music dictionary : I - Im 

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I(Italian m. pl.) the
Iambor iambus, a metrical foot used in various types of poetry, originally the term referring to one of the feet of the quantitative meters of classical Greek prosody, namely, two syllables, the first short, the second accented and long (as in i-amb itself)
Iambe(French m.) iambus, giambo (Italian m.), Jambus (German m.), yambo (Spanish m.)
Iambicor iambus, a poetic and musical foot consisting of two syllables, the first short, the second long
verses composed of a short and long syllable alternately
Iambic pentametera meter in poetry. It refers to a line consisting of five iambic feet. The word "pentameter" simply means that there are five feet in the line; iambic pentameter is a line comprising five iambs. The term originally applied to the quantitative meter of Classical Greek poetry, in which an iamb consisted of a short syllable followed by a long syllable. The term was adopted to describe the equivalent meter in English accentual-syllabic verse, where an iamb refers to an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable. Iambic rhythms come relatively naturally in English. Iambic pentameter is among the most common metrical forms in English poetry: it is used in many of the major English poetic forms, including blank verse, the heroic couplet, and some of the traditional rhymed stanza forms.
iambique(French) iambic, giambico (Italian), iambisch (German), yámbico (Spanish)
iambisch(German) iambic, giambico (Italian), iambique (French), yámbico (Spanish)
Iambs, limpingsee 'limping iambs'
Iambus(Latin) a metrical foot consisting of a short and a long syllable, with the accent on the long, giambo (Italian m.), Jambus (German m.), iambe (French m.), yambo (Spanish m.)
IAMLabbreviation of 'International Association of Music Libraries'
Iastianone of the ancient Greek modes, identical to the Ionian mode
IAWMabbreviation of 'International Alliance for Women in Music'
Ib.abbrevation for ibidem (Latin: in the same place, in the same book)
iba muy digna por la calle(Spanish) she walked proudly down the street
iban agarrados del brazo(Spanish) they were walking along arm in arm
Iberian organthe great majority of instruments that had only one manual employed 'divided registers'. The term Medio Registro (the earliest instrument with this specification of which we have records was constructed in 1547) refers to a stop which functions over half of the keyboard only (thus, Corneta in the treble and Bajoncillo in the bass). An alternative lay-out, the Registro Partido (the earliest recorded instrument with this specification was constructed in 1567), finds the pipes relating to the compass from the lowest note up to c1 and those from c#1 to the highest note, provided with individual stop-knobs on either side of the console. To use the rank over the full compass it is necessary to draw both knobs
Ibid.abbrevation for ibidem (Latin: in the same place, in the same book)
used in text to refer to a page previously mentioned
Ibid. should always be capitalised when it appears at the start of a footnote
Ibidem(Latin, identical in French, English) ebenda (German), ibídem (Spanish), in the same place, in the same book (to avoid repeating a reference)
Ibídem(Spanish) ibidem
Ibishikiso(Burundi) in Burundian drumming, the drum that echoes the motifs played on the inkiranya
Iboa Caribbean dance rhythm that belongs to the group of faster Haitian merengues. It originated in Nigeria and features torso and pelvic movements and turning of the head
Ice cream van orchestrasix vans, stage name Fleet, play a ten minute, six-part composition written expressly for the van's horn by Kelvin Pawsey, an art technician from Folkestone. Pawsey composed and recorded the piece on a twelve-note, toy xylophone from the 1960s called a 'Pixiphone', and says the performance is influenced by folk tradition
Ice dancinga form of figure skating which draws from the world of ballroom dancing
Ice instrumentsNorwegian composer and percussionist Terje Isungset and vocalist and fellow Norwegian Lena Nymark are experts at creating a range of highly original sounds from instruments such as an ice harp, an ice horn and a set of percussion instruments including a xylophone-like construction
Icelandic hip hop
ich danke!(German) no thank you!
ich dien(archaic German) 'I serve' (the motto of the Prince of Wales)
IchecheIgede shakers made from woven straw and leather that are filled with pebbles
Ich-Erzähler(German m.) first-person narrator
ich grolle nicht(German) I bear no grudge, I do not complain
Ichigenkinsmallest of the Japanese kotos, it has one string stretched over a slender plank of wood acting as a soundboard
ich kann nicht anders(German) I can do no other (a reference to Martin Luther's speech to the Diet of Worms, 1521)
ich werde mich darum kümmern(German) I shall see to it
IconoclasmBilderstürmerei (German f.), iconoclasia (Spanish f.), iconoclastia (Spanish f., Italian f.), the destruction of works of art on the grounds that they are impious. During the sixteenth century, Calvinist iconoclasts destroyed a great many religious art works in the Netherlands. Similar sentiments led to the destruction of a large number of church organs in Switzerland because musical instruments were banned from churches - though congregational singing was permitted and this proved to be both popular and an effective way of 'spreading' the message
IconoclastBilderstürmer (German m.), iconoclasta (Spanish m./f., Italian m.), iconoclaste (French m./f.), individual subscribing to the philosophy of iconoclasm
iconoclasticiconoclastico (Italian), bilderstürmerisch (German), iconoclaste (French), iconoclasta (Spanish)
Iconoclastic controversya movement in the Eastern Roman Empire, headed by the emperor, that denied the holiness of religious images. During the eighth and early ninth centuries the use of such images was prohibited, but icons were restored to worship by 843
Iconographyiconografia (Italian f., Spanish f.), Ikonographie (German f.), iconographie (French f.), the study of pictures, particularly in music, to determine how instruments might have been played, when they were in use and where and by whom they might have been used. Details of instruments otherwise unknown, because originals have not survived, although their names are known from the writings of contemporaneous authors may be gleaned from pictures, carvings, books and other surviving images. Of course, artists and their models may not have been players and so some of the poses might provide little useful information about technique. In other cases, the accuracy of dimensions (length, depth, proportion) may not have been important to the picture and, to improve the composition, details might have been omitted, embellished or modified
Iconostasis(Latin, from Greek) a screen dividing the sanctuary from the nave of an Orthodox church, on which sacred pictures (ikons) are displayed
Iconsgraphic symbols or representations indicating, for example, pitch or rhythm, and used in lieu of or along with traditional symbols for these elements
ICTMabbreviation of 'International Council for Traditional Music'
Ictus (s.), Ictus (pl.)(Latin, Spanish, Italian) Iktus (German m.), the accent resulting from the transients produced at the instant of plucking a string
a separation mark in Gregorian chant, placed before and after an important note in the melody
(Latin) in linguistics, a metrical stress, a stressed syllable in metre, particularly an artificial stress or diacritical accent placed over the top of particular syllables in a line of poetry to indicate which syllables the poet wants the reader to stress if that stress is not clear from the normal pattern of pronunciation
Id(Latin, literally 'it') in psychology, the inherited instinctive impulses of the individual
Idade Média(Portuguese) or Idade Medieval (Portuguese), Middle Ages, medioevo (Italian), Mittelalters (German), médiévale (French), medieval (Spanish)
ID3 taginformation embedded in an MP3 file, such as artist, title, track, etc. An ID3 tag editor lets you add and change this information. Without an ID3 tag, an MP3 would be recognizable only by the name of the file itself. ID3 tags are important to playlists because they identify pieces of music
Idakkasee edakka
Idea, Ideas (English, Spanish pl.)(English, Italian f., Spanish f.) mental impression, notion or concept, Idee (German f.), idée (French f.)
Idea fija(Spanish f.) monomania, obsession, fixed idea, fixe Idee (German f.), idée fixe (French f.)
see idée fixe (French f.)
Ideal(English, German n., Spanish m. ) a thing, concept, principle to be emulated, idéal (French m.)
Idéal(French m.) ideal (English, Spanish m.), ideale (Italian m.), Ideal (German n.)
Ideale(Italian m.) ideal (English, Spanish m.), Ideal (German n.), idéal (French m.)
Idealizationa portrayal of something as ideal or perfect
Ideal readerthe imaginary audience who would, ideally, understand every phrase, word, and allusion in a literary work, and who would completely understand the literary experience an author presents, and then responds emotionally as the writer wished
Ideas completamente antediluvianas(Spanish really old-fashioned ideas
Idee(German f.) idea (English, Italian f., Spanish f.), idée (French f.)
Idée(French f.) idea (English, Italian f., Spanish f.), Idee (German f.)
Idée fixe (s.), Idées fixes (pl.)(French f.) obsession, fixed idea, monomania, fixe Idee (German f.), idea fija (Spanish f.)
a recurring theme (and hence related to 'cyclic form'), with or without variations, that appears throughout a composition, a phrase first applied by Hector Berlioz (1803-1869) to describe the theme in his Symphonie fantastique. It is a forerunner of leitmotif
Idée reçu (s.), Idées reçues (pl.)(French f.) conventional opinion (outlook or doctrine), accepted idea, received opinion
Ideh(Nigeria) large seeds attached to a grass band. They are used as an arm or leg rattle
Idem(Latin) the same (particularly, the same author - used to avoid repetition of the name of an author already referred to - idem originally referred to male authors; the equivalent for female authors is eadem)
Idem quod(Latin) the same as
Idem sonans(Latin) identity of pronounciation, that can lead to the miswriting of one word for another having the same sound (for example, in English, bough (of a tree) = bow (of a boat))
Identical rhymethe use of the same words as a "rhymed" pair. For instance, putting the words stone/ stone or time/ time at the concluding positions in two lines. Many poets frown upon identical rhyme as unartful. The technique can, however, add emphasis to a poetic passage. In medieval French verse, this fashionable technique was called rime riche
identificare con(Italian) to identify with
identificarsi(Italian) to identify with
identificarti con(Italian) to identify yourself with
Ideographalso called a logograph or ideogram, this is a written symbol system in which a single marking or collection of markings represents not a phonetic sound but rather an entire word or idea. Classical Egyptian, Cuneiform, Mandarin Chinese, and Japanese are ideographic languages
Ideomotor effector 'Carpenter effect', a psychological phenomenon wherein a subject makes motions unconsciously. As in reflexive responses to pain, the body sometimes reacts reflexively to ideas alone without the person consciously deciding to take action. For instance, tears are produced by the body unconsciously in reaction to the emotion of sadness. Stage hypnotists exploit the ideomotor effect for entertainment value, convincing volunteers to perform some action without consciously deciding to do so. The volunteers usually have no memory of their performance, much like sleepwalkers. More subtle unconscious physical reactions are often used by magicians and illusionists to perform "mind-reading" tricks
Idesthe 13th or the 15th of the month, depending on the month, in Roman dating
Id est(Latin) this is to say, that is to say (often abbreviated to i.e. or ie)
used as a description to explain a statement
Idisee ideh
idilico(Spanish) idyllic
Idilio(Spanish m.) idyll
idillico(Italian) idyllic
Idillio(Italian m.) idyll, an ecologue, a short poem in a pastoral style
Idiofon(German n.) idiophone
Idiofono (s.), Idiofoni (pl.)(Italian m.) idiophone
Idiofono a tastiera(Italian m.) keyed idiophone
Idioglot reeda reed that is cut out of part of the instrument that is placed inside the mouth to sound. A simple way of reconstructing one of these idioglot reeds is to cut a small triangular slit in a straw. When this is placed in the mouth it produces a buzzing sound. Instruments with idioglot reeds are first mentioned in dictionaries in sixteenth century France (for example, Estienne (1511)) and are decribed in more detail in the seventeenth century treatises of Mersenne and Trichet
see 'heteroglot reed'
Idiolectthe language or speech pattern unique to one individual at a particular period of his or her life. Because no total conformity in pronunciation is possible, each individual has a slightly different way of pronunciation, a fact that allows computer voice recognition to note unique markers in a person's voice. That uniqueness is part of idiolect, as is each person's unique set of vocabulary and ideosyncrasies of grammar
Idiomin its loosest sense, the word idiom is often used as a synonym for dialect or idiolect. In its more scholarly and narrow sense, an idiom or idiomatic expression refers to a construction or expression in one language that cannot be matched or directly translated word-for-word in another language
Idiomatic music
(from the Greek idios, literally 'own') music that bears characteristics that are associated with:
a particular cultural tradition or style, period or genreat the beginning of the 1800s, a transformation was underway in Western art. Previously, the highest goal of an artist was to express universal ideas. The new impulse was to look inward and embrace things that were unique to one's own country, like folk songs and traditions, landscapes and natural surroundings. Composers were moving away from general concepts towards specificity.... By the late nineteenth century, common elements started to blur distinctions among national styles and many efforts began to seem cliched. Paradoxically, the movement towards localism and specificity had given way to a new commonality. Nevertheless, the nationalist movement had opened minds to other cultures, and brought an appreciation of things that were authentic and unspoiled by the increasing rate of change in modern culture
the specific strengths or weaknesses of a particular instrument one can ask of a composition, 'are instruments/voices handled well and with sympathy in respect of their strengths and weaknesses?' Music writing that recognises and makes use of the specific properties of a particular instrument is said to be 'idiomatic'. For example, one might observed that 'in the Baroque era, composers begin the write idiomatic music for instruments; trumpet or string parts, for instance, were no longer interchangeable with vocal parts.'
Idiomatic writingwhen applied to music, a term synonymous with 'idiomatic music'
Idiomelonan heirmos (Byzantine chant) with its own individual melody
see 'automelon'
Idiophon(German n.) idiophone
Idiophoneterm of classification, from the Sachs-Hornbostel hierarchical scheme for classifying musical instruments, applied to instruments that produce sounds from the material of the instrument itself without the assistance of reeds, strings or other externally applied resonator. An idiophone produces sounds by one of the following methods
idiophone typemodus operandiexample(s)
concussion idiophonestriking together two objects capable of vibrationclaves, cymbals, etc.
friction idiophonesrubbing the vibrating objectglass armonica, musical saw, etc.
percussion idiophonesstriking the vibrating object with a mallet, hammer, stick or other non-vibrating objectwood block, bell, gong, etc.
plucked idiophoneplucking a flexible tongueJew's harp, thumb piano, music box, etc.
rattle idiophoneshaking the vibrating objectmaracas, pellet bells, etc.
scraped idiophonescraping the vibrating object with a stick or other non-vibrating objectratchet, güiro, washboard, etc.
Idiot savant (French m., literally, 'learned idiot') a mentally retarded person who exhibits genius in a highly specialized area, such as mathematics or music
IDMsee 'Intelligent dance music'
Idolum (s.), Idola (pl.)(Latin, 'idol') false images of the mind. Francis Bacon's Novum Organum (1620), classifies the primary fallacies in human thinking as four types: idola tribus, specus, fori, et theatri (idols of the tribe, the cave, the market, and the theatre)
Idoru kashu(Japanese ) pop stars
Idylor idyll, idilio (Spanish), idillio (Italian), Idylle (German), idylle (French), a short description, especially in verse, of a peaceful or romantic, especially rural, scene or incident
Idyll(English, French f., German) a musical composition or work of verse of a peaceful, pastoral character
during the nineteenth century, the term was used by a number of composers as a title for an idyllic overture, for example, the Siegfried-idyll by Richard Wagner (1813-83)
a composition in verse or prose presenting an idealized story of happy innocence
Idylle(French f., German) a musical composition of peaceful, pastoral character, as, for example, the Siegfried Idyll by Richard Wagner (1813-83)
Idyllicblissfully peaceful and happy, of or like an idyll
idyllisch(German) idyllic
idyllique(French) idyllic
i.e.abbrevation for id est (Latin: that is to say, this is to say)
Iesus Hominum Salvator(Latin) Jesus, Saviour of mankind, abbreviated to I.H.S.
Iesus Nazarenus, Rex Judæorum (Latin) Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews
Ietaa small 7-stringed bow harp of the Baka forest people from southeast Cameroon
IevinaLatvian accordion
I Fiamminghi(Italian) in the early renaissance, the name by which Flemish musicians, composers, singers and players, were known in Northern Italy
IFMCabbreviation of 'International Folk Music Council'
Igbashort Nigerian peg-tuned drum with the head made out of antelope skin. It is slung from the shoulder and played with a curved stick
IG Farbenabbreviation for Interessen-Gemeinschaft Farbenindustrie AG, the world's largest chemical cartel consisting of a conglomerate of German chemical, pharmaceutical and dye manufactures. Its major members were the companies known today as BASF AG, Bayer AG, Hoechst AG, Agfa-Gevaert Group, and Cassella AG. They formed a loose association in 1916 and formally merged in 1925. By 1951 the cartel was broken up into its original founding companies though many parts quickly reunited
Iggawina Mauritanian griot
Igiltwo-stringed fiddle from Tuva with a carved wooden horses' head attached to the top of the neck. Modern versions feature three strings. It is played vertically, while sitting on the ground or on a chair
Iglesia(Spanish f.) church (building)
la Iglesia (Spanish f.: the church - the institution, the doctrine)
Iglesia Adventista(Spanish f.) Adventist Church
Iglesia Adventista del Séptimo Día(Spanish f.) Seventh-Day Adventist Church
Iglesia anglicana(Spanish f.) Anglican Church
Iglesia apostolica(Spanish f.) Apostolic Church
Iglesia bautista(Spanish f.) Baptist Church
Iglesia bautista fundamental(Spanish f.) Fundamental Baptist Church
Iglesia católica(Spanish f.) Catholic Church
Iglesia católica romana(Spanish f.) Roman Catholic Church
Iglesia Congregaciona(Spanish f.) Congregational Church
Iglesia episcopal(Spanish f.) Episcopal Church
Iglesia evangélica(Spanish f.) Evangelical Church
Iglesia hispana(Spanish f.) Spanish Church (often used to distinguish the Catholic Church in Spain particularly during the period when Spain was rule by the Visigoths which ended by the defeat of the Visgoths at the Battle of Medina Sidonia in 711 CE)
Iglesia Luterana(Spanish f.) Lutheran Church
Iglesia Menonita(Spanish f.) Mennonite Church
Iglesia Ortodoxa Copta(Spanish f.) Coptic Orthodox Church
Iglesia Ortodoxa griega(Spanish f.) Greek Orthodox Church
Iglesia Ortodoxa rusa(Spanish f.) Russian Orthodox Church
Iglesia Pentecostal(Spanish f.) Pentecostal Church
Iglesia Presbiteriana(Spanish f.) Presbyterian Church
Iglesia reformada(Spanish f.) Reformed Church
Igloo(Eskimo) a small dome-shaped hut built of compressed snow
ign.abbrevation for ignotus (Latin: unknown)
Ignis fatuus (s.), Ignes fatui (pl.)(Latin) a phosphorescent light seen flitting over marshy ground (hence, any false idea or delusory purpose)
Ignoramus(Latin) an ignorant person
ignorantia juris non excusat(Latin, literally 'ignorance of the law is no excuse') if committing an offence a guilty party cannot use as a defence the fact that they did so without knowledge that they were breaking the law
Ignoratio elenchi(Latin) the fallacy of refuting a proposition different from that set forth by one's opponent (hence, any irrelevant argument)
ignorer tout de(French) to know nothing about
Ignotum per ignotius(Latin) an attempt to explain something about which little is known by reference to something about which even less is known
Ignotus(Latin) (a person) unknown (used in catalogues of works of art where the authorship of a work is unknown)
iguales ante la ley(Spanish) equal in the eyes of the law
IhyIhy was a young god personifying the jubilation emanating from the sacred rattle. The name of Ihy was interpreted by the Egyptians as "sistrum-player", a cultic musical instrument used primarily (but not exclusively) in the worship of Hathor, mother of Ihy. At Dendera temple, Ihy is the child of the union of Hathor and Horus and is depicted as a naked young boy wearing the sidelock of youth and with his finger to his mouth. He can hold the sacred rattle and necklace (menat). In the temple complex the birth house or mammisi was a sanctuary where the mystery of the conception and birth of the divine child Ihy was celebrated. His name is rarely found outside the confines of Dendera temple, though for example, it is found occasionally in spells of the Coffin Texts or Book of the Dead where he is called "lord of charge of beer", a possible reference to the celebrations of Dendera deliberately requiring a state of intoxication on the part of the acolyte in order to communicate with Hathor
IIMPacronym for International Index to Music Periodicals. IIMP draws its current content from more than 375 international music periodicals from over 20 countries, and also indexes feature music articles and obituaries appearing in The New York Times and The Washington Post. IIMP covers nearly all aspects of the world of music, from the most scholarly studies to the latest crazes
II-V-Iin jazz, one of the most common progressions, which is more properly ii-V7-i (for example, in the key of C, Dmin7C7Fmaj7)
ijalso %, one of a number of idem or repetition signs used in modern editions of medieval music showing where, when the underlay in the source is ambiguous, the singable version has been filled out with repeats of words or syllables drawn from the original text or with neutral syllables
Ijachi(Nigeria) an Igede iron spear identified with warrior musical groups. Clappers attached to the spear vibrate as it is plunged repeatedly into the ground
IjexáAfrican-derived rhythm that sensuously underpins much of the music heard during Carnival in Brazil
Ikariotikosa traditional dance and accompanying song originating in the Greek island of Ikaria
Ikkoa highly decorated goblet shaped Japanese drum
Ikon (s.), Ikones (pl.)(from the Greek eikon or Latin icon) a sacred picture venerated in the Orthodox church
Ikonographie(German f.) iconography
Iktus (s.), Ikten (pl.)(German m.) ictus (English, Latin, Italian, Spanish)
il(Italian, m. s.) the
il a des ennuis(French) he's got problems
IlahijeMuslim religious melodies, one of the ingredients of sevdalinka
il a la langue trop longue(French) he talks too much, he can't keep his mouth shut
il apparaître que(French) it appears that
Il a pris son temps!(French) He took his time (about it)!
Ilarità(Italian) hilarity, cheerfulness, mirth
Ilathalamsee elathalam
Il Cantilenasee cantilena
Il caro Sassone(Italian, literally 'the great Saxon') a sobriquet associated with two composers, both born in Saxony, George Frideric Handel (1685-1759) and one of the greatest eighteenth-century composers of opera seria, Johann Adolf Hasse (1699-1783)
Il dito grosso(Italian) the thumb
il doppio movimento(Italian) the tempo to be doubled, twice as fast
i legni(Italian) woodwind instruments
il est(French) it is
Il est 3 heures sonnantes.(French) It's 3 o'clock on the dot.
Il est 3 heures sonnées.(French) It's past 3 o'clock.
Il est à souhaiter(French) It's to be hoped
Il est bizarre(French) It's odd
Il est bon(French) It's good
Il est certain(French) It's certain
Il est clair.(French) It's clear. It's obvious.
Il est convenable.(French) It's proper. It's fitting.
Il est difficile(French) It's difficult
Il est dommage(French) It's too bad
Il est douteux(French) It's doubtful
Il est essentiel(French) It's essential
Il est étonnant(French) It's amazing
Il est étrange(French) It's strange
Il est évident.(French) It's clear. It's obvious
Il est facile(French) It's easy
Il est faux(French) It's false
Il est grand temps que(French) It's high time that
Il est heureux(French) It's fortunate
Il est honteux(French) It's shameful
Il est important(French) It's important
Il est impossible(French) It's impossible
Il est improbable(French) It's improbable
Il est indispensable(French) It's essential
Il est injuste(French) It's unfair
Il est inutile(French) It's useless
Il est juste.(French) It's right. It's fair.
Il est meilleur que moi.(French) He's a better man than I.
Il est naturel(French) It's natural
Il est nécessaire(French) It's necessary
Il est normal(French) It's normal
Il est obligatoire(French) It's obligatory
Il est passé beaucoup d'eau sous le pont.(French) A lot of water has passed under the bridge.
Il est peu probable(French) It's not likely
Il est possible(French) It's possible
Il est probable(French) It's probable
il est question de(French) it is about, there is talk of
Il est rare(French) It's rare
Il est regrettable(French) It's regrettable
Il est sûr.(French) It's sure. It's certain.
Il est surprenant(French) It's surprising
Il est temps(French) It's time
Il est temps de(French) It's time to
Il est temps que(French) It's time that
Il est triste(French) It's sad
Il est urgent(French) It's urgent
Il est utile(French) It's useful
Il est vrai(French) It's true
Il était temps!(French) About time! In the nick of time!
il fait chaud(French) it is warm, it is hot
il fait jour(French) it is (day)light
Il faut(French) there is needed, there are needed, it's necessary to
Il faut bien passer le temps(French) You've got to pass the time somehow
Il faut casser le noyau pour avoir l'amande.(French) No pain no gain.
Il faut cultiver notre jardin(French, literally 'we must cultivate our garden') we must attend to our own affairs (the last words of Voltaire's Candide (1758))
Il faut être de son temps(French) You have to move with the times
Il faut donnerdu temps au temps(French) You have to give these things time
Il faut laisser du temps au temps(French) You have to give these things time
Il faut laisser faire le temps.(French) Let things take their natural course. Let things follow their (natural) course.
Il faut le détruire dans l'oeuf.(French) We've got to nip this in the bud.
Il faut le tirer de là.(French) We have to rescue him. We have to help him out.
Il faut le voir pour le croire.(French) It has to be seen to be believed.
Il faut que(French) It is necessary that
Il faut qu'une porte soit ouverte ou fermée.(French) There can be no middle course.
Il faut rebrousser chemin.(French) We have to turn back.
Il faut réfléchir avant d'agir.(French) Look before you leap.
Il faut savoir donner un oeuf pour avoir un boeuf.(French) Give a little to get a lot.
Il faut souffrir pour être belle(French, literally 'one must suffer to be beautiful') a reference to the often painful means by which (usually) women seek to retain or improve upon their looks
Il faut toujours qu'il ramène sa fraise.(French) He always has to put his two cents in. (colloquial)
Il faut voir.(French) We'll (have to wait and) see.
il fine(Italian) the end
Il l'a fait en dépit du bon sens.(French) He did it anyway.
Ililtain the Horn of Africa, ululation performed by worshippers at services in the Ethiopian Orthodox and Eritrean Orthodox rites
IlimbaTanzanian Gogo thumb piano, a lamellaphone with forty metal blades, one of the largest on the continent
Illbient musican offshoot of the intelligent dance music (IDM) movement, similar in style to ambient music but far different in theme, illbient uses dissonant noises and dark, unsettling ("ill") samples to create controlled chaos. This is in contrast with ambient music that uses natural noises to represent almost a random pattern of music
  • Illbient from which this information has been taken
Illiac Suite, Thein 1955, Lejaren Hiller, working with Leonard Isaacson at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, began a series of experiments in computer-automated musical composition. In 1957, they finished the Illiac Suite for string quartet, the first substantial musical composition created with a computer
Illationthe act of inferring or drawing conclusions, a conclusion drawn, a deduction
Illativeinferential, relating to or having the nature of illation or inference
illuminare con uno spot(Italian) to spotlight
Illuminated manuscriptsbooks written by hand, decorated with paintings and ornament of different kinds. The word illuminated comes from a usage of the Latin word 'illuminare' in connection with oratory or prose style, where it means 'adorn'. The decorations are of three main types: (a) miniature, or small pictures, not always illustrative, incorporated into the text or occupying the whole page or part of the border; (b) initial letters either containing scenes (historiated initials) or with elaborate decoration; (c) borders, which may consist of miniatures, occasionally illustrative, or more often are composed of decorative motifs. They may enclose the whole of the text space or occupy only a small part of the margin of the page. Manuscripts are for the most part written on parchment or vellum. From the fourteenth century, paper was used for less sumptuous copies. Although a number of books have miniatures and ornaments executed in outline drawing only, the majority are fully colored. By the fifteenth century, illumination tended more and more to follow the lead given by painters, and with the invention of printing the illuminated book gradually went out of fashion. During the 15th- and 16th-centuries illuminations were added to printed books
the illumination of books was soon industrialized at Florence and became an art-export that reached all parts of Europe. Medici himself placed his massive orders with Vespasiano da Bisticci, the bookseller who deluged the European market while he supplied to his own prince two hundred manuscripts in two years. The great Florentine illuminators, Cherico, Gherardo, Monte di Giovanni del Fora, and Attavante also served the cause of art-export and they too supplied several magnificent works to the Hungarian king Matthias Corvinus (1458-1490). Renaissance book-painting dependent on a sovereign's personal patronage flourished rather at Milan, but still more profusely at Ferrara and Naples. The world-famous library of Ferrara, in one of Italy's most impressive princedoms and the illumination done at the court there, would influence other Renaissance courts. The learned humanist Leonello d'Este was already a Renaissance ruler in the true sense of the word. He was surrounded by a host of philosophers, scholars and artists, his palace and treasures were celebrated and his library was almost unequalled in his time. The best miniature painters, Jacopino d'Arezzo, Giorgio d'Alemagna, Guglielmo Giraldi, Magnanino, Matteo di Pasti da Verona and Marco dell'Avogaro worked at his court. The famous riches of the court of Ferrara attracted crowds of foreign artists. The miniaturists of Milan were the first to arrive at Ferrara, among them Guiniforte da Vimercate. During the brief nine-year reign of Leonello d'Este manuscripts of growing magnificence were produced. His successor, Borso d'Este, maintained in his court the high standards set up by Leonello. During his reign the art of Ferrara rivalled the best in Italy: for many decades Ferrara illumination equalled that of Florence and Naples
Illuminationas it refers to medieval manuscripts, the decoration of a manuscript with gold leaf; the term is used loosely, but not strictly correctly, to refer to any illustrated manuscript
Illuminato (s.), Illuminati (pl.)a person claiming to possess special enlightenment or knowledge
the name given originally to those who submitted to Christian baptism. Those who were baptized were called illuminati or 'illuminated ones' by the Ante-Nicene clergy, on the assumption that those who were instructed for baptism in the Apostolic faith had an enlightened understanding. The Alumbrados, a mystical sixteenth-century Spanish sect, were among the societies that subsequently adopted the name illuminati. Later, the title of illuminati was used by a secret society founded by Adam Weishaupt (the Bavarian Illuminati) that aimed to combat religious thinking and encourage rationalism. In 1779 the Masonic Lodge in Munich succumbed to the Illuminati, and this branch was given authority by the English-authorized Frankfurt Lodge to set-up daughter Lodges, which it did. By mid-1782 the Order numbered about 300 men, said to have included Goethe & Mozart
Illuminator von Handschriften(German m.) illuminator, limner (of a manuscript)
Illuminazione(Italian f.) illumination, lighting
Illuminé (s.), Illuminés (pl.)(French) Illuminato (s.), Illuminati, a true devotee of eighteenth-century rationalism
Illuminierung alter Handschriften(German f.) illumination (in a manuscript)
Illuminismo(Italian m.) or Secolo dei Lumi (Italian m.), Enlightenment, Age of the Enlightenment
Illusion(English, French f.) an erroneous mental representation
illusionner(French) to delude
Illusionniste(French m./f.) conjuror, illusionist
illusoire(French) illusory
Illusory continuity of tonesthe auditory illusion caused when a tone is interrupted for a short time (approximately 50ms or less), during which a narrow band of noise is played. Whether the tone is of constant, rising or decreasing pitch, the ear perceives the tone as continuous if the 50ms (or less) discontinuity is masked by noise. Because the human ear is very sensitive to sudden changes, however, it is necessary for the success of the illusion that the amplitude of the tone in the region of the discontinuity not decrease or increase too abruptly
illustrare(Italian) to make clear, to illustrate
Illustrated(English) decorated with pictures or other features usually for the purpose of clarifying the context
Illustration(English, French) exemplification, example, a visual representation (often designed to make something clear or attractive)
Illustrative musicmusic that evokes a poem, scene, mood, idea or experience
illustrativo(Italian) illustrative
illustrato(Italian) illustrated, supplemented with notes
Illustratore(Italian m.) illustrator
Illustrazione(Italian f.) illustration
illustre(French, Italian) distinguished, illustrious
Illustré(French m.) illustrated magazine
illustré(French) illustrated
illustrer(French) to illustrate
il m'a tiré la langue(French) he stuck his tongue out at me
il medesimo tempo(Italian m.) the same time
Il me faut(French) I need
Il me le paiera!(French) He'll pay for this!
Il me reviendra.(French) It'll come back to me.
Il me tape sur les nerfs.(French) He gets on my nerves.
Il m'est impossible de donner un avis (définitif) sur(French) I can't express a (definite) opinion on
Il m'incombe de(French) It falls to me to
il n'a pas la langue dans sa poche(French) he's never at a loss for words
Il n'a pas la main douce.(French) He doesn't wear kid gloves.
Il n'a que ... à la bouche.(French) ... is all he ever talks about.
Il ne casse pas des briques(French) That's no great shakes.
Il ne casse pas trois pattes à un canard.(French) He's, It's nothing special, nothing to get excited about
Il ne casse rien.(French) He's, It's nothing special, nothing to get excited about
Il ne faut jamais courir deux lièvres à la fois.(French) Don't try to do two things at once.
Il ne faut jamais dire « Fontaine, je ne boirai pas de ton eau! »(French) Never say never.
Il ne faut jamais jeter le manche après la cognée.(French) Never say die.
Il ne faut jamais mettre la charrue avant les boeufs.(French) Don't put the cart before the horse.
Il ne faut pas juger les gens sur la mine.(French) Don't judge a book by its cover.
Il ne faut pas se fier aux apparences.(French) you can't judge a book by its cover.
Il ne faut pas vendre la peau de l'ours avant de l'avoir tué.(French) Don't count your chickens before they're hatched.
Il ne faut rien laisser au hasard.(French) Leave nothing to chance.
il ne l'a pas volé(French) he deserved it
Il ne m'a pas quitté des yeux.(French) He never took his eyes off me.
il n'en est pas question(French) it is out of the question
il n'en fait qu'a sa tête(French) he does just as he pleases
il ne sait pas tenir sa langue(French) he can't hold his tongue, he doesn't know when to hold his tongue
Il ne sert à rien de déshabiller Pierre pour habiller Paul.(French) Robbing Peter to pay Paul.
Il ne s'est jamais mieux porté.(French) He's never been better.
Il ne s'est pas cassé la nénette(French) He didn't do much, try very hard. (colloquial)
Il ne s'est pas cassé la tête.(French) He didn't overtax himself. He didn't put any effort into it.
Il ne s'est pas cassé le tronc(French) He didn't do much, try very hard. (colloquial)
Il n'est pas donné à tout le monde de...(French) Not everyone in the world is lucky enough to...
Il n'est pas mal!(French) He's not bad looking!
Il n'est plus temps de(French) The time for ... is over
Il n'est que les os et la peau.(French) He's nothing but skin and bones.
Il n'est que temps de(French) It's high time to
Il n'est si méchant pot qui ne trouve son couvercle.(French) Every Jack has his Jill.
Il nous les casse!(French) He's a pain in the neck! (colloquial)
Il n'y a pas à dire(French) There's no doubt about it.
Il n'y a pas de fumée sans feu.(French) Where there's smoke, there's fire.
Il n'y a pas de quoi être fier.(French) It's a poor show.
Il n'y a pas de quoi fouetter un chat.(French) It's nothing to make a fuss about.
Il n'y a pas de temps à perdre(French) There's no time to lose
Il n'y a que les montagnes qui ne se rencontrent jamais.(French) There are none so distant that fate cannot bring together.
Il n'y a rien à faire.(French) It's hopeless, no use insisting
Il n'y avait pas un chat!(French) There wasn't a soul!
Il peut faire mieux.(French) He can do better.
il più(Italian m.) the most
il più forte possibile(Italian) as loud as possible
il più piano possibile(Italian) as soft as possible
il più presto possible(Italian) as quick as possible
Il revient à moi de(French) It falls to me to
Il se fit jour dans mon esprit(French) The light dawned on me
il seguente(Italian) the following, the next
Il serait (grand) temps que(French) It's (high) time that
Ils m'ont ri au nez.(French) They laughed in my face.
Ils ne peuvent pas se voir(French) They can't stand each other.
Ils ne valent pas mieux l'un que l'autre.(French) They're two of a kind. One's as bad as the other.
il tempo crescendo(Italian) increasing, or accelerating the tempo
il tient que(French) it depends on
Il vaut mieux aller au moulin qu'au médecin.(French) An apple a day keeps the doctor away.
Il vaut mieux être marteau qu'enclume.(French) It's better to be a hammer than a nail.
Il vaut mieux s'adresser à Dieu qu'à ses saints.(French) It's better to talk to the organ-grinder than the monkey.
Il violino(Italian m.) the violin
Iluminación(Spanish f.) lighting (for example, lighting engineers in a theatre, etc.)
ILWCabbreviation of 'International League of Women Composers'
il y a beau temps(French) for a long time
il y a combien de temps?(French) how long ago?
Il y a du mieux.(French) There's been some improvement.
Il y a du monde ici(French) There are a lot of people here
Il y a mis le temps!(French) He's taken his sweet time doing it!
Il y a plus d'un âne à la foire qui s'appelle Martin.(French) Don't jump to conclusions.
Il y a qqch qui cloche.(French) Something's not quite right.
Il y a un ange qui passe.(French) There's an awkward pause in the conversation.
Il y a un mieux.(French) There's been some improvement.
Il y a un temps pour tout(French) There's a right time for everything
im(German) in the
IMAInstitute for the Musical Arts
im Abzugsee Abzug
Image musicale(French f.) musical imagery
Imagerya common term of variable meaning, imagery includes the "mental pictures" that readers experience with a passage of literature. It signifies all the sensory perceptions referred to in a poem, whether by literal description, allusion, simile, or metaphor. Imagery is not limited to visual imagery; it also includes auditory (sound), tactile (touch), thermal (heat and cold), olfactory (smell), gustatory (taste), and kinesthetic sensation (movement)
Imagisman early twentieth-century artistic movement in the United States and Britain. Imagists believed poets should use common, everyday vocabulary, experiment with new rhythm, and use clear, precise, concentrated imagery. Ezra Pound, Richard Aldington, Amy Lowell, Carl Sandburg, and T. E. Hulme are all poets who were adherents of imagism and were known as imagists
Imagistsee 'imagism'
Imago(Latin) portrait, illustration (describing something that is a perfect or typical example of some concept)
(Latin) the idealized image of a person, usually a parent, formed in childhood and persisting unconsciously into adulthood
(Latin) entomological term for the last (or adult) stage of development of an insect
Imago clipeata(Latin, literally 'framed portrait') the images of heroes on Roman shields
Imago Dei(Latin, literally 'Image of God') the concept that human beings are created in God's image
im alten Stilall'antico (Italian) in the ancient style, in a former style, in an old style (usually a reference to the style associated with classical Greek or ancient Roman), dans le style ancien (French)
im Alter(German) in old age
im Alter von(German) at the age of
Imam(Arabic) a Moslem priest, a title given to the Caliph and certain other Moslem leaders
im Anzug sein(German) be imminent (figurative)
im Auftrag(German) on behalf of
im Auge behalten(German) keep in sight, bear in mind (figurative)
Imayoo(Japanese) a medieval genre of popular song
Imbal(Javanese) or imbalan, a technique used in Javanese gamelan. It refers to a rapid alternation of a melodic line between instruments, in a way similar to hocket in medieval music or kotekan in Balinese gamelan
imbarazzato(Italian) embarrassed
imbarcare(Italian) to embark
imbarcarsi(Italian) to go on board
Imbarcazione(Italian f.) boat
Imbarcazione da diporto(Italian f.) pleasure craft
Imbarcazione di salvataggio(Italian f.) lifeboat
Imbarco(Italian m.) embarkation, landing-stage
imbattersi in(Italian) or accordarsi con (Italian) to fall in with
im Bau(German) under construction
im Bedarfsfalle(German) in case of need
im Begriffsein zu(German) be about to
im Bett(German) in bed
Imboccatura(Italian f.) the mouthpiece of a wind instrument
(Italian f.) embouchure, mouth-hole, Mundloch (German n.), Ansatz (German m.), embouchure (French f.), embocadura (Spanish f.)
ImbongiZulu musician storytellers
im Brennpunkt des Interesses stehen(German) be the focus of attention
Imbroglio(Italian m.) embroilment, confusion, difficult situation, complicated misunderstanding, intricate rhythm, want of distinct ideas
(Italian m.) a term applied specifically in opera when several groups of singers or instrumental ensembles perform at the same time but to serve different, even conflicting, dramatic purposes
IMCabbreviation of 'International Music Council'
im Dunkeln(German) in the dark
im Durchschitt(German) on average
Imdyaznprofessional musicians of the Berbers
Imene metuaa form of unaccompanied vocal music known for a uniquely Polynesian drop in pitch at the end of the phrases, as well as staccato rhythmic outbursts of nonsensical syllables (tuki)
Imene tukia form of unaccompanied vocal music known for a uniquely Polynesian drop in pitch at the end of the phrases, as well as staccato rhythmic outbursts of nonsensical syllables (tuki)
im ersten Zeitmass(German) tempo primo, at the original speed
IMFan audio file format created by Apogee Software for the AdLib sound card for use in their video games. The default filename extension is also "imf"
Im Falle(German) in case
im Film(German) on the screen
im Fluß(German) in a state of flux (figurative)
im Fluss(German) in a state of flux (figurative)
im gleichen Tempo(German) the same speed
im Handumdrehen(German) in a flash, in no time, in the twinkling of an eye, in the wink of an eye
Image planethe plane at right angles to the optical axis at the image point
Imitación(Spanish f.) imitation
Imitación libre(Spanish f.) free imitation
imitando(Italian) imitating
imitando la voce(Italian) imitating the inflections of the voice
imitando la voce femminile(Italian) imitating the feminine voice
Imitatio(Latin, literally 'imitation') a technique prescribed by fifteenth-century rhetoriticians. Literary imitatio had as its goal the restoration of classical rhetoric through 'emulation'. The great seventeenth-century dramatist, poet, and wit, Ben Jonson (1572-1637), writes about 'imitation', saying that it allows the poet, "to convert the substance, or Riches of an other Poet, to his owne use. To make choice of one excellent man above the rest, and so to follow him, till he grow very Hee: or so like him, as the Copie may be mistaken for the Principall." The author was drawing from a "cultural cache" thereby invoking the authority of the classical tradition; a tradition in which what we call plagiarism would be admired. Imitating great men was a way to make oneself great
as modern scholars have attempted to translate literary rhetorical ideas to musical composition, imitation could be 'emulation' (for example, a student learning his craft by studying and emulating the works of the masters), or as a form of 'homage' (one composer using elements from another composer's work as a way of paying homage to him or her)
from recovered sixteenth-century compositional drafts, it appears that students of composition were still being taught to compose one line at a time, learning their craft by imitating older masters, and modeling new pieces directly on old ones. Emulation was not only pedagogical but may have also been used as a means of competition or of paying homage to other composers. Composers of chansons in the fifteenth century imitated one another in various ways. All of these kinds of emulation in composition seem to relate directly to the late medieval and Renaissance concept of imitation, known to Tinctoris and applied to music possibly as early as the late fourteenth or early fifteenth centuries. Presumably it was taught as well. Before the advent of syntactic imitation, there were two principal methods of composition, which continued through the sixteenth century. The first consisted of the addition of new lines around a cantus firmus, the medieval contribution to polyphony. The second relied on the newer techniques of imitatio beginning in the late 14th- and early 15th-centuries
Imitatio aequalis motus(Latin) imitation by similar melodic motion
Imitatio cancrizans in moto contrario(Latin) imitation by inverted retrograde melodic motion
Imitatio canonica(Latin) canonic imitation
Imitatio homophonia(Latin) imitation at the unison, the first species of imitation
Imitatio inaequalis motus(Latin) imitation by dissimilar or inverted melodic motion
Imitatio inaequalis motus al contrario riverso(Latin) imitation by strict dissimilar or inverted melodic motion
Imitatio inaequalis motus al rovescio(Latin) imitation by free dissimilar or inverted melodic motion
Imitatio in secundo superiori ossia inferiori(Latin) imitation at the upper or lower second, the second species of imitation
Imitatio in hyperitono ossia in hypoditono(Latin) imitation at the upper or lower third, the third species of imitation
Imitatio in hyperdiatessaron ossia in hypodiatessaron(Latin) imitation at the upper or lower fourth, the fourth species of imitation
Imitatio in hyperdiapente ossia in hypodiapente(Latin) imitation at the upper or lower fifth, the fifth species of imitation
Imitatio in hexacordo superiori ossia inferiori(Latin) imitation at the upper or lower sixth, the sixth species of imitation
Imitatio inheptacordo superiori ossia inferiori(Latin) imitation at the upper or lower seventh, the seventh species of imitation
Imitatio in hyperdiapason ossia in hypodiapason(Latin) imitation at the upper or lower octave, the eighth species of imitation
Imitatio interrupta(Latin) interrupted imitation, one of the rhythmic proportions of imitation
Imitatio invertibilis(Latin) invertible imitation, imitation in double counterpoint
Imitation(English, French f., German f.) imitación (Spanish), imitazione (Italian), Nachahmung (German), the repetition of a phrase, usually at a different pitch, by another voice or part (that is fugal writing, which in this sense means writing of a fugal nature but which is not necessarily in accordance with the strict laws of fugue or canon). The original statement is called the 'antecedent' while the repetition is called the 'consequent'
if the consequent is an exact reproduction of the antecedent, the imitation is said to be 'strict' or 'canonic'; however if only the general outline is preserved, the imitation is said to be 'free'
the term may be applied to the representation of extra-musical sounds within musical works, for example, train whistles, birdsong, and so forth
Imitation massmasses based on a polyphonic source, as distinct from cantus firmus masses which are based on a monophonic source. The term 'parody mass' is sometimes applied to what might be better described as an 'imitation mass'
Imitation, pervadingsee 'pervading imitation
Imitatio per arsin et thesin(Latin) imitation in contrary rhythm, one of the rhythmic proportions of imitation
Imitatio per augmentationem(Latin) augmentation, one of the rhythmic proportions of imitation
Imitatio per diminutionem(Latin) diminution, one of the rhythmic proportions of imitation
Imitatio periodica(Latin) incidental or formal periodic imitation
Imitativesee 'imitation'
Imitative counterpointa polyphonic musical texture in which the various melodic lines use approximately the same themes
Imitative stopsorgan stops that are designed to sound as close as possible to their orchestral namesake. The 'Clarinet' is one such stop
Imitazione(Italian f., from the Latin imitatio) imitation, as, for example, in counterpoint
in the Renaissance, imitazione can describe three distinct types of borrowing:
following, exemplified in the cantus-firmus technique
imitation proper
emulatio (emulation) implying a critical reflection on the model itself
imitieren(German) to imitate
im lebhaftesten Tempo(German) in a very animated tempo
im lebhaftesten Zeitmaße(German) in the quickest time possible
im Legendenton(German) in the style of a legend
immaginare con anticipo(Italian) to prefigure
Immagine con ragazza(Italian f.) pin-up (poster)
Immagine musicale(Italian f.) musical imagery
immedesimarsi con(Italian) to empathise with
immer(German) ever, always, continuously, still (continuing)
immer belebter(German) ever more quickly, still more lively
[corrected by Brian A. Jefferies]
immer bewegter(German) still moving more (i.e. faster)
immer dasselbe getragene Zeitmass(German) still the same solemn tempo
immer fern und ferner(German) still distant and more distant
immer gest.(German) or immer gestopft (German), always stopped, alway muted
immer gestopft(German) always stopped, always muted
[addition to entry provided by Brian A. Jefferies]
immer langsam(German) slowly throughout
immer langsamer(German) slower and slower
immer leiser(German) softer and softer
immer mehr und mehr zurückhaltend(German) still holding back more
immer mit Dämpfer(German) always muted
immer mit Sord.(German) always muted
immer mit Verstärung bis zum Schluss(German) with reinforcement (i.e. doubling) to the end
immer noch (etwas) drängend(German) always pressing forward more
immer noch etwas vorwärts(German) always still somewhat forward
immer noch mehr zurüchhaltend(German) ever more holding back
immer noch unmerklich zurückhaltend (German) always imperceptibly holding back
immer offen(German) always open
immer schnell(German) still quick
immer springend. Bog.(German) always spiccato
immer stärker werdend(German) continually growing louder, crescendo
immer vorwärts (drängend)(German) always forward (as in 'pressing forward')
immer wuchtig(German) always weighty
immobile(Italian) motionless
Immobiliste(French m./f.) (a person) who opposes progress or reform, an obscurantist
Immortelle(French f., literally 'ever-lasting') a flower of papery texture which retains its colour and shape when dried
Immortelles, Les(French f. pl.) the members of the Académie Française
Immutabilis(Latin) one of the accentus ecclesiastici
im Orchester(German) in the orchestra (as opposed to back stage)
imp.abbreviation of impressit (Latin: printed by, after which is written the printer's name), impresserunt (Latin: printed by, after which is written the printer's name), impressé (French: printed by, after which is written the printer's name)
impair(French) odd (numbers)
imparare con la pratica(Italian) to learn by doing
imparfait (m.), imparfaite (f.)(French) imperfect
Impasse(French) a situation from which there is no escape, an insoluble difficulty
Impassionedfilled with passion, ardent, appassionato (Italian), con abbandono (Italian), leidenschaftlich (German), avec passion (French)
Impasto(Italian m.) the application of thick layers of opaque pigment
Impayable(French) 'priceless', impossible to equal
impazientandosi(Italian) impatiently
impaziente(Italian) impatient, hurried
impazientemente(Italian) impatiently, hurriedly
Impazienza(Italian f.) impatience
Impedimenta(Latin pl.) encumbrances (for example, when travelling, baggages, parcels, etc.)
impegnarsi con una somma di denaro(Italian) to pledge (to pledge a sum of money)
impelagarsi con(Italian) to get stuck with
impennato(Italian) requilled (jacks)
impensis(Latin) at the expense
imper.abbreviation of 'imperative' (of a mood, expressing a command, for example, sing this!)
imperat.abbreviation of 'imperative' (of a mood, expressing a command, for example, sing this!)
Imperativeurgent, obligatory, commanding, peremptory
Imperator (m.), Imperatrix (f.)(Latin) Emperor, Empress
imperf.abbreviation of 'imperfect' (of a tense, denoting action in progress but not completed, for example, they were singing)
Imperfectnot perfect, less than perfect (particularly when speaking of intervals or chords)
Imperfect authentic cadence
a perfect cadence (or, according to some sources, a plagal cadence) where:
inverted imperfect authentic cadenceone or both chords are inverted
root position imperfect authentic cadencethe highest voice is not the tonic
leading tone imperfect authentic cadence
leading note imperfect authentic cadence
the V chord is replaced with the vii° chord but the cadence still ends on a tonic chord
Imperfect cadenceor 'half close', cadenza imperfetta (Italian f.), cadéncía imperfecta (Spanish f.), Halbschluss (German m.), unvollkommener Schluss (German m.), unvollkommener Ganzschluss (German m.), cadence imparfaite (French f.), a cadence that ends not with the tonic but with a dominant or some other chord
Imperfect consonancesor 'imperfect concords', intervals such as the major and minor thirds and sixths, whose ratios are less simple than those of the fifth and fourth
Imperfect enjoymentreaders commonly associate this motif or poetic genre with 17th-century male poets in France, but it derives ultimately from Latin poetry such as Ovid's Amores 3.7. Typically, the motif in French literature deals with a proud or arrogant male lover who discovers in the midst of a seduction that for one reason or another he is unable to sustain his desire
Imperfect foota metrical foot consisting of a single syllable, either heavily or lightly stressed
Imperfect intervaldiminished interval, particularly those one chromatic semitone (half-step) smaller than a perfect interval
any non-perfect interval, that is, 2nd, 3rd, 6th or 7th
Imperfectionin music of the Renaissance, the reduction of a trinary note value to binary. Therefore, in tempus perfectum, the breve will be normally trinary (i.e. taking three semibreves) but under certain specific circumstances it may be 'imperfected' so that it takes only two semibreves
Imperfect measurean old term for the time of only two in a bar, also called 'binary measure'
Imperfect narratorsee 'unreliable narrator'
Imperfect rhymeanother term for inexact rhyme or slant rhyme
Imperfektion (in der Mensuralnotation)(German f.) imperfection (in mensural notation)
Imperial quartosee 'quarto'
imperiosamente(Italian) imperiously, pompously, haughtily, stately
Imperiosità(Italian) stateliness, pomposity
imperioso(Italian) imperious, pompous, lofty, haughty
Imperium(Latin) supreme power, sovereignty
impers.abbreviation of 'impersonal' (of a verb, used especially with it as a subject (for example, it is snowing); of a pronoun, synonymous with 'indefinite')
Impersonalwithout personal reference, objective, impartial
without human attributes, cold, unfeeling
Impersonal verba verb without a real subject
Impersonal verb constructiona verb used without a subject or with a largely non-referential "it" as the subject. For instance, "It is raining"
imperturbabile(Italian) quietly, easily
Impeto(Italian m.) impetus, impetuosity, vehemence
impétueusement(French) impetuously
impétueux (m.), impétueuse (f.)(French) impetuous, in a boisterous manner
impetuosamente(Italian) impetuously
Impetuosità(Italian f.) impetuosity
impetuoso(Italian) impetuous, vehement, boisterous, impetuously, vehemently, boisterously
Impetuous, Impetuouslyacting with sudden energy, moving forcefully or rapidly, impetuoso (Italian), heftig (German), impétueux (French m.), impétueuse (French f.), impétueusement (French)
Impetus(Latin) the force with which a body moves, motive power, moving force, a stimulus, an incentive
Implied audiencethe "you" a writer or poet refers to or implies when creating a dramatic monologue
Implied intervalsintervals not expressed in a figured bass, but which are understood to be a component part of any chord
Impluvium(Latin) the square water-cistern in the centre of the atrium of a Roman house
Imponderabilia(pseudo-Latin) factors the influence of which on some project it is not easy to evaluate in concrete terms
imponente(Italian) imposing in style, haughtily, emphatic
Imponenza(Italian f.) an imposing style, haughty
imponierend(German) imposing in style, haughtily
imporre con la forza(Italian) to force feed
Impossible n'est pas français.(French) There is no such word as "can't."
Imposta projecting moulding supporting an arch
Imposta sul Valore Aggiunto(Italian) or IVA, valued added tax, VAT
Impostazione(Italian f.) placing of the voice
Imprenta(Spanish f.) press
Impresario (s.), Impressarii (pl.)(Italian m., from impresa, meaning 'undertaking') the agent, organiser or manager of an opera or concert company
Impresion(Spanish f.) impression, edition
Impresor(Spanish m.) printer
Impressionisman idea borrowed from art, where a work's 'colour' describes, or gives an impression of an experience
in jazz, the term has a particular meaning, namely, a form of jazz centred around collective improvisation and the concept, expressed by saxophonist Ornette Coleman (born 1930), of 'harmolodics'
Impressionisme(French m.) impressionism
Impressionismo(Spanish m.) impressionism
Impressionismus(German m.) impressionism
Imprimante(French f.) printer
Imprimatur(Latin, literally 'let it be printed') the formula licensing the publication of a book, an official license to publish
the term is now restricted to the license granted by a bishop for the publication of a religious work. Such a license is also called a nihil obstat (Latin, "let nothing stand in the way")
Imprimatura(Italian) coloured wash laid over a panel or canvas, either before or after the preliminary drawing is made
Imprimé(French) printed dress-fabric (usually of linen or cotton), printed form
imprimé(French) printed
imprimer(French) to print, to imprint, to impart
imprimere(Latin) print
Imprimerie(French f.) printing (art), printing works
Imprimeur(French m.) printer
Imprimis(Latin) in the first place (introducing the first is a sequence of items)
Impromptu(English, French, Spanish m. from the Latin in promptu, 'in readiness') an improvisation, an extempore performance
common in the nineteenth century, an instrumental piece that is designed to give the impression of having been improvised on the spur of the moment, for example, a fantasia
a term used by some composers, notably Frédéric Chopin (1810-49), to express a piece of music of a lyrical nature
Impromtü(German n.) impromptu
Impronta (s.), Impronte (pl.)(Italian f.) mark, impression, stamp, impress, imprint, print, trace
Impronta del piede(Italian f.) foot-print
improntare(Italian) to impress, to imprint, to mark, to prepare
Impronte digitali(Italian f. pl.) finger-prints
impronunziabile(Italian) unpronounceable
Improperiaa series of antiphons and responses sung on the morning of Good Friday in place of the usual daily Mass of the Roman rite
impropre(French) incorrect
impropre à(French) unfit for
Impropriété(French f.) incorrectness, error
Improvan abbreviation of 'improvisation', used in jazz to describe the improvisational section of a work
Improvisação(Portuguese) improvisation
Improvisação coletiva(Portuguese) group improvisation
Improvisación(Spanish f.) improvisation, impromptu
improvisadamente(Spanish) suddenly
improvisado(Spanish) improvised
improvisado (m.), improvisada (f.)(Italian) improvised
Improvisador (m.), Improvisadora (f.)(Spanish) an improviser
improvisando(Italian) with improvisation
improvisar(Spanish) to improvise
Improvisateur (m.), Improvisatrice (f.)(French) an improviser
Improvisatie(Dutch) improvisation
Improvisation(English, German f., French f.) in acting, when an actor remains 'in character' but makes up action or dialogue without prior scripting
or extemporization, to compose or perform (music, verse, etc.) extempore, that is, spontaneously
an impromptu is a musical work that, although composed in advance, should be played in such a way as to give the impression that is being improvised
Improvisational comedyalso called 'improv' or 'impro', comedy that is performed with a little to no predetermination of subject matter and structure. The performers discover their lines and actions spontaneously, typically following a general theme and format, often in response to audience suggestions. Improvisational comedy is a form of improvisational theatre
Improvisational theatrea form of theatre in which the actors perform spontaneously, without a script. Improvisation has been employed in live theatre at least since sixteenth-century Commedia Dell'arte. Modern improvisation began in the classroom with the theatre games of Viola Spolin and Keith Johnstone in the 1950s, then evolved quickly to become an independent artform worthy of presentation before a paying audience
improvisato'improvised', found in the titles of Dmitri Kabalevsky's Op.21 No. 1 (1934) Improvisato for violin and piano, Adrej Tchulovsky's Recitando improvisato and Hans Werner Henze's Rondo improvisato
Improvisator(German m.) one who improvises
Improvisatrice(French f.) a poetess, a female improviser
Improviseimprovvisare (Italian), improvisieren (German), improviser (French), to compose or perform (music, verse, etc.) extempore
improvise(French) extemporaneous
improviser(French) to improvise
improvisieren(German) to improvise
improvisierte Vorstellung(German f.) ad lib performance, improvisation
improviso(Portuguese) improvise
improviso, de(Spanish) suddenly
improvvisamente(Italian) extemporaneously, suddenly, unexpectedly
improvvisando(Italian) improvising
improvvisare(Italian) to improvise, to perform or sing extemporaneously
Improvvisata (f.)(Italian) an agreeable surprise
Improvvisato (m.), Improvvisata (f.)(Italian) an impromptu, a work that has been improvised
[information supplied by Sabrina Mudd]
Improvvisatore (m.), Improvvisatrice (f.)(Italian) one who sings, or declaims, in verse, extemporaneously
Improvvisazione(Italian f.) improvisation
improvviso(Italian) sudden, unexpected, unforeseen, extemporaneous
Improvvissatore (s.), Improvvissatori (pl.)(Italian) one who sings, or declaims, in verse, extemporaneously
Imprudencia(Spanish f.) imprudence
imprudente(Spanish) imprudent
Impudencia(Spanish f.) impudence
impudente(Spanish) impudent
impúdico(Spanish) immodest, shameless
Impudor(Spanish m.) immodesty,shamelessness
impuesto(Spanish) imposed
impuesto sobre el valor añadido(Spanish m.) VAT, value added tax
impugnar(Spanish) to contest,to refute
Impuls(German m.) impulse
impulsar(Spanish) to impel
Impulsion(French f.) impulse
Impulsividad(Spanish f.) impulsiveness
impulsivo(Spanish) impulsive
Impulso(Italian m., Spanish m.) impulse
impune(Spanish) unpunished
Impunidad(Spanish f.) impunity
Impureza(Spanish f.) impurity
impuro(Spanish) impure
Imputación(Spanish f.) charge
imputar(Spanish) to attribute, to charge (the accused)
IMS abbreviation of 'International Musicological Society'
im Schnitt darstellen(German) to profile
imshi!(Arabic) go away!, be off!
im Stil der Janitscharen-Musik(German) alla turca (Italian), à la turque (French), nach türkischer Art (German), in the Turkish style
im Stile einer ...(German) in the style of ...
im Sprechchorrufen(German) chant
im Takt(German) a tempo, in time (to the music)
im Tempo(German) a tempo, return to the original pace
im Tempo des Scherzo(German) in the tempo of the Scherzo
im Tempo I zurückkehren(German) returning to Tempo I
im tiefsten Winter(German) in the depths of winter
im übrigen(German) besides, apart from
im ungewissen lassen(German) to leave in the dark
im unklaren sein(German) to be in the dark
im Unterbewußtsein(German) subconsciously
im Volkston(German m.) in the style of a German folk song, in a popular (German) style
Imzador imzhad, a one-stringed Tuareg fiddle, played by women
im Zeitmaß(German) in time, a tempo
Imzhadsee imzad