nineteenth century but it is played with guitars and hand clapping, some body slaps and castanets, while the Cuban Rumba uses drums and claves
Flamencotanz(German m.) flamenco dance
Flamencotänzerin(German f.) female flamenco dancer
Flame polishingsee 'fire polishing'
Flame topsee 'flame'
Flamingo (s.), Flamingos (pl.)(German m.) flamingo
Flamingokolonie(German f.) flamboyance of flamingos
Flämisch(German n.) Flemish, Belgian Dutch
flämisch(German) Flemish
Flämisch-Brabant(German n.) Flemish Brabant
flämischsprachig(German) Flemish-speaking
Flammabriss(German m.) flame-out, flameout
flammbeständig(German) flame-resistant
Flämmchen(German n.) flamelet (a small flame)
Flamme (s.), Flammen (pl.)(German f.) blaze, flame, burner, flame (colloquial: female sweetheart)
(German f.) onde (French f.), marezzatura (Italian f.), flame or figure as found for example in the maple on the back of violins
flammen(German) to flame, to blaze
flämmen(German) to flame-scarf, to deseam (metal), to scorch
Flammen ausstoßen(German) to belch flames
flammend(German) flaming, flamingly, blazing
Flammengarbe(German f.) jet of fire
flammengehärtet(German) flame-hardened
Flammenhärtung(German f.) flame hardening
flammenhemmend(German) flame-retardant
flammenlos(German) flameless
Flammenmeer(German n.) sea of flames, sea of flame
Flammenrot(German n.) flame red
flammenrot(German) flame-red
Flammenschwert(German n.) flaming sword (figurative, literary), flame-bladed sword
flammensicher(German) flameproof
Flammentod(German m.) death by burning
Flammenzungen(German pl.) tongues of fire, tongues of flame
Flammeri(German n.) blanc-mange, blancmange, flummery
flammfest(German) flame-retardant
flammhemmend(German) flame retardant, flame-retarding
flammhemmende Eigenschaften(German pl.) flame-retardant properties
Flammkuchen(German m.) tarte flambée
Flammpunkt(German m.) flash point, flashpoint
Flammrohr(German n.) flue
Flammruß(German m.) lamp black
Flammschutzmittel (s./pl.)(German n.) flame-retardant, flame inhibitor
flammsicher(German) flame-proof
flammwidrig(German) flame-resistant, flame-retardant
Flammwidrigkeit(German f.) non-flammability
Flanlarge open fruit tart
Flanc(French m.) Flanke (German f.), Backen (German f.), fianco (Italian m.), flank, side of a body (in the human body, the side between ribs and hip, the side of the waist)
Flandern(German n.) Flanders
flandrisch(German) Flemish
Flanell(German m.) flannel, flannelette
Flanellhemd(German n.) flannel shirt
Flanellhose (s.), Flanellhosen (pl.)(German f.) (a pair of) flannels (colloquial), flannel trousers
Flanellrock(German m.) flannel skirt
Flâneur(French m.) a lounger, an idle man-about-town
Flaneur (m.), Flaneurin (f.)(German) flâneur (m.), stroller
Flanger(English, German m.) in audio engineering, a device to produce flanging
Flanging(English, German n.) a time-domain based audio effect that occurs when two identical signals are mixed together, but with one signal time-delayed by a small and gradually changing amount, usually smaller than 20 ms (milliseconds)
  • Flanging from which this extract has been taken
term used by John Lennon in reference to 'automatic double tracking', a technique developed at Abbey Road Studios
flanieren(German) to stroll (around), to saunter
flanieren über(German) to stroll about
Flaniermeile(German f.) elegant promenade for strolling
FlankFlanke (German f.), Backen (German f.), flanc (French m.), fianco (Italian m.), side of a body (in the human body, the side between ribs and hip, the side of the waist)
Flanke (s.), Flanken (pl.)(German f.) cross, flank, sidewall, side, wing, shoulder
flanken(German) to cross
flankieren(German) to flank
flankierend(German) accompanying, flanking
flankierende Maßnahmen(German pl.) accompanying measures, underpinning measures
flankiert(German) flanks, flanked
flankierte(German) flanked
flankiert von zwei Polizisten(German) flanked by two policemen
Flanks(German f.) or Backen (German f.), flanc (French m.), fianco (Italian m.), side of a body (in the human body, the side between ribs and hip, the side of the waist)
Flannelmuch like toweling, a short pile fabric, popular in 1970s sportswear particularly shorts
Flannelhose(German f.) flannels
Flansch (s.), Flansche (pl.)(German m.) flange
Flanschdichtung(German f.) gasket, flange gasket
flanschen(German) to flange
flanschlos(German) flangeless
Flanschmesser(German n.) gasket knife
flanscht an(German) flanges
flanschte an(German) flanged
Flappera person who fusses or panics
a young woman in the 1920s who flaunted her unconventional conduct and dress
flapsig(German) boorish, uncouth, flippantly, fresh (colloquial), flippant, offhand
flapsige Bemerkungen machen(German) to be flippant
Flaschbier(German n.) bottled beer
Fläschchen (s./pl.)(German n.) phial, flask, vial, small bottle
Flasche (s.), Flaschen (pl.)(German f.) bottle, flagon, flask, bottleful
Flasche Bier(German f.) bottle of beer
Flasche voll(German f.) bottleful
Flaschenbier(German n.) bottled beer, beer in bottles, bottled ale
Flaschenbürste(German f.) bottle brush, bottlebrush
Flaschendrehen(German n.) spin the bottle
Flaschenform(German f.) bottle shape
flaschenförmig(German) bottle-shaped
Flaschengas(German n.) bottled gas
Flaschengeist(German m.) genie in a bottle
Flaschenglas(German n.) bottle glass
Flaschengrün(German n.) bottlegreen, bottle green
flaschengrün(German) bottle-green
Flaschenhagel(German m.) hail of bottles (as in street riot)
Flaschenhals (s.), Flaschenhälse (pl.)(German m.) neck of a bottle, bottleneck, bottle-neck (also as used to stop a guitar)
Flascheninhalt(German m.) the contents of a bottle
Flaschenkind (s.), Flaschenkinder (pl.)(German n.) bottle-fed baby, bottle baby, bottle-baby
Flaschenkorken(German m.) bottle cork, bottle stopper
Flaschenkürbis(German m.) gourd, calabash
Flaschenmilch(German f.) bottled milk
Flaschenöffner (s./pl.)(German m.) bottle opener
Flaschenorgel(German f.) bottle organ
Flaschenpfand(German n.) bottle deposit, deposit (on a bottle)
Flaschenpost(German f.) letter in a bottle
Flaschenreiniger(German m.) bottle washer, bottle cleaner
Flaschenreinigung(German f.) bottle-washing
Flaschenschiff(German n.) ship in a bottle
Flaschentomate(German f.) plum tomato
Flaschenverschluß(German m.) a bottle top
Flaschenverschluss(German m.) bottle closure, bottle cap, bottle top, bottle stopper
Flaschenverschlusskappe(German f.) bottle cap
Flaschenwasser(German n.) bottled water
Flaschenwein(German m.) bottled wine
Flaschenzug(German m.) pulley, block and tackle, hoist, tackle, hand pulley block
Flaschinet(German) a corruption of flageolet
Flaschinett(German) a corruption of flageolet
Flaschner(German m. - Southern Germany) plumber
Flashback(English, German m.) a method of narration in which present action is temporarily interrupted so that the reader can witness past events - usually in the form of a character's memories, dreams, narration, or even authorial commentary
Flatbemol (Spanish), bemolle (Italian), bémol (French), B (German), b (German)
flata sign that lowers the pitch of a note by one chromatic semitone
a description for playing or singing below the prevailing pitch, as in 'that flute is playing flat'
in American usage, the verb 'to flat' means to lower the pitch of a note by a semitone
Flatbed cylinder pressa printing press in which the form or plate is mounted on the flat bed of a press. Grippers on an impression cylinder pick up paper one sheet at a time, and as the cylinder revolves, the inked plate moves under it, and the paper and plate are squeeze together between the cylinder and the bed, which transfers the image to the paper. When the impression is complete, the flatbed returns to its original position and is inked for the next impression
Flat characteralso called a static character, a simplified character who does not change or alter his or her personality over the course of a narrative, or one without extensive personality and characterization. The term is used in contrast with a round character
Flat chordalso called a 'solid chord', a chord where every note is played simultaneously, as opposed to a 'broken chord' where the notes are arpeggiated
Flat fifthdiminished fifth, an interval consisting of six semitones (half steps)
Flat foot (dancing)largely based on a low-to-the floor style that emphasizes intricate rhythms and creative percussive dancing
Flat-footedor 'square', a term, usually derogatory, denoting a conservative, restrained approach to musical performance
Flat intervaldiminished interval
Flat loss hearing lossor 'flat curve hearing loss', a loss of hearing that is approximately the same at all frequencies. This kind of loss is more common in people with conductive losses
Flatpack(German n.) flat pack
Flato(Italian m.) breath
Flatpickthe plectrum for guitars that typically takes the form of a narrow isosceles triangle with rounded corners. The term 'flatpick' is used to distinguish this form from the thumb and finger picks used, for example, by bluegrass banjo players
Flatpicking(English, German n.) a technique for playing the steel-stringed acoustic guitar using a plectrum or flatpick. Although the term is used in other genres, it is probably best known as the lead guitar style in bluegrass music and old-time country music
Flatsfootwear (shoes or slippers) with no heel (or a very low heel)
Flatsche(German f.) Mirliton
Flatschen(German m.) lump (of clay, mud)
Flat springsee 'leaf spring'
Flattéalternative name for a coulé
Flattedin American usage, a note to which a flat sign is applied is said to have been 'flatted', as is a flat note to which a double flat sign has been applied
Flattementa mechanical vibrato which, on a stringed instrument (particularly a viol) is produced by the use of two fingers, the principal finger and the one above it, set into motion on a string by rocking the hand, or the finger higher up the string is tapped lightly against it
Flattenin English usage, the verb 'to flatten' means to lower the pitch of a note by a semitone
Flattenedin English usage, a note to which a flat sign is applied is said to have been 'flattened', as is a flat note to which a double flat sign has been applied
flatter(French) caress, flatter, charm, cause delight, praise too highly
"In musical terms, has another meaning completely different from that just given [which is virtually the definition in the Dictionnaire de l'Académie Françoise of 1762]. It is said of voices and instruments, and means the manner, both douce and agréable, of yielding, of manipulating the voice, of fingering the instrument, that creates an agrément that "flatters" the ear. In gay tunes the cadence [rhythm] must be made animated, in tunes that are tendre and languishing [the cadence] must be "flattered." - Trévoux (1771)
flatterhaft(German) flighty, scatterbrained, volatile
flatterhafte Disposition(German f.) volatile disposition
flatterhafter(German) more flighty
flatterhafter Charakter(German m.) flighty, character, corky character
flatterhafteste(German) most flighty, flightiest
Flatterhaftigkeit(German f.) flightiness, volatility
flatterig(German) aflutter, fluttery, fluttering
flatter la corde(French) to use the bow to produce a tender, sweet expression on a stringed instrument
Flattern(German n.) flutter, fluttering, wobble, thrashing
flattern(German) to flicker (light), to be in a flap (colloquial), to stream (hair in the wind), to fly (hair in the wind), to flap (in the wind), to flap its wings, to chatter (skis), to thrash (animal caught in a net), to flitter, to tremble (hands, etc.), to wave, to flutter, to shimmy, to waver, to flitter, to flop (colloquial: hair, etc.), to be ragged
flatternd(German) flittering, fluttering, unjustified (text), streaming, shimmying
flatternde Fahne(German f.) streaming banner
flatterndes Haar(German n.) streaming hair
Flattersatz(German m.) left justification, ragged alignment
Flatterschwingung(German f.) buffeting
flattert(German) flitters, flutters, shimmies
flatterte(German) flapped, flittered, fluttered, shimmied
Flatterzunge(German f.) flutter-tonguing, flutter tonguing, extremely rapid, tongued-articulation on a wind instrument. It is different from double or triple articulation (it is faster, but only used on a single note, not on different notes). It may be called, in French, trémolo dental or trémolo en roulant la langue
flattrig(German) aflutter, fluttering, fluttery
Flat topa reference to an acoustic guitar with a flat (i.e. non-arched) top
flatulent(German) flatulent
Flatulenz(German f.) flatulence
flau(German) slack, dull, flat, lifeless, spiritless, stagnant, depressed, inactive (business)
flaue Geschäftszeit(German f.) dull season
flaue Nachfrage(German f.) slack demand
flaue Saison(German f.) dead season, slack season
flauer(German) weaker
flaues Gefühl(German n.) collywobbles (colloquial)
flaues Geschäft(German n.) quiet business, slack business
flaueste(German) weakest
Flauheit(German f.) deadness, stagnation
Flaum (German m.) down fluff, floccus, fluff, fuzz, down, downy beard of adolescent boys
Flaumacherei(German f.) defeatism
Flaumfeder(German f.) down feather
Flaumhaar(German n.) downy hair
flaumig(German) fluffy (feathers), cottony, downy, fuzzy, light and creamy (Austria)
flaumiger(German) downier, fluffier
flaumiges Haar(German n.) wispy hair
Flaumigkeit(German f.) fluffiness
flaumigste(German) downiest, fluffiest
Flausch(German m.) fleece
flauschig(German) cottony, fluffy (fabrics), loosely woven, fuzzy, fleecy
Flauschteppich(German m.) shag carpet
Flause (s.), Flausen (pl.)(German f.) fancy (idea), nonsense (pl.), pie in the sky (pl.)
Flauta (s.), Flautas (pl.)(Spanish m./f.) flute player, flautist, flutist (US)
Flauta (s.), Flautas (pl.)(Spanish f., Portuguese f.) flute, flauto (Italian m.), Flöte (German f.), flûte (French f.)
Flauta alto(Spanish f.) alto flute in G a fourth below the standard orchestral flute
Flauta amabilis(Latin) flauto amabile
flaut ab(German) wanes
Flauta bajo(Spanish f.) bass flute in C, one octave below the standard orchestral flute
Flaut à becqcorruption of flûte à bec
Flauta contraalto(Spanish f.) contra-alto flute in G, one octave and a fourth below the standard orchestral flute
Flauta contrabajo(Spanish f.) contrabass flute in C, two octaves below the standard orchestral flute
Flauta de Boehm(Spanish f.) the Boehm-system orchestral flute
Flauta de chimenea(Spanish f.) an organ pipe
Flauta de concierto(Spanish f.) the standard orchestral flute
Flauta de milloshort Colombian flute, with a reed, played horizontally. It is made out of millet or sorghum cane
Flauta de pan(Spanish f.) pipes of Pan, Panpipes
Flauta de pico(Spanish f.) recorder, flauto a becco (Italian m.), Blockflöte (German f.), flûte à bec (French f.)
Flauta de punta(Spanish f.) an organ pipe very similar to the Spindelflöte
Flautado(Spanish m.) jeu de flûte, registre flûte, register of flute-pipes in an organ
Flauta doblecontrabajo(Spanish f.) alternative name for the double-contrabass flute in C, three octaves below the standard orchestral flute
Flauta doce(Portuguese f.) recorder, flauto a becco (Italian m.), Blockflöte (German f.), flûte à bec (French f.)
Flauta dulce(Spanish f.) recorder, flauto a becco (Italian m.), Blockflöte (German f.), flûte à bec (French f.)
Flauta hueca(Spanish f.) on the organ, an open flute stop, flûte creuse (French), Hohlflöte (German)
Flauta mágica(Spanish f.) magic flute
Flauta pánica(Spanish f.) pipes of Pan, Panpipes
Flautando(Italian) on a string instrument, to produce flute-like sounds (i.e. harmonics) by bowing lightly further away than usual from the bridge
(Italian) on the fingerboard, sul tasto (Italian), sulla tastiera (Italian), nahe am Griffbrett (German), sur la touche (French)
Flauta piccolo(Spanish f.) see flautín
Flauta recta(Spanish f.) recorder
Flauta rociera(Spanish f.) three-holed pipe from the Iberian peninsula
Flautas de carrizo(Spanish f. pl.) small flutes made out of bamboo or reed grass. They come with 3, 4 and up to 5 or 6 finger holes. The three hole version is the most common and it produces the seven sounds of as major scale. They are used in Mexican traditional dances, in the Nahoa region and other states such as Tabasco, Chiapas o Oaxaca
Flauta sopranino(Spanish f.) a transverse flute, pitched an octave above the alto flute in G
Flauta soprano(Spanish f.) a transverse flute, pitched a minor third above the standard orchestral flute
Flauta subcontrabajo(Spanish f.) alternative name for the subcontrabass flute in G, two octaves and a fourth below the standard orchestral flute
Flauta tenor(Spanish f.) or flauta de amor, see flute d'amore
Flautato(Italian) on a string instrument, to produce flute-like sounds (i.e. harmonics) by bowing lightly further away than usual from the bridge
Flauta transversa(Spanish f.) transverse flute
Flauta traversa(Spanish f.) also called flauta, flauta de Boehm, flauta de concierto, flauta traversera and flauta transversa, the transverse or orchestral flute
Flauta travesera(Spanish f.) flauta traversa (Spanish f.), flauta transversa (Spanish f.), transverse flute, flauto traverso (Italian m.), 'cross'-flute, Querflöte (German f.), flûte traversière (French f.)
Flaute (s.), Flauten (pl.)(German f.) dead calm, doldrums, slow season, decrease, depression, dullness, flatness, lull, recession, slack, slack season, slackness, sluggishness, stagnation, calm
Flautenjahr(German n.) year of depression
Flauti(Italian m. pl.) flutes
Flauti diritti(Italian m. pl.) recorders
Flautín(Spanish m./f.) piccolo player
Flautín(Spanish m.) piccolo, ottavino (Italian m.), flauto piccolo (Italian m.), Pikkoloflöte (German f.), Pikkolo (German n.), kleine Flöte (German f.), petite flûte (French f.)
Flautino(Italian m.) sopranino recorder, small flute
flautino(Italian) flautando
Flautistperformer on the transverse flute
in the US, a flute player is known as a flutist
Flautista(Italian m./f., Spanish m./f.) flute player, flautist, flutist (in the US)
Flauto (s.), Flauti (pl.)(Italian m.) since the mid-eighteenth century, flauto has meant flute, flauta (Spanish f.), Flöte (German f.), flüte (French f.)
(Italian m.) up to the mid- eighteenth century, flauto indicated the recorder, while flauto traverso (Italian m.) or 'German flute' meant the transverse flute
various types of organ stop, for example, flauto amabile, flauto dolce, flauto traverso, etc.
Flauto a becco(Italian m.) recorder, Blockflöte (German f.), flûte à bec (French f.), flauta dulce (Spanish f.)
Flauto a becco basso(Italian m.) bass recorder, Bassblockflöte (German f.), flûte à bec basse (French f.), flauta dulce bajo (Spanish f.)
Flauto a becco contralto(Italian m.) alto or treble recorder, Altblockflöte (German f.), flûte à bec alto (French f.), flauta dulce contralto (or alto) (Spanish f.)
Flauto a becco sopranino(Italian m.) sopranino recorder, Sopraninoblockflöte (German f.), flûte à bec sopranino (French f.), flauta dulce sopranino (Spanish f.)
Flauto a becco soprano(Italian m.) soprano or descant recorder, Sopranblockflöte (German f.), flûte à bec soprano (French f.), flauta dulce soprano (Spanish f.)
Flauto a becco tenore(Italian m.) tenor recorder, Tenorblockflöte (German f.), flûte à bec ténor (French f.), flauta dulce tenor (Spanish f.)
Flauto a culisse(Italian m.) swanee whistle, slide whistle, piston flute, flauto a tiro (Italian m.), zufolo a pistone (Italian m.), Lotusflöte (German f.), Stempelflöte (German f.), flûte lotine (French f.), flûte à coulisse (French f.)
Flauto amabile(Italian m.) an organ stop, of 8 ft. pitch, with a soft, delicate tone
Flauto amoroso(Italian m.) a organ stop, of 4 ft. pitch, with a delicate tone
Flauto a tiro(Italian m.) swanee whistle, slide whistle, piston flute, flauto a culisse (Italian m.), zufolo a pistone (Italian m.), Lotusflöte (German f.), Stempelflöte (German f.), flûte lotine (French f.), flûte à coulisse (French f.)
Flauto basso(Italian m.) bass flute in C (playing one octave below the standard orchestral flute), Baßflöte (German f., older spelling), Bassflöte (German f., modern spelling), flûte basse (French f.), flauta baja (Spanish f.)
in England, sometimes used to refer to the flauto contralto (Italian m.), for example, flauto basso in sol in The Planets by Gustav Holst
Flauto contralto(Italian m.) alto flute in G (playing a fourth below the standard orchestral flute in C), Altflöte (German f.), flûte alto (French f.), flauta contralto (Spanish f.)
sometimes used to refer to the bass flute, Baßflöte (German f., older spelling), Bassflöte (German f., modern spelling), flûte basse (French f.), flauta baja (Spanish f.)
Flauto contrabbasso(Italian m.) a transverse flute in C two octaves below the standard orchestral flute
Flauto d'amore(Italian m.) see flûte d'amour
Flauto d'echo(Italian m.) an organ stop, the sound of which resembles that of a distant flute
the instrument named by Bach for the two 'recorder' parts in Brandenburg Concerto no. 4
in the 4th Brandenburg Concerto in G major, J.S. Bach calls for two flauti d'echo. The musicologist Thurston Dart mistakenly suggested that it was intended for flageolets at a higher pitch, and in a recording under Neville Marriner using Dart's editions it was played an octave higher than usual on sopranino recorders. An argument can be made that the instruments Bach identified as flauti d'echo were echo flutes, an example of which survives in Leipzig to this day. It consisted of two recorders in f' connected together by leather flanges: one instrument was voiced to play softly, the other loudly
  • Recorder from which the comment has been taken
Flauto di Pan(Italian m.) panpipes, siringa (Italian f., Spanish f.), Panflöte (German f.), flûte de Pan (French f.), syrinx (French m.)
(Italian m.) an organ pipe of small size
Flauto diritto(Italian m.) recorder, flûte à bec
Flauto dolce (s.), Flauti dolci (pl.)(Italian m.) recorder, flûte à bec
an organ stop with a flute-like tone
Flauto dorisflauto dolce
Flauto douce(Italian/French) flauto dolce (Italian m.), flûte à bec (French f.), Blockflöte (German f.), flauta doce (Spanish f.)
Flauto gravean organ stop of 8 ft. tone
Flauto grosso(Italian m.) found in Vivaldi's operas Tito Manlio and La verità in cimento, now thought to refer to a treble recorder, grosso relative to the flautino, the sopranino recorder
Flauto iperbasso(Italian m.) transverse flute in C, three octaves below the flauto basso (bass flute), two octaves below the flauto contrabbasso (contrabass flute) and one octave below the flauto subcontrabbasso (sub-contrabass flute)
Flautone(Italian) usually an alto flute, although some use the term for a bass flute
(Italian) a 16 ft. pedal stop in an organ, with a soft tone
Flauto piccolo(Italian m.) octave flute (flute one octave above a standard flute), piccolo (English, French f.), ottavino (Italian m.), Pikkolo (German n.), kleine Flöte (German f.), petite flûte (French f.), flautín (Spanish m.)
Flauto subcontrabbasso(Italian m.) a transverse flute in G (also called flauto doppio contra-alto) or in C (also called flauto doppio contrabbasso)
Flauto soprano(Italian m.) a transverse flute in E flat, a minor third above the standard orchestral flute
Flauto tenore(Italian m.) see flûte d'amore
Flauto traverso (s.), Flauti traversi (pl.)(Italian m.) transverse flute, 'cross'-flute, Querflöte (German f.), flûte traversière (French f.), flauta travesera (Spanish f.), flauta traversa (Spanish f.), flauta transversa (Spanish f.)
an organ stop with cylindrical pipes, usually made of pearwood and sounding their octave, or hamonic, in the treble
Flauto traverso terzetto(Italian m.) also traverso terzetto (Italian m.) or flûte tierce (French f.), a flute used formerly in military music but seldom in the orchestra which sounds a minor third (E flat) above the standard orchestral flute (C)
Flauto usignuolo(Italian m., literally 'nightingale flute') a flute in G built by Abelardo Albisi (1872-1938). The flute in C was built in 1937 to perform a part in the opera La Parisina by Glauco Meriggioli (1872-1938)
Fleadh(Gaelic) Celtic music festival
Flea-holealso called 'mumbler' or 'voicer', an important feature of many Balkan chanters, the 'flea-hole', which is covered by the index finger of the left hand, is smaller than the other tone holes and usually consists of a small tube that is made out of metal or a chicken or duck feather. Uncovering the 'flea-hole' raises any note played by a semitone (half step), and it is used in creating the musical ornamentation that sets Balkan music apart
Flebile(Italian) plaintive, mournful, doleful, sad
Flebilmente(Italian) plaintively, mournfully, dolefully, sadly
Fleche(anglicised form of flèche (French f.)) a narrow openwork tower with a tall spire, sometimes constructed of wood or metal
Flèche(French f.) a slender spire (on a cathedral or church)
Flechse(German f.) sinew, tendon
flechsig(German) tendinous
Fleco(Spanish m.) fringe (decorative, hair), frayed edge, bangs (US hair)
Flechtarbeit(German f.) basket-work, wickerwork
Flechtband(German n.) braid (band entwined with hair)
Flechte(German f.) lichen, tress, eczema, braid (plait), plait, basket weave, weave (in some forms of dance)
Flechten(German n.) lichens, tresses, plait
flechten(German) to braid, to wattle, to weave (into), to plait, to entwist
flechtenartig(German) lichenous
flechtend(German) braiding, plaiting, wattling
Flechtenende(German n.) weave ending (in a foxtrot)
Flechtgürtel(German m.) braided belt, plaited belt
Flechthecke(German f.) pleached hedge
Flechtriemen(German m.) braided sling
Flechtwerk(German n.) wattle, wattling, basket-work, wickerwork, wattlework
Flechtwerk mit Lehm(German n.) wattle and daub (archaic)
Flechtwerkwand(German f.) wattle-and-daub
Flechtzaun(German m.) wattle fence
Fleck (s.), Flecken (pl.)(German m.) stain, spot, blot, blotch, dot, mark, speck, dapple, patch, fleck (of mud, paint), place (wrong, right, same, etc.), blemish, splodge, patch (for mending)
Fleck auf der Haut(German m.) blotch on the skin
fleckbildend(German) forming stains
Fleckchen(German n.) freckle, speck
Fleckchen {n} Erde(German n.) spot of land
Flecken(German m.) hamlet, small town, fleck (of mud, paint)
flecken(German) to spot
Flecken Erde(German m.) piece of ground
Flecken bekommen(German) to stain, to break out in spots
Fleckenbildung(German f.) spotting
fleckend(German) specking
Fleckenentferner(German m.) spot remover
Fleckenentfernung(German f.) spot removal
Fleckenfestigkeit(German f.) stain resistance
fleckenfrei(German) stainless, stain-free
Flecken hinterlassen(German) to stain
fleckenlos(German) fleckless, untainted, spotlessly, stainless, spotless (also figurative)
Fleckenreiniger(German m.) spot remover, spot removers
Fleckenteufel(German m.) spot remover
Fleckentferner(German m.) stain remover
Flecken verursachen(German) to stain
Fleckenwasser(German n.) stain remover
Fleckerln(German pl. - Austria) pasta in the shape of little squares
Fleckerlteppich(German m. - Southern Germany, Austria) rag rug
Fleckfieber(German n.) epidemic typhus, spotted fever, typhus (transmitted by lice harbouring Rickettsia)
fleckig(German) blotched, patchy, spotted, patchily, blotchy, dapple, dappled, mottled, spotty, splotchy, speckled
fleckige Gesichtshaut(German f.) blotchy complexion
fleckige Kuh(German f.) brindled cow
fleckiger(German) patchier, splotchier (colloquial)
Fleckigkeit(German f.) blotchiness
fleckigste(German) patchiest, splotchiest, splodgiest
Fleckigwerden(German n.) spotting (paint, etc.)
fleckig werden(German) to stain (take a stain)
Fleckintensität(German f.) spot intensity
Flecktarnung(German f.) mottled camouflage
Flecktyphus(German m.) spotted fever, epidemic typhus
Fleckvieh(German n.) simmental breed (a Swiss breed of large muscular cattle, having a reddish body and a white face and raised for meat and milk)
Fleckwasser(German n.) stain remover
fleddern(German) to rob (from the helpless or dead)
Fledermaus (s.), Fledermäuse (pl.)(German f.) bat (order Chiroptera)
fledermausartig(German) batty, bat-like
Fledermausflügel(German m.) batwing
fledermausflügelartig(German) batwing-shaped
Fledertiere(German pl.) bats (order Chiroptera)
Flederwisch(German m.) feather duster
Fleecedecke(German f.) fleece blanket
Fleet Street(German f.) Fleet Street (figurative: historical home of London's main newspapers, often used as a name for the main London newspaper industry as a whole)
Flegel (s./pl.)(German m.) boor, churl, cub, cad, lout, flail (weapon)
Flegelalter(German n.) awkward age
flegelhaft(German) loutish, boorish, boorishly, churlish, churlishly, impudent
flegelhaftes Benehmen(German n.) boorishness, rowdiness (disorderliness)
Flegelhaftigkeit(German f.) boorishness
Flegeljahre(German pl.) teens
Flegeln(German n.) sprawl
Flehen(German n.) entreaty, entreaties, supplication, pleading, solicitation
flehen(German) to crave, to beg, to implore
flehend(German) appealing, beseechingly, craving, pleaded for, pleading, praying, supplicatory, pleading for, pleadingly, imploring, beseeching, entreating, appealingly, in supplication
flehentlich(German) beseeching, imploringly, appealing, appealingly
flehentlich bitten(German) to appeal deeply, to beseech, to entreat
flehentlicher Blick(German m.) look of entreaty
flehentlich gebeten(German) besought
flehen um(German) to beg for, to implore, to plead for
fleht(German) pleads for, pleads
fleht an(German) supplicates, implores, invokes
flehte an(German) supplicated, implored
Fleisch(German n.) meat, flesh (also figurative)
Fleisch auf die Knochen bringen(German) to put flesh on the bones, to put meat on the bones
Fleisch auf die Knochen packen(German) to put flesh on the bones, to put meat on the bones
Fleisch aufschneiden(German) to cut up meat
Fleisch dünsten(German) to braise meat
Fleisch fressend(German) carnivorous
Fleisch klein hacken(German) to chop meat fine
Fleisch klopfen(German) to pound meat
Fleisch plattieren(German) to tenderise meat (by hammering)
Fleisch schneiden(German) to carve meat
Fleisch zerlegen(German) to cut up meat
Fleischabfall(German m.) offal
fleischartig(German) fleshy, meaty
Fleischbeil(German n.) meat cleaver
Fleischbrocken(German pl.) chunks of meat
Fleischbrühe(German f.) meat broth, broth, beef tea, bouillon, consommé, meat stock
Fleischbrühwürfel(German m.) beef-tea cube, bouillon cube
Fleischeinlage(German f.) meat added to soup
Fleischer (m.), Fleischerin (f.)(German) butcher
Fleischerbeil(German n.) butcher's cleaver, meat cleaver, meat-hatchet
Fleischerei(German f.) butcher's (shop), butchery (butcher's shop), charcuterie
Fleischerhaken(German m.) meat hook
Fleischerhandwerk(German n.) butchery, butcher's trade
Fleischerhund(German m.) large fierce dog
Fleischerladen(German m.) butcher's shop
Fleischermesser(German n.) butcher's knife, butcher knife
Fleischersäge(German f.) butcher's saw
Fleischeslust(German f.) carnal desire, carnal lust, concupiscence, carnality
Fleischesser (s./pl.)(German m.) meat eater (humans)
Fleischextrakt(German m.) meat extract
Fleischfarbe(German f.) flesh colour, carnation
fleischfarben(German) incarnadine, flesh-coloured
fleischfarbig(German) flesh-coloured
Fleischfondue(German n.) meat fondue
fleischfressend(German) carnivorously, carnivorous, flesh-eating, meat-eating
fleischfressendes Tier(German n.) carnivorous animal
Fleischfresser (s./pl.)(German m.) carnivore, meat eater
Fleischfresserei(German f.) carnivorousness
Fleischfrikadellen(German pl.) meatballs
Fleischgabel(German f.) meat fork
Fleischgericht (s.), Fleischgerichte (pl.)(German n.) meat dish
Fleischgeschmack(German m.) meaty flavour
fleischgeworden(German) incarnate (literary), personified
Fleischhacker (m.), Fleischhackerin (f.)(German - Austria) butcher
Fleischhaken(German m.) meat hook
Fleischhauer (m.), Fleischhauerin (f.)(German - Austria) butcher
fleischig(German) beefily, beefy, fleshy, meaty, succulent, pulpy (berries)
fleischiger(German) fleshier, meatier
fleischiger Geschmack(German m.) meaty flavour
fleischiger Wein(German m.) fleshy wine
fleischigste(German) fleshiest, meatiest
Fleischkäse(German m.) (minced) meat loaf, beef and pork loaf, meatloaf
Fleischklopfer(German m.) (meat) mallet, steak hammer, meat tenderiser
Fleischkloß (s.), Fleischklöße (pl.)(German m.) meatball
Fleischklößchen (s./pl.)(German n.) meatball
Fleischklotz(German m.) meat block, chopping table
Fleischkonserve(German f.) preserved meat
Fleischküchel (s./pl.)(German n. - Southern Germany) meatball
Fleischlaibchen(German n.) burger, hamburger
fleischlich(German) carnal, carnally, fleshly
fleischliche Begierden(German pl.) carnal desires
fleischliche Lüste(German pl.) carnal desires
fleischlos(German) fleshless, meatless
fleischloser Tag(German m.) banian day (a day on which meat is not eaten)
Fleischmarkt(German m.) meat market
Fleischmesser(German n.) meat knife
Fleischpaste(German f.) meat paste
Fleischpastete(German f.) meat pie, pasty
Fleischpflanzerl(German n. - Southern Germany) meatball
Fleischreste(German pl.) left-over meat, remaining meat
Fleischrinder(German pl.) beef cattle
fleischrosa(German) flesh pink
Fleischsäge(German f.) meat saw
Fleischsalat(German m.) meat salad
Fleischsauce(German f.) meat sauce
Fleischschnitte (s.), Fleischschnitten (pl.)(German f.) slice of meat, steak
Fleischsorten(German pl.) meats
Fleischsoße(German f.) meat sauce
Fleischspeisen(German pl.) meat dishes
Fleischstück (s.), Fleischstücke (pl.)(German n.) piece of meat
Fleischtomate(German f.) beefsteak tomato, beef tomato
Fleischverpackungspapier(German n.) meat wrapping paper
Fleischwolf(German m.) mincer, mincing machine
Fleischwunde(German f.) flesh wound, laceration
Fleischwürfel(German m.) meat cube
Fleischwurst(German f.) pork sausage, bologna
Fleiß(German m.) diligence, assiduity, industry, industriousness, stuiousness, study, application
Fleißaufgabe(German f.) voluntary extra task (in school, also figurative)
fleißig(German) diligent, diligently, studious, studiously, hardworking, sedulous, sedulously, busy, industriously, assiduous, industrious, painstaking
fleißige Biene(German f.) busy bee
fleißiger(German) more industrious
fleißiger Arbeiter(German m.) hard worker
fleißiger Mann(German m.) hard-working man
fleißig lernen(German) to study hard
fleißig sein(German) to be diligent
Fleje(Spanish m.) metal strip or band, metal hoop
flektierbar(German) inflectable
flektieren(German) to inflect
flektierende Sprache(German f.) inflectional language
flektiert(German) flectional, flexional, inflectional, inflected
Flem.abbreviation of 'Flemish'
flennen(German) to howl (colloquial: to cry loudly), to have a blubber (colloquial: to cry), to blubber (colloquial: to cry), to blub (colloquial: to cry), to snivel
flennend(German) crying
Flenner(German m.) blubberer (someone who cries)
Flenseto strip the blubber or skin from (a whale or seal)
flensen(German) to flense
Flequillo(Spanish m.) fringe (hair), bangs (US hair)
flertaktspaus(Swedish) multibar rest
flertaktspause(Danish) multibar rest
Flesh sidein medieval manuscripts, this term refers to the side of a leaf of parchment or vellum that originally faced the internal organs of the animal, as opposed to the hair side, which was the side of the skin that faced outward. Usually, the flesh side is whiter and softer than the hair side. The two sides are usually distinguishable in continental manuscripts, but it is often harder to distinguish them in insular texts (texts from Britain), because the custom in the British isles was to refrain from scraping the skins very deeply, so that both sides retain a suedelike surface and sometimes a stiff, cellulose character
Flessatono(Italian m.) flexatone
Flessibile(Italian) flexible, pliant
Flessibilità(Italian) flexiblity of voice or fingers
Fleta(Spanish f.) rub, rubbing, tanning, spanking
Fletador (m.), Fletadora (f.)(Spanish) charterer, freighter
Fletamiento(Spanish m.) chartering
fletar(Spanish) to charter, to freight, to hire (South America)
Fletcher-Munson curvesFletcher and Munson were researchers in the 1930s who first accurately measured and published a set of curves showing the human's ear's sensitivity to loudness verses frequency. They conclusively demonstrated that human hearing is extremely dependent upon loudness. The curves show the ear to be most sensitive to sounds in the 3 kHz to 4 kHz area. This means sounds above and below 3-4 kHz must be louder in order to be heard just as loud. For this reason, the Fletcher-Munson curves are referred to as "equal loudness contours". They represent a family of curves from "just heard", (0 dB SPL) all the way to "harmfully loud" (130 dB SPL), usually plotted in 10 dB loudness increments
fletschend(German) baring
Fleur(French f.) flower
Fleur-de-lis(French f.) or fleur-de-lys, the heraldic lily
Fleur des champs(French f.) wild flower
Fleurons(French) small crescent shaped pieces of puff pastry
Fleute(German f.) fluyt (Dutch) (also fluit or flute: type of Dutch cargo vessel)
Flexabbreviation of Flexaton (German: flexatone), flexatone (French, English)
Flex(German f.) angle grinder
Flexasee 'neume notation'
Flexa resupinasee 'neume notation'
Flexaton(Italian m., German n., French m.) flexatone
Flexatoneor 'Flex-a-tone', a percussion instrument from the 1920s comprising wooden balls on a spring attached to a flexible metal sheet, which when shaken producing a sound similar to a musical saw as the balls strike the metal sheet. Thumb pressure is used to control pitch, which is distinct but generally in motion (and accompanied by rattling from the balls). The instrument's range is approximately E5 to A6
Flexatono(Spanish m.) flexatone
flexibel(German) flexible,customisable, adjustable, flexibly
flexibelste(German) most flexible
Flexibilität(German f.) flexibility, versatility (mental)
Flexible notationa modern notation system that allows the performer to determine some of the details of the composition during the performance
flexibler(German) more flexible
Flexible rateslowing speech rate on selected syllables or words, rather than on every word in every sentence. This technique is used as part of a program to increase fluency by changing aspects of speech production
flexibler werden(German) to become more flexible
Flexion (s.), Flexionen (pl.)(German f.) inflexion, inflection
Flexionsendung(German f.) flectional ending
Flexionsform(German f.) inflexion form
flexionslos(German) uninflected
Flexionsmorphologie(German f.) inflectional morphology
Flexionsstamm(German m.) portion of word present in all inflected forms
Flexionstabelle(German f.) inflection table
Flexodruck(German m.) flexo printing, flexographic printing
Flexodruckfarbe(German f.) flexographic ink
Flexodruckmaschine(German f.) flexographic printing press
Flexograf(German m.) flexographer
Flexographya relief printing process where a flexible plate made of moulded rubber is adhered to a printing cylinder, then inked with a finely textured roller, and directly rolled onto a substrate to create a printed image. Its basic principles are the same as letterpress printing but this process is more versatile. Flexography can be used to print on almost any surface, porous and non-porous alike, such as, leather, plastic, metal, paper, plastic, and wood
Flexwickler(German m.) flexible rod
Flex-Wickler(German m.) flexible rod
FlgHnabbreviation of Flügelhorn (German: flugelhorn - bugle à pistons (French))
Flibbertigibbeta frivolous, flighty, or excessively talkative person
Sir Walter Scott used the word for a mischievous and flighty small child
Flic(French m.) a (French) policeman, a cop (in French, a slang term)
Flickarbeit(German f.) patchwork, botched-up work, maintenance by patching
Flicken(German m.) patch, mending
flicken(German) to tinker, to botch (colloquial), to cobble, to vamp up, to patch, to mend, to darn
flickend(German) cobbling, tinkering, patching
Flickenpuppe (s.), Flickenpuppen (pl.)(German f.) rag doll
Flickenteppich(German m.) rag rug, patchwork rug
Flicken zum Aufbügeln(German pl.) iron-on patches
Flicker (m.), Flickerin (f.)(German) patcher
Flickerei(German f.) patching, patchery
Flickflack(German m.) flic-flac, back handspring
Flickgedicht(German n.) cento
'flicking' is a bassoon technique used to aid in producing the above notes, particularly when slurring from the lower register
Flickoper(German f.) pastiche, pasticcio
Flickschuster(German m.) cobbler, shoemender
Flickschusterei(German f.) botched job (colloquial)
flickt(German) patches
flickte(German) patched
Flickteppich(German m.) patchwork rug
Flickwerk(German n.) patchwork, botch (colloquial), botched work, patches
Flickzeug(German n.) sewing kit, repair kit, puncture repair kit (bicycle)
Flicorne(French m.) flugelhorn, saxhorn, flicorno (Italian m.)
Flicorno(Italian m.) flugelhorn, saxhorn, flicorne (French m.)
Flieder(German m.) lilac, syringa
Fliederbaum(German m.) lilac tree (Syringa)
Fliederduft(German m.) smell of lilac
fliederfarben(German) lilac
Fliedertee(German m.) elderberry tea
fliegbar(German) flyable
Fliege (s.), Fliegen (pl.)(German f.) fly, bow-tie, bow tie
Fliegen(German n.) flying, aviation
fliegen(German) to fly, to go by plane, to travel by air, to dart, to wing (to fly), to wing one's way (to fly), to skim (over), to skim (across), to fall
Fliegenangeln(German n.) fly fishing
fliegend(German) flying, winging
fliegende Bauten(German pl.) temporary buildings, fairground rides
fliegende Bombe(German f.) flying bomb
Fliegendecke(German f.) fly sheet (for horses)
fliegende Hitze(German f.) hot flushes
fliegender Bau(German m.) portable building
fliegender Druck(German m.) on-the-fly print
fliegender Gemüsehändler(German m.) vegetable hawker
fliegender Händler(German m.) travelling salesman
fliegender Start(German m.) running start, rolling start
fliegender Teppich(German m.) magic carpet
fliegendes Staccatospringing, bouncing (bowing), playing with a bouncing bow, spiccato (Italian), saltando (Italian), saltato (Italian), balzato (Italian), mit Springbogen (German), bondi (French), staccato volant (French), sautillé
fliegende Untertasse(German f.) flying saucer
Fliegendreck(German m.) flyspeck
Fliegen fangen(German) to catch flies
Fliegenfänger (s./pl.)(German m.) flypaper
Fliegenfenster (s./pl)(German n.) fly screen
Fliegenfischen(German n.) fly fishing
Fliegengewicht (s.), Fliegengewichte (pl.)(German n.) flyweight (boxing: 48-51 kg)
Fliegengitter(German n.) fly screen
Fliegengittertür(German f.) screen door
Fliegenklatsche (s.), Fliegenklatschen (pl.)(German f.) (fly) swatter
fliegen können(German) to be able to fly
fliegen lassen(German) to let fly
Fliegenleiche(German f.) dead fly
Fliegenpapier(German n.) flypaper
Fliegenschiss(German m.) flyspeck
Fliegenschutzgitter(German n.) flyscreen, fly screen
Fliegenspray(German n.) fly spray
Fliegen verscheuchen(German) to flick flies (horse, etc.)
Fliegenwedel(German m.) fly-whisk, fly whisk
Flieger(German m.) aircraft, plane, aeroplane
Flieger (m.), Fliegerin (f.), Flieger (pl.), Fliegerinnen ( airman, aviator, flier, aviatrix (f.), airwoman
Fliegeralarm(German m.) air raid warning, air alert, air raid alarm, air raid siren
Fliegerangriff(German m.) air raid
Fliegeranzug(German m.) flight suit
Fliegerass(German n.) ace, flying ace
Fliegerbrille(German f.) aviator goggles
Fliegerclub(German m.) flying club
Fliegerdress(German n.) flying suit
Fliegerei(German f.) flying, aviation
fliegerisch(German) aeronautical
Fliegerjacke(German f.) bomber jacket, flight jacket
Fliegerklub(German m.) aero club, flying club
Fliegeroverall(German m.) flight suit
Fliegerschule (s.), Fliegerschulen (pl.)(German f.) aviation school, flying school
fliehen(German) to take flight, to flee, to fly (flee), to escape
fliehend(German) fleeing
fliehende Stirn(German f.) sloping forehead
fliehendes Kinn(German n.) receding chin
Fliehgewicht(German n.) flyweight
Fliehkraft-(German) centrifugal (prefix)
Fliehkraft(German f.) centrifugal force
Flies(theatre) the space over the stage (out of view of the audience) used to store scenery (drop curtains)
Fliese(German f.) (glazed) tile, slab, flag (flagstone)
Fliesen (s./pl.)(German n.) tiling, (glazed) tiles (pl.)
fliesen(German) to flag (a floor), to tile (a floor)
Fliesenbelag(German m.) ceramic tiling, tile cladding
Fliesenboden(German m.) tiled floor, tile floor
Fliesenhersteller(German m.) tile maker
Fliesenkleber(German m.) tile adhesive
Fliesenlegen(German n.) tiling
Fliesenleger(German m.) tiler, floor tiler
Fliesenoberfläche(German f.) tile surface
Fliesenoberseite(German f.) tile face
Fliesenwand(German f.) tiled wall
Fließband (s.), Fließbänder (pl.)(German n.) assembly line, line (assembly line)
Fließbild(German n.) flow chart (diagram of manufacturing process)
Fließen(German n.) fluxion, flow (pl.)
fließen(German) to flow, to pour, to run, to stream, to tide, to course (blood, tears, etc.)
fließend(German) smooth, fluently, floating, flowing, fluent, runny, flowingly, cursive, running, streaming, fluid, tripping (metre in poetry), scorrendo, smoothly (fluent)
fliessend(German) smooth, fluently, floating, flowing, fluent, runny, flowingly, cursive, running, streaming, fluid, tripping (metre in poetry), scorrendo, smoothly (fluent)
fließende Handschrift(German f.) cursive handwriting
fließender(German) more flowing
fliessender(German) smoother, more flowing
fließender Stil(German m.) smooth style
fließender Übergang(German m.) fluent passage
fließendes Englisch(German n.) fluent English
fließendes Gewässer(German n.) running water
fließendes Wasser(German n.) running water
fließend heißes Wasser(German n.) constant hot water
fließend im Englischen(German) fluent in English
fließendste(German) runniest
fließen durch(German) to pass through (river)
fließen lassen(German) to channel
fließfähig(German) flowable, fluid
Fließfertigung(German f.) continuous production
Fließgeschwindigkeit(German f.) velocity of flow, current velocity, flow rate, flow velocity
Fließgewässer (s./pl.)(German n.) stream (of water), flowing water, running water
Fließgleichgewicht(German n.) steady state, dynamic equilibrium
Fließheck(German n.) fastback, hatchback (car)
Fließlaut(German m.) liquid consonant
Fließpapier(German n.) blotting paper
Fließpressen(German n.) extrusion
Fließpressverfahren(German n.) impact extrusion
Fließrichtung(German f.) flow direction
Fließsand(German m.) quicksand
Fließschema(German n.) flow diagram, flow sheet
fließt wieder(German) reflows
Fließtext(German m.) continuous text, flowing text
Fließtiefe(German f.) water depth (in flowing water)
Fließverhalten(German n.) flow properties, flow behaviour, rheological behaviour
Fließwasser(German n.) running water
Flimmer(German m.) glimmer
flimmerfrei(German) flickerfree, glimmer-free, flicker-free, flickerless
Flimmern(German n.) flickering, flicker, twinkle, jitter, snow (TV screen)
flimmern(German) to flicker, to glimmer, to twinkle
flimmernd(German) glimmering, shimmery
flimmert(German) glimmers
flimmerte(German) glimmered
Flinga vigorous Scottish dance resembling a 'reel' and usually in quadruple time
flink(German) nimble, nimbly, agile, brisk, dapper, deftly, smart, speedy, zippy (colloquial), lissome, fleet (quick), swift
flinke Beine(German pl.) swift feet
flinke Hand(German f.) light hand
flinke Handbewegung(German f.) dapper wave of the hand
flinker(German) nimbler
flinker Arbeiter(German m.) facile worker
flinker Helfer(German m.) prompt assistant
flinker Verstand(German m.) swift wit
Flinkheit(German f.) quickness, alertness
flink im Geiste(German) alert
flink mit den Fingern(German) deft with one's fingers
flinkste(German) nimblest
flink wie ein Wiesel(German) quick as a flash
flinkzüngig(German) glib (answer)
Flinserl(German n. - Austria) earring (worn by a male person)
Flint(German m.) flint
Flinte (s.), Flinten (pl.)(German f.) musket, shot gun
Flintenkugel(German f.) shotgun pellet, slug (bullet)
Flintenlaufmunition(German f.) slugs
Flintenschrot(German m.) (lead) shot
Flintenschuss (s.), Flintenschüsse (pl.)(German m.) gunshot
Flintenweib (s.), Flintenweiber (pl.)(German n.) radical womens' libber (f.: figurative) , soldier in skirts (pejorative), gunwoman
Flip(English, German m.) type of cocktail
Flipchart(German f./n./m.) flip chart
Flip-Chart(German f./n.) flip chart
flippen(German) to flip
Flipper(German m.) pinball, pinball machine
flippern(German) to flip, to play pinball
flippig(German) funky (slang), way-out (colloquial: crazy)
flippte(German) somersaulted
Flip sidesee 'B-side'
flirren(German) to shimmer (air, heat, etc.)
Flirt (s.), Flirts (pl.)(German m.) flirtation, a person who flirts (behaves in a mildly sexually provocative way)
flirtare con(Italian) to flirt with
Flirtationsa nineteenth-century dance similar to those of the quadrille
Flirten(German n.) philandering
flirten(German) to coquet, to flirt, to philander, to carry on with a girl, to gallivant
flirtend(German) flirting, gallivanting, philandering, flirtingly
flirten mit(German) to coquet with
Flirter(German m.) flirter
flirtet(German) flirts, gallivants, philanders
flirtete(German) gallivanted, flirted
Flirtversuch(German m.) clumsy flirtation
Flitcha plank-sized chunk of lumber that has been cut into very thin slices (sliced from a cross-section of a log, as opposed to turning the log on a lathe and peeling from the outer edge in a continuous ribbon, remaining in the order in which they were cut) for veneering piano cases, doors, furniture, etc.
fish steak usually cut from a halibut, salted and cured abdominal wall of a side of pork
Flittchen (s./pl.)(German n.) slut (pejorative), hussy (promiscuous or immoral girl or woman), floozie (colloquial), trollop (dated, humerous), painted woman (colloquial)
Flitter (s./pl.)(German m.) trumpery, frippery
Flittergold(German n.) flour gold
flitterhaft(German) tawdry, tawdrily
Flitterhaftigkeit(German f.) tawdriness
Flitterkram(German m.) frippery
flittern(German) to tinsel, to honeymoon
flitternd(German) tinselling
flittert(German) tinsels
flitterte(German) tinselled
Flitterwochen(German pl.) honeymoon
Flitterwochen in Paris feiern(German) to be honeymooning in Paris
Flitterwöchner (m.), Flitterwöchnerin (f.), Flitterwöchner (pl.)(German) honeymooner
Flitzbogen(German m.) toy bow
Flitzebogen(German m.) toy bow
Flitzen(German n.) streaking
flitzen(German) to beat it (colloquial: run away), to flash (colloquial: expose oneself), to streak (run fully or partial unclothed), to flit, to whizz, to shoot, to beetle (colloquial), to cut (colloquial: break off), to hare (colloquial: run), to hightail (it) (colloquial), to hop (colloquial: run off), to nip (colloquial: run), to pop (colloquial: run), to whisk, to scamper, to scoot (colloquial: run), to dart, to dash, to speed
flitzend(German) flitting, whizzing
Flitzer(German m.) runabout (small motorboat), nippy little car (colloquial), scooter
Flitzer (m.), Flitzerin (f.)(German) streaker (fully or partial unclothed)
flitzt(German) flits, whizzes
flitzte(German) flitted, whizzed
floaten (lassen)(German) to float
floatender Wechselkurs(German m.) floating exchange rate
Floating divisionon the organ, a division that has no special keyboard, but plays by being coupled to various keyboards
Floating pickupon a stringed instrument, a pickup that is suspended over the body rather than being built into it. Commonly found on arched top guitars, these pickups are frequently attached to the end of the fingerboard or pickguard so as not to interfere with the acoustical properties of the instrument or alter it structurally
Floating vibratoLeo Fender's Jazz master electirc guitar sported a new floating vibrato and floating bridge. In this design, the strings went over the bridge and attached to the vibrato tailpiece. This length of string served to limit sustain, furthering the guitar's pursuit of jazz tone. The bridge's two pointed anchor posts rest on metal cups sunk into the body. By pivoting on these pointed legs, the bridge could move along with the strings when the vibrato was deployed. The setup effectively limited friction on the strings, but the bridge design left something to be desired
F-Loch (s.), F-Löcher (pl.)(German n.) or Schallloch (German n.), ouie (French f.), trou d'F (French m.), foro armonico (Italian m.), "f" (Italian f.), f or sound hole(s) of instruments of the violin family, etc.
Flockdruck(German m.) flock print
Flocke (s.), Flocken (pl.)(German f.) flake, flock (tuft of material)
flockig(German) flaked, flaky, fluffy (snow), flocculent
flockige Glasur(German f.) flaked glaze
flockiger(German) flakier
flockiger Zustand(German m.) flakiness
Flockigkeit(German f.) fluffiness, flakiness
flockig machen(German) to flake
flockigste(German) flakiest
Flock- und Kammzugfärbung(German f.) tops and stock dyeing
Flockung(German f.) flocculation, coagulation
Flogherasee floyera
Floh (s.), Flöhe (pl.)(German m.) flea
Flohhüpfen(German n.) tiddlywinks
Flohkino(German n.) fleapit (colloquial: small, shabby cinema)
Flohmarkt(German m.) flea market, peddlars market
Flohrutschen(German pl.) muttonchop whiskers
Flohwalzer(German m.) chopsticks
Flohzirkus(German m.) flea circus
FlojereKosovar Albanian end-blown flute
Flöjt (s.), Flöjter (pl.)(Swedish) flute [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
Flon-flon(French) bad music, trash, a contemptuous term for any air that resembles in style certain old vaudevilles
Floorcrafta reference to a dancer's awareness of the position of others on the dance floor, in order to avoid bumping into them, as well as the skill to continue dancing without pause when boxed in
Floor fillersee 'dance anthem'
Floortom(German n.) floor tom
Floor tomlargest of the tom-toms that stands on the floor on feet made of metal rods
Flop(English, German m.) also in English, 'floppola', a failure at the box office, bomb (colloquial: complete failure), flop (colloquial)
floppen(German) to flop (colloquial: fail totally), to bomb (colloquial: fail totally)
Flor(German m.) pile (carpet), gauze, bloom, crape (black ribbon)
Flora (s.), Florae (Latin pl.), Floren (German pl.)(German f., Latin) the whole range of plant life (as opposed to the whole range of animal life, fauna)
Floralof or pertaining to flowers, plants, etc.
floral(German) floral
florales Kreuz(German n.) cross fleury
floreado (m.), floreada (f.)(Spanish) flowered, flowery, florid (style)
florear(Spanish) to play in arpeggios (on a guitar), to adorn with flowers, to pay compliments to, to flourish, to bloom, to flower
Floreat(Latin) flourish! (always followed by the name of a school, college, etc.)
florecerse(Spanish) to go mouldy
floreciente(Spanish) flourishing, prosperous
Florecimiento(Spanish m.) flowering (plant), blooming, blossoming (trees), flourishing (figurative), prospering (figurative)
Floreio(Portuguese) ornamentation
Florentine Camerataor Florentine Academy, a group of late sixteenth-century Florentine composers and teachers who met, between 1573 and 1589, to discuss literature, science and the arts. Their earliest recorded meeting was 14 January 1573 at the home of Count Giovanni Bardi. The group was not formally organized, and it is unclear as to who all might have participated in the discussions. It is known that Vincenzo Galilei, Galileo's father, and Giulo Caccini frequented the group, but it is likely that Jacopo Peri, Ottavio Rinuccini and Girolamo Mei also participated. Members of the Camerata were largely concerned with a revival of the Greek dramatic style. It is from these experimentations that the stile recitativo was invented. It was thought that the Greeks used a style between speech and song, and this is what this development produced. This style was used in several monodies and intermedi of the day, but became primarily linked with the development of opera. It is indeed the formulation of opera in the realm of music for which both Florence and the Florentine Camerata are most famous
Florentiner(German m.) florentiners, picture hat
Florentiner (m.), Florentinerin (f.)(German) Florentine
Florentiner Camerata(German f.) Florentine Camerata, Forentine Academy, camerata fiorentina (Italian f.), camerata florentina (Spanish f.)
Florentinerrot(German n.) Florentine red
florentinisch(German) Florentine
Florenz(German n.) Florence
Floreo(Spanish) the hand movements of flamenco dancers
Florero(Spanish f.) grace note
Floressee muñecas
Florett(German n.) foil
Florett-Fechten(German n.) foil fencing
Florettfechter (m.), Florettfechterin (f.)(German) foilsman (m.), foilswoman (f.)
Florettseide(German f.) floss (silk), florette silk
florettseiden(German) flossy
Florhut(German m.) crape hat
Floriated crossa motif combining a crucifix with foliate or floral ornament
Floriddecorated or embellished with ornamentation
a term applied to eighteenth-century vocal music, with its elaborate passagework and ornamentation
Florida breaksalso referred to as 'Florida breakbeat' and 'Funky Breaks', a genre of breakbeat music which, as the name suggests, is most popular in the areas around the US state of Florida
Floridastraße(German f.) Straits of Florida
Florid counterpointthe fifth species of counterpoint, in which notes of various values are employed, together with syncopations and suspensions
florido (m.), florida (f.)(Spanish) flowery, choice (figurative), select (figurative), florid (literature, music, etc.), arpeggiated (music)
Florid organumalso called 'Aquitainian organum' or 'melismatic organum', a twelfth-century polyphonic work based on plainchant (called the tenor) above which a newly composed line is added, having faster moving notes than the tenor, where the cadences fall on unisons, fourths, fifths and octaves
florieren(German) to prosper, to boom (prosper), to flourish, to thrive
florierend(German) prospering, booming (prospering), flourishing, thriving, prosperous
florierender Handel(German m.) flourishing trade
florierendes Geschäft(German n.) thriving business
florierende Wirtschaft(German f.) flourishing economy
floriert(German) prospered
Florilegio(Spanish m.) anthology
Florilegium (s.), Florilegia (Latin pl.)(German n., Latin, 'a gathering of flowers') an anthology (which is the exact Greek equivalent) or collection of extracts, epigrams, choice poems, etc. from the work of various authors
Florin(English, German m.) a gold coin first issued at Florence, Italy, in 1252, or any of several gold coins similar to the Florentine florin, formerly used in Europe
Floripondio(Spanish m.) large flower, gaudy flower, heavy ornamentation
Florist (s.), Floristen (p.)(German m.) florist
floristisch(German) floristic
Floritura(Spanish f.) grace note
Florschleier(German m.) gauze veil
floruit(Latin) or fl., he (or she) flourished, he (or she) worked (followed by a date or dates)
Floskel (s.), Floskeln (pl.)(German f.) empty phrase, catchword, stereotypical expression, commonplace phrase, truism, cliché, set phrase
Floß (s.), Flöße (pl.)(German n.) float, raft
flößbar(German) floatable (river)
Floßbrücke(German f.) floating bridge
Flosse (s.), Flossen (pl.)(German f.) fin, flipper, pinna, high five (colloquial)
flößen(German) to float, to raft
Flößer (m.), Flößerin (f.)(German) raftsman (m.), raftswoman (f.), log driver, rafter
Flößerei(German f.) log driving, timber rafting
Floßfahrt(German f.) raft trip, voyage by raft
Floßholz(German n.) raft wood, floated timber
flößt ein(German) infuses
floss wieder(German) reflowed
Flota de alta mar(Spanish f.) deep-sea fleet
flotar(Spanish) to float, to wave, to flutter
Flöte (s.), Flöten (pl.)(German f.) flute, pipe, whistle, flauto (Italian m.), flûte (French f.), flauta (Spanish f.)
(German f.) flute glass, flush (cards)
Flöte in C(German f.) C flute
flöten(German) to pipe, to play on the recorder, to play on the flute, to play the recorder, to say in a honeyed voice, to say in honeyed tones, to whistle (bird, etc.), to flute, to speak in dulcet tones, to play the flute, to warble (speak with a high pitched voice), to tootle
flötenartig(German) flute-like, fluty
Flötenbass(German m.) bassflute
Flötenbauer (m.), Flötenbauerin (f.)(German) flute maker
Flötenbegleitung(German f.) flute accompaniment (for example, in a song)
Flötenbläser(German m.) flautist
flötend(German) fluty, flute-like, fluting
flöten gehen(German) to go down the drain
Flötenklappe(German f.) (mechanical) key on a flute
Flötenkonzert(German n.) flute concerto
Flötenmädchen(German n.) flute girl
Flötenspiel(German n.) flute playing, playing of the flute
Flötenspieler (s./pl.)(German m.) flute player, flutist, flautist
Flötenuhr(German f.) musical clock, flute-clock
Flötenunterricht(German m.) flute-playing lessons
Flötenunterricht nehmen(German) to take flute lessons
Flöte spielen(German) to (play the) whistle, to (play the) pipe
flötet(German) flutes
flötete(German) fluted
Flöte traverso(German) the 'German' flute, the transverse flue
an organ stop
Flötenwerk(German n.) music clock
flotierbar(German) floatable
Flotierbarkeit(German f.) floatability
Flötist (m.), Flötistin (f.), Flötisten (pl.)(German) flautist, flutist (in the US)
flott(German) jauntily, perky, saucy, jaunty, brisk, dashing, fast, rakish, sporting, sporty, stylish, vigorous, zippy (colloquial), quick, fast-paced, debonaire, raffish (rakish), snazzily (colloquial), lively (pace), snappy (colloquial), snazzy (colloquial), smartly (stylishly), natty (colloquial: snazzy), allegramente (Italian), fröhlich (German), allégrement (French), allègrement (French)
flottant(French) floating (referring to the undulating motion of the violin bow)
flott aussehend(German) smart-looking
Flotte (s.), Flotten (pl.)(German f.) fleet (Navy, company car, airline)
Flotten-(German) naval (prefix)
Flottenbasis(German f.) naval base
Flottenparade(German f.) fleet review (naval), naval review
Flottenstation(German f.) naval base
Flottenstützpunkt(German m.) naval station, naval base
flotter(French) to float (referring to the undulating motion of the violin bow)
(German) jauntier, snazzier (colloquial), uptempo
flotter Bursche(German m.) smart fellow
flotter Gang(German m.) brisk walk, sharp walk
flotter Hut(German m.) rakish hat
flotter Kerl(German m.) dashing fellow
flotter Kundendienst(German m.) prompt service
flotter Schritt(German m.) smart pace
flotter Typ(German m.) fast liver (lives life at a fast pace)
flotteste(German) jauntiest
flottes Wesen(German n.) jauntiness
flottgemacht(German) got going again
flott halten(German) to buoy up
flottieren(German) to float
flottierend(German) floating
flott leben(German) to go the pace
flottmachen(German) to refloat
flott machen(German) to set afloat
flottmachend(German) getting going again
flou(French) hazy, blurred, woolly, imprecise, haziness, lack of precision
Flour goldthe finest-size gold dust, much of which will float on water
Flourisha fanfare
an decorative musical figure or florid instrumental passage
Flourisherin medieval times, this was a professional artist who works in conjunction with illuminators and rubricators to design pen-work decoration on initials and /or flourishwork on the borders of decorated books
Flourishingornamentation in pen-work, often red on a blue initial (but sometimes in lavender and occasionally in green), by means of sweeping lines and loops descending from patterns, often 'saw-tooth' at this period [1300 CE through 1499 CE], adjoining the letter
[quoted from Kathleen Scott]
Flourish of trumpetsfanfare (English, French), fanfara (Italian), Fanfare Trompeten (German)
Flowchart(German n.) flow chart
Flowerpotsordinary flowerpots tuned with water and played with the hands or with mallets
Flowerpower(German f.) flower power
Flower-Power(German f.) flower power
Floyd Rosethe inventor of the "locking (and 'double-locking') tremolo" (vibrato) system, or "whammy bar", for the electric guitar that bears his name. The name has become synonymous with this type of whammy bar. Though several manufacturers make similar systems, Floyd Rose owns the patent on the design. The Floyd Rose name and products are currently marketed and distributed by Fender
  • Floyd Rose from which this information has been taken
FloyeraGreek shepherd's flute
Flöz(German n.) seam (of diamonds, ore, etc.), bed (bed of coal)
Flözstrecke(German f.) heading
flt.abbreviation of Flatterzunge (German: flutter tonguing)
Fluch (s.), Flüche (pl.)(German m.) darn, curse, malediction, anathema, ban, blasphemy, oath, bane, cuss, damn, expletive, imprecation, malison (archaic), hex (US)
Fluch der modernen Gesellschaft(German m.) bane of modern society
Fluchen(German n.) swearing, cursing
fluchen(German) to curse, to blaspheme, to damn, to anathematise, to execrate, to rail, to swear
fluchend(German) swearing, cursing, anathematising (dated)
Fluchender (m.), Fluchender (f.)(German) cusser
fluchen über(German) to swear at
fluchen wie ein Bierkutscher(German) to curse like a trooper, to swear like a trooper
Flucher(German m.) curser
Fluchgeld(German n.) blasphemy fine
Fluchpsalm(German m.) imprecatory psalm (a psalm sung to bring about evil or misfortune)
Flucht (s.), Fluchten (pl.)(German f.) flight, elopement, escape, getaway
Fluchtachtel(German n. - Austria) the one (glass) for the road
Fluchtafel(German f.) curse tablet
fluchtartig(German) in a hurry, hurriedly, hastily, precipitate, hurried, hasty
Flucht aus dem Gefängnis(German f.) escape out of prison
Flucht aus der Wirklichkeit(German f.) escapism
Fluchtauto(German n.) getaway car
Flucht der Intelligenz(German f.) brain drain
Fluchtdistanz(German f.) flight distance
Fluchtdorn(German m.) aligning mandrel
Fluchten(German n.) aligning, axial alignment
fluchten(German) to align
flüchten(German) to skedaddle, to flee, to bolt, to break out, to escape, to take flight, to take to one's heels, to fly (flee), to abscond
fluchtend(German) aligning
flüchtend(German) absconding, resorting, fleeing
flüchten vor(German) to abscond from
Fluchtfahrer(German m.) getaway driver
Fluchtfahrzeug(German n.) getaway vehicle, getaway car
Fluchtfehler(German m.) misalignment, alignment error
Fluchtgefahr(German f.) danger of absconding
Fluchtgeld(German n.) hot money
Fluchthilfe(German f.) aiding an escape
flüchtig(German) light, flying, rapid, fugitive, fugitively, fleet, flighty, agile, quick, passing, perfunctory, perfunctorily, evanescent, desultory (reading), brief, vaguely (look, interested), hasty, transitory, casual (glance, acquaintance, etc.), momentarily, momentary, etherial, ethereal, on the run, nimble, hit-and-run, volatile, hasty, superficial, careless, sketchy (lacking detail), non-permanent, ephemeral, fleeting, volatilely, sketchily, tangential, ephemerally, briefly, cursory, transient, fleetingly
flüchtig arbeiten(German) to work hastily, to work hurriedly
flüchtig bekannt(German) on bowing terms
flüchtig berühren(German) to skim
flüchtig blicken(German) to blink, to glimpse
flüchtig blicken auf(German) to glimpse at
flüchtig blickend(German) glancing
flüchtige Bekanntschaft(German f.) nodding acquaintance, fleeting acquaintance, bowing acquaintance, casual acquaintance, speaking acquaintance, passing acquaintance
flüchtige Bestandteile(German pl.) volatile matter
flüchtige Blicke(German pl.) glimpses
flüchtige Erinnerung(German f.) fleeting memory
flüchtige Fantasien(German pl.) fleeting fancies
flüchtige Freuden(German pl.) passing joys
flüchtige Handschrift(German f.) careless handwriting
flüchtig einen Kuss geben(German) to flutter a kiss
flüchtige Öle(German pl.) volatile oils
Flüchtiger (m.), Flüchtige (f.), Flüchtigen (pl.)(German) evader, absconder, fugitive
flüchtiger(German) flightier, more fleeting
flüchtiger Anteil(German m.) momentary matter
flüchtiger Bekannter(German m.) casual acquaintance, speaking acquaintance
flüchtiger Besuch(German m.) flying visit
flüchtiger Blick(German m.) cursory glance, blink, casual glance, cursory view, glance, glimpse, hasty glance, glance of the eye, squint (colloquial: cursory glance)
flüchtig erblickend(German) glimpsing
flüchtiger Eindruck(German m.) glimpse
flüchtiger Fahrer(German m.) hit-and-run driver
flüchtiger Kuss(German m.) peck (fleeting kiss)
flüchtiger Schuldner(German m.) absconder, fly-by-night
flüchtiger Überblick(German m.) skim
flüchtiger Verbrecher(German m.) criminal who hasn't been caught
flüchtiger Versuch(German m.) fling
flüchtig erwähnen(German) to mention in passing
flüchtiges Bild(German n.) aerial image
flüchtiges Lesen(German n.) skim
Flüchtigkeit(German) lightness, fleetness, cursoriness, fleetingness, momentariness, volatility, flippancy, volatileness, fugacity, elusiveness, desultoriness (of reading)
Flüchtigkeitsfehler (s./pl.)(German m.) slip, slip of the pen, careless mistake
flüchtig küssen(German) to peck (to kiss fleetingly)
flüchtig lesen(German) to skim (cursory read)
flüchtig sehen(German) to catch a glimpse
flüchtig sein(German) to be at large (criminal), to be on the run, to be a fugitive
flüchtig skizzieren(German) to adumbrate
flüchtigst(German) very fleetingly
flüchtigste(German) flightiest, most fugitive
flüchtig überfliegen(German) to skim (fly low over)
flüchtig umreißen(German) to adumbrate
flüchtig zu sehen bekommen(German) to glimpse
Flucht in die Stadt(German f.) migration into cities
Fluchtinstinkt(German m.) flight instinct
Fluchtkapital(German n.) hot money
Flüchtling (s.), Flüchtlinge (pl.)(German m.) absconder, fugitive, refugee, displaced person, escapee
Flüchtlinge aufnehmen(German) to absorb refugees
Flüchtlingsarbeit(German f.) refugee work
Flüchtlingsfamilien(German pl.) refugee families
Flüchtlingshilfe(German f.) aid to refugees
Flüchtlingslager(German n.) refugee camp, famine shelter, displacement camp
Flüchtlingsschiff(German n.) refugee ship
Flüchtlingsstrom (s.), Flüchtlingsströme (pl.)(German m.) flow of refugees, stream of refugees
Fluchtlinie(German f.) alignment, vanishing line
Fluchtmigration(German f.) forced migration
Fluchtmittel(German n.) means of escape
Fluchtmöglichkeit(German f.) means of escape
Fluchtplan(German m.) evacuation plan
Fluchtpunkt(German m.) vanishing point
Fluchtreaktion(German f.) avoidance reaction
Fluchtreflex(German m.) fugue (running away)
Fluchtrichtung(German f.) direction of escape
Fluchttreppe(German f.) emergency stairs
Fluchttunnel(German m.) escape tunnel
Fluchttür(German f.) escape door
Fluchtungsfehler(German m.) set back, alignment error, misalignment, angular misalignment
Fluchtverhalten(German n.) flight behaviour
Fluchtversuch (s.), Fluchtversuche (pl.)(German m.) attempt to escape, attempt at flight, attempt to abscond, escape attempt
Flucht von Zimmern(German f.) series of rooms
Fluchtwagen(German m.) getaway car
Fluchtweg(German m.) escape route, escape passageway (in a tunnel)
Fluchtziel(German n.) destination for refugees
Fluchwort (s.), Fluchwörter (pl.)(German n.) swearword, four-letter word, curse
fluchwürdig(German) execrable
Fluctuación(Spanish f.) fluctuation
fluctuante(Spanish) fluctuating, subject to fluctuation
fluctuar(Spanish) to fluctuate, to hesitate
Fluechannel of air directed at the lip or edge of certain wind instruments, the recorder for example, where the air column (or air reed) divides and sets up a vibration in this way generating a sound
see 'Kármán trail'
Fluegelhornsee Flügelhorn
Fluentsciolto (Italian), geläufig (German), facile (French)
(of speech, style, etc.) flowing, natural, verbally facile (especially in a foreign language - for example, fluent in German)
fluente(Spanish) flowing, fluid
Flue pipeor 'Fluework', the main class of organ pipework in which sound is produced using the principle of the flue. This kind of pipe can be made of metal or wood. The sound is produced when the wind flows through the foot of the pipe and flows out the mouth (the hole in the front of the pipe). The air hits the lip of the pipe and causes the column of air to vibrate. The pipe's length determines the size of the air column and therefore the pitch at which the pipe can be made to sound
Fluework is divided onto:
principal or diapason worksuch as: open diapason, principal, fifteenth
Gedacht or covered worksuch as: stopped diapason, lieblich gedact
Flute worksuch as: clarabella, wald flute, dulciana, gamba
Flueworksee 'flue pipe'
Flug (s.), Flüge (pl.)(German m.) flight, air flight, plane ride
Flug-(German) ptero- (prefix)
Flugabenteurer(German m.) flying adventurer
Flugangst(German f.) fear of flying, aviatophobia, aviophobia
Flugangst haben(German) to be afraid of flying, to be frightened of flying
Flugaufzeichnungsgerät(German n.) black box flight-recorder
Flugausfall(German m.) flight cancellation
Flugauskunft(German f.) flight information
Flugauto(German n.) flying car
Flugbahn (s.), Flugbahnen (pl.)(German f.) trajectory, flight path
Flugball (s.), Flugbälle (pl.)(German m.) volley ball
Flugbegleiter (m.), Flugbegleiterin (f.), Flugbegleiter (pl.), Flugbegleiterinnen ( steward (m.), stewardess (f.), flight attendant, cabin attendant, air hostess (f.)
Flugblatt (s.), Flugblätter (pl.)(German n.) flyer, flier, handbill, leaflet, pamphlet, handout, broadsheet
(German n.) (in music) a fugitive piece
Flugboot(German n.) airboat, flying boat
Flugbuchung(German f.) flight booking
Flugdach(German n.) flying roof
Flugdatenschreiber(German m.) flight data recorder, black box (colloquial)
Flugdauer(German f.) flight duration
Flugdienst(German m.) air service, airline service
Flugdienstberater(German m.) flight dispatcher
Flugdrehkreuz(German n.) airline hub
Flugdrehscheibe(German f.) airline hub
Flügel (s./pl.)(German m.) wing, pinna, van (poetic: wing), pennon, door (one of double doors), leaf (of a door)
(German m.) generally the grand piano, although in some cases, a large harpsichord
Flügelakrobatin(German f.) wing walker (female)
Flügelaltar(German n.) winged altar
Flügelanzug(German m.) wingsuit (parachuting)
Flügelärmel(German m.) cap sleeve
flügelartig(German) winglike, wing-like
Flügelast(German m.) splay knot
Flügelbiss(German m.) bitewing
Flügeldesign(German n.) wing design
Flügel eines Vogels(German m.) bird's wing
Flügelfenster(German n.) casement window
flügelförmig(German) wing-shaped
Flügelhaube(German f.) pinner
Flügelholm(German m.) wing spar
Flügelhorn(German n.) also flugal horn, flugalhorn, fluegel horn, fluegelhorn, flugel horn, flugelhorn, flugle horn, fluglehorn
(German n.) a member of the brass family, related to the trumpet, originating in Germany where it was used in military bands. Professor Monks (in a personal communication) tells us that the modern instrument called the 'flügelhorn' is not a fluglehorn, but rather is properly called an Infanterie- (Infantry-) model Saxhorn. It was patented in 1846, and first appeared in a Sax catalogue in 1850 in Eb soprano and Bb form. Shortly thereafter came a C and a Bb piccolo Saxhorn. The name "flugelhorn" was a transference of the name of the true flugelhorn, which occurred sometime in the mid-to-late 1840s. German bandmembers and bandmasters transferred the name shortly after 1846, and the two instruments existed side-by-side until the true flugelhorn finally expired
in jazz arranging, fluglehorns are usually used in ballads or when a softer sound is needed, such as when doubling flutes or clarinets. When in the upper register, the flugelhorn can produce an edgy sound somewhat like a trumpet. Writing in the upper register can defeat the purpose of using the instrument. It sounds excellent in unison or in harmony as an extension of the trombone section. In some situations it can produce a quasi-French horn sound
Flügelhornist (m.), Flügelhornistin (f.)(German) flügelhornist
Flügelkampf(German m.) party infighting
Flügelkasten(German m.) wing box
flügellahm(German) with a wing down (also figurative)
Flügellänge(German f.) wing length
flügellos(German) wingless, apterous
Flügelmutter(German f.) butterfly nut, wing nut, thumb nut
Flügel-pianoforte(German n.) a grand piano in the shape of a harpsichord
Flügelröhre(German f.) wing, tenor joint
Flügelschlag(German m.) flap, stroke of wing
flügelschlagend(German) flailing (bird)
Flügelschraube(German f.) wing screw, wing bolt
Flügelsignal(German n.) semaphore signal
Flügelspanne(German f.) spread (wingspread), wing span, wingspan
Flügelspannweite(German f.) wingspan, wing span, wingspread
Flügelspitze(German f.) wingtip, wing tip, pinion (bird)
Flügelstutzen(German n.) clipping wings
Flügeltreppe(German f.) double staircase
Flügeltür (s.), Flügeltüren (pl.)(German f.) folding door, gull-wing door
Flugerfahrung(German f.) flying experience, total flight experience
flugfähig(German) able to fly, airworthy
Flugfähigkeit(German f.) ability to fly, airworthiness
Flugfeld(German n.) airfield
Flugfeldbus(German m.) (airfield) apron bus, (airfield) passenger bus
Flugfeldlöschfahrzeug(German n.) airfield fire engine, airfield fire truck, airport fire-fighting vehicle
Flugfinger(German m.) pterodactyl
Flugfläche(German f.) flight level
Flugfunkverkehr(German m.) air-ground communication
Fluggast (s.), Fluggäste (pl.)(German m.) air passenger, airline customer, passenger, airline passenger
Fluggastabfertigung(German f.) passenger clearance, check-in desk, check-in counter
Fluggastdaten(German pl.) passenger data
Fluggastsitz(German m.) aircraft seat
Fluggastterminal(German n.) passenger terminal
Fluggast-Terminal(German n.) passenger terminal
Fluggastversicherung(German f.) air passenger insurance, aircraft passenger insurance
flügge(German) fledged, fledged, independent
flügge werden(German) to fledge, to spread one's wings (figurative: children)
flügger Vogel(German m.) fledgling
Fluggerät(German n.) aircraft
Fluggeschwindigkeit(German f.) flying speed, airspeed
Fluggesellschaft (s.), Fluggesellschaften (pl.)(German f.) airline, air carrier, airline company
Flughafen (s.), Flughäfen (pl.)(German m.) aerodrome, airport
Flughafenabfertigungsgebäude(German n.) airport terminal
FlughafenanwohnerInnen(German pl.) residents living near an airport
Flughafenbahnhof(German m.) airport railway station
Flughafenbetreiber(German m.) airport operator
Flughafenbus(German m.) airport (shuttle) bus
Flughafeneinrichtungen(German pl.) airport facilities
Flughafenentgelte(German pl.) airport charges
Flughafengebäude(German n.) airport terminal, airport building, terminal
Flughafengebühr(German f.) airport charge, airport tax, airport fee
Flughafenhalle(German f.) concourse
Flughafenhotel(German n.) airtel, airport hotel
Flughafenpolizei(German f.) airport police, airport security
Flughafenpolizeistation(German f.) airport police station
Flughafenrestaurant(German n.) airport restaurant
Flughafensteuer(German f.) airport tax
Flughafenterminal(German n.) air terminal
Flughafentransfer(German m.) airport transfer
Flughafenuhr(German f.) airport clock
Flughafenumfeld(German n.) airport surroundings, area surrounding the airport
Flughafenunternehmer(German m.) airport operator
Flughafenvorfeldbus(German m.) airfield (apron) bus
Flughafenwettervorhersage(German f.) airport (weather) forecast, landing forecast
Flughafenzollstelle(German f.) airport customs office
Flughafenzubringer(German m.) airport shuttle (service)
Flughafenzubringerstraße(German f.) airport access road
Flughalle(German f.) hangar
Flughöhe(German f.) (flight) level, flying height (colloquial), (flying) altitude, flight altitude
Flugingenieur (m.), Flugingenieurin (f.)(German) flight engineer
Flug in geringer Höhe(German m.) low-level flight
Fluginsekten(German pl.) flying insects
Flugkarte (s.), Flugkarten (pl.)(German f.) airline ticket, (air) ticket
flugklar(German) ready for take-off, clear for take-off
Flugkomfort(German m.) in-flight amenities, in-flight service
Flugkontrolle(German f.) air-traffic control
Flugkosten(German pl.) air fare
flugkrank(German) airsick
Flugkrankheit(German f.) airsickness
Fluglage(German f.) (flight) attitude
Fluglärm(German m.) aircraft noise, aviation noise, fly-over noise
Fluglärmminderung(German f.) aircraft noise reduction
Fluglehrer (m.), Fluglehrerin (f.)(German) flying instructor, flight instructor
Flugleiter (m.), Flugleiterin (f.)(German) air traffic controller
Flugleitung(German f.) air traffic control
Fluglinie(German f.) airline, flight path, airline company, carrier, (air) route
Fluglotse (m.), Fluglotsin (f.)(German) flight controller, air traffic controller
Flugmeilen(German pl.) frequent flier miles, frequent flyer miles, air miles
Flug mit Zwischenlandung(German m.) flight with intermediate stops
Flugmotor(German m.) aircraft engine, aero engine, aeroplane engine
Flugnachrichtendienst(German m.) flight-information service
Flugnummer(German f.) flight number
Flugobjekt(German n.) flying object
Flug ohne Zwischenlandung(German m.) non-stop flight, direct flight
Flugpassagier (m.), Flugpassagierin (f.)(German) (air) passenger, airline passenger, flight passenger
Flugpersonal(German n.) flight crew
Flugpionier (m.), Flugpionierin (f.)(German) aviation pioneer
Flugplan(German m.) flight plan, flight schedule, schedule, timetable
flugplanmäßiger Flug(German m.) regular flight, scheduled flight
Flugplatz (s.), Flugplätze (pl.)(German m.) airfield, airport, aerodrome, flying field
Flugpost(German f.) air mail
Flugpostbrief(German m.) airmail letter, aerogramme
Flugpostmarke(German f.) airmail stamp
Flugpraxis(German f.) flying experience
Flugpreis (s.), Flugpreise (pl.)(German m.) airfare, air fare, plane fare
Flugregler(German m.) autopilot, automatic pilot
Flugreise(German f.) flight, airline travel, air journey, plane trip, journey by air
Flugreisegepäck(German n.) air travel baggage, air travel luggage
Flugreisender (m.), Flugreisende (f.), Flugreisende (pl.)(German) air traveller, air passenger
Flugreiseversicherung(German f.) air travel insurance
Flugreservierung(German f.) flight reservation
flugs(German) quickly, right away
Flugsand(German m.) wind-borne sand, drifting sand, windborne sand, airborne sand, flying sand
Flugschalter(German m.) flight desk
Flugschanze(German f.) (ski) jump
Flugschau(German f.) air show, air display
Flugschauunglück(German n.) airshow disaster
Flugschein (s.), Flugscheine (pl.)(German m.) air ticket, flight ticket, airline ticket, plane ticket, ticket (air ticket), pilot's licence
Flugschein mit Gepäckabschnitt(German m.) passenger ticket and baggage check, passenger ticket and luggage check
Flugschein- und Gepäckannahmeschalter(German m.) ticket and luggage check-in
Flugschrauber(German m.) winged helicopter
Flugschreiber(German m.) flight recorder, black box (colloquial)
Flugschrift(German f.) pamphlet, throwaway, leaflet
Flugshow(German f.) airshow
Flugsicherheit(German f.) air safety, flight safety, aviation security
Flugsimulation(German f.) flight simulation
Flugsimulator(German m.) flight simulator
Flugsport(German m.) aviation
Flugstart(German m.) take-off
Flugsteig(German m.) gate, boarding gate
Flugstunde (s.), Flugstunden (pl.)(German f.) flying lesson, flying hour, flight hour, hours by plane (pl.)
Flugstunden nehmen(German) to take flying lessons
Flugtaube(German f.) tumbler
flugtauglich(German) capable of flying, airworthy
Flugtauglichkeit(German f.) airworthiness
flugtechnisch(German) aeronautical
Flugticket(German n.) air ticket, flight ticket, airline ticket
Flugtriebwerk(German n.) aero engine
flugtüchtig(German) airworthy
Flugüberwachung(German f.) air traffic control
flugunfähig(German) flightless, flightlessly, unable to fly, not airworthy
Flugunfähigkeit(German f.) flightlessness
Flugunfall(German m.) aircraft accident, aviation accident
Flugunfalluntersuchung(German f.) air accident investigation
Flugunglück(German n.) air crash, aviation accident
Flugveranstaltung(German f.) air show
Flugverbot(German n.) ban on flying
Flugverbotszone(German f.) no-fly zone
Flugverspätung(German f.) flight delay
Flugvorfeld(German n.) apron
Flugvorführung(German f.) air display
Flugwesen(German n.) aviation
Flugwetter(German n.) flying weather, flyable weather
Flugwetterbedingungen(German pl.) flight weather conditions
Flugzeit (s.), Flugzeiten (pl.)(German f.) flying time, flight duration, flight time
Flugzettel(German m.) leaflet, flyer, handbill
Flugzeug (s.), Flugzeuge (pl.)(German n.) aeroplane, plane, aircraft
Flugzeugabsturz(German m.) plane crash, air crash
Flugzeugentführer (s./pl.)(German m.) skyjacker, hi-jacker, hijacker
Flugzeugentführung(German f.) hijacking, hi-jacking, skyjacking, air piracy, skyjack
Flugzeugflotte(German f.) aircraft fleet
Flugzeugführer (m.), Flugzeugführerin (f.)(German) aviator, airman (m.), pilot, airwoman (f.)
Flugzeughalle (s.), Flugzeughallen (pl.)(German f.) hangar
Flugzeugkapazität(German f.) aircraft capacity
Flugzeugkollision(German f.) collision of two planes, mid-air collision
Flugzeugkonstrukteur(German m.) aircraft designer, aeronautical engineer
Flugzeugmotor(German m.) aero engine, aeroplane engine, aircraft engine
Flugzeugpark(German m.) fleet of aircraft, aircraft fleet
Flugzeugpiste(German f.) runway
Flugzeugreifen(German m.) aeroplane tyre, aircraft tyre
Flugzeugrumpf(German m.) fuselage, aircraft fuselage
Flugzeugsitz(German m.) airline seat
Flugzeugstart(German m.) take-off
Flugzeugtrümmer(German pl.) aircraft wreckage
Flugzeugtyp(German m.) type of aircraft
Flugzeugunglück(German n.) plane crash, air accident
Flugzeugwartung(German f.) aircraft maintenance
Flugziel (s.), Flugziele (pl.)(German n.) destination (by air)
Flug zum Mond(German m.) lunar flight
Fluid(English, German n.) a continuous, amorphous substance whose molecules move freely past one another and that has the tendency to assume the shape of its container
Fluida(German pl.) auras
Fluiddynamik(German f.) fluid dynamics
Fluidez(Spanish f.) fluidity, fluency (figurative)
Fluidezza(Italian) fluidity
Fluidità(Italian) fluidity
Fluidität(German f.) fluidity
Fluidmechanik(German f.) mechanics of fluids, fluid mechanics
Fluido(Italian m.) fluid
Fluido(Spanish m.) fluid, current (electrical)
fluido (m.), fluida (f.)(Spanish) fluid, fluent (figurative)
Fluid pianoa keyboard instrument developed by Geoff Smith, the fluid piano is an acoustic piano which allows the player to make microtonal adjustments to each note (within the space of one tone) before or during a performance - it also features a horizontal 'harp hybid' with a separate set of strings which can be reached by the pianist while sitting at the keyboard, and with a similar micro-tuning flexibility
Fluidtechnik(German f.) fluid power technology
Fluidum(German n.) aura
Fluieras(Romanian) a Romanian pipe
Fluier mare(Romanian) a Romanian pipe
Fluit(Dutch) flute (whistle), fluyt (ship)
fluitje(Dutch) whistle
Fluktuation(German f.) fluctuation, change
fluktuieren(German) to fluctuate
fluktuierend(German) fluctuating
fluktuiert(German) fluctuated
Flunkerei (s.), Flunkereien (pl.)(German f.) blarney, fib (colloquial)
Flunkerer(German m.) fibber
Flunkergeschichte(German f.) fib story
flunkern(German) to fib, to tell a fib
flunkernd(German) fibbing
flunkerte(German) fibbed
Flunsch(German m.) moue
Fluoreszenz(German f.) fluorescence
Fluoreszenzlampe(German f.) fluorescent lamp, fluorescent tube
fluoreszieren(German) to fluoresce
fluoreszierend(German) fluorescent, fluorescing
fluoreszierende Substanz(German f.) fluorescent
fluoreszierender Farbstoff (s.), fluoreszierende Farbstoffe (pl.)(German m.) fluorescent dye
fluoresziert(German) fluoresces, fluoresced
fluoreszierte(German) fluoresced
Fluorid (s.), Fluoride (pl.)(German n.) fluoride
Fluoridbehandlung (s.), Fluoridbehandlungen (pl.)(German f.) fluoridation
fluoridfrei(German) fluoride-free
Fluoridgel(German n.) fluoride gel
fluoridhaltig(German) fluoride-containing
fluoridhaltig(German) containing fluoride
fluoridhaltige Zahncreme(German f.) fluoride toothpaste
fluoridieren(German) to fluoridate
fluoridiert(German) fluoridated
Fluoridierung(German f.) fluoridation
fluorieren(German) to fluoridate
fluorisieren(German) to fluoridate
Fluorsiliconkautschuk(German m.) fluorosilicone rubber
Fluorsilikonkautschuk(German m.) fluorosilicone rubber
Flur (s.), Fluren (pl.)(German f.) lea (literary), meadow, field, ley (poetic.: meadow), open fields, mead (literal), hall, corridor, landing, hallway
Flurbereinigung(German f.) enclosure (land)
Flurförderfahrzeug(German n.) forklift truck
Flurfunk(German m.) office grapevine (colloquial), grapevine (colloquial)
Flurgaderobe(German f.) coat rack
Flurgarderobe(German f.) hall stand
Flurkarte(German f.) land register map, field map
Flurkreuz(German n.) wayside cross
Flurmatte(German f.) corridor-mat
Flurnachbar(German m.) corridor neighbour
Flurschaden(German m.) crop damage
Flurstein(German m.) landmark, paving stone
Flurstück(German n.) plot (of land)
Flurtoilette(German f.) toilet on the landing
Fluse (s.), Flusen (pl.)(German f.) fluff, pill (wool), lint, bobble (Northern Germany)
flusenfrei(German) lint-free
Flush(German m.) blush
Flushworka decorative technique for exterior walls, in which designs are picked out in white stone against a background of flint cobbles
Fluß(German m.) flow, river
Fluss (s.), Flüsse (pl.)(German m.) flow, river
Fluss-(German) riverine (prefix)
Fluß(German m., old form) river
Fluss(German m.) fluency, flux, river, stream, current, flow
flussab(German) downriver, downstream
flußabwärts(German, old form) downstream, downriver, down the river
flussabwärts(German) downstream, downriver, down the river
Flussangeln(German n.) river fishing
Flussau(German f.) water meadow
Flussaue (s.), Flussauen (pl.)(German f.) river flood plain, callow (Irish)
flussauf(German) upstream, upriver
flußaufwärts(German) upstream, upriver, up the river
flussaufwärts(German) upstream, upriver, up the river
Flußbett(German n., old form) river bed, bed of a river, bed of river, channel, stream bed
Flussbett(German n.) river bed, bed of a river, bed of river, channel, stream bed
Flussbiegung(German f.) river bend
Flussbild(German n.) flow sheet, flow chart
Flussbogen(German m.) oxbow
Flussboot (s.), Flussboote (pl.)(German n.) bateau, boats designed for river traffic, keel boat, river launch, bateaux (pl.)
Flüsschen (s./pl.)(German n.) creek, rivulet, stream
Flussdamm(German m.) barrage, natural levee, river dyke
Flussdelta(German n.) river delta
Fluss der Informationen(German m.) flow of information
Fluss der Möwen(German) Curlew River (A Parable for Church Performance (Op. 71) is the first of three Church Parables by Benjamin Britten)
Flussdiagramm(German n.) flowchart, flow chart, flow diagram
Flussdichte(German f.) flux density, flow density
Flussdurchquerung(German f.) river fording
Flusserosion(German f.) river erosion
Flussfähre(German f.) river ferry, river trip
Flussfisch(German m.) freshwater fish
Flussfracht(German f.) river freight
Flussfund(German m.) river find
Flussgold(German n.) stream gold
Flussgott(German m.) river god
Flusshafen(German m.) river port
flüssig(German) flowing, liquid, molten (lava, glass), fluent, fluently. freely moving, fluid, fluidly, fluxional, liquidly, runny, solvent, articulately, smooth, flush (with cash) (colloquial)
Flüssiganzünder(German m.) lighter fluid
Flüssigchromatographie(German f.) liquid chromatography
Flüssigdünger(German m.) liquid fertiliser
flüssige Mittel(German pl.) liquid assets
flüssiger(German) more fluid
flüssige Rede(German f.) eloquent speech
flüssig ernährt werden(German) to be fed on liquids
flüssiger Redner(German m.) eloquent orator
flüssiger Sauerstoff(German m.) lox
flüssiger Stahl(German m.) molten steel
flüssiger Stickstoff(German m.) liquid nitrogen
flüssiger Stil(German m.) fluent style, facile style
flüssiger Zustand(German m.) fluidity, liquid state
Flüssigextrakt(German m.) liquid extract
flüssiggekühlt(German) liquid-cooled
Flüssigkeit (s.), Flüssigkeiten (pl.)(German f.) liquid, fluid, fluidity (style), liquidity (metal, wax, etc.), lotion, fluency, liquor, liquidness
Flüssigkeit abzapfen(German) to tap
Flüssigkeit übertragen(German) to transfuse
flüssigkeitsabweisend(German) liquid-repellent
Flüssigkeitsaufnahme(German f.) fluid intake, imbibition
flüssigkeitsdicht(German) liquid-tight
Flüssigkeitsdruck(German m.) fluid pressure
flüssigkeitsdurchlässig(German) permeable to fluid
Flüssigkeitsersatz(German m.) fluid replacement
flüssigkeitsgekühlt(German) liquid-cooled
Flüssigkeitsheber(German m.) waterlock
Flüssigkeitskühlung(German f.) liquid cooling
Flüssigkeitsmaß(German n.) liquid measure
Flüssigkeitsstand(German m.) fluid level, level of a liquid
Flüssigkeitsstandsänderungen(German pl.) changes in the level of a liquid
Flüssigkeitsverlust (s.), Flüssigkeitsverluste (pl.)(German m.) fluid loss, fluid depletion
Flüssigkeitszufuhr(German f.) intake of fluids
Flüssigkristall (s.), Flüssigkristalle (pl.)(German m.) liquid crystal
Flüssigkristallanzeige(German f.) liquid crystal display, LCD (abbreviation)
Flüssigkunststoff(German m.) liquid plastic
flüssig lesen(German) to read fluently
flüssigmachen(German) to realise (assets)
flüssig machen(German) to liquidise
Flüssigmachung(German f.) realisation (assets)
Flüssigmilch(German f.) liquid milk
Flüssigmischer(German m.) liquid mixer
Flüssigsauerstoff(German m.) liquid oxygen
Flüssigseife(German f.) liquid soap, handwash
Flüssigseifenspender(German m.) liquid soap dispenser
flüssigste(German) most fluid
Flüssigstickstoff(German m.) liquid nitrogen
Flüssigunze(German f.) fluid ounce
Flüssigwaschmittel(German n.) liquid laundry detergent
Flüssigwasserstoff(German m.) liquid hydrogen
flüssig werden(German) to melt (wax, etc.)
Flussinsel(German f.) river isle, holm
Flussione(Italian f.) inflammation, catarrh
Flussione e riflusso(Italian) ebb and flow
Flusskrebs (s.), Flusskrebse (pl.)(German m.) crayfish
Flusskreuzfahrt(German f.) river cruise
Flusskrümmung(German f.) river bend
Flusskunde(German f.) potamology
Flusslandschaft(German f.) river landscape, riverscape, river scenery
Flusslinie(German f.) flow line
Flussmittel(German f.) soldering flux, flux
Flussmündung(German f.) mouth of a river
Flussniederung(German f.) river plain, flood plain
flussorientiert(German) flow-oriented
Flusspegel(German m.) river levels
Flußpferd(German n.) hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius)
Flusspferd (s.), Flusspferde (pl.)(German n.) hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius)
Flussplan(German m.) flow chart
Flussrate je Zeiteinheit(German f.) flow rate
Flussrichtung(German f.) flow direction
Flussrundfahrt(German f.) river cruise
Flusssand(German m.) river sand
Flussschiff(German n.) river boat, river craft
Flussschifffahrt(German f.) river navigation, river traffic
Flussschlamm(German m.) river mud
Flussschleife(German f.) loop of the river, meander (bend)
Flusssohle(German f.) river bed, riverbed, stream bed
Flussstahl(German m.) soft steel, mild steel
Flussstahldraht(German m.) mild-steel wire
Flussstein(German m.) boulder
Flussstrecke(German f.) reach of a river
Flussströmung(German f.) river current
Flusstal (s.), Flusstäler (pl.)(German n.) river valley
Flusstaxi(German n.) water taxi, river taxi
Flussterrasse(German f.) river terrace
Flussüberquerung(German f.) river crossing
Flussüberschwemmung(German f.) river flooding
Flussufer(German n.) riverside, bank of a river, bank of river, river bank, riverbank, river shore, riverfront, streambank
Flussverseuchung(German f.) river pollution
Flusswasser(German n.) stream water
Flüsterdolmetschen(German n.) whispered interpretation, whispered interpreting, chuchotage, whispering interpretation
Flüsterdolmetschung(German f.) whispering interpretation, whispered interpreting, chuchotage
Flüstergewölbe(German n.) whispering gallery
Flüsterkampagne(German f.) whispering campaign
flüsterleise(German) ultra-silent, super-silent, whisper-quiet
Flüstern(German n.) susurration (poetic), whispering, whisper, (some) whispering
flüstern(German) to speak under one's breath, to whisper, to breathe, to talk in a whisper, to susurrate (poetic)
flüsternd(German) whispering, whisperingly, whispery, under one's breath, susurrant (poetic)
Flüsternder (m.), Flüsternde (f.), Flüsternden (pl.)(German) whisperer
Flüsterpost(German f.) whisper down the lane
Flüsterpropaganda(German f.) whispering campaign
Flüsterstimme(German f.) whisper
Flüsterton(German m.) whisper
Flüstertüte(German f.) loudhailer
Flut-(German) tidal (prefix)
Flut (s.), Fluten (pl.)(German f.) flood, floodwaters (pl.), flow, spate, cataclysm, glut, high tide, high water, tide, torrent, flood of (figurative), deluge (also figurative), spate, volley (figurative)
Flutbrandung(German f.) tidal bore
Fluteflauto (Italian m.), Flöte (German f.), flûte (French f.), flauta (Spanish f.), any woodwind instrument played without a reed, particularly now the transverse flute, but before the eighteenth century, including the recorder
see 'flute, transverse'
in the organ, a flue pipe of wide scale of the diapason species, made of wood or metal
2 cm diameter slice of French bread
tall wine glass, used for serving champagne
also fluyt or fluit, a Dutch type of sailing vessel originally designed as a dedicated cargo vessel
Flûte(French f.) flute. flauto (Italian m.), Flöte (German f.), flauta (Spanish f.), although before the transverse flute had established itself in the mid-eighteenth century, the term was more usually applied to the recorder
flûté(French) the same as flautando or flautato, airy (voice)
Flûte à bec(French f.) recorder, flauto a becco (Italian m.), Blockflöte (German f.), flauta doce (Spanish f.)
organ pipe
Flûte à bec alto(French f.) treble or alto recorder, flauto a becco contralto (Italian m.), Altblockflöte (German f.), flauta doce contralto (or alto) (Spanish f.)
Flûte à bec basse(French f.) bass recorder, flauto a becco basso (Italian m.), Bassblockflöte (German f.), flauta doce bajo (Spanish f.)
Flûte à bec sopranino(French f.) sopranino recorder, flauto a becco sopranino (Italian m.), Sopraninoblockflöte (German f.), flauta doce sopranino (Spanish f.)
Flûte à bec soprano(French f.) descant or soprano recorder, flauto a becco soprano (Italian m.), Sopranblockflöte (German f.), flauta doce soprano (Spanish f.)
Flûte à bec ténor(French f.) tenor recorder, flauto a becco tenore (Italian m.), Tenorblockflöte (German f.), flauta doce ténor (Spanish f.)
Flûte à canne(French f.) cane flute, which sounds a major third below the standard orchestral flute
Flûte à cheminée(French f.) an organ stop of 8 ft. pitch, having a hole or tube in the stopper
Flûte à fuseau(French f.) an organ pipe very similar to the Spindelflöte
Flûte à (la) tierce(French f.) a transverse flute in E flat, a minor third above the standard orchestral flute
Flûte allemande(French f.) the German flute, the transverse flute
Flûte alto(French f.) alto flute, flauto contralto (Italian m.), Altflöte (German f.), flauta contralto (Spanish f.)
Flûte anglaise(French f.) recorder, flauto a becco (Italian m.), Blockflöte (German f.), flûte à bec (French f.), flauta doce (Spanish f.)
Flûte à pavillon(French f., German f.) a powerful organ stop, of French invention, at 8 ft. pitch, sometimes called the 'bell diapason'
Flûte basse(French f.) bass flute, flauto basso (Italian m.), Baßflöte (German f., older spelling), Bassflöte (German f., modern spelling), flûte basse (French f.), flauta baja (Spanish f.)
Flûte conique(French f.) conical flute, an organ stop
Flûte creuse(French f.) on the organ, an open flute stop, flauta hueca (Spanish), Hohlflöte (German)
Flutedof a column or pillar, carved with closely spaced parallel grooves cut vertically. The same design feature is found on some keyboard instrument legs and on bows for string instruments
a term used of the upper notes of a soprano, when they are thin, and have a flute-like tone
on a dress, etc., a long sleeve flared at the wrist
Flûte d'accord(French f.) a double French flageolet
Flûte d'amour(French f.) the term could have referred to any one of three types of traverso:
an instrument in C, or a corps de réchange for C (also called a corps d'amour)the only surviving piece composed for an instrument in that key is a concerto by J.A. Hasse in the Royal Music Library of Stockholm. There are only a few of this type of flute surviving: a three-part instrument by Naust in Paris, and four part of the corps d'amour type instruments by Scherer and Denner.
an instrument in Ball of the Graupner pieces are written for such an instrument. There are about ten instrumental pieces (concertos and overtures) and ten cantatas, all of them written in 1730 - 1740. Surviving instruments were made by T. Lot, J. Schlegel, J.W. Oberlander and Jan van Heerde
an instrument in B flat called a 'tenor flute' in Englandthere is only one piece surviving that calls for such a flute d'amour, and that is a concerto by Molter. There are a few examples of such flutes made in England, by Stanesby Jr. and Schuchart
Flute d'amore(French f.) a transverse flute in A
(French f.) an organ stop of 4 ft. or 8 ft. register
Flûte d'Angleterre(French f.) recorder, flauto a becco (Italian m.), Blockflöte (German f.), flûte à bec (French f.), flauta doce (Spanish f.)
Flûte de Pan(French f.) panflute, panpipes, siringa (Italian f., Spanish f.), flauto di Pan (Italian m.), Panflöte (German f.), syrinx (French m.)
Flûte de tambourin(French f.) tambourine flute, that sounds two octaves above the standard orchestral flute
Flûte de voix(French f.) voice flute, a tenor recorder in D
Flûte douce(French f.) recorder, flauto a becco (Italian m.), Blockflöte (German f.), flûte à bec (French f.), flauta doce (Spanish f.)
Flûte droite(French f.) recorder, flauto a becco (Italian m.), Blockflöte (German f.), flûte à bec (French f.), flauta doce (Spanish f.)
flûtée(French) soft, sweet, as in voix flûtée (French: a soft sweet voice)
Flute, end-blownsee 'end-blown flute'
Flûte eunuque(French f.) a seventeenth-century mirliton
Flute-flageoleta combination wind-instrument instrument with one body (normally in more than one section) and two heads, one with a duct flute mouthpiece (the flageolet part) and the other with a transverse flute mouthpiece, the player chosing which head to use for a particular work
Flute, Germanin the 17th- and early 18th-centuries, the transverse flute
Flûte harmonique(French f.) an organ stop at 4 ft. pitch, its characteristic quality being produced by the pipes being of 8 ft. pitch, and having a hole pierced at half the pipe's length
Flute, Irishsee 'Irish flute'
fluten(German) to flood, to surge (of a crowd, people)
Flute, notchedsee 'notched flute'
Flute, octavea flute that plays one octave above the standard orchestra flute, flauto piccolo (Italian), Oktavflöte (German), petite flûte (French)
Flûte octaviante(French f.) an organ stop at 4 ft. pitch
Flûte ouverte(French f.) an organ stop, of the diapason species
Flûte pastorelle(French f.) Telemann's Suite in E-flat major specifies a flûte pastorelle [...] without a further explanation of what this might mean. The specific ethnic origins of the flûte pastorelle are not certain, but is was clearly not part of the usual, noble instrumentarium. The name suggests some sort of rustic pipe. The range of the solo part is only an octave and a sixth, seemingly better suited to a Renaissance recorder than a Baroque instrument. All Telemann's other recorder parts employ the full range of the Baroque instrument. Fortunately an instrument survives in a collection in Copenhagen which fits the demands of this piece. A copy of this instrument is used in this recordeing. It is clearly a folkloric instrument, a sixth flute pitched close to a'=440Hz with a narrow range and other characteristics similar to a Renaissance recorder, despite its eighteenth-century origins. Considering its small size it has a relatively dark tone. As a sixth flute this instrument is in D, but because it is pitched a half tone higher than the strings and harpsichord tuned to a'=415Hz, it is possible for the flute to play in D major, while sounding in E-flat major, relative to the rest of the instruments
[information taken from the programme notes to Matthias Maute's recording of this work on Dorian DOR-90302 (Telemann alla Polacca)
Flûte piccolo(French f.) piccolo
flûter(French) to play the flute
Flutereignis(German n.) flood event
Flute stopa stop on the organ with a flute-like tone. The pipes can be of metal or wood and are of 4 ft. tone on the manuals and of 8 ft. tone on the pedals
Flûte tierce(French f.) flauto traverso terzetto (Italian m.), a flute used formerly in military music but seldom in the orchestra which sounds a minor third (E flat) above the standard orchestral flute (C)
Flûte tierce à l'octave(French f.) a piccolo flute used formerly in military music which sounds a minor third above the standard octave flute or piccolo
Flûtet modernesee flûte de tambourin
Flute, transverseflauto traverso (Italian), Traverseflöte (German), Querflöte (German), flûte traversière
any variety of horizontally held instrument (also known as a 'cross flute') played by blowing across a lateral embouchure hole near the end which is closed by any means ranging from a simple natural septum (as in bamboo) to a mechanical device that adjusts the position of a cork plug for tuning purposes. If that device incorporates a threaded rod design allowing the cork to be advanced or retracted by rotating the head joint cap, the device is called the 'cork-setting mechanism'. The transverse (or horizontally held) flute was known in China by about 900 BC. About 1100 AD it reached Europe, where it became widely used in German-speaking areas. The flute was redesigned in the late 1600s by the Hotteterre family of French woodwind makers. This flute displaced the recorder as the typical orchestral flute in the late 1700s. In 1832, the German flute maker Theobald Boehm created an improved conical-bore flute, which is the model in widest use in the twentieth century. The cylindrical Boehm flute is made of metal or wood and has thirteen or more tone holes controlled by a system of padded keys. Its range extends three octaves, from middle C upward. Other orchestral flutes include the piccolo, alto, and bass flutes. In London alone in the couple of decades around the middle of the nineteenth century there were, in addition to the conical Boehm and later the cylindrical Boehm, about a dozen competing newly-invented flutes. Although the cylindrical Boehm flute suited the majority of players and has become the 'flute of choice' for the past century and a half, in 1850 it was by no means clear that this was going to happen. What was absolutely clear was that the old eight-keyed flute had reached the end of its time, and any arguments were not between followers of the new flute and followers of the old, but rather between followers of different types of new flutes
newly-invented flutes of the middle of the nineteenth century, in addition to the Boehm, include instruments by Ward, Card, Siccama, Carte 'old system' (conical or cylindrical, wood or metal), Carte 1851 system (conical or cylindrical, wood or metal), Clinton (various models; he had five patents) Pratten (various models), Briccialdi (advertised as made by Rudall & Rose (R&R), but no example has come to light), a few surviving one-offs made by R&R, plus a claim by Richard Carte of about ten flutes made by R&R for different inventors
[additional comments supplied by Robert Bigio]
history of the flute - prepared by Terry McGee, of McGee Flutes
while it is difficult to give an exhaustive list of its many manifestations over more than six hundred years the list below should be helpful
Renaissance, plain 6-holed cylinder
Early 1-key flutes (better tuning, sweeter sound, e.g. Chevalier, Hotteterre)
Later 1-key flutes (narrower bore for improved upper range)
5-key French simple-system flutes (thin walled, light-eight, small holes, e.g. Tulou, Sax, Noblet)
Classical 4, 6 and 8-key flutes (for improved chromaticism, e.g. Potter), based mostly on the later 1-key flutes
"Improved" 8-key flutes (e.g. large-holed Nicholson and Rudall & Rose flutes)
"Hardly-Improved" 6 and 8-key flutes (e.g. small-holed Nicholson and Rudall & Rose flutes)
Boehm's 1832 Ring-key conical (better hole distribution, better venting, basic scale in C, not D)
Siccama's "Diatonic" (larger conical bore, better hole distribution, more power, tuning and comfort)
Boehm's 1847 cylinder (the modern flute)
Flutes by Carte (and later Radcliff), employing Boehm's bore but previous fingerings
"Perfected" 8-keys (improved tuning and power over previous 8-key flutes, eg. Pratten and imitators)
Multikey cones (Boehm's keying principles applied to the cone, eg. Clinton, Carte, Pratten)
Cylindrical 8-keys (Boehm's cylindrical bore applied to the old 8-key flute)
"Reform" flute movement in Germany (improved conical flutes, e.g. Schwedler)
General consolidation towards use of Boehm's cylindrical flute through the first half of the twentieth century
Early music revival renews interest in renaissance and 1-key flutes, circa 1960s
Irish music revival renews interest in 8-key flutes, circa 1960s
Irish flutes, derived from the nineteenth century 8-key flutes, being made from around the mid 1970s
the modern flute family comprises:
name(s)lowest note
piccoloD one octave and a tone above the standard flute
soprano flute in Ebthe Eb soprano flute or Terzflöte is somewhat smaller and sounds a minor third higher than the C flute. This less well known member of the flute family was originally used in U.S. public school bands as a substitute for the more expensive Eb clarinet from approximately the 1940s through the early 1970s as well as a beginner flute for students with very small hands. Since its tone color and range was unlike that of the Eb clarinet, and since most beginners were either able to handle the C flute without problems or else buy one with a curved headjoint, manufacturers stopped making them around 1980. However, due to the popularity of flute choirs, one U.S. manufacturer (Emerson) began to make them again in 1991, as there are more and more pieces of flute choir music that require the instrument. Its distinctive tone color, sounding sweeter than the C flute and more mellow than the piccolo, makes the Eb flute a unique member of the flute family whose potential is yet to be fully explored
soprano fluteF, a fourth above the concert flute
concert flutemiddle C, unless fitted with a semitone lower B extension foot
Flûte d'amour in Bbthe modern tenor flute, also known in the nineteenth century as the flûte d'amour or alto flute in Bb, is pitched one step below the C flute. It has the same fingering range as the C flute but sounds its best in the middle and low registers. It has a much stronger sound in the low register than the C flute and is, therfore, useful for transposing extremely low C flute parts to provide a better balance in orchestral or ensemble playing. Tenor flutes are currently made by Emerson and Altus and come in both closed and open hole models; however, with its somewhat larger tubing and wider-spaced keys, the closed-hole model is probably easier to play. Tenor flutes today are extremely rare and generally are only used for jazz as they are in the same key as tenor saxophones and clarinets, making it easier for the jazz musician to double on all three instruments
alto fluteF, a fourth below middle C
bass fluteC, one octave below the concert flute, unless fitted with a semitone lower B extension foot
octobass flute
contrabass flute
subbass flute
G, a seventh, or F, an octave, below the alto flute
sub contrabass flute
double contrabass flute
C, two octaves below the concert flute
hyperbass fluteC, four octaves below the concert flute
Flûte traversière(French f.) transverse flute, flauta travesera (Spanish f.), flauto traverso (Italian m.), 'cross'-flute, Querflöte (German f.)
Flûteur(French m.) player of the flute
Flute workthe term applied to all those stops in an organ which are of the flute family
Flutgewässer(German n.) floodwaters
Flûtiau(French) pipe
Flutinaan early precursor to the diatonic button accordion, having one or two rows of treble buttons, which are configured to have the tonic of the scale, on the "draw" of the bellows
  • Flutina from which this extract has been taken
Flutist(US) the term for a performer on the flute, in England called a 'flautist'
Flûtiste(French m./f.) the term for a performer on the flute, in England called a 'flautist', in the US called a 'flutist'
Flutkatastrophe(German f.) flood disaster
Flutlicht(German n.) flood light, floodlight
Flutlichtanlage(German f.) floodlights
Flutophone(English, German n.) song-flute or tonette, a plastic wind-instrument not unlike the recorder. However, while the recorder is fully chromatic, the flutophone is more limited, being designed to play principally in the key of C
Flutopfer(German n.) flood victim
flutsche(German) sashays
flutschen(German) to sashay (colloquial), to slip
flutschend(German) sashaying
flutschte(German) sashayed
Fluttersimilar to 'conductor gallop', flutter caused by vortices on the leeward side of the overhead power lines, and which is distinguished from gallop by its high-frequency (10 Hz), low-amplitude motion
Flutter pedallingthe rapid fluctuating of the damper pedal, notated (if at all) using a zigzag pattern that interrupts the usual pedal marking. Flutter pedal is a constant up and down motion between two parts of the damper pedal mechanism (for example, between a quarter and a half depth). The effect is to clear the treble notes more effectively than the bass (because the treble notes are better damped than the bass by the damping mechanism due to the shorter length of their strings and the smaller mass per unit length). This will modify the overall tone produced
Flutter tonguingflutter tonguing
see Flatterzunge
Fluttor(German n.) tide gate
Fluttuanan organ stop, with a horn-like tone
Flutuação(Portuguese) flutter (distortion associated with magnetic recording tape)
Flutung(German f.) flooding
Flut von(German f.) storm of
Flut von Aufträgen(German f.) stream of orders, torrent of orders
Flut von Tränen(German f.) flood of tears, stream of tears
Flut und Ebbe(German) high and low tide
Flutwarnung(German f.) high-tide alert
Flutwasser(German n.) floodwater
Flutwelle (s.), Flutwellen (pl.)(German f.) eagre (tidal bore), tidal wave, flood wave, (tidal) bore
fluviale Erosion(German f.) river erosion
fluviales Sediment(German n.) riverine sediment
fluviatile Erosion(German f.) river erosion
Fluxus(Latin, literally 'flowing') beginning in the late 1940s and early 1950s, many artists sought to establish new forms of art and to return art to a social praxis. This concern was based on the desire to establish an art that would be direct in nature and collective in approach. In the middle and later 1950s, the ideas of the second form of modernism developed in two directions: the political and social implications of these ideas were developed by the Lettrist International and International Situationism groups, and the non-rational, intra-arts potentials found expression in the visual arts in the work of Pierro Manzoni in Italy, Yves Klein in France, and some of the other artists who would later be grouped under the name Nouveau Realisme. Fluxus was not a direct evolution from any of these ideas or groups, but it was part of these general cultural developments, so that many of the general ideas explored by these groups and individuals would find new forms of expression through the artists later associated with Fluxus. One of the key links was that in addition to creating new collective visual, aural, and written modes, they simultaneously developed alternative methods of distribution. The Fluxus group with its stress on collaborative enterprises and its desire to create an oppositional distribution mechanism was part of this history of alternative culture in the post-World War II period. Fluxus, though, has some significant conceptual differences from these groups that sets it apart from them. This is most evident in the significance of play and humour that increasingly affects the development of Fluxus
Fluytalso fluit or flute, a Dutch type of sailing vessel originally designed as a dedicated cargo vessel
Flyer (s.), Flyer (German pl.)(English, German m.) or, in English, circular, an advertisement (usually printed on a page or in a leaflet) intended for wide distribution
flyern(German) to hand out flyers, to lay out flyers
Flyingvolante (Italian), flüchtig (German), volant (French)
Flying buttressan arch or half arch transmitting the thrust of a vault or roof from the upper part of a wall to an outer support
Flying cadencean obsolete synonym for 'false cadence'
flying staccatoalso called 'slurred spiccato' or staccato volante, similar to slurred staccato except that the bow bounces on the string to create the separation of the pitches. Instead of reversing direction for each note as in ordinary spiccato, the bow picks up a series of short notes, usually on an up-bow
Flying-Va model of electric guitar manufactured by Gibson
Flytinga contest of wits and insults between two Germanic warriors in which each tries to demonstrate his superior vocabulary, cleverness, and bravery
flyveskift(Norwegian) pamphlet
Flzg.abbreviation of Flatterzunge (German: flutter tonguing)