music dictionary : In - Iz 

If any detail is incorrect or incomplete please advise us, using our dictionary amendment form.

If you would like to support our work writing and maintaining the teaching resources on this site please click on the donate button and follow the online instructions - thank you for your contribution.

in(Italian) in, into, in the
in.abbrevation of invenit (Latin: invented by, designed by - usually after the name of the inventor)
in absentia(Latin) in one's absence, in the absence (of the person concerned)
in Abzug bringen(German) to deduct
inacabable(Spanish) interminable
inaccesible(Spanish) inaccessible
in accordo con(Italian) according to
inaceptable(Spanish) unacceptable
inacostumbrado(Spanish) unaccustomed
Inactividad(Spanish f.) inactivity
inactivo(Spanish) inactive
in actu(Latin) in practice
inacutire(Italian) to sharpen, to make sharp
inadaptado(Spanish) maladjusted
inadecuado(Spanish) inadequate, unsuitable
inadmisible(Spanish) inadmissible, intolerable
inadvertido(Spanish) unnoticed
Inadvertencia(Spanish f.) inadvertence
in aeternum(Latin) for eternity, for ever and ever
inagotable(Spanish) inexhaustible
inaguantable(Spanish) unbearable, insufferable (person)
in aller Ausführlichkeit(German) in full detail
in aller Deutlichkeit(German) without mincing matters, with the necessary clarity
in aller Eile(German) in a great hurry
in aller Frühe(German) bright and early
in aller Güte(German) in a friendly way, in a friendly manner
in aller Heimlichkeit(German) in great secrecy
in aller Kürze(German) in a nutshell
im allerletzten Augenblick(German) at the very last moment
in aller Morgenfrühe(German) bright and early
in aller Ruhe(German) without causing excitement
inalterable(Spanish) unchangeable, fast (colour), calm (character)
inalterado(Spanish) unchanged
in alt, in altosee 'alt'
in altissimosee 'alt'
Inamorato (m.), Inamorata (f.)(old Italian) a lover, a sweetheart, one who is in love
in modern Italian, innamorato
in andern Umstanden(German) pregnant
Inanga(Rwanda, Burundi) an African cradle-shaped zither which is associated with the tradition of narrators and poets
inanimado(Spanish) inanimate
Inanimatenot endowed with, or deprived of, animal life (an inanimate object)
spiritless, dull
in Anspruch nehmen(German) make use of, demand, take up (time), occupy (a person's time)
in anticipo(Italian) early
inaplicable(Spanish) inapplicable
inapreciable(Spanish) imperceptible
inapropiado(Spanish) inappropriate
(questa ultima nota va) in arcata morendo(Italian, literally 'a dying bow stroke') an expression mark used by Claudio Monteverdi in his Il Combattimento di Tancredi e Clorinda (1624) indicating a diminuendo on a particular note
in armonia(Italian) in harmony
in armonia con(Italian) in harmony with, in step with
inarticulado(Spanish) inarticulate
in articulo mortis(Latin) at the point of death, at death's door
inasequible(Spanish) out of reach
in associazione con(Italian) in association with
in attesa di(Italian) waiting for
inaudito(Spanish) unheard-of
in Augenschein nehmen(German) inspect
Inauguración(Spanish f.) inauguration
Inaugural(English) an inaugural speech, lecture, etc.
Inaugural(English, Spanish) of or for an inauguration
inaugurar(Spanish) to inaugurate
Inauguratingadmitting formally to office, beginning (an undertaking), initiating the public use of (a building, etc.) with a ceremony, introducing (for the first time)
Inaugurationthe event during which a person (building, etc.) is inaugurated
in Aussicht stellen(German) promise
in balia di(Italian) at the mercy of
in barba a(Italian) in spite of
in base a(Italian) on the basis of
in Bausch und Bogen(German) wholesale (figurative)
in Beschlag nahmen(German) to monopolise
in Betracht ziehen(German) to consider
in Betrieb(German) working, in use
In-betweenintermediate (colloquial)
in bezug auf(German) regarding, concerning
in bilico(Italian) in the balance
in bitterer Weise(German) amarevole (Italian), amaramente (Italian), bitterness, sadness, grief, afflication, mournfully, sadly, with bitterness, amèrement (French)
in blocco(Italian) in bulk (business)
in bocca al lupo!(Italian) good luck!
in bonam partem(Latin) (to be interpreted) on the favourable side, in a favourable manner
in bona parte(Latin) (to be interpreted) on the favourable side, in a favourable manner
Inbornexisting from birth, natural, innate
in bottiglia(Italian) bottled
in breiten Gang(German) in a broad fashion
in breve(Italian) briefly
Inbrunst(German f.) ardour, fervour, warmth of passion
inbrünstig(German) ardent, fervent, passionately
inbunden(Swedish) bound
inc.abbreviation of 'incomplete'
incalcando(Italian) getting louder and faster
in collaborazione con(Italian) in cooperation with, in collaboration with, in harness with
incalz.abbreviated form of incalzando
incalzando(Italian, literally 'pursuing hotly') hastening, pressing forward, increasing the tempo
incalzando e stringendo(Italian) growing more vehement and more rapid
incalzante(Italian) pressing onward
in camera(Latin) in private (in a private chamber), in secret
in law, the hearing of a case in private without the facts being reported to the public
in campo aperto(Latin, literally 'in the open field') neumatic notation without guidelines, where the neumes are said to be 'Oratorical' or 'Chironomic'
Incantation(Latin, incantare literally 'to utter an incantation') the words spoken by an enchanter during a ritual, such as those in praise of a god, in witchcraft or when casting a spell. Another name for an incantation is 'mantra'. The term is applied, in opera or oratorio, to a scene during which spirits are conjured
Incapacityinability, lack of power (to do something), legal disqualification
Incarnatus, Et(Latin) a part of the Credo, part of the mass
Incarnadinemake flesh-coloured
Inceptiveor 'inchoative', of a verb, denoting the beginning of an action
inch.abbreviation of 'inchoative' (synonymous with 'inceptive' - of a verb, denoting the beginning of an action)
Inchino(Italian m.) bow, curtsy, reverence
inchoat.abbreviation of 'inchoative' (synonymous with 'inceptive' - of a verb, denoting the beginning of an action)
Inchoatejust begun, undeveloped
sometimes used incorrectly to mean 'chaotic' or 'incoherent'
Inchoativeor 'inceptive', of a verb, denoting the beginning of an action
incid.abbreviation of 'incidental'
Incidencefrequency of occurrence of a condition over the lifespan in a population
Incidental musicderived from the music that accompanied plays in ancient Greece, incidental music is that composed for the production of a predominantly spoken play, including any overtures, entr'actes, interludes or act tunes, and any music that occurs as part of the action in the scenes themselves, for example, fanfares, dances, etc.
Incidente(Italian m.) incident, accident
Incidente con fuga(Italian m.) hit-and-run accident
Incidente con omissione di soccorso(Italian m.) hit-and-run accident
Incidenza(Italian f.) incidence
incidere(Italian) to cut (into), to engrave (art), to record (register)
incidere su(Italian) to weigh upon (the mind)
incinta(Italian) pregnant
Incipiencythe act or process of bringing or being brought into existence, in other words, beginning, commencement, inauguration, inception or incipience
Incipientonly partly in existence, imperfectly formed, in an initial stage
incipiente(Italian) incipient
Incipit(Latin, 'begin here') the first line, or first few works, of a work, often used to identify it. In music, an incipit will be the first few notes or bars (or measures) with which a piece of music begins. Incipits are often given in thematic catalogues in order to positively identify a piece of music. In the case of works with multiple movements (such as symphonies and sonatas), the incipit of each movement is usually given
(Latin) occasionally used as a synonym for 'intonation'
(Latin) in a modern edition of an early work, a clef sign and notes placed in front of the modern staff to show in their original form such details as the original clef, the key, the range of the part, and so on
incipriare(Italian) to powder
Incise(French) motive, motif, fragment of thematic material
(Italian) sharply mark the notes
Incisione(Italian f.) engraving
Inciso(Italian) incisive, sharply marked, with clear articulation
(Italian m.) motive, motif, fragment of thematic material
Incisore(Italian m./f.) engraver
Incisore di note(Italian m./f.) music engraver
incitare gli animali con la frusta(Italian) to whip on
inclinazione del manico (angolazione della tastiera)(Italian) Halswinkel (die Griffbrettlage), angle of fingerboard or 'neck projection', renversement (French m.)
Incognito (m.), Incognita (f.), Incogniti (pl.)(Italian) (a person) living or travelling in disguise, or under an assumed name, to avoid recognition
in collusione con(Italian) hand and glove
in combutta con(Italian) in cahoots with, in league with
incominciando(Italian) commencing
Incommunicado (m.), Incommunicada (f.)(Spanish) detained or imprisioned without communication with the outside world
in competizione con(Italian) in competition with
Incomplete stopa half stop, in an organ
in concorrenza con(Italian) in competition with
in concorso con(Italian) in league
in confidenza con(Italian) intimate with
in conflitto con(Italian) afoul of, in conflict with
in conformità con(Italian) in accordance with
Inconnu (m.), Inconnue (f.)(French) a person whose identity is unknown
Inconséquence(French) illogical behaviour
inconsolato(Italian) in a mournful style
incontrarsi con(Italian) to meet up with, to meet with, to run across
Incontro con scambio di idee(Italian m.) seminar
inconvenable(French) not in accordance with propriety or decency
in coppia con(Italian) partners with, paired with
Incordamento(Italian) tension of the strings of an instrument
incordare(Italian) to string an instrument
in cornu Epistolae(Italian) as a reference to an organ's position, placed on the right side of the church, chapel, etc.
in cornu Evangelii(Italian) as a reference to an organ's position, placed on the left side of the church, chapel, etc.
Incorporativein most languages, different grammatical components reflect different parts of speech. In an incorporative language, these common sentence elements are combined into a single word
incorrect(English, French) erroneous, wrong, faulty
incorrecto(Spanish) wrong, incorrect
in corso(Italian) current (as of now)
in corso di stampa(Italian) being printed
Increasing the speed, Increasing the tempoaccelerando (Italian), affrettando (Italian), incalzando (Italian), stringendo (Italian), drängend (German), Tempo beschleunigen (German), en pressant (French), en serrant (French)
Increasing the tonecrescendo (Italian), anschwellend (German), en augmentant (French)
incrociamento(Italian) crossing
Incubus (s.), Incubi (pl.)(Latin) an evil spirit which cohabits with a woman during her sleep (hence, a nightmare)
a succubus or succuba (plural succubae, succubi, or succubuses) is a demon who takes the form of a beautiful human female to seduce men (especially monks) in dreams
the term has been extended to mean a person or thing exercising an oppressive influence
Incudine(Italian f.) anvil, enclume (French), Amboß or Amboss (German), yunque (Spanish)
Inculcateto teach and impress by frequent repetitions or admonitions
Incunable(English s.) incunabulum
Incunabulum (s.), Incunabula (pl.)
(Latin, literally 'swaddling clothes') a book, single sheet, or image that was printed - not handwritten - before the year 1501 in Europe. These are usually very rare and fragile items whose nature can only be verified by experts. There are two types of incunabula:
xylographicmade from a single carved or sculpted block for each page
typographicmade with movable type on a printing press in the style of Johann Gutenberg. Many authors reserve the term incunabulum for the typographic ones only
Incurabilisee Ospedaletto
in curia(Latin) in court (law court)
in law, the hearing of a case before a court sitting in public
Indagatio(Latin) investigation, research
indbundet(Danish, Norwegian) bound
indebitato con(Italian) indebted to
indebolendo(Italian) becoming weaker, weakening, affievolendo (Italian), abschwächend (German), schwächer werden (German), en affaiblissant (French)
indeciso(Italian) irresolute, undecided, wavering, hesitating, capricious, in an undecided manner
(Italian) a term indicating 'slight changes of time'
indecl.abbreviation of 'indeclinable'
Indeclinableof or being a word that lacks grammatical inflection though belonging to a form class whose members are usually inflected
indef.abbreviation of 'indefinite'
Indefinitevague, undefined, unlimited
of adjectives, adverbs, and pronouns, not determining the person etc. referred to (for example, 'some', 'someone', 'anyhow')
Indefinite articleword (for example, 'a', 'an' in English) preceding a noun and implying 'any of several'
Indefinitelyfor an unlimited time (was postponed indefinitely), in an indefinite manner
Indefinite pitchin music a sound or note of indefinite pitch is one of which it is impossible or relatively difficult to discern the pitch or frequency of the fundamental, as opposed to sounds of definite pitch. Sounds with indefinite pitch do not have harmonic spectra or have altered harmonic spectra
Indefinite pitch clefalso 'neutral clef', 'rhythm clef', 'percussion clef', chiave neutra (Italian f.), Schlagzeugschlüssel (German m.), clé neutre (French f.), clef neutre (French f.), clave neutral (Spanish f.), clave para percusión (Spanish f.)
neutral, indefinite or percussion clefneutral, indefinite or percussion clef
indegnatamente(Italian) angrily, furiously, passionately
indegnato(Italian) angrily, furiously, passionately
Indeliblethat cannot be rubbed out or removed
Indeliblyof or pertaining to something that is indelible
Indelicatecoarse, unrefined, tactless
Indelicacy (s.), Indelicacies (pl.)words or writings that are coarse, unrefined or lacking in tact
Indemnificationa security against harm, loss, etc.
Indemnify(often followed by 'from', 'against') to secure (a person) in respect of harm, a loss, etc.
(often followed by 'for') to exempt from a penalty
to compensate
Indemnity (s.), Indemnities (pl.)a compensation for damage, sum exacted by a victor in war, security against loss, exemption from penalties
in den Ausstand treten(German) go on strike
in den Dreckziehen(German) denigrate (figurative)
indenne(Italian) undamaged
Indennità(Italian f.) allowance
Indennità di trasferta(Italian f.) travelling allowance
indennizzare(Italian) to indemnify
Indennizzo(Italian m.) indemnity
Indentto make or impress marks, notches, dents, etc. in
to start (a line of print or writing) further from the margin than others
to draw up (a legal document) in duplicate
(often followed by 'on', upon a person, for a thing) to make a requisition
to order (goods) by requisition
order (especially from abroad) for goods, official requisition for stores, indented line, indentation, indenture
Indentationindenting or being indented, notch
Indentionindenting (especially in printing), notch
Indenturea legal agreement in which the text is entered twice, then the two halves separated with a zigzag cut and a half given to each party to the agreement; also called a chirograph
Independenta descriptor that can be applied to chords, harmonies and triads which because they give rise to no dissonance are considered stable and need neither to progress to another chord nor to resolve
in der Ferne(German) in the distance
in der Fremde(German) in foreign land
in der Mitte(German) in the middle
in der Mitte des Felles(German) in the middle of the drumhead
in der Mitte der Pauke(German) in the middle of the kettle-drum
in der Mitte geschlagen(German) to strike in the middle
in der Nase bohren(German) to pick one's nose
inderogabile(Italian) binding
in der Tat(German) indeed
in der Tonhöhe abfallendsee abfallend
indescrivibile(Italian) indescribable
indesiderabile(Italian) undesirable
the American composer David Cope proposes a classification of various types of indeterminacy:
that which occurs at the moment of compositionthe composer himself leaves to chance the "choices" of which the creative process consists
that which occurs at the moment of performancethe composer leaves more or less blank certain areas of the composition whose fulfillment will fall to the performer with the observance of criteria and injunctions dictated by the composer, as for example, Stockhausen who, from 1963 through to 1970, began to give his performers less and less fixed musical notation using instead symbols (plus, minus and equal signs), so the interpreter is to use his own musical skills to transform events using these signs and relating them to various parameters such as dynamic levels, duration, pitch, etc. In this scheme plus (+) would be louder, higher, longer, minus ( -) could be shorter, lower, slower, broadly speaking, and so on
Indeterminate musicsee 'indeterminacy'
Indetermination(German f.) indeterminacy
indeterminato(Italian) indeterminate
indeterminabile(Italian) indeterminable
Index (s.), Indices (pl.), Indexes (pl.)see custos
(French m., English) forefinger
an ordered list, usually placed as the final section of a book, that identifies by page number where various key words occur
Index expurgatorius(Latin) appearing first in 1571, a list of passages to be deleted or altered in works otherwise permitted for the reading of the faithful
Index librorum prohibitorum(Latin) official list of books that Catholics were forbidden to read without express permission
Index locorum(Latin) an index of places (mentioned in a book)
Index nominum(Latin) an index of people (mentioned in a book)
Index rerum(Latin) an index of subjects (or topics) (mentioned in a book)
Index verborum(Latin) an index of words (mentioned in a book)
Indholdsfortegnelse(Danish) index
indi(Italian) then
Indian banjosee bulbul tarang
Indian classical musicthe classical music of India is one of the oldest unbroken musical traditions in the world. Its origins go back to the Vedas (ancient scripts of the Hindus). The term 'Indian Classical Music' refers to two related, but distinct, traditions rooted in antiquity, both very much alive in India today. The North Indian style is known as Hindustani, while the South Indian tradition is referred to as Carnatic. Both systems are fundamentally similar but differ in nomenclature and performance practice. The subject of Indian classical music is rich, with its historical, cultural, aesthetic, theoretical, and performing facets. The basis for Indian music is sangeet, a combination of three art forms: vocal music, instrumental music and dance, although these three art forms were originally derived from the single field of stagecraft. Today these three forms have differentiated into complex and highly refined individual art forms. The present system of Indian music is based upon two important pillars: raga and taal. Raga is the melodic form while taal is the rhythmic. As a pervasive influence in Indian life, the music pervades the big and small events of life, from childbirth to death, religious rites and seasonal festivals. Originally, not all musical developments were reduced to writing. To keep their traditional integrity, they were imparted orally from teacher to pupil - the Guru-Shishya tradition. In the past, there used to be a system of Gurukul Ashram where teachers imparted knowledge to deserving students
Indian hip hop
Indianist composersthe 'Indianist' composers of the period 1890-1920 took two approaches to the Native melodies that they used: music as raw material, and music as culture. Edward MacDowell (1860-1908) used the Native melodies collected by Theodore Baker in his Über die Musik der nordamerikanischen Wilden (1882). For MacDowell, these tunes were strictly raw musical material, with no reference or attention to tribal sources. Whatever cultural interpretation he made of the music is a generic one based on Lewis Henry Morgan's theory of "cultural evolutionary stages." Arthur Farwell's source of Native melodies came from the work of Alice Fletcher and Francis LaFlesche, whose research focused on the Omaha nation and dealt extensively with cultural context. Ultimately, the Indianist composers sacrificed cultural authenticity as a result of their attempt to make the music accessible for a consumer culture
Indian musical instruments
the most traditional form of classification of Indian musical instruments is based upon:
percussiontabla, pakhawaj, mridangam, etc
windflute, shehnai, etc
string instrumentssitar, sarod, violin, veena, sarangee, etc
electronic musical instruments
Indiano (m.), Indiana (f.)(Italian) Indian
indiano (m.), indiana (f.)(Italian) Indian
Indian violinsee 'violin' and 'sarangi
India papera type of paper which from 1875 has been based on bleached hemp and rag fibres, that produced a very thin, tough opaque white paper. It has a basis weight of 20 pounds, yet bulks 1,000 pages to the inch
indiavolato(Italian) possessed, wild (abandoned)
Indicación de dinámica(Spanish f.) an expression mark that indicates a sudden or gradual change in dynamics
Indicación de tempo(Spanish f.) tempo indication, the speed at which a composition is to be performed
Indicador ordinal feminino(Spanish m.) feminine ordinal (ª)
Indicador ordinal masculino(Spanish m.) masculine ordinal (º)
indicando(Italian) indicating
indicare(Italian) to show, to indicate, to point at (with the finger), to advise
indicare con esattezza(Italian) to pinpoint
indicare con un dito(Italian) to point your finger at
Indication(French f.) indication, instruction, information
Indication de la coda(French f.) 'jump to coda' sign
Indication de mésure(French f.) meter
Indication de nuance(French f.) expression mark
Indication de temps(French f.) tempo indication, the speed at which a composition is to be performed
Indication métronomique(French f.) tempo indication, the speed at which a composition is to be performed
Indicativo(Italian m.) indicative (grammar)
indicativo(Italian) indicative
indicato(Italian) prominent
Indicatore(Italian m.) indicator, gauge, directory (handbook)
Indicazione(Italian f.) indication, direction (instruction)
Indicazione di tempo(Italian f.) tempo indication, the speed at which a composition is to be performed
Indice(Italian m.) index finger or forefinger
(Italian m.) pointer, index, contents (listing of chapters in a book)
Indice dei nomi(Italian m.) index of names
Indicium (s.), Indicia (pl.)(Latin) an indication, a symptom, an item of evidence
Indieindependent film, filmmaker, producer or TV station
Indie (music)in popular music, indie music (from independent) is any of a number of genres, scenes, subcultures and stylistic and cultural attributes, characterised by (real or perceived) independence from commercial pop music and mainstream culture and an autonomous, do-it-yourself (DIY) approach. It is not strictly a 'genre' of music (although the term is often used to reference the sound of specific bands and the bands they have influenced), but is often used as an umbrella term covering a wide range of artists and styles, connected by some degree of allegiance to the values of underground culture, and (usually) describable as rock music. Genres or subgenres often associated with indie rock include lo-fi, post-rock, garage punk, sadcore, C86, twee pop, and math rock, to list but a few; other related (and sometimes overlapping) categories include shoegazing and indie pop. Indie rock artists place a premium on maintaining complete control of their music and careers, releasing albums on independent record labels (sometimes their own) and relying on touring, word-of-mouth, and airplay on independent or college radio stations for promotion. Some end up moving to major labels, often on favorable terms won by their prior independent success
  • Indie music from which part of this entry has been taken
Indie popa term that refers to indie music which is considered to be based on the conventions of pop music. The term is nebulous. Because indie rock is sometimes used to mean indie music as a whole, indie pop can be discussed as a sub-set of indie rock, but at other times, the terms are used to illustrate a pop-rock dichotomy within the indie music scene. The term is further blurred by disagreement over what qualifies as pop music. Pop is seen as being radio-friendly and disposable, two things that indie music generally eschews. Indie pop is thus the pop music that operates outside of the boundaries of conventional pop music. It is often lo-fi, or otherwise unusual
  • Indie pop from which this extract has been taken
Indie rocka genre of alternative rock that primarily exists in the indie underground music scene. The term is sometimes used interchangeably with indie music as a whole, though more specifically implies that the music meets the criteria of being rock, as opposed to indie pop or other possible matchups. These criteria vary from an emphasis on rock instrumentation (electric guitars, bass guitar, live drums, and vocals) to more abstract (and debatable) rockist constructions of authenticity
Indietronicaalso known as 'indie electronic', 'indietronic', 'indietronics' and 'lap-pop', a music genre that combines indie rock and shoegaze with elements of electronic music styles such as IDM and glitch
indifferente(Italian) coldly, indifferently, careless, in a capricious manner
indifferentemente(Italian) coldly, indifferently, careless, in a capricious manner
Indifferenza(Italian) indifference, coldly, irresolutely
Indigenousnative to a region, whether people, plants, wildlife, or cultural expressions
Indigenous knowledgesee 'traditional knowledge'
indipendente(Italian) freelance
Indirect aangeslagen trom(Dutch) a drum that is struck indirected, for example, a rattle drum
Indirect resolutionsee 'resolution'
in diretta(Italian) live (transmission)
indirizzare(Italian) to address, to send, to direct
indirizzarsi(Italian) to direct one's steps
Indirizzo(Italian m.) address, direction
Indiscrezioni(Italian f.) prospectus
in disparte(Italian) apart
indispettita(Italian) irritated
in disaccordo con(Italian) out of line with, in disagreement with, out of sympathy with
in disputa con(Italian) at variance with
in distanza(Italian, literally 'at a distance') to be performed as if the sound were coming from a distance
Individuationa hypothesized process in a child's psychological development through which he or she becomes an integrated self, separate from parents and others
Indlamuor 'Zulu war dance', a traditional Zulu dance from South Africa where the dancer lifts one foot over his head and brings it down hard, landing squarely on the music's downbeat. Typically, two dancers in warrior's pelts perform indlamu routines together, shadowing each other's moves perfectly
  • Indlamu from which this extract has been taken
Indledning(Danish) introduction
Indo-Europeanthe hypothetically reconstructed language that was the ancient ancestor of most European, Middle-Eastern, and Indian languages, including English. Some scholars prefer to use the noun-term proto-Indo-European to refer to this hypothetical language and use the adjective Indo-European in reference to those languages that descend from proto-Indo-European
Indo-Germanicalso called Indo-Aryan, this is an obsolete term for Indo-European
Indo-Iranianthe branch of Indo-European that includes Persian and Indic
indolent(French) lazy
Indomitableincapable of being overcome, subdued, or vanquished, unconquerable
Indonesian hip hop
Indonesian music
Indonongo(Burundi) a rough fiddle
Indoor percussion ensembleor 'indoor drumline', the marching percussion and sideline percussion (or pit) sections of a marching band or drum corps
in doppelter Ausfertigung(German) in duplicate
Indoyíftika(Greece) Indian filmi with Greek lyrics
in drei(German) triple meter
in dreifacher Ausfertigung(German) in triplicate
in Druckshcrift(German) in capital letters
in dubio(Latin) in doubt
indugia(Italian) as in la musica indugia, meaning 'the music lingers' or 'the lingering music' [entry suggested by Weed]
indugiando(Italian) delaying, zögernd
indugiare(Italian) to delay, to linger, to loiter
indugio(Italian m.) delay
in duplice(Italian) in duplicate
Industria(Spanish f.) industry
Industria en asenso(Spanish f.) growing industry
Industria del turismo(Spanish f.) tourist industry
Industrial dancesynonymous with 'electronic body music'
industrialisé(French) industrialized
Industrial musica loose term for a number of different styles of electronic and experimental music. First used in the mid 1970s to describe the then-unique sound of 'Industrial Records' artists, a wide variety of artists and labels have since come to be called "Industrial"
Industrial technoa cross between power noise, traditional industrial, and techno. It often resembles house music in structure, while keeping the harsh sounds, noises, and fast pacing of industrial music. Although sampled and processed guitars are not uncommon, lyrics and a verse-chorus-verse structure are very rare
Industria pesquera(Spanish f.) fishing industry
Industria siderúrgica(Spanish f.) iron and steel industry
Industrie de la musique(French f.) music industry
Industriefilm(German m.) commercial film
Industriel(French m.) industrialist
Industrieladen(German m.) factory shop
inébranlable(French) unshakeable
inédit (m.), inédite (f.)(French) unpublished, original (figurative)
inedito(Italian) unpublished
inédito(Spanish) unpublished
inefficace(French) ineffective
inégal (m.), inégale (f.)(French, literally 'uneven', 'unequal') in order to give a slow melodic line forward impetus, a convention developed in music, particularly French music from the mid 16th- to the late 18th-centuries, in which pairs of notes of identical time duration, for example, two quavers (eighth notes), are played as though their time values were unequal. This is explicit where the composer uses the marking pointé, but such markings are rare and the use of notes inégal and the appropriate degree of inequality are left to the discretion (and taste) of the performer. For example, two quavers (eighth notes) in 2/4 might be played as though they were a crotchet (quarter note) followed by a quaver (eighth note) in 6/8. Very rarely, the reverse, a kind of Scotch snap, might be more appropriate. This convention of rhythmic inequality is associated with slow movements, and should apply only to the notes that divide the main pulse or beat in two. Thus, where, because of the tempo, the pulse of a 3/4 slow movement is measured in crotchets (quarter notes), it is the quavers (eighth notes) that are played inégal, providing certain other requirements are met. If the tempo is much slower, the quavers (eighth notes) may better give the pulse, in which case it will be semiquavers (sixteenth notes) that are played inégal. There are exceptions. For example, if the composer has placed staccato dots over the pair of notes, they must be played égal, that is equally. There is good evidence that passages of an arpeggiated nature, whose purpose is harmonic rather than melodic, are also to be played evenly
there is an alternative example of inequality which is when two notes of equal written time value are given different 'weight'. This is the fundamental feature of the Mannheim sigh, a mannered treatment of Baroque practice where the performer puts more weight on the first of two notes in slurred descending pairs
inégalable(French) matchless
inégalé(French) unequalled
Inégalité(French f.) inequality, unevenness, difference
Inégalité de(French f.) difference between
in Eile(German) in haste
in einem Zug(German) at one go
in einem Zuge(German) at one go
in einfachen Worten(German) in simple phrases, in simple words
in Einklang bringen(German) to harmonise
inéluctable(French) inescapable
inepte(French) inept, absurd
Ineptie(French f.) ineptitude
inépuisable(French) inexhaustible
Inequalitysee inégal
inerte(French) inert, lifeless
Inertie(French f.) inertia
Inertia(Latin) in physics, the tendency of matter to remain at rest (or to continue in a straight line) unless influenced by an external force
the general use, a tendency to remain at rest, sloth
ineseguibile(Italian) unplayable
inespéré(French) unhoped for
in esse(Latin) actually, in real fact
inestimable(French) priceless
inévitable(French) inevitable
inexact (m.), inexacte (f.)(French) inaccurate, incorrect
Inexact rhymerhymes created out of words with similar but not identical sounds. In most of these instances, either the vowel segments are different while the consonants are identical, or vice versa. This type of rhyme is also called approximate rhyme, pararhyme, slant rhyme, near rhyme, half rhyme, off rhyme, analyzed rhyme, or suspended rhyme
inexcusable(French) unforgivable
inexécutable(French) unplayable
In excelsis(Latin) in the highest (degree)
in extenso(Latin) at full length, in its entirety
in extremis(Latin) in extremity, in the last agonies, at the point of death
Infanta(Spanish f.) a royal princess of Spain or Portugal
infantile(Italian, literally 'childlike') a term applied to describe the thin quality of tone in the upper notes of some female singers
Infektionsabteilung(German f.) isolation ward (in a hospital)
inférieur (m.), inférieure (f.)(French) lower, inferior
inferiore(Italian) lower, inferior
infernale(Italian) infernal, hellish, diabolic
Inferno (s.), Inferni (pl.)(Italian m., literally 'hell') a place of torment or mistery, a conflagration
infervorato(Italian) coldly, indifferently, careless, in a capricious manner
infiammatamente(Italian) ardently, impetuously
in fila Indiana(Italian) in single file
Infinite canonalso 'perpetual', 'circular' or 'endless' canon, a round or canon which can go on forever, for example, Three Blind Mice
Infinite melodyone without a closing cadence that could be continued ad infinitum
the term is used, in a derogatory sense, for the interminable melodies that appear in Wagner's later music dramas
Infino(Latin) as far as, until you reach, up to
Infixationalso called epenthesis, infixation is placing a new syllable, a word, or similar phonetic addition in the middle of a larger word. Some languages regularly use infixation as a part of their standard grammar. In English, infixation is often used in colloquialisms or for poetic effect
in flagrante delicto(Latin) in the act of committing an offence, red-handed
Inflatilewind instruments such as flutes, oboes, etc.
Inflatilia(Latin) wind instruments
Inflectedan inflective or inflected language is one like Latin, German, or Anglo-Saxon, in which special endings called declensions appear on the end of noun-stems to indicate case
Inflected infinitivein Old English, an infinitive with declension endings attached and used as a noun
Inflectionany change or modification of pitch or note
in chanting, an inflection is a departure from the monotone, or reciting note, in plainchant, recitation or cantillation
also spelled inflexion, the alteration of a word to provide additional grammatical information about it - such as a grammatical ending added to a word to mark its case, tense, number, gender, and so on. Inflections of verbs are called conjugations. Inflections of nouns and other parts of speech to show grammatical case are called declensions
Inflectivean inflective or inflected language is one like Latin, German, or Anglo-Saxon, in which special endings called declensions appear on the end of noun-stems to indicate case
Inflessione(Italian f.) inflection
Inflexion(French f.) inflection
Inflexión(Spanish f.) inflection
Informancea sharing or showing of music that demonstrates the process by which students arrive at the product or performance as a result of instruction, rather than focusing solely on the end result. An informance may include some explanation or discussion
Information theorya branch of communications theory which originated with the work of Claude Shannon (1916-2001), a researcher at the Bell Telephone Laboratories during the late 1940s and '50s. In 1949, Shannon published a famous paper entitled 'The Mathematical Basis of Communication' where he outlined the basic concepts of information theory. Between about 1950 and 1960, information theory was influential in music theory circles as well as in linguistics, for example Leonard Meyer's 'Emotion and Meaning in Music' published in 1956. Information theory depends upon a precise (but limited) definition of the word 'information' which answers the question of how to define the quantity of information contained in a message being transmitted, received, or stored
Informantin folklore studies, anthropology, and linguistics, an informant is the local individual who tells the folklorist a folktale, explains a custom to an anthropologist, or who responds to an interview or dialect study made by a linguist, i.e., a "local source"
infra(Italian) below
(Latin) below, further on (referring to a later passage in a book, etc.)
Infrabass(Latin, German m.) an organ stop of 16ft., a sub-bass
infra dig(nitatem)(Latin) beneath one's dignity
Infraredthe region of the electromagnetic spectrum whose radiation has longer wavelengths than optical radiation, but shorter wavelengths than radio waves
infrason(French) subsonic, infrasonido (Spanish)
Infrasonicgenerating or using waves or vibrations with frequencies below that of audible sound (sometimes 'subsonic' is used when what is meant is 'infrasonic')
infrasonido(Spanish) subsonic, infrason (French)
in fretta(Italian) in haste, hastily, hurried, hurriedly
infuriante(Italian) furious, raging
infurianto(Italian) furiously
infuriato(Italian) in haste, hastily
Infusiona draught of medicinal herbs, etc. steeped in hot or boiling water
Inganno(Italian m.) a deceit, a deception
(Italian) a deception, as for example, when referring to a cadenza d'inganno (Italian: deceptive cadence) which also called an interrupted cadence, or to any unusual resolution of a discord, or an unexpected modulation
in gefühlsmäßiger Beziehung(German) emotionally
Ingegneria meccanica(Italian f.) mechanical engineering
Ingegno(Italian m.) art, skill, wit, discretion, brains (pl.), genius, ingenuity
ingegnoso(Italian) ingenious
in gehender Bewegung(German) rather quicker than andante, andante con moto
ingelosire(Italian) to make jealous
ingelosirsi(Italian) to become jealous
Ingeniería(Spanish f.) engineering
Ingeniería ambiental(Spanish f.) environmental engineering
Ingeniería civil(Spanish f.) civil engineering
Ingeniería eléctrica(Spanish f.) electrical engineering
Ingeniería electronica(Spanish f.) electronics engineering
Ingeniería en informática(Spanish f.) computer science
Ingeniería hidráulica(Spanish f.) hydraulic engineering
Ingeniería mecanico(Spanish f.) mechanical engineering
Ingeniería química(Spanish f.) chemical engineering
Ingeniero (m.), Ingeniera (f.)(Spanish) engineer, technician
Ingeniero agrónomo(Spanish m.) agronomist, agricultural expert
Ingeniero ambiental(Spanish m.) environmental engineer
Ingeniero civil(Spanish m.) civil engineer
Ingeniero de caminos, canales y puertos(Spanish m.) civil engineer
Ingeniero de edificación(Spanish m.) building engineer (in English, also known as an architectural engineer)
Ingeniero de laboratorio(Spanish m.) laboratory technician
Ingeniero de minas(Spanish m.) mining engineer
Ingeniero de sonido(Spanish m.) sound engineer
Ingeniero eléctrico(Spanish m.) electrical engineer
Ingeniero electricista(Spanish m.) electrical engineer
Ingeniero electronico(Spanish m.) electronics engineer
Ingeniero en telecomunicaciones(Spanish m.) telecommunications engineer
Ingeniero hidráulico(Spanish m.) hydraulic engineer
Ingeniero industrial(Spanish m.) industrial engineer
Ingeniero mecanico(Spanish m.) mechanical engineer
Ingeniero químico(Spanish m.) chemical engineer
Ingeniero técnico(Spanish m.) engineer qualified after a three-year university course
Ingénieur du son(French m./f.) sound engineer
Ingeniosidad(Spanish f.) ingenuity
Ingéniosité(French f.) ingenuity
ingenioso(Spanish) ingenious
ingente(Italian) huge
Ingénu(French m., literally 'artless', 'innocent' or 'naïve') a character type found in French comic opera (little more than a village simpleton), a younger woman of artless simplicity (or an actress who plays such a part upon the stage)
ingenuamente(Italian) naturally, ingenuously
Ingénue(French f., literally 'artless' or 'innocent') originating as the damigella in seventeenth-century Italian opera, the ingénue was a girl between 14 and 15 years old combining the innocence of childhood with the latent sensuousness of adulthood and having a propensity to bursting into tears
Ingenuità(Italian f.) ingenousness
ingenuo(Italian) ingenuous, naïve (credulous)
ingerire(Italian) to swallow
ingerirsi(Italian) to interfere
ingessare(Italian) to put in plaster
Ingessatura(Italian f.) plaster
Inghilterra(Italian f.) England
inghiottire(Italian) to swallow
ingiallirsi(Italian) to turn yellow
ingigantire(Italian) to magnify
ingigantirsi(Italian) to become gigantic
inginocchiarsi(Italian) to kneel (down)
in giornata(Italian) today
inglese(Italian) English
in globo(Latin) in its entirity, as a whole, taking a general view
Ingomaor ngoma, the word for drum in Burundi
In good voicesinging or speaking well or easily
Ingressathe counterpart, in Ambrosian and Beneventan chant, of the Introit, the opening of the celebration of the Roman Catholic Mass
In-groupa group of people united by common beliefs, attitudes, or interests and characteristically excluding outsiders
in guerra con(Italian) at war with
Inhabited initialsee 'decorated initial'
Inhalt(German m.) contents, table of contents
Inharmoniccontaining frequencies that are not whole-number multiples of the fundamental. Two- and three-dimensional vibrators (such as plates, drumheads, bells and gongs) typically produce inharmonic partials
Inharmonicité(French) inharmonicity
Inharmonicityin music, inharmonicity is the degree to which the frequencies of the overtones of a fundamental differ from whole number multiples of the fundamental's frequency. These inharmonic overtones are often distinguished from harmonic overtones, all whole number multiples, by calling them partials, though partial may also be used to refer to both. Since the harmonics contribute to the sense of sounds as pitched or unpitched, the more inharmonic a sound the less definite it becomes in pitch. Many percussion instruments such as cymbals, tam-tams, and chimes, create complex and inharmonic sounds. Strings are more inharmonic the shorter and thicker they are, which becomes an important consideration for piano tuners, especially in the thick strings of the bass register
Inharmonic relationfalse relation
In hastehurriedly, quickly, con fretta (Italian), in Eile (German), très pressé (French)
in herzlicher Weise(German) affectionately, affettuosamente (Italian), con affetto (Italian), affectueusement (French), tendrement (French)
im Hintergrund(German) in the background
in Hörweite(German) within earshot
inhouden van de beweging(Dutch) checking the speed
Iniciante(Portuguese) beginner
Initial(Latin initialis, literally 'at the beginning') the first letter of the text in medieval manuscripts and early printed books, made to stand out emphatically by its colour, size, and ornamentation. Initials may be inhabited (having a small creature, animal, or person depicted inside the letter without obvious connection to the text's contents), historiated (having an illustration of a scene or event that clearly connects with the story or subject-matter described in the text), or decorated (having elaborate abstract designs unrelated to the text).
Initialismany word, whether an acronym or an alphabetism, formed from the first letters of other words
Initial letteranother term for an initial
Initium(Latin) the 2 or 3 note introductory formula preceding the recitation note in chanting
Iniziale(Italian f.) initial, the first
iniziale(Italian) initial
Inizio(Italian m.) beginning
in jeder Beziehung(German) in every respect, every bit
in jure uxoris(Latin, literally 'by the right of his wife') in law, a title, privilege, etc. inherited by the wife, but held or exercised by the husband
Inkcoloured fluid used for writing, drawing, or printing. Inks usually have staining power without body, but printers' inks are pigments mixed with oil and varnish, and are opaque. The use of inks goes back in China and Egypt to at least 2500 BC. They were usually made from lampblack (a pigment made from soot) or a red ochre ground into a solution of glue or gums. These materials were moulded into dry sticks or blocks, which were then mixed with water for use. Ink brought from China or Japan in such dry form came to be known in the West as 'Chinese ink' or 'Indian ink'. The names are also given to a similar preparation made in Europe
Inkhorn terma word, often experimental or pompous, introduced into English during the Renaissance, especially one used primarily in writing rather than everyday conversation
Inkiranyalarge ceremonial drum from Burundi. In Burundian drumming, the calling drum in the centre of the performance. Its rhythms are matched by the ibishikiso drum, on the right, and supported by the steady beat of the amashako drums on the left
Ink jet printinga non-impact printing process in which droplets of ink are projected onto paper or other material, in a computer-determined pattern
in Kürze(German) shortly
Inlaut(German m.) medial sound (in phonetics)
Inlaythe placing of small pieces of a contrasting material within a larger area of another. On the guitar, these may be dot inlays (mother of pearl, for example) used to give the players a frame of reference when placing their fingers on the fretboard
in Lebensgefahr(German) in mortal danger, critically ill (patient)
in Lebensgröße(German) life-sized
Inledning(Swedish) introduction
Inleiding(Dutch) introduction
in liebevolle Weise(German) amorosamente (Italian), amorevolmente (Italian), lovingly, tenderly, gently, fondly, affectionately, tendrement (French)
in Lieferungen erscheinen(German) to come out in parts (for example, a publication)
in limine(Latin, on the threshold') at the very outset
in linea con(Italian) in line with, in step with, consistent (consistent with)
in linea d'aria(Italian) as the crow flies
in loco(Latin) in the place of
in loco parentis(Latin) in the place of a parent, having parental responsibility and authority
in lontananza(Italian) synonymous with in distanza
in lucem dare(Latin) publish
in malam partem(Latin) (to be interpreted) on the bad side, in an unfavourable manner
in mala parte(Latin) (to be interpreted) on the bad side, in an unfavourable manner
in mäßigt Weise(German) moderately
in media res(Latin) into the middle of the affair or narrative
the classical tradition of opening an epic not in the chronological point at which the sequence of events would start, but rather at the midway point of the story
in memoriam(Latin) to the memory of, commemorative writing
in misura(Italian) see a misura
in modo di(Italian) in the style or manner of
in Musik setzen(German) to set (to music)
in nächster Zeit(German) in the near future
innalzare i piatti(Italian) to let the cymbals swing
innalzare la voce(Italian) to raise the voice
Innendurchmesser(German m.) inside diameter, i.d.
Aussendurchmesser (German: outside diameter, o.d.)
Innengewinde(German n.) female thread
Inner earone of three conceptual anatomical divisions for the organ of hearing, including also the outer ear and the middle ear. The inner ear consists of a snail-shaped fluid-filled bony structure also known as the cochlea. The cochlea receives vibrations conveyed from the small bones of the middle ear and the resulting neural impulses are communicated to the auditory nerve
Inner partsthose parts lying between the lowest and highest part
Inner pedala sustained, or holding, note in an inner part
innig(German) heartfelt, intimate, sincere, intense, fervent, with deep genuine feeling, intimo, con affetto
Innigkeit(German f.) intimacy, sincerity and warmth of feeling (especially in a work of art)
inniglich(German) with deep emotion, fervently
Inno(Italian m.) Hymne (German f.), cantique (French m.), himno (Spanish m.), a hymn, an ode, an anthem
innocente(Italian) innocent, in an artless and simple style
innocentemente(Italian) innocently, artlessly
Innocenza(Italian f.) innocence, simplicity, artlessness
In nominein the years following Parliament's approval of the Act of Supremacy in 1534, strong restrictions were placed on composers of Latin music in England. This obstacle may have encouraged many musicians to focus their attention on instrumental music. Even though John Taverner (c.1490-1545) never composed any instrumental music, his cantus-firmus Mass, Missa Gloria tibi Trinitas, had a strong effect on the rise of consort music in England in the second half of the sixteenth century. The Mass is based on the antiphon Gloria tibi Trinitas, which is heard in the medius voice throughout each of the four movements. The opening of each movement also contains a head motive. This motive begins with a rising minor third, which refers to the opening interval of the original plainsong. Transcriptions of one section of the Sanctus appear in many manuscripts, with different instrumentation. This In Nomine section, named after the text of the original passage in Taverner's Mass, can be found in arrangements for keyboard, viols, and voice and lute. Almost every composer of note, from his own day up to the time of Henry Purcell (1659-1695), wrote instrumental settings usually in five parts. Indeed, occasional examples are found even up to the second half of the eighteenth century
In nomine Dominum(Latin) in the name of the Lord
In nomine Patris et Filii et Spiritus Santi(Latin) in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit
Inno nazionale(Italian m.) national anthem, Nationalhymne (German f.), hymne national (French m.), himno nacional (Spanish m.)
in nuce(Latin) in a nutshell
Innuendo(Latin) an indirect suggestion, an allusive remark (one that is often uncomplimentary)
in omaggio(Italian) complementary
in organo(Italian) a term for a piece of music that is in more than two parts
in ovo(Latin) in the egg
in pace con sé stesso(Italian) heart's-ease
in palco(Italian) applied to musical performance on a stage
in pari materia(Italian) (a test or experiment, etc. made) on comparable material
(words, etc.) referring to comparable ideas
in partito(Italian) in score
in parvo(Latin) in miniature
in personam(Latin, literally 'against the person') proceedings issued against or with reference to a specific person - an admiralty action in personam would be issued against the owner of a ship
in pieno giorno(Italian) in broad daylight
in pleno(Latin) in full
in perpetuum(Latin) for ever, in perpetuity
in petto(Italian, literally 'in the breast') secretly, without disclosure
in pieno giorno(Italian) in full daylight
in polvere(Italian) powdered
in pontificalibus(Latin) in the proper vestments of a pope, cardinal or bishop, in the vestments of a priest
in posse(Latin) potentially, having the possibility of existing
Inprickningar(Swedish) cue notes
in principio(Latin, Italian) at the beginning
in propria persona(Latin) in his (or her) own person, personally, undisguised
in punta di piedi(Italian) walking on tip toes
in puris naturalibus(Latin) in a state of nature, completely naked
Inqilaaba term used in Algeria for some of the 'suites' or nubat drawn from the Andalusian tradition
in qualche luogo(Italian) somewhere, anywhere
in qualche modo(Italian) somehow
in qualche posto(Italian) somewhere
in qualità di(Italian) in one's capacity as
in quanto(Italian) as, since
in quanto a me(Italian) as far as I am concerned
in questione(Italian) in doubt
inquiet(French) restless, uneasy, agitated
inquieto(Italian) restless, uneasy, agitated
Inquisitionthe official persecution of heresy by special ecclesiastical courts; formally constituted by the papacy in the 13th century
in re (s.), in rebus (pl.)(Latin) referring to, in the matter of, concerning, in the case of
in law, a heading in legal documents which introduces the title of the proceedings
in regola con i pagamenti(Italian) paid-in
in relievo(Italian, literally 'in relief') a direction to make the melody prominent
in rem(Latin, literally 'against the matter') proceedings issued or directed against property as opposed to a specific person - an admiralty action in rem would be issued against the ship itself
INRIabbrevation for Iesus Nazarenus Rex ludaeorum (Latin: Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews)
in saecula saeculorum(Latin) for ever and ever, world without end
Insalata(Italian f.) salad
Insalata mista con salsa(Italian f.) tossed salad
Insalatiera(Italian f.) salad bowl
Insalivateto mix (food) with saliva in chewing
insalubre(Italian) unhealthy
insanabile(Italian) incurable
insanguinare(Italian) to stain with blood
insanguinato(Italian) bloody
Insania(Italian f.) madness
insaponare(Italian) to soap
insaporire(Italian) to flavour
insaporire con salsa(Italian) to add flavour (food)
insaziabile(Italian) insatiable
ins Bett bringen(German) put to bed
ins Bett gehen(German) go to bed
Inscripción(Spanish f.) inscription
Inscriptio(Latin) address
Inscriptionswords or letters written, engraved, painted, or otherwise traced on a surface and can appear in contexts both small and monumental. Coin texts and monumental carvings on buildings are both included by historians as types of inscriptions. The study of inscriptions is epigraphy
in sculpsit(Latin) he engraved it, she engraved it
in se(Latin) in itself
in secco(Italian) (the touching up of a fresco) when (after) the plaster is dry (not to be confused with a secco, which refers to is painting on dry plaster)
INSEEabbreviation of Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques (French: national institute for statistics and economic studies)
Insegnamento(Italian) instruction, lesson, teaching
Insegnante(Spanish m./f.) teacher, instructor
Insegnatore(Italian m.) teacher, instructor
In sen scaleA in sen pentatonic scale
a traditional Japanese scale, which is part of the phrygian mode, and can be used to give music an 'oriental' feel. The A in sen scale, illustrated above, is used mostly over A minor (phrygian) and Bb lydian
insensibile(Italian) imperceptible, by degrees, little by little
insensibilmente(Italian) imperceptibly, by degrees, little by little
in senso orario(Italian) clockwise
Inserción(Spanish f.) insertion
Insertin publishing or printing, a piece of paper or card laid between the leaves of a book and usually not secured in anyway
Insertion ariaarias written to be added to (inserted into) established operas, often written by a composer other than the one who composed the original opera. These should be distinguished from alternative arias, which are designed to replace an already composed aria in the opera. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart composed insertion arias as well as ensembles for opere buffe by Pasquale Anfossi, Domenico Cimarosa, Martín y Soler, and Niccolò Piccinni, among others, and revised his own operas
ins Gesamt(German) altogether, taken as a whole
Inshshadn(Berbers, Morocco) writers of the songs performed by the sheikhat
Inside partner step
Inside playinga jazz term, meaning to play 'inside the chords'
Inside turn
Insieme(Italian m.) whole, (complete) outfit, ensemble (theatre)
insieme(Italian) together, at the same time
insieme a(Italian) together with
insieme con(Italian) along with
Insignia(Latin pl.) badges of office, symbols or emblems of a nation, order, institution, etc., distinguishing marks
insigne(Italian) famous
insignificante(Italian) insignificant
insignire(Italian) to decorate
insincero(Italian) insincere
insindacabile(Italian) final
insinuare(Italian) to insinuate
insinuarsi(Italian) to penetrate
insinuarsi in(Italian) to creep into (figurative)
insinuante(Italian) insinuating
insinuazione(Italian f.) insinuation
insipido(Italian) insipid
insistendo(Italian) insisting, urgent, urgently
insistente(Italian) insistent
Insistenza(Italian f.) insistence
insistere(Italian) to insist, to persevere
insito in(Italian) also connesso con (Italian), collegato a (Italian), incidental to
in situ(Latin, literally 'in the original situation') in position, in its original place, undisturbed, (testing, etc. carried out) on the spot
insoddisfatto(Italian) unsatisfied, dissatisfied
insofferente(Italian) intolerant
Insofferenza(Italian f.) intolerance
Insolazione(Italian f.) sunstoke
insolente(Italian) rude, insolent
Insolenza(Italian) rudeness, insolence
insolite(French) unusual, out of the ordinary
insolito(Italian) unusual
insolubile(Italian) insoluble
insolvibile(Italian) insolvent
insomma(Italian) in short, well!
insomnia(Latin) inability to sleep
insonne(Italian) sleepless
Insonnia(Italian f.) insomnia
insonnolito(Italian) sleepy
insonoriser(French) to soundproof
insonorizado(Spanish) soundproof
insopportabile(Italian) unbearable
insorgere(Italian) to revolt, to arise
insospettire(Italian) to make suspicious
insospettirsi(Italian) to become suspicious
insostenibile(Italian) untenable, unbearable
insostituibile(Italian) irreplaceable
Insouciance(French) unconcern, a devil-may-care attitude
insouciant (m.), insouciante (f.)(French) unconcerned, heedless
insozzare(Italian) to soil
in specie(Latin, literally 'in kind') payment made in coin rather than in paper money
insperato(Italian) unhoped-for
Inspeximuscopy of an earlier document, confirmed by authority
inspiegabile(Italian) inexplicable
Inspiración(Spanish f.) inspiration
inspirar(Spanish) to inspire, to breath in
inspirare(Italian) to inspire, to breath in
Inspiration(English, German f., French f.) creative force or influence, which may be that of a person or of an idea
inspirer(French) to inhale, to breath in
(French) to inspire
inst(s)abbreviation of 'instrument(s)', 'instrumental'
instabile(Italian) unstable, unsettled
Instalación(Spanish f.) installation
installare(Italian) to install
installarsi(Italian) to settle in
Installation (art)art made for a specific space, exploiting certain qualities of that space, more often indoors than out. Installations are multi-media, multi-dimensional and multi-form works which are created for a particular space or site either outdoors or indoors, in a museum or gallery. There have been installations since Marcel Duchamp put a urinal in a New York gallery in 1917 and called it art. This was the most resonant gesture in twentieth-century art, discrediting notions of taste, skill and craftsmanship, and suggesting that everyone could be an artist. Futurists, Dadaists and surrealists all made installations. In the 1960s, conceptualists, minimalists and quite possibly maximalists did too. But the term did not become widely used until the 1970s and 1980s, largely replacing the term 'site-specific', which means the same thing. Installations may be temporary or permanent, but most will be known to posterity through documentation
Installazione(Italian f.) installation
instand halten(German) to maintain, to look after
Instandhaltung(German f.) maintenance, upkeep
inständig(German) urgent, pressing
instand setzen(German) to restore, to repair
Instandsetzung(German f.) repair
Instandsetzungsabteilung(German f.) repairs department, maintenance department, after-sales service department
Instantané(French) instantaneous, snapshot
instante(Italian) urgent, pressing
instantemente(Italian) vehemently, urgently, earnestly
instanter(Latin) immediately, at once, without delay
Instantiationa representation of an idea in the form of an instance of it
Instanz(German f.) authority
instanteniente(Italian) urgently
in statu pupillari(Latin) as a pupil or ward, under scholastic or academic disipline
in statu quo (ante)(Latin) in the same condition or position (as before)
Institución(Spanish f.) institution
Institut(German n.) institute
Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique Musiquesee 'IRCAM'
Instituteur (m.), Institutrice (f.)(French) teacher
Institut National des Jeunes Aveugles(French, literally 'National Institute for Blind Children') a French school for blind children founded in 1784 by Valentin Haüy. Louis Braille, the inventor of the braille system, attended the school in 1819 and later taught there. The first organ class for blind students was established at the institute in 1826 and by 1833 no less than 14 blind students held organist positions in the churches of Paris. The institute continued to produce large number of successful organist such as André Marchal, Jean Langlais and Gaston Litaize
In strict timemeasured, in tempo (Italian), abgemessen (German), en mesure (French), a rigore di tempo (Italian), tempo rigoroso (Italian), Streng im Tempo (German), exactement (French)
Instrucción (s.), Instruccións (pl.)(Spanish f.) instruction
Instrabbreviation of Instrument(e) (German: instrument(s))
Instrument(English, French m., German n.) instrumento (Italian), see 'instruments'
Instrument à anches(French m.) reed instrument, instrumento de lengüeta (Spanish)
Instrument à archet(French m.) a bowed instrument
Instrumentação(Portuguese) or orquestração, orchestration
Instrument accompagnateur(French m.) accompanying instrument
Instrumentación(Spanish f.) instrumentation
Instrument à clavier(French m.) keyboard instrument
Instrument à cordes(French m.) a stringed instrument
Instrument à cordes frottées(French m.) plucked stringed instrument
Instrumental(English, German, French, Spanish) describes music written for instruments but not for the voice (in English and Spanish, music for the voice is termed 'vocal')
instrumental(English, German) instrumental (as in 'instrumental music')
instrumentale(Italian) instrumental
Instrumentalgruppe(German n.) instrumental group
instrumentalisieren(German) to exploit
Instrumentalista(Spanish m./f.) instrumentalist
Instrumentalmusik(German f.) instrumental music
Instrumental rocka type of rock and roll which features only musical instruments, and no singing. From its earliest days, rock and roll emphasized catchy melodies, which were usually presented with easily remembered lyrics. That wasn't always the case, however, and if the melodies were strong enough, instrumentals could catch on and become hits
Instrumental tablaturesthey are particularly interesting for the study of musica ficta, because for technical reasons, they (as a rule) do not confuse a given pitch with its chromatic inflection. This is only a general statement, however, which will be found to need qualification in many special cases. Thus some types of instrumental sources can only improperly be called 'tablatures', and are not fundamentally different from vocal sources with respect to pitch notation: these are the so-called 'keyboard scores' and 'keyboard partituras', used to notate (among others) Italian or French keyboard pieces from the fifteenth century onwards (for example the celebrated Codex Faenza, around 1400). Even the oldest of all types of tablatures, the old German organ tablature (documented from the fourteenth century), is not altogether unambiguous: in this type of source, the upper voice appears in mensural notation on a vocal staff, a technique which is not incompatible with implied accidentals. In this particular case, only the lower voices (which are given in letters) can be considered as being unequivocal. Other types of tablatures, typically the Italian, German and French lute tablatures, or the Spanish vihuela tablature, are entirely unambiguous; but they do not appear before the early years of the sixteenth century. The few Flemish or English sources are not more informative than the vocal sources mentioned above
Instrument ancien(French m.) period instrument
Instrument à percussion(French m.) a percussion instrument, instrumento de percusión (Spanish)
instrumentar(Spanish) to orchestrate, to arrange music for instruments, to arrange the instrumentation of a piece of music. to score a piece of music
(English, French f., German f.) the disposition of instruments in a musical work, in other words, which instruments plays what lines in the score, particularly important when arranging or transcribing a work from one combination of instruments to another, and considering:
the pitch, timbre and dynamic range of the instrument and available notes in these ranges, particularly when writing for less advanced players
application of chords or other multiple notes
the difficulty of certain kinds of passage on different instruments
playing techniques such as constraints of breathing, fingering, etc.
special effects, including harmonics, clicks, pizzicato, glissandi, mutes
notation conventions for the instrument, for example, transposing parts
Instrumentation variable(French f.) alternative scoring
Instrument à touches(French m.) a keyboard instrument
Instrument à vent(French m.) a wind instrument
Instrument à vent de cuivres(French m.) a brass instrument
Instrument à vent en bois(French m.) a woodwind instrument
Instrumentazione(Italian) instrumentation
Instrument casealso called 'regular case', a box or container designed to hold and transport a musical instrument. Guitar cases usually also include a small pocket for picks, extra strings, etc. while violin cases have a space for the player's bow, rosin, spare strings, shoulder-rest, mute, etc.
Instrument de cuivre(French m.) a brass instrument
Instrument de mesure(French m.) measuring device
Instrument de musique(French m.) musical instrument
Instrument de percussion électronique(French m.) electronic drums
Instrument de travail(French m.) tool
Instrumentenbau(German m.) instrument making
Instrumentenbauer(German m.) an instrument maker
Instrumentenkunde(German f.) the study of instruments
Instrumentenmacher(German m.) an instrument maker
Instrumentenname (s.), Instrumentennamen (pl.)(German m.) instrument name (on each line of a score, etc.)
instrumenter(French) to orchestrate, to arrange music for instruments, to arrange the instrumentation
Instrumenti(Italian m.) plural of instrumento
Instrumenti da corda(Italian m. pl.) stringed instruments
Instrumenti di percussione(Italian m. pl.) percussion instruments
instrumentieren(German) to arrange, to orchestrate, to score
Instrumentierung(German f.) instrumentation, instruments
[corrected by Dr. Susanne Weber]
instrumentiren(German, older spelling) to arrange, to orchestrate
Instrumentirung(German f.) archaic form of Instrumentierung
Instrumentista(Spanish m./f.) an instrumentalist, an instrument maker
Instrumentiste(Spanish m./f.) an instrumentalist
Instrument jouant la partie de basse(French m.) continuo instrument
Instrument-macher(German m.) instrument maker
Instrument mélodique(French m.) melody instrument
Instrumento(Italian m., Spanish m., Portuguese) instrument
Instrumento a campanella(Italian) a small case containing one, two or more octaves of small bells, tuned diatonically, and played with a keyboard, like a piano
Instrumento a corda(Italian) a stringed instrument
Instrumento d'acciaio(Italian m., literally 'steel instrument') Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) designated instrumento d'acciaio for the Glockenspiel part in his opera Die Zauberflöte (The Magic Flute) K.620
Instrumento da fiato(Italian) a (wood)wind instrument
Instrumento da penna(Italian, literally 'instrument with a quill') an old name for the spinet
Instrumento de bronce(Spanish m.) brass instrument
Instrumento de cuerdas rozadas(Spanish m.) plucked stringed instrument
Instrumento de lengüeta(Spanish m.) reed instrument
Instrumento de madera(Spanish m.) woodwind instrument
Instrumento de metal(Spanish m., literally 'instrument of metal') brass instrument
Instrumento de percusión(Spanish m.) percussion instrument, instrument à percussion (French)
Instrumento de sopro(Portuguese m.) wind instrument
Instrumento de teclado(Spanish m.) keyboard instrument (piano, clavichord, celesta, organ, accordion, synthesizers, etc.)
Instrumento de teclado e foles(Spanish m., 'wind-keyboard instrument') organ, accordion, harmonium, etc.
Instrumento de teclado eletrônicos(Spanish m., 'electronic keyboard instrument') synthesizer, electronic organ, electric piano
Instrumento de teclado percussor(Spanish m. 'percussive keyboard instrument') piano, clavichord, celesta, etc.
Instrumento de teclado pinçante(Spanish m., 'plucked keyboard instrument') spinet, virginals, harpsichord, etc.
Instrumento de viento(Spanish m.) a wind instrument
Instrumento di porco(Italian m.) an instrument type characterised by being triangular with incurved sides (for example, some types of psaltery)
Instrumento d'ottone(Italian m.) a brass instrument
Instrumento histórico(Spanish m.) an historical instrument, an original instrument (in a historical sense)
Instrumento musical(Spanish m.) musical instrument
Instrumentos(Spanish m. pl., Portuguese) plural of instrumento
Instrumentos de cordas(Portuguese) string instruments
Instrumentos de cordas friccionadas(Portuguese) bowed string instruments
Instrumentos de cordas percutidas(Portuguese) string instruments in which the strings are struck, for example, the piano
Instrumentos de cordas pinçadas(Portuguese) plucked string instruments
Instrumentos de cuerda(s)(Spanish m. pl.) string instruments
Instrumentos de cuerda frotada(Spanish bowed string instruments
Instrumentos de cuerda percutida(Spanish string instruments in which the strings are struck, for example, the piano
Instrumentos de cuerda pulsada(Spanish plucked string instruments
Instrumentos de cuerda punteada(Spanish plucked string instruments
Instrumentos de cuerdas y arco(Spanish bowed string instruments
Instrumentos de lengüeta(Spanish reed instruments
Instrumentos de música(Spanish musical instruments
Instrumentos de sonido determinado(Spanish pitched (percussion) instruments
Instrumentos de sonido indeterminado(Spanish unpitched (percussion) instruments
Instrumentos de viento(Spanish wind instruments
Instrumentos de viento de madera(Spanish wood wind instruments
Instrumentos de viento de metal(Spanish brass wind instruments
Instrumentos electroacústicos(Spanish electro-acoustic instruments
Instrumento sem amplificação(Portuguese) 'acoustic' instrument, that is one without electronic amplication
Instrumentos históricos(Spanish historical instruments, original instruments (in a historical sense)
Instrumentos musicales de cuerda(Spanish string instruments
Instrumentos transpositores(Spanish transposing instruments
Instrumento tocado(Portuguese) plucked instrument
Instrumento transpositor(Portuguese m., Spanish m.) transposing instrument
Instrument rythmique(French m.) rhythm instrument
Instrumentsdevices used to create music, classified as woodwinds, brass, percussion and stringed instruments, where keyboard instruments are sometimes given a separate category, although they produce sounds either by vibrating strings (as in the case of the piano, harpsichord, virginal, etc.) or by the flow of air (as in the organ); electronic instruments, developed in the twentieth century, form a new classification
Instruments à clavier(French keyboard instruments
Instruments à cordes(French string instruments, bowed string instruments
Instruments à cordes frappées(French string instruments in which the strings are struck, for example, the piano
Instruments à cordes frottées(French bowed string instruments
Instruments à cordes pincées(French plucked string instruments
Instruments à percussion(French percussion instruments
Instruments à vent(French wind instruments
Instruments à vent de cuivres(French brass instruments
Instruments à vent en bois(French woodwind instruments
Instruments de musique(French musical instruments
Instruments de musique divers(French other musical instruments
Instrument soliste(French m.) solo instruments
Instrument solo(French m.) solo instrument
instrumenttiosuus(Finnish) part (e.g. one line in a contrapuntal work)
Instrument transpositeur (s.), Instruments transpositeurs (pl.)(French m.) transposing instruments, instrumento transpositor (Spanish)
Insular script(Latin insula, 'island') also called insular hand, this term refers to a compact style of handwriting invented by Irish monks
Insultos(Spanish m. - insults) or abuso (Spanish - insults), abuse (misuse or insult(s)), abuso (Italian m.), insulto (Italian m. - insult), Mißbrauch (German m.), Beschimpfungen (German pl.), abus (French m. - misuse), injures (French f. - insults)
ins unreine schreiben(German) to make a rough draft of
Insurgent countrysee 'alternative country'
inszenieren(German) to produce (a play, opera, etc.)
Inszenierung(German f.) production, staging
int(s)abbreviation of 'intermezzo(s)', 'introit(s)'
Intabulationthe arrangement of polyphonic vocal music for keyboard or plucked stringed instrument, a term most often applied to music of the Renaissance
Intabulierung(German f.) intabulation
Intaglio(from the Italian, 'to engrave') a process by which a metal plate, traditionally copper, is incised by tools or acid baths to create local depressions in the plate's surface. Ink is pushed into these depressions and the surface wiped clean. Paper is then pressed into the depressions under great pressure from a metal rolling (cylinder) press transferring the image. Well known intaglio techniques include engraving, etching, drypoint, aquatint and mezzotint. Only engraving produces lines deep enough to stand up to the stress of commercial printing, though etching was sometimes used for printing specialized items
Intarsiatore (s.), Intarsiatori (pl.)(Italian) a worker in intarsiatura
Intarsiatura (s.), Intarsiatore (pl.)(Italian) inlaid work in wood, bone, ivory and mother-of-pearl
Intarsio(Italian) intarsiatura (occasionally written intarsia, although this is incorrect)
intavolare(Italian) to write down, to copy music
Intavolaturaor intabulation, a term used particularly in Elizabethan times for the arrangement of madrigals for instrumental forces
(Italian f.) tablature (used to notate music for plucked stringed instruments such as the lute and keyboard instruments, in particular, the organ
(Italian f.) music book, figured bass
(Italian f., literally 'intabulation') a term implying a standard two-staff keyboard score onto which all the parts of a polyphonic work have been compressed from its original partitura or 'score' format with one voice per staff
intavolieren(German) to intabulate, to write in tablature
Integer notationin integer notation, or the integer model of pitch, all pitch classes and intervals between pitch classes are designated using the numbers 0 through 11. It is not used to notate music for performance, but is a common analytical and compositional tool when working with chromatic music, including twelve tone, serial, or otherwise atonal music
Integrale(Italian f.) complete works
Integral serialismsee 'total serialism'
Intellectionthe mental activity or process of grasping with the intellect, apprehension by the mind, understanding, a particular act of grasping by means of the intellect, the mental content of an act of grasping by means of the intellect (as a thought, idea, or conception)
Intellectual propertya term referring to a number of distinct types of creations of the mind for which property rights are recognised - and the corresponding fields of law. Under intellectual property law, owners are granted certain exclusive rights to a variety of intangible assets, such as musical, literary, and artistic works; discoveries and inventions; and words, phrases, symbols, and designs. Common types of intellectual property include copyrights, trademarks, patents, industrial design rights and trade secrets in some jurisdictions
Intelligent dance musicor IDM, a style of experimental electronic music with an emphasis on unconventional sequencing and processing
Intelligentsia(Russian) or intelligentzia, a class of society characterized by superior intelligence and advanced political opinions
in temposee a tempo
in tempo misuratoin strict time, when used after a piacere
Intendant(French m.) Generalintendant
Intendant (m.) Intendantin (f.)(German) Generalintendant (m.), Generalintendantin (f.)
Intendante(Italian m.) similiar to Impresario
intendersi con(Italian) to get along with, to get on with
intenerito e carezzevole(Italian) touching and affectionate
Intensidad(Spanish f.) intensity (of sound), strength (material), force
Intensifiera word such as very that strengthens or intensifies the word it modifies
Intensità sonora(Italian f.) intensity of sound, loudness
Intensität (des Klanges)(German f.) intensity (of sound), loudness
Intensité du son(French f.) intensity of sound, loudness
Intensiteit(Dutch) intensity (of sound)
intenso (m.), intensa (f.)(Portuguese) intense, strong (suggested by Weed)
Intentionor 'objective', the single, temporary desire or goal that may motivate a character within a drama
intepidire(Italian) or intiepidire (Italian), to make tepid, to warm (up), to cool down, to reduce (figurative), to mitigate
intepidirsi(Italian) to become tepid, to warm up, to cool down
Interactiona system that generates information to which a performer reacts. 'Interaction' means 'mutually influential'
Interactive composing processin an interactive composing process, the instrument is programmed to generate unpredictable information to which the performer reacts during performance. At the same time, the performer at least partially controls the instrument. Since the instrument influences the performer while, at the same time, the performer 'influences' the instrument, their relationship is mutually influential and, consequently, interactive
Interactive musicalso known as 'nonlinear music' or 'adaptive music', is synonymous with soundtracks to interactive media and in particular computer games
Inter alia(Latin) among other things
indicates that the details given are only an extract from the whole
interamente(Italian) entirely, wholly, fully, completely, quite
Intercalare(Italian m.) verse interlaced or often repeated, burden of a song, repeated expression, refrain
intercalare(Italian) to insert, to interpolate, to intercalate
(Italian) interpolated, intervening
intercedere(Italian) to intercede, to intervene, to exist, to lie between (of distance), to elapse (of time)
Intercessionthe act of mediating or going between, especially relative but not limited to prayer
Intercessione(Italian f.) intercession
Intercessora person who leads the prayers of the people, for example, in a church service
Intercessore(Italian m.) intercessor
Intercessory dancea sacred dance form usually associated with Christianity
intercettare(Italian) to intercept, to wiretap, to head off
intercettare il telefone di ...(Italian) to tap ...'s phone
intercettare telefonate(Italian) to tap (wiretap)
Intercezione(Italian f.) interception
interchiudere(Italian) to block, to stop, to obstruct, to shut (in), to enclose
intercorrere(Italian) to elapse, to pass, to occur
intercutaneo(Italian) subcutaneous
Interdentalin linguistics, this term refers to any sound made by placing the tongue between the upper and lower teeth
Interdetto(Italian m.) interdict
Interdictan ecclesiastical punishment excluding the faithful from participation in spiritual things; it could be applied to individuals, to local areas such as parishes, or to whole populations
interdire(Italian) to interdict, to prohibit, to forbid, to disqualify (legal)
interdire à(French) to forbid
Interessamento(Italian m.) interest, concern
interessante(Italian) interesting
Intéressante(French, literally 'in an interesting condition') pregnant
interessantes Buch(German n.) readable book
interessare(Italian) to interest, to concern, to affect, to touch, to apply to, to be of interest, to matter
interessarsi(Italian) to take an interest, to care
interessarsi a(Italian) to take an interest in, to care for
interessarsi di(Italian) to take an interest in, to care for
interessatamente(Italian) from selfish motives, with interest
Interessato(Italian m.) interested party
interessato(Italian) interested, concerned, selfish, calculating, having an interest (in)
Interesse(Italian m.) interest, concern
Interesse composto(Italian m.) compound interest
Interesse simplice(Italian m.) simple interest
Interezza(Italian f.) entirety
Interferenceact of interfering, fading or disturbance of received radio signals, (in physics) the combination of two or more wave motions to form a resultant wave in which the displacement is reinforced or cancelled
Interference beatssee 'beats'
Interferenz(German f.) interference (physics, radio)
Interferenza(Italian f.) interference (physics, radio)
interferire(Italian) (in physics) to interfere, to produce interference
interferire con(Italian) to play havoc with, to interfere with
Interfixa term in linguistics and more specifically, morphology (the study of morphemes, the most basic meaningful entities in word formation). It describes an affix which is placed in between two other morphemes and does not have a semantic meaning
interfogliare(Italian) to interleaf
Interiezione(Italian f.) interjection
Interim(Latin, literally 'meanwhile') intervening time
interim(Latin, literally 'meanwhile') in the meantime, temporary, provisional
interinale(Italian) temporary, provisional, ad interim (Latin)
Interinato(Italian m.) temporary office or tenure
Interino(Italian m.) one holding a temporary office
interino(Italian) temporary, provisional, acting
Interior monologuea type of stream of consciousness in which the author depicts the interior thoughts of a single individual in the same order these thoughts occur inside that character's head
interito(Italian) stock-still, bolt upright, stiff
Interjectto utter (words) abruptly or parenthetically, to interrupt
Interjectionan exclamation (especially as a part of speech - for example, ah!, dear me!)
Interlaced rhymein long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line
Interlacing binding intricately together, interweaving, crossing each other intricately
Interlard (with) to mix (in writing or speech) with unusual words or phrases
Interleaveto insert (usually blank) leaves between the leaves of a book, etc.
(French m.) space (between the lines on a staff)
Interligne supplémentaire(French m.) the spaces between leger (or ledger) lines and the main staff or between successive leger (or ledger) lines
Interlineto put an extra layer of material (called an interlining) between the fabric of a garment and its lining (for example, to stiffen it)
Interlinea(Italian f.) space between lines, (in typography) lead
interlineare(Italian) to interline, (in typography) to lead
Interlocutor(English, from loquor (Latin: to speak)) formal person who takes part in a conversation
the term for the master of ceremonies in a minstrel show. A blackface character, like the other performers, the interlocutor nonetheless had a somewhat aristocratic demeanor, a 'codfish aristocrat'
Interlude(English) entrata (Italian), Zwischenspiel (German), intermède (French)
a short piece played between two larger ones
an instrumental piece played between two acts of a play
an instrumental strain played between lines or stanzas of a hymn
an instrumental piece played between sections of a church service
in jazz, a musical passage that occurs between choruses in an arrangement, whether between the head and the first solo, within a solo, between solos, or between the last solo and the return to the head
interloquire(Italian) to join in the conversation, to intervene in the conversation, to put in a word
Interludio(Spanish m.) interlude
Interludium(German n., from Latin) interlude
Interlunio(Italian m.) period when the moon is not visible
Intermède(French m.) intermezzo, although by the eighteenth century, it had become a short one- or two-act comic opera in French
intermediär(German) intermediate
Intermediario(Italian m., Spanish m.) intermediary, middleman
intermediario(Italian) intermediary, in the middle
Intermedietto(Italian) a short interlude, or intermezzo
Intermedio (s.), Intermedi (pl.)(Italian m., Spanish m.) short, musical, dramatic items performed between acts of a theatrical performance. During the last seventy years of the sixteenth century the opulent and increasingly secular courts of Italy's city-states funded featured semi-dramatic spectacles, the intermedi, which included solo madrigal, frottola, villanella and many similar musical forms
intermedio (s.), intermedi (pl.)(Italian) intermediate, middle
Intermedio de baile(Spanish m.) divertissement
Intermedio de música(Spanish m.) divertissement
Intermedio musical(Spanish m.) interlude
Intermedium(German n.) intermezzo
Intermezzo (s.), Intermezzi (Italian pl.), Intermezzos (German pl.)(Italian m. literally 'interval', German n.) a smaller piece placed between the acts of early Italian tragedies, in other words, an intermedio
incidental music in opera, for example early eighteenth-century opera seria, or dramatic works
a short movement that connects the main sections of a symphony
an interlude
an instrumental piece that lacks any other characterisation
interminato(Italian) unfinished, limitless, boundless
Intermissiona break or interval between acts in a dramatic work
intermittente(Italian) intermittent
Intermodal perceptionOrdinarily, the individual relies on the collaboration of all senses (so-called intermodal perception) to create a coherent conceptual unity. Piaget argued that such perception did not develop until the end of the first year because, he argued, infants first needed to fully develop each of the individual senses before they could successfully integrate information across modalities. More recent evidence suggests that intermodal perception develops much earlier than Piaget thought. This evidence comes from studies looking at infants' ability to integrate sights and sounds (e.g., in preferential looking studies they will look to the video screen that matches the sound they are hearing), to integrate sight and touch (e.g., newborns look to the screen that matches the texture of the pacifier they have been sucking), and to integrate sight and proprioceptive information (e.g., the imitation experiments in which infants use information from their own facial muscle movements in matching the facial expression of an experimenter)
Intermodulationa technique particularly associated with Karl-Heinz Stockhausen (1928- ) where, using electronic techniques, two signals are manipulated through the interference of one with the other
Internal audiencea type of stream of consciousness in which the author depicts the interior thoughts of a single individual in the same order these thoughts occur inside that character's head
Internal pedal pointa pedal or pedal point (a sustained tone, typically in the bass, during which at least one foreign, i.e., dissonant harmony is sounded in the other parts) that is similar to the inverted pedal or inverted pedal point (a pedal that is not in the bass), except that it is played in the middle register between the bass and the upper voices
Internal rhymea poetic device in which a word in the middle of a line rhymes with a word at the end of the same metrical line
Internamento(Italian m.) internment
internare(Italian) to intern (during war, emergency, etc.), to place under restrain (lunatic, etc.)
internarsi(Italian) to enter into (figurative), to identify oneself with (a part), to throw oneself into (figurative), to penetrate
Internationalthe very idea of "international" music is somewhat problematic, since naturally all music is international to someone. But its typical, rather Eurocentric usage generally refers to ethnic music more or less uninformed by mainstream, Western musical traditions
Internationale Arbeitsgemeinschaft für theologische Bachforschungan organization devoted to the dual disciplines of theology and musicology in Bach research
International fingeringsee 'German' fingering', as applied to the piano
International folk dancea genre of dance wherein selected folk dances from multiple ethnic groups are done by the same dancers, typically as part of one event. The dances are typically considered the products of national or cultural traditions rather than part of an international tradition. Yhe creation of international folk dance as such is often attributed to Vytautas Beliajus, a Lithuanian-American who studied, taught and performed dances from various ethnic traditions in the 1930s
International GothicEuropean art was characteristic of a rare uniformity for 60-70 years around 1400. Art historians have still not been able to come to an agreement on an appropriate name for it. The term "art around 1400" suits the style best which, because of its prevalence is referred to as international Gothic. The terms court style, soft style, beautiful style, trecento rococo and lyrical style, etc. are also used in art literature. Elements of style which were generally wide-spread, did not belong to any particular country and were characteristic of art in courts. In the second half of the fourteenth century, models appeared in court art in the circle of French-Flemish artists serving at French courts and Bohemian regions of the Emperor's Court which determined works of art all over Europe at the end of the century. Human figures, landscapes and spaces in a realistic approach were accompanied by a peculiar quality of dreams, decorative dynamism and deep emotional charge. It is called as a soft style on the basis of lyrical expressions and drapes: it is more than a simple system of formal motifs, it denominates a kind of behaviour. Artists of the period were engaged in learning the human soul until their attention was attracted to the world (e.g. Donatallo, Masaccio and Jan van Eyck)
International Latina category of dances in 'International Style' ballroom competitions, that is also called 'Latin American' category, and includes Samba, Rumba, Cha-cha-cha, Paso Doble and Jive
International Music Score Library Projector IMSLP, a project for the creation of a virtual library of public domain music scores, based on the wiki principle. Since its launch on February 16, 2006, more than 17,000 scores, for 10,000 works, by over 1,000 composers have been uploaded, making it one of the largest public domain music score collections on the web. The project uses MediaWiki software to provide contributors with a familiar interface
International Phonetic Alphabet or IPA, a system of phonetic notation based on the Latin alphabet, devised by the International Phonetic Association as a standardized representation of the sounds of spoken language
International Standard waltzformerly called 'slow waltz', one of the five dances of the 'Standard' category of the International Style ballroom dances
International Stylea particular style of ballroom dances, that group of dances danced in 'International Style' ballroom competitions, which consists of two categories, 'Standard' and 'Latin'
International System accordionthe 3-row International System diatonic button accordion (the Tex-Mex or Norteño accordion) is a generalization of the various multiple row diatonic button accordions prevalent in Europe. These ethnic, regional and national variants are all based on multiple rows, each row similar to a modern diatonic harmonica (mouth organ, "blues harp"), which is why Hohner refers in German to diatonic button accordion as die Handharmonika (as opposed to die Mundharmonika, the mouth organ). The International System truncates the multiplicity of rows at three and adds a pair of accidentals to the press and draw of a single button at the end of each of the three rows
Internato(Italian m.) internee (person interned), inmate (of a lunatic asylum, etc.), boarding school
internato(Italian) interned
Internazionale(Italian m.) international (association), Internationale (hymn)
internazionale(Italian) international
Interno(Italian m.) interior, inside
interno(Italian) internal, interior, inner, inland, house, home
Inter nos(Latin) between ourselves
intero(Italian) entire, whole, honest (figurative), sincere (figurative)
Interonset intervalin music the interonset interval or 'IOI' is the time between the beginnings or attack-points of successive events or notes, the interval between onsets, not including the duration of the events. For example, two sixteenth notes separated by dotted eighth rest would have the same interonset interval as between a quarter note and a sixteenth note. The concept is often useful for considering rhythms and meters
Inter partes(Latin) made between two parties (for example, an agreement)
interpellare(Italian) to interpellate, to ask, to take a legal objection to
Interpellatequestion formally about policy or government business
Interpellationinterjection, the action of interjecting or interposing an action or remark that interrupts
interpolando(Italian) interjecting at intervals
interpolare(Italian) to interpolate
Interpolationin textual criticism, the addition of unauthorised material to a text. This maybe the result of error, for example, the inadvertent incorporation of marginal notes or glosses into the body of the copy
an abrupt change of elements, followed by an almost immediate continuation of the first idea, for example, the lengthening of the repetition of a phrase by the insertion of material not heard in the original phrase
in jazz, the term is applied usually to the inclusion of material taken from another composition, hence its alternative name 'quoting'
Interpolazione(Italian f.) interpolation
interporre(Italian) to inerpose
interporsi(Italian) to interpose, to intervene, to mediate
Interpret(German m.) interpreter
Interpretación(Spanish f.) interpretation
Interpretación de la música(Spanish f.) musical interpretation, musical performance
interpretar(Spanish) to perform (a piece of music)
interpretare(Italian) to interpret
Interpretation(English, German f.) the artistic communication by the performer of the music to the audience, in particular how a performer will present the material to the listeners and how emotions are communicated through the performance, applicable mainly to music that is ambiguous as to tempo, dynamics, etc.
in so far as this term is applied to the modern day performance of music with an interrupted performing tradition, we would refer you to the reference below
Interprétation(French f.) interpretation
Interpretazione(Italian f.) interpretation, construction, rendering (of a piece of music), execution (of a piece of music)
Interprete(Italian m./f.) performer, interpreter, exponent
Interprète(French m./f.) performer, interpreter
interprèter(French) to perform, to sing
Interpretive dancea family of dance styles that seeks to interpret the meaning inherent in music rather than by performing specific preformatted moves
Interpunktion(German f.) punctuation
Interpunzione(Italian f.) punctuation
Interramento(Italian m.) interment (burial)
interrare(Italian) to inter, to bury, to earth up, to build earthworks
Interregno(Italian m.) interregnum
Interregnum(Latin) period between rulers (usually associated with anarchy and lawlessness), a breach of continuity, a suspension of authority
interrogare(Italian) to interrogate, to question, to examine (question)
interrogativo(Italian) interrogative
Interrogativus(Latin) one of the accentus ecclesiastici
Interrogatorio(Italian m.) interrogatory, examination, cross-examination
Interrogazione(Italian f.) interrogation, question, query
interroger ... sur ...(French) to question ... about ...
interrompendo(Italian) interrupting
interrompere(Italian) to interrupt, to break (off), to discontinue, to disconnect (electricity, gas), to switch off (gas, electricity)
interrompere subito(Italian) to suddenly interrupt
interrompersi(Italian) to stop
interrompre subitement(French) to suddenly interrupt
interrotto(Italian) interrupted, broken (particularly when speaking of a cadence, accent or rhythm), broken off, cut off (power, etc.)
Interrupción(Spanish f.) interruption
Interrupted cadencecadenza finta (Italian), cadenza d'inganno (Italian), unterbrochener Schluss (German), cadence trompeuse (French), cadence interrompue (French), also called a 'deceptive cadence', a chord progression where the dominant chord is followed by a chord other than the tonic chord usually the sixth chord or superdominant chord or submediant chord
in his article 'Parodies and Parameters' (Proc. Roy. Mus. Assoc. Vol. 100), Sir Jack Westrup points out that neither 'deceptive cadence' nor 'interrupted cadence', is a logical term. The progression is not a cadence at all; indeed, Schoenberg suggested a better term would be 'deceptive progression'. Furthermore, there is no rule that says that a dominant chord must be followed by a tonic chord, so there is really no deception
Interrupteur(French m.) a switch
Interrupteur de va-et-vient(French m.) a two-way switch
Interruption(English, French f.) a break in the continuous progress of an action, speech, musical performance, etc.
Interruttore (m.), Interruttrice (m.)(Italian) interruper, switch (electicity)
Interruzione(Italian f.) interruption, intermission
intersecare(Italian) to intersect
Intersecazione(Italian f.) intersection
Intersezione(Italian f.) intersection
Interstice (s.), Interstices (pl.)a small opening or space between objects, especially adjacent objects or objects set closely together,
Interstizio(Italian m.) interstice
Intertextualityas applied to literature, the view of a literary work as a text whose richness of meaning results from its location in a potentially infinite network of other texts. In adapting this notion for music, intertextuality operates on two essential levels: stylistic and strategic. A purely 'stylistic intertextuality' arises when a composer makes reference to the conventions of an earlier style or musical tradition without evoking any particular earlier work. 'Strategic intertextuality' arises when a composer makes reference to a specific earlier work or works. An additional distinction in the categorization of intertextual relationships is the differentiation between borrowings with a "sameness of spelling" or 'autosonic borrowing' (for example, sampling) and those with a "sameness of sounding" or 'allosonic borrowings' (for example, a performed allusion or quotation)
Intertonethe subjectively perceived tone resulting when two (primary) tones of nearly equal frequency, produce beats. The pitch of this compromise or intertone lies between the two primary tones
Intertrigochafing between two skin surfaces that are in contact (as in the armpit or under the breasts or between the thighs)
Interval(English, Danish, Dutch) intervalo (Spanish m.), intervallo (Italian m.), intervalle (French m.), Intervall (German n.)
the distance, in perceived pitch space, between two pitches, by convention, from the lower to the higher, described in terms of two parameters, the numerical value (for example, second, fourth, eleventh, etc.), and the quality (for example, perfect, major, minor, augmented, diminished, etc.)
as well as distinguishing between melodic intervals (the interval between successive notes in a melody) and harmonic intervals (intervals between two notes heard simultaneously) we also define various types of interval as follows:
ascending intervalthe melodic interval where the first note is at a lower pitch than the second note
augmented intervalan interval wider by a chromatic semitone (half step) than a major or a perfect interval
chromatic intervaldiatonic intervals are all those whose notes can both be found in at least one major or harmonic minor scale (example: F and B are both found in C major); all other intervals are chromatic (for example F and B#, since no major or harmonic minor scale includes both of them)
[entry provided by Dr. Alan Crosier]
complementary intervalstwo intervals (the primary interval and its complement) that added together form a full octave, for example a perfect fifth (C to G) and a perfect fourth (G to C)
compound intervalan interval wider than an octave
conjoint interval
conjunct interval
or 'steps', melodic intervals, where the notes in a melody move from note to neighbouring notes only a semitone (half step) or tone (whole step) different
linear (melodic) intervals may be described as steps or skips in a diatonic context. Steps are linear intervals between consecutive scale degrees while skips are not, although if one of the notes is chromatically altered so that the resulting interval is three semitones or more (e.g. C to D sharp), that may also be considered a skip. However, the reverse is not true: a diminished third, an interval comprising two semitones, is still considered a skip
consonant intervala hamonic interval that does not require resolution, i.e. a consonance
descending intervalthe melodic interval where the second note is at a lower pitch than the first note
diatonic intervaldiatonic intervals are all those whose notes can both be found in at least one major or harmonic minor scale (example: F and B are both found in C major); all other intervals are chromatic (for example F and B#, since no major or harmonic minor scale includes both of them)
[entry provided by Dr. Alan Crosier]
diminished intervalan interval narrowed by one chromatic semitone (half step) from a perfect or minor interval, for example, diminished fourth is one chromatic semitone (half step) narrow than a perfect fourth, a diminished seventh is one chromatic semitone (half step) narrow than a minor seventh
directed intervalsee 'ordered pitch interval'
disjoint interval
disjunct interval
or 'skips', where the notes in a melody move in leaps so that the melodic intervals are greater than a tone
linear (melodic) intervals may be described as steps or skips in a diatonic context. Steps are linear intervals between consecutive scale degrees while skips are not, although if one of the notes is chromatically altered so that the resulting interval is three semitones or more (e.g. C to D sharp), that may also be considered a skip. However, the reverse is not true: a diminished third, an interval comprising two semitones, is still considered a skip
dissonant intervalan interval that requires resolution, i.e. a dissonance
doubly-augmented intervalan interval wider by a further chromatic semitone (half step) than an augmented interval
doubly-diminished intervalan interval narrower by a further chromatic semitone (half step) than a diminished interval
enharmonic intervalstwo intervals are considered to be enharmonic if they both contain the same pitches spelled in different ways; that is, if the notes in the two intervals are enharmonic with one another. Enharmonic intervals contain the same number of semitones
generic intervalsin diatonic set theory, specific and generic intervals are distinguished. Specific intervals are the interval class or number of semitones between scale degrees or collection members, and generic intervals are the number of scale steps between notes of a collection or scale
harmonic intervalor 'vertical interval', the interval between two notes played simultaneously
inverted intervalalthough by convention the interval between two notes is 'measured' from the lower up to the higher, it can be useful to consider the interval inverted, i.e. from the higher to the lower
just intervalany tuning system which exclusively employs intervals defined by ratios of integers, so called 'just intervals' may be called 'Just Intonation', though some authors restrict it to systems whose intervals are derived from the first six overtones, i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Such systems are often termed 'Five Limit' or 'Senary' after Zarlino's Senario. The most common example of such a system is the tuning of the 'Major Mode' using the intervals 1/1 9/8 5/4 4/3 3/2 5/3 15/8 and 2/1. 'Just Intonation' is contrasted to 'Equal Temperament' and 'Unequal Temperaments' such as 'Meantone' which combine rational with irrational intervals
major intervalthe intervals between the tonic and the second, third, sixth and seventh degrees of a major scale
melodic intervalor 'linear interval', the interval between two notes played one in succession to the other, i.e. not played simultaneously
microtonal intervalintervals other than the traditional intervals of 12-note equal temperament (with its multiples of 100-cent semitones and 200-cent whole tones), which has been the standard tuning for Western music since the mid-nineteenth century
minor intervalthe interval a chromatic semitone (half step) narrower or smaller than a major interval
natural intervalsynonymous with 'diatonic interval'
ordered pitch intervalor 'directed interval'. In atonal or musical set theory there are numerous types of intervals, the first being ordered pitch interval, the distance between two pitches upward or downward. For instance, the interval from C to G upward is 7, but the interval from G to C downward is -7. One can also measure the distance between two pitches without taking into account direction with the unordered pitch interval, somewhat similar to the interval of tonal theory
perfect intervalthe interval of a unison (also called 'standard prime'), a fifth, a fourth or an octave. The ratios of frequencies they correspond to, are prime (1:1), 4th (4:3), 5th (3:2), and octave (2:1)
Pythagorean intervalsPythagorean tuning defines all notes and intervals of a scale from a series of pure fifths with a ratio of 3:2. Thus it is not only a mathematically elegant system, but also one of the easiest to tune by ear. The one potential flaw of this system is that the fourth or fifth between the extreme notes of the series, Eb-G#, will be out of tune: in the language of intonation, a "wolf" interval. This complication arises because 12 perfect fifths do not round off to precisely an even octave, but exceed it by a small ratio known as a Pythagorean comma. Happily, since Eb and G# rarely get used together in medieval harmony, this is hardly a practical problem. Since all intervals have integer (whole number) ratios based on the powers of two and three, Pythagorean tuning is a form of just intonation
simple intervalan interval narrower or equal to an octave
specific intervalsin diatonic set theory, specific and generic intervals are distinguished. Specific intervals are the interval class or number of semitones between scale degrees or collection members, and generic intervals are the number of scale steps between notes of a collection or scale
superparticular intervalan interval where the ratio of the frequencies can be epxressed in the form ((n+1)/n) where n is an integer
tempered interval'non-just' interval
unordered pitch intervalin atonal or musical set theory there are numerous types of intervals, the first being ordered pitch interval, the distance between two pitches upward or downward. For instance, the interval from C to G upward is 7, but the interval from G to C downward is -7. One can also measure the distance between two pitches without taking into account direction with the unordered pitch interval, somewhat similar to the interval of tonal theory
'wolf' intervalin tuning theory, an interval too false to be musically useful. The point at which this happens depends on what the hearers are used to and what they are prepared to tolerate. For thirds, we usually take the deviation of the Pythagorean third as the limit, i.e. about 22 cents. For fifths, half a syntonic comma, i.e. 11 cents, is about the limit. These numbers are derived from what is found in old temperaments, i.e. what appears to have been accepted at some time. That is not to say that modern ears will accept those limits
specially named intervals include:
Pythagorean commathe difference between twelve justly tuned perfect fifths and seven octaves. It is expressed by the frequency ratio 531441:524288, and is equal to 23.46 cents
syntonic commathe difference between four justly tuned perfect fifths and two octaves plus a major third. It is expressed by the ratio 81:80, and is equal to 21.51 cents
septimal commathe ratio 64/63, the difference between the Pythagorean or 3-limit "7th" and the "harmonic 7th"
diesisgenerally used to mean the difference between three justly tuned major thirds and one octave. It is expressed by the ratio 128:125, and is equal to 41.06 cents. However, it has been used to mean other small intervals
schismaalso skhisma, the difference between five octaves and eight justly tuned fifths plus one justly tuned major third. It is expressed by the ratio 32805:32768, and is equal to 1.95 cents. It is also the difference between the Pythagorean and syntonic commas
schismic major thirda schisma different from a just major third, eight fifths down and five octaves up, Fb in C
quarter tonehalf the width of a semitone, which is half the width of a whole tone
kleismasix major thirds up, five fifths down and one octave up, or, more commonly, 225:224
limmathe ratio 256:243, which is the semitone in Pythagorean tuning
ditonethe Pythagorean ratio 81:64, two 9:8 tones
Intervala break between acts in a dramatic work or between works in a concert. In some cases, the audience may remain in its seats, while, with longer intervals, members of the audience may leave the auditorium in order to seek refreshment, etc.
Interval(Dutch) the 'numerical value' of an interval is unison (Dutch, prime), second (Dutch, secunde), third (Dutch, terts), fourth (Dutch, kwart), fifth (Dutch, kwint), sixth (Dutch, sext), seventh (Dutch, septiem), octave (Dutch, octaaf), ninth (Dutch, none), tenth (Dutch, deciem), eleventh (Dutch, undeciem), twelfth (Dutch, duodeciem), thirteenth (Dutch, tredeciem) and so on. The 'quality' of an interval is minor (Dutch, klein), major (Dutch, groot), perfect (Dutch, rein), diminished (Dutch, verminderd), augmented (Dutch, overmatig), doubly-diminished (Dutch, dubbelverminderd) and so on
Interval classin music, specifically musical set theory, an interval class, or unordered pitch-class interval, is an interval measured by the distance between its two pitch classes ordered so they are as close as possible. It was created to account for octave and inversional equivalency. Since there are 12 pitch classes in the equal tempered scale the largest interval class is 6 semitones (i.e. the tritone), since any interval larger than that is not the closest ordering
Interval inversie(Dutch) inverted interval
Intervall(German n., Sweden) interval
the specific types of musical interval in German are:
aufsteigendes Intervallascending interval
übermäßiges Intervallaugmented interval, for example, übermäßige Quarte, 'an augmented fourth'
chromatisches Intervallchromatic interval
diatonisches Intervalldiatonic interval
komplementär Intervallecomplementary interval
Nebenintervallneighbouring interval, the interval between successive notes of a major or minor scale
zusammengesetztes Intervallcompound interval, an interval that is larger than a perfect octave. Music that makes use of compound intervals is termed Weitmelodik
Intervall von 2 Oktavenfifteenth, interval of two octaves
absteigendes Intervalldescending interval
vermindertes Intervalldiminished interval, for example, verminderte Quarte, 'a diminished fourth'
enharmonische Intervallsenharmonic intervals
gleichschwebend-temperiertes Intervallan equal tempered interval
mitteltöniges Intervalla mean-tone tempered interval
pythagoreisches Intervalla Pythagorean interval
harmonisches Intervallethe interval between two notes played simultaneously
reines Intervall
perfektes Intervall
perfect interval, for example, reines Quarte, 'a perfect fourth'
großes Intervallmajor interval, for example, große Terz, 'a major third'
melodisches Intervallthe interval between two notes played successively
kleines Intervallminor interval, for example, kleine Terz, 'a minor third'
natürliches Intervallan interval with no chromatic alteration
umgekehrtes Intervallinverted interval
einfaches Intervalla simple interval, an interval that is less than an octave (die Oktave), which includes: die Prime (German: the unison), die Sekunde (German: the second), die Terz (German: the third), die Quarte (German: the fourth), die Quinte (German: the fifth), die Sexte (German: the sixth), die Septime (German: the seventh)
reines Intervallperfect interval
doppelt vermindertes Intervalldoubly-diminished interval
doppelt übermäßiges Intervalldoubly-augmented interval
konkordantes Intervallconsonant interval
konsonantes Intervallconsonant interval
disharmonisches Intervalldissonant interval
Scheinkonsonanzconsonant interval sounding dissonant in context
Intervalle(German n. pl.) intervals
Intervalle (s.), Intervalles (pl.)(French m.) interval
the specific types of musical interval in French are:
intervalle ascendantascending interval
intervalle augmentéaugmented interval
intervalle chromatiquechromatic interval
intervalle complémentairecomplementary interval
intervalle composécompound interval, an interval that is large than a perfect octave (une octave juste)
intervalle conjointconjoint interval, an interval between neighbouring degrees of a major or minor scale
intervalle descendantdescending interval
intervalle diminuédiminished interval
intervalle disjointdisjoint interval, an interval between degrees of a major or minor scale that are not neighbouring
intervalles enharmoniquesenharmonic intervals
intervalle harmoniquethe interval between two notes played simultaneously
intervalle justeperfect interval, for example, intervalle de quarte juste, 'a perfect fourth'
intervalle majeurmajor interval, for example, intervalle de tierce majeur, 'a major third'
intervalle mélodiquethe interval between two notes played successively
intervalle mélodique ascendantthe interval between two rising notes that are played successively
intervalle mélodique descendantthe interval between two falling notes that are played successively
intervalle mineurminor interval, for example, intervalle de sxte mineure, a minor sixth
intervalle naturelan interval that is unaltered, i.e. neither augmented nor diminished
intervalle redoublécompound interval
intervalle renverséor renversement (French: inversion), inverted interval
intervalle simplean interval that is equal to or is smaller than an octave, which are: la seconde (French: the second), la tierce (French: the third), la quarte (French: the fourth), la quinte (French: the fifth), la sixte (French: the sixth), la septième (French: the seventh), l'octave (French: the octave)
intervalle sous-diminuédoubly-diminished interval
intervalle sur-augmentédoubly-augmented interval
Intervalle de quinte diminuée(French m.) interval of a flattened or diminished fifth
Intervalle de seconde(French m.) interval of a second
Intervallets omvändning(Swedish) inverted interval
Intervalli(Finnish) interval
Intervallicsee 'diastematic'
Intervalli giusti(Italian just intervals - unisono (unison), quarta (fourth), quinta (fifth) and ottava (octave)
Intervallo(Italian m.) interval, space, gap, intermission
the specific types of musical interval in Italian are:
intervallo armonicoharmonic interval
intervallo ascendenteascending interval
intervallo aumentatoaugmented interval
intervallo complementarecomplementary interval
intervallo compostocompound interval
intervallo cromaticochromatic interval
intervallo diminuitodiminished interval
intervallo discendentedescending interval
intervallo dissonantedissonant interval
intervallo eccedenteaugmented interval
intervalli enarmonicienharmonic intervals
intervallo giustoperfect interval - (unison), quarta (fourth), quinta (fifth) and ottava (octave)
intervallo maggioremajor interval - for example, intervallo di seconda maggiore (major second)
intervallo melodicomelodic interval
intervallo minoreminor interval - for example, intervallo di seconda minore (minor second)
intervallo rivoltoinverted interval
intervallo semplicean interval that is equal to or is smaller than an octave, which are: la seconda (Italian: the second), la terza (Italian: the third), la quarta (Italian: the fourth), la quinta (Italian: the fifth), la sesta (Italian: the sixth), la settima (Italian: the seventh), l'ottava (Italian: the octave)
Intervallparallele(German f.) consecutive intervals [entry by Michael Zapf]
Interval numberthe interval number of a note from a given tonic note is the number of staff positions enclosed within the interval
Intervalo(Spanish m.) interval
the specific types of musical interval in Spanish are:
intervalo armónicoharmonic interval
intervalo ascendenteascending interval
intervalo aumentadoaugmented interval
intervalo complementariocomplementary interval
intervalo compuestocompound interval
intervalo consonanteconsonant interval
intervalo cromáticocompound interval
intervalo descendentedescending interval
intervalo disminuídodiminished interval
intervalo disonantedissonant interval
intervalos enarmonicosenharmonic intervals
intervalo excedenteaugmented interval
intervalo invertidoinverted interval
intervalo justoperfect interval
intervalo mayormajor interval
intervalo melódicomelodic interval
intervalo menorminor interval
intervalo modalesimple interval, one of those that can be major or minor, which are: la segunda (Spanish: the second), la tercera (Spanish: the third), la sexta (Spanish: the sixth) and la séptima (Spanish: the seventh)
intervalo simplean interval that is equal to or is smaller than an octave, which are: la segunda (Spanish: the second), la tercera (Spanish: the third), la cuarta (Spanish: the fourth), la quinta (Spanish: the fifth), la sexta (Spanish: the sixth), la séptima (Spanish: the seventh), l'octava (Spanish: the octave)
intervalo tonaleperfect interval, which include la primera (Spanish: the unison), la cuarta (Spanish: the fourth), la quinta (Spanish: the fifth) and la octava (Spanish: the octave)
Intervalo de medio tono(Spanish m.) an interval of a semitone, an interval of a half-step
Interval of equivalencesee 'pseudo-octave'
Interval qualitythe name of any interval may be qualified using the terms 'perfect', 'major', 'minor', 'augmented', 'diminished', and so on. This is called its interval quality. Intervals are often abbreviated with a P for perfect, m for minor, M for major, d for diminished, A for augmented, followed by the diatonic interval number. The indication M and P are often omitted. The octave is P8, and a unison is usually referred to simply as "a unison" but can be labelled P1
Interval rootalthough intervals are usually designated in relation to their lower note, David Cope and Paul Hindemith (1895-1963) both suggest the concept of interval root. To determine an interval's root, one locates its nearest approximation in the harmonic series. The root of a perfect fourth, then, is its top note because it is an octave of the fundamental in the hypothetical harmonic series. The bottom note of every odd diatonically numbered intervals are the roots, as are the tops of all even numbered intervals. The root of a collection of intervals or a chord is thus determined by the interval root of its strongest interval
  • Interval from which this short extract has been taken
Intervals, els(Catalan) the intervals
Interval signal
a characteristic sound or musical phrase used in international broadcasting and by some domestic broadcasters, that serves several purposes:
assisting a listener to tune his or her radio to the correct frequency for the station
informing other stations that the frequency is in use
serving as a station identifier even if the language used in the subsequent broadcast is not one the listener understands
the practice began in Europe in the 1920s and 1930s and was carried over into shortwave broadcasts. The use of interval signals has declined with the advent of digital tuning systems, but has not vanished
Intervall von 2 Oktaven(German n.) fifteenth, interval of two octaves
intervenir avec à-propos(French) to make an apposite remark
intervenire(Italian) to intervene, to happen, to attend, to be present
Interventista(Italian m./f.) interventionist
Intervento(Italian m.) intervention, interference, presence
Intervenzione(Italian f.) intervention, interference, presence
Interview(English, German n., French f.) oral examination of an applicant (for a post), a conversation with a reporter (for a broadcast or publication), a meeting face to face (especially for consultation)
interviewer(French) to interview
Intervista(Italian f.) interview
intervistare(Italian) to interview
inter vivos(Latin) (a deed of gift, etc.) between living people
Intesa(Italian f.) agreement, accord, understanding, entente (French f.)
inteso(Italian) understood, agreed, intent
intessere(Italian) to weave, to interweave
intessuto(Italian) woven, interwoven
intestare(Italian) to enter (in an account) to register (under a name), to head (a page), to join together by the head (joinery)
intestarsi(Italian) to take it into one's head, to be obstinate, to be stuborn
intestato(Italian) intestate (without a will), stubborn, obstinate, entered, registered, inscribed, headed
Intestino(Italian m.) intestine
intestino(Italian) intestine, internal, domestic, civil
In the cana phrase meaning the film director has the take he wants
In the nudenaked
In the pocketin jazz, synonymous with 'in the groove'
In-the-rounda theatre in which the audience is seated on all four sides of a central stage
In the style ofalla (Italian), im Stileiner (German)
intiepidire(Italian) or intepidire (Italian), to make tepid, to warm (up), to cool down, to reduce (figurative), to mitigate
intiero(Italian) entire, whole, honest (figurative), sincere (figurative)
In timea tempo (Italian), im Zeitmass (German), Taktmässig (German), au mouvement (French)
Intime(French m./f.) an intimate friend
intime(French) intimate, private, quiet, cosy, homely, comfortable
intimissimo(Italian) very tenderly, very expressively, warmly, with much feeling
Intimiste(French m./f.) (a late form of Impressionism) devoted wholly to domestic painting
Intimité(French f.) intimacy, privacy
intimo(Italian) heartfelt, intimate, fervent, expressive
intimo con(Italian) intimate with
intituler(French) to entitle
intlabbreviation of 'international'
Intonaco (s.), Intonachi (pl.)(Italian m.) a final layer of wet plaster on which the fresco artist works, plastering, daub
intonare(Italian) to intone, to start to sing, to sing (a song), to tune, to sing in tune, to begin, to match (colours)
intonarsi(Italian) to start to sing, to tune, to match
intonato(Italian) able to sing in tune (person), in tune (voice, instrument), matching (colours)
Intonarumori(Italian, literally 'noise machines') instruments invented by the Futurist Luigi Russolo (1885-1947) in about 1913 which were all destroyed in Paris, France during World War II
Intonatie(Dutch) intonation
Intonation(English, German f.) the production of either instrumental or vocal tone
in tuning, the degree to which the pitch of a note heard is what is correct but not to the degree that the note heard is the wrong note
the opening notes that lead up to the recitation tone of a chant
Intonateto sound the notes of the musical scale, for example, to practice the sol-fa; the act of modulating the voice in a musical, sonorous, and measured manner, as when chanting the liturgy
Intonationin music, tuning
in speech, the use of pitch, loudness, and duration to convey linguistic and paralinguistic information (for example, the emotional state of the speaker)
Intonation juste(French f.) just intonation
Intonatore (m.), Intonatrice (f.)(Italian) male singer (m.), female singer (f.)
Intonatura(Italian f.) intonation, manner of producing tone
Intonazione(Italian f.) intonation, manner of producing tone
a term used by Italian Renaissance composers, for a toccata-like composition, designed to introduce vocal music used in church services, and to set the proper key and tempo for the ensuing vocal composition
Intonazione giusta(Italian f.) just intonation
intonazione naturale(Italian f.) just intonation, the basis of the natural scale or, in Italian, scala naturale
intoneto chant on a single note
intonieren(German) to chant on a single note, to intone
Intoning(English) chanting on a single note, particularly as part of an Anglican church service
intoneren(German, archaic form) to chant on a single note
in toto(Latin) as a whole, absolutely, completely, without exception
intra(Latin) within
intra vires(Latin, literally 'within the power of') an act that falls within the Jurisdiction of the Court
Intrada(Italian f., from the Spanish entrada, literally 'beginning') a prelude, a flourish of trumpets, entrée, an interlude
Intrade (s.), Intraden (pl.)(German f.) introduction, intro (abbreviation), intrada (Italian, Spanish)
intransigeant (m.), intransigeante (f.)(French) uncompromising, unaccommodating
in Tränen aufgelöst(German) in floods of tears
in Tränen ausbrechen(German) burst into tears
Intransitive verba verb that does not have a direct object (and often one that by its very nature cannot take such an object at all)
Intra-textual meaningmeaning that originates not within a work itself, but that originates in a related work in the same collection
Intreccio(Italian m.) plot (of a film, play, opera, etc.)
intrepidamente(Italian) boldly, with intrepidity
Intrepidezza(Italian f.) boldness, resolution, intrepidity
intrepido (m.), interida (f.)(Italian) intrepid, bold, energetic
Intrigue(French f.) plot (of a novel, etc.)
Intrigue plotthe dramatic representation of how two young lovers, often with the assistance of a maidservant, friend, or soubrette, foil the blocking agent represented by a parent, priest, or guardian
in triplo(Italian) an old term meaning music in three parts abbreviation of the word 'introduction', generally referring to the opening bars of a piece of music played before the main theme, which, in jazz, is often improvised
introd.abbreviated form of introduzione (Italian: introduction)
Introducción(Spanish f.) introduction, intro (abbreviation), introductory movement, short overture
Introducimento(Italian m.) introduction, introductory movement, short overture
Introductionintroduzione (Italian), Einleitung (German), entrée (French), the opening part of a piece of music, which may be no more than a chord or a lengthy prepation for the introduction of the main theme, for example, in a symphony or concerto
Introduction and Rondo capriccioso
Camille Saint-Saëns (1835-1921)
(French: Introduction et Rondo capriccioso en la mineur), op. 28, is a composition for violin and orchestra written in 1863 by Saint-Saëns for the virtuoso Pablo de Sarasate. Since its nineteenth-century premiere, it has continued to be one of Saint-Saëns' most popular compositions
Introductor (m.), Introductora (f.)(Spanish) introducer (someone who introduces a concert, a person, etc.)
introductor (m.), introductora (f.)(Spanish) introductory
introductorio (m.), intorductoria (f.)(Spanish) introductory
Introduktion(German f.) introduction, intro (abbreviation)
Introduzione(Italian f.) introduction, intro (abbreviation), introductory movement, short overture
Introit(from Latin introitus meaning 'entrance') in the Roman Catholic Mass, it is the first item, the chant sung as the priest enters and approaches the altar; in the Anglican service, it is a short anthem, hymn, or psalm sung as the minister prepares to administer communion
the Introitus Gaudeamus omnes in Domino... appears in the Graduale Romanum to be sung on a given saint's feast day. The name of the particular saint would appear after the words sub honore
some modern recordings of early renaissance musical masses include an Introitus even though a musical mass in the Roman rite was composed exclusively of Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus/Benedictus and Agnus Dei. In seeking to make the recording sound more 'realistic', modern producers mix the mass with Gregorian chant drawn from the Graduale Romanum, choosing just about anything, from an almost unexhaustible list of some 1000 antiphons (introitus, graduals, alleliua verses, tractus, offertories, communions and so on)
Introït(French m.) Introit
Introito(Spanish m.) Introit
Introitus(German m., Latin) Introit
Intrusionin linguistics, the introduction of a sound into a word that, historically, should not have such a sound in that spot
Intuition(English, French f.) immediate insight
Intuitive Musica form of musical improvisation based on instant creation in which fixed principles or rules may or may not have been given. It is a type of process music where instead of a traditional music score, verbal or graphic instructions and ideas are provided to the performers. The concept was introduced in 1968 by the German composer Karlheinz Stockhausen
Intuitive Musik(German f.) intuitive music
Intuizione(Italian f.) intuition
intuonare(Italian) to intone, to sing or tune, to sing in tune, to begin
Intuonatore (m.), Intuonatrice (f.)(Italian) male singer (m.), female singer (f.)
Inuit musictraditional Inuit music has been based around drums used in dance music as far back as can be known, and a vocal style called katajjaq (Inuit throat singing) has become of interest in Canada and abroad
Inuit throat singingor katajjaq, also known (and commonly confused) under the generic term overtone singing, is a form of musical performance uniquely found among the Inuit. Unlike the throat singers in other regions of the world, particularly, Tibet, Mongolia and Tuva, the Inuit performers are usually women who sing only duets in a kind of entertaining contest to see who can outlast the other
in un baleno(Italian) in a flash
in un battibaleno(Italian) in a flash
Inunctionthe process of applying and rubbing in an ointment, the act of anointing (as in a religious ceremony)
in un fiato(Italian) in one breath
Inungu(South Africa) a friction drum
in unisono(Dutch) in unison
in usum Delphini(Latin, literally 'for the use of the Dauphin') from the title of an expurgated (or bowdlerized) edition of the Latin Classics prepared by order of Louis XIV for the use of his son
in utero(Latin, literally 'in the womb') unborn
inv.abbrevation of invenit (Latin: invented by, designed by - usually after the name of the inventor)
in vacuo(Latin, literally 'in a vacuum') (an argument, etc.) in the abstract, not applied to any concrete circumstances
Invariabile(Italian) invariable
Invariancea term used in set theory as it is applied to music, for a property (for example the elements of a set) that remains unchanged after some operation (inversion, transposition, etc.)
in vaste maat(Dutch) in strict time, to the beat
invariable(English, French) unchangeable
Invectivespeech or writing that attacks, insults, or denounces a person, topic, or institution, usually involving negative emotional language
invenit(Latin) (he) discovered/designed/invented (it), (he) discovered/designed/invented (it) (always accompanied by a name and inscribed on a model, etc.)
Inventar(German n.) inventory
Inventio (s.), Inventiones (pl.)(Italian, literally 'invention) in Renaissance art theory, the ability to create, invention or originality. Derived from classical rhetoric, inventio was one of the key concepts of Renaissance art theory, because it was seen as being based on the use of reason
Invention(English, German f.) a two-art contrapuntal work for keyboard, the term originally applied by Bach; today, Bach's three part contrapuntal keyboard works are also called inventions although he originally called them sinfonie
Inventione(Italian f.) invention
Inventions-horna nineteerth-century European trumpet with tuning slide
Inventionshorn (s.), Inventionshörner (pl.)(German n.) inventions-horn
Invenzione(Italian f.) invention, contrivance
Inversio(Latin) inversion
Inversio cancrizans(Latin) retrograde, or crab-like inversion or imitation, so called because it goes backwards
Inversion (literature)another term for anastrophe
Inversion (music)(English, German f.) rivolto (Italian), Umkehrung (German), renversement (French)
where the notes in a chord or triad do not follow their standard order which is, reading from the bottom note up, root - third - fifth:
root position chordroot position
root in the bass
Ithe Roman numeral on its own shows that the triad is in root position with the first degree of the scale in the root (although the numbering 5 3 would also be correct)
first inversion chordfirst inversion
third in the bass
the 6 and 3 in the first inversion means that notes lying above the bass note are a third and a sixth above it (6 3 triads may also be notated only with a 3)
second inversion chordsecond inversion
fifth in the bass
the 6 and 4 in the second inversion means that the notes lying above the bass note are a sixth and a fourth above it
where the notes of a seventh chord do not follow their standard order which is, reading from the bottom up, root - third - fifth - seventh:
root position seventh chordroot position
root in the bass
I7the seven after the roman numeral in the root position seventh chord actually means that notes a third, a fifth, and a seventh are located above the bass note which, in this case, is the first degree of the scale
first inversion seventh chordfirst inversion
third in the bass
the 6 and 5 in the first inversion roman numeral symbol means that notes a sixth, a fifth, and a third are located above the bass note
second inversion seventh chordsecond inversion
fifth in the bass
the 4 and 3 in the second inversion roman numeral symbol mean that notes a third, a fourth, and a sixth are located above the bass note
third inversion seventh chordthird inversion
seventh in the bass
the 4 and 2 in the third inversion roman numeral symbol mean that notes a fourth, a second, and a sixth are located above the bass note (4 2 seventh chords are also known as 2 chords)
because only two figures are used in figured bass it is not possible to specify every interval in an inverted seventh chord; however, the pairs 6 5, 4 3 and 4 2 only occurs in seventh chords and the pairs 6 3 and 6 4 only in triads so there is no confusion
see 'inverted interval'
turning a melody upside down, or at least to the extent that where before it moved upwards, the 'inversion' moves downwards, and visa versa
to exchange the relative positions of two parts, as in double counterpoint, so that the higher part becomes the lower and visa versa
when an organ point lies in a part other than, and higher than, the bass, it is said to be inverted
one of three standard techniques in 12-note or 12-tone composition where all intervals of a set are reversed in direction
Inversión(Spanish f.) inversion, renversement (French)
Inversional equivalencyor 'inversional symmetry', the concept that intervals, chords, and other sets of pitches are the same when inverted
Inversione(Italian) inversion
Inversionen(German plural of Inversion (German)
Inverso(Italian) inversion
Invertto alter a melody, chord, interval or disposition of parts by the process of inversion
Invertedchanged in position
Inverted cadencea cadence where the final chord is or both chords are inverted, as opposed to a 'radical' cadence where both chords are in root position or a 'medial' cadence where only the penultimate chord is inverted
Inverted chorda chord that is not in 'root position' or normal form', in other words, a chord, the the root of which, when expressed in its standard form, does not lie in the bass
Inverted intervalintervalo invertido (Spanish), intervallo rivolto (Italian), intervalle reversé (French), umgekehrtes Intervall (German)
although by convention the interval between two notes is 'measured' from the lower up to the higher, it can be useful to consider the interval inverted, i.e. from the higher to the lower
Inverted mordentsee 'upper mordent'
Inverted pedal pointa long note held on in the treble part, as opposed to a 'pedal point' which is a long note held on in the bass part
Inverted turna musical ornament or embellishment
  • Turns - where the ornament is described in detail
Invertible counterpointalso called 'double counterpoint', counterpoint in which two or more voices can be interchanged, one for another, without creating forbidden discords
Invertierbarkeit(German f.) invertibility
invertieren(German) to complement
invertiert(German) inverse
invertiertes Intervall(German n.) inverted interval
invertir(Spanish) to invert, to turn upside down
investire con(Italian) to vest with
inviare(Italian) to send
inviare a giudizio(Italian) to commit for trial
in vino veritas(Latin) the drunken man always tells the truth
Invitatoire(French m.) Invitatorium
Invitatorio(Spanish m.) Invitatorium
Invitatorium(Latin) a verse sung in the Roman Catholic Church at the beginning of Matins alternately with two verses of the 94th Psalm. The concluding words are generally Venite adoremus
Invitatory(English) invitatorium
Invité (m.), Invitée (f.)(French) a guest
inviter (...) à(French) to invite (...) to
in vitro(Latin, literally 'in glass') in a test tube
in vivo(Latin, literally 'in life') occurring only in the living body (not in a test tube, etc.)
Invocatio(Latin) invocation or prayer, a solemn appeal
Invocation of the Musea prayer or address made to the one of the nine muses of Greco-Roman mythology, in which the poet asks for the inspiration, skill, knowledge, or appropriate mood to create a poem worthy of his subject-matter. The invocation of the muse traditionally begins Greco-Roman epics and elegies
Invocato(Italian) invocation or prayer, a solemn appeal
Invocazione(Italian) invocation or prayer, a solemn appeal
in vollen Zügen genießen(German) enjoy to the full
in voller Lautstärke(German) (at) full blast
in Vorb.(German) in Vorbereitung, in preparation
in Vorbereitung(German) in preparation
in weite Ferne(German) in the far distance
in weiter Entfernung(German) in the far distance
in weitester Ferne aufgestellt(German) placed in the farthest distance
in Zahlung nehmen(German) to take in part-exchange
inzet(Dutch) attack, start
inzet in de canon(Dutch) leading part in a canon
in zwei(German) duple meter
Io Bacche(Latin) a joyous burden, in ancient lyric poetry
Ionian mode(Ionian, of or pertaining to Ionia or the Ionians) an ancient mode, or sequence of notes, that is identical to the modern major scale
ionian mode
mode consisting of the rising interval sequence T-T-S-T-T-T-S, (T=tone or whole-step, S=semitone or half-step), equivalent to the modern major mode
Ionien (m.), Ionienne (f.)(French) Ionian
Ionio(Italian m.) Ionian
Ionisch(German n.) Ionian
ionisch(German) Ionian
ionische(Dutch) Ionian
Iota1/1700 part of an octave, proposed by Margo Schulter on the 'Tuning List' in 2002 and indicated by the Greek letter ι. The classic chromatic semitone 25/24 for example is 100.12 iotas. It is useful for comparing just intervals with 17-tone equal tempered ones
Io triumphe(Latin) a phrase of exultation, often found in the lyric poetry of the ancient Romans
IPAabbreviation of 'International Phonetic Alphabet', a widely used system for phonetic transcription
IPEMabbreviation of Instituut voor Psychoakoestiek en Elektronische Muziek, Ghent
Ipertono (s.), Ipertoni (pl.)(Italian m.) overtone
Ippaki ni(Japan) a deer call of the Ainu people
ipse dixit (s.), ipsi dexerunt (pl.)(Latin) a dogmatic assertion made on the unsupported authority of the speaker
ipsissima verba(Latin) the exact words, the precise words
ipso facto(Latin, literally 'by the fact') by that very fact, as an immediate and necessary consequence
the reliance upon facts that together prove a point
Ipu(Hawaii) a single gourd drum made in two sizes for dancers of both the ancient and modern hulas
Ipu hekea drum made of two gourds of unequal size which are attached at the necks. A hole is left in open on the top of the upper gourd, and the two are joined by breadfruit gum. The musician sits on the ground, hold the ipu in his left hand and with a kapa or twine loop and plays rhythms on it with his right hand
Ipu ho kio kiothe Hawaiian gourd nose flute that had three finger holes along the side of the bowl of the gourd
i.q.abbrevation for idem quod (Latin: the same as)
Iqa (s.), Iqa'at (pl.)the iqa'at (rhythms) in Arab music can be highly complex, with patterns sometimes consisting of as many as 48 beats. The basic components of a rhythm are two kinds of beat and silences (rests). The downbeat (dumm) is a deep sound made by hitting the drum or tambourine near the centre. The upbeat (takk) is a crisper, high-pitched sound made by tapping the rim of the instrument. Players usually ornament the basic pattern with improvisations
Ira(Italian) anger, wrath, rage
ir a bailar(Spanish) to go dancing
ir a la bancarotta(Spanish) to go bankrupt
Iramaa concept used in Javanese gamelan music, which relates to how much space there is between notes. It is often confused with tempo, although tempo (Javanese: laya) is different, and each irama can be played in different tempi. Each irama can be played in three laya: seseg (fast), sedeng (medium) and tamban (slow). Usually, changes of laya signal a different section
  • Irama from which this extract has been taken
Iranian classical musictraditional Iranian music, dastgâh music, as fostered in the courts and the homes of the aristocracy, draws from many sources, including regional music styles, religious genres of melody and chant and popular songs that have been reworked by master musicians and their students. In different regional capitals, musicians acquired their repertoire from their master teacher through a process of listening and repetition and also drew from local sources of music, incorporating these into their own unique version of this repertoire of traditional melodies and melodic fragments
ir arrastrado(Spanish) to be hard up
iratamente(Italian) angrily, passionately
irato (m.), irata (f.)(Italian) angrily, passionately
IRCAMacronym for Institut de Recherche et Coordination Acoustique/Musique, which opened officially in 1977. By 1978, its three-floor underground building contained offices, laboratories, recording studios, an anechoic chamber, and the Espace de Projection, a black-box concert hall with reconfigurable walls that allowed for different acoustics for different concerts
  • IRCAM from which this extract has been taken
ir de aventón(Spanish - Mexico) to go hitching
iré aunque llueva(Spanish) I'll go even if it rains
ir en avión(Spanish) to fly, to go by plane
ir en barco(Spanish) to go by boat
ir en bonanza(Spanish) to go well (figurative), to have fair weather (nautical)
ir en descrédito de(Spanish) to damage the reputation of
Irenologypeace and conflict studies
ir en tren(Spanish) to go by train
irgendwo anders(German) somewhere else
irgendwo muss man Abstriche machen(German) you can't have everything
Iring1/600 part of an octave, defined by Widogast Iring in his 1898 Die reine Stimmung in der Musik. He noted that the twelfth part of the Pythagorean comma and the schisma have almost the same size, both about 1/614 part of the octave. To get round numbers, he took for this size one 600th part of an octave. The size of the major second can then be rounded to 102 and the just major third to 193. The perfect fifth is 351 Iring units. The size of the Iring unit is twice the size of the cent. It is also about the smallest difference in pitch that untrained ears can hear. The same unit was later defined in 1932 by Joseph Yasser in his book A Theory of Evolving Tonality by dividing the equally tempered whole tone in 100 parts and calling it the 'centitone'
irische Harfe(German f.) cláirseach
Irish bouzoukisee 'mandolin, mandoline'
Irish citternsee 'mandolin, mandoline'
Irish dance traditionthe dancing traditions of Ireland probably grew in tandem with the rich traditions of Irish traditional music. The very first roots were in Pre-Christian Ireland, but Irish dance was also partially influenced by dance forms on the Continent, especially the quadrille dances. Nearly every child in Ireland is taught at least a little dance, and probably some music too. Traveling dancing masters taught all over Ireland as late as the early 1900s
Irish dance music is isometric. 16 measures are known as a "step", with one 8 bar strain for a "right foot" and the second for the "left foot" of the step. Tunes that are not so evenly divided are called "crooked"
Irish fiddlethere can be few if any fiddle traditions so rich, dynamic, and with such a high international profile as that of Ireland. Traditional music and dance have maintained a central part in the culture of ordinary Irish people in a way that can only be envied by the English, and the Irish fiddle has a central part in that tradition
Irish flutethe flutes today, commonly referred to as Irish flutes, are keyless or multi-key flutes based on the old-system flutes that predate the 'modern' Boehm system flute. They are generally modeled after flutes by Pratten, Rudall/Rudall & Rose, Nicholson or similar instruments from around 1835, having a relatively large blow hole, finger holes and bore (compared to their eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century counterparts) , which gives them a strong sound well suited for playing traditional music. Irish traditional players generally tend to ignore the keys, and play the instrument like transverse pennywhistles (in fact the fingerings are the same). Keyless flutes are common, as the keys are not needed for the majority of Irish traditional tunes
Irish flute playing traditionit is important that in considering the flute playing tradition in Ireland that one gives serious attention to the existence of fife playing tradition as fife and drum bands were very popular in certain areas of the country and many of these areas coincided with areas which we now associate with a very rich tradition of traditional music.The existence of these bands meant that instruments were available and many of the "great" flute players of old started on their musical "paths" with the local fife and drum band
Tom Morrison and John McKenna were the "dominant" flute players of the `78 recording era in America. When one thinks of regions in Ireland that have a tradition of flute playing the following areas come to mind: South Sligo/North Leitrim, East Galway, South Fermanagh, East and West Clare, South Leitrim and West Limerick
Irish harpsee cláirseach
Irish Heyan Irish round or figure dance
Irish hip hop
Irish step dancingone type of traditional Irish dance, a recreational and competitive folk dance. Step dancing as a modern form is descended directly from sean nós ("old style") step dancing. There are in fact many other forms of stepdancing in Ireland (such as the 'Connemara style' step dancing), but the style most familiar is the Munster, or southern, form, which has been formalized by An Coimisiún le Rincí Gaelacha, which first met in 1930. An Coimisiún was formed from a directorate of the Gaelic League during the so-called Modern Revival
Irish traditional musicin spite of emigration and a well-developed connection to music imported from Britain and the United States, Irish music has kept many of its traditional aspects; indeed, it has itself influenced many forms of music, such as country and roots music in the USA, which in turn have greatly influenced rock music in the twentieth century
Irish whistlesee 'tin whistle'
Irish whistle ornamentationtraditional Irish whistle playing uses a number of ornaments to embellish the music, including cuts, strikes and rolls. Most playing is legato with ornaments to create breaks between notes, rather than tongued. The Irish and Celtic concept of the word "ornamentation" differs somewhat from that of classical music in that ornaments are more commonly changes in how a note is articulated rather than the addition of separately-perceived notes to the piece
Irlandais (m.), Irlandaise (f.)(French, literally 'Hibernian', 'Irish') a term applied to a dance, etc. indicating that it has Irish or Hibernian roots
Irländisch(German, literally 'Hibernian', 'Irish') a term applied to a dance, etc. indicating that it has Irish or Hibernian roots
Irohathe Japanese solfege system that was used during and after World War II at a time when it was Japanese policy to substitute Western terms with Japanese equivalents (though they were still playing and listening to Western-style music). The system started on the note A and read as follows:
i, ro, ha, ni, ho, he, to
Iron bandAntigua had a tradition of iron bands at Christmas time which made the new genre easy to import. Iron bands traditionally are made up of old pieces of metal example old irons, tyre rims, steel pipes, etc. The iron band can still be heard at the annual summer festival carnival
iron bands were introduced to Saint Kitts and Nevis' Carnival in the 1940s, when bands used makeshift percussion instruments from the likes of car rims
Iron gall inka deep blue-black ink primarily made from tannin, vitriol, gum, and water. Its indelible quality coupled with inexpensive ingredients made it popular with artists and for writing from the late Middle Ages into the 20th century. Iron gall ink has good colour strength and light-fastness, but it also tends to contain free acids that can be very corrosive to pen nibs and damaging to any paper upon which it is used
ironicamente(Italian) ironically, tongue in cheek (familiar), nicht ernst (German), ironiquement (French), irónicamente (Spanish)
irónicamente(Spanish) ironically, tongue in cheek (familiar), nicht ernst (German), ironiquement (French), ironicamente (Italian)
ironico(Italian) ironic, ironical
ironiquement(French) ironically, tongue in cheek (familiar), nicht ernst (German), irónicamente (Spanish), ironicamente (Italian)
Ironyexpression of meaning, often humorous or sarcastic, using language of a different or opposite tendency
apparent perversity of an event or circumstance in reversing human intentions
in the theatre, use of language with one meaning for a privileged audience and another for those addressed or concerned
in Romantic literature, irony resulted from the principle that the author should hold a position above the work and himself; he should not unconsciously get lost in the creative process but control it by introducing a stage of consciousness, which is achieved by irony. Irony breaks up coherent units, as does quotation in a musical piece; it creates dialectical tension. For this reason, quotation was a practice commonly found in the works of Romantic composers
irony comes in many forms. Verbal irony (also called sarcasm) is a trope in which a speaker makes a statement in which its actual meaning differs sharply from the meaning that the words ostensibly express. Often this sort of irony is plainly sarcastic in the eyes of the reader, but the characters listening in the story may not realize the speaker's sarcasm as quickly as the readers do. Dramatic irony (the most important type for literature) involves a situation in a narrative in which the reader knows something about present or future circumstances that the character does not know. In that situation, the character acts in a way we recognize to be grossly inappropriate to the actual circumstances, or the character expects the opposite of what the reader knows that fate holds in store, or the character anticipates a particular outcome that unfolds itself in an unintentional way. Probably the most famous example of dramatic irony is the situation facing Oedipus in the play Oedipus Rex. Situational irony (also called cosmic irony) is a trope in which accidental events occur that seem oddly appropriate, such as the poetic justice of a pickpocket getting his own pocket picked. However, both the victim and the audience are simultaneously aware of the situation in situational irony
Iroquois Social Dance(Northeast Native Americans) songs and dance performed in between sacred rituals
Irrational rhythmin music, the term irrational rhythm is usually applied to a rhythm in which an unusual number of beats is superimposed on the predominating tempo. More precisely, if n evenly-spaced beats are played in the time of m beats of the underlying tempo then the rhythm is irrational if neither of n and m is divisible by the other. The use of the term "irrational" in this context is quite different to the mathematical use of the term: indeed, rhythms of this sort are, in the mathematical sense, rational, as they are precisely defined by the ratio of beats played to beats in the underlying tempo. The most familiar example is the triplet
Irreconcilableimplacably hostile, (of ideas etc.) incompatible
Irredeemablenot able to be redeemed, hopeless
Irredentista person advocating the restoration to his or her country of any territory formerly belonging to it
Irrefutablethat cannot be refuted
irregolare(Italian) irregular
Irregular(English, Spanish) (in shape) not regular, unsymmetrical, uneven, varying in form
(English, Spanish) (in time) not occurring at regular intervals
Irregular accentsee 'unnatural accent'
Irregular cadencesee 'cadence'
Irregular temperamentsee 'temperament'
Irregular time signaturestime signatures that are in neither duple, triple or quadruple time, for example 5/4, 7/4, etc.
Irregular verba verb that doesn't follow common verb patterns. For instance, think/thought and be/am/was. Most irregular English verbs today are the remains of the old Anglo-Saxon strong verbs
irrégulier(French) irregular
Irrelative chordschords having no common note
Irrelevant (to)not relevant (to)
Irreparable(of an injury, loss, etc.) that cannot be rectified or made good
Irreplaceablethat cannot be replaced
Irrepressiblethat cannot be repressed or restrained
Irreproachablefaultless, blameless
Irresolutehesitant, lacking in resoluteness, irresoluto (Italian)
irresoluto(Italian) undecided in style, irresolute, wavering, hesitating
Irrespective ofnot taking into account of, regardless of
Irresponsibleacting or done without due sense of responsibility, not responsible for one's conduct
Irretrievablethat cannot be retrieved or restored
Irreverentlacking reverence
Irritableeasily annoyed, (of an organ etc.) very sensitive to contact
Irruente(Italian) rushing (in), impetuous, violent, rash [entry recommended by Weed]
Irrtum(German m.) error
Isabelline(from izah, Arabic: lion-coloured) sandy coloured
ISAMabbreviation of 'Institute for Studies in American Music'
ISBNacronym for 'International Standard Book Number
Iscathamiyatraditional Zulu call-and-response a capella choral music sung by men from South Africa. In the mines of South Africa, black workers would entertain themselves after a six-day week by singing songs into the night, and choreographing dance steps on 'tip toe' so as not to disturb the camp security guards. When the miners returned to the homelands, the tradition returned with them
ISCMabbreviation of 'International Society for Contemporary Music'
ISDNan acronym for 'Integrated Services Digital Network' - a telephone network service which carries data, voice transmissions by digital means, not analogue
Ishaka(Nigeria) Ibo gourd shaker with three different types of natural seed nets
Ishkur's Guide to Electronic Musicoften referred to as just Ishkur's Guide, an online Flash-driven guide to electronic music created by Kenneth John Taylor. The guide is currently hosted by the Digitally Imported Internet radio site
Ishopanishadone of the major Upanishads
Isicathamiyaa name given to a cappella Zulu polyphony since the1930s
see Cothoza Mfana
Isinglassa substance obtained from the swimbladders of fish (especially Beluga sturgeon). It is a form of collagen used mainly for the clarification of wine and beer and as a constituent of glues used by early Asian bow makers, probably discussed by Cennino d'Andrea Cennini in his Il Libro dell'Arte' (published in the 14th century) and mentioned specifically by Thomas Mace for lutes repairs
  • Isinglass from which part of this material has been taken
Isinglass glue(in gilding) a binder made from fish air bladders. Appreciated by manuscript illuminators for its strength and flexibility as a binder
Iskelmä(Finnish, coined directly from the German word Schlager, literally 'a hit') traditional Finnish word for a light popular song
Islamic Civilization and Musicmany of the world's peoples contributed to Islamic civilization: Arab, Turk, Kurd, Persian, Aramean, Syrian, Egyptian, Greek and Goth. "Two lands" culture especially played a prominent role in the music of this new civilization, from the east, and from the west. Greek music was more theoretical, dominated by works of ancient authors centuries deceased. The visible signs of music and religion in ancient Arabia, confirms that the Arabs of the peninsula had indeed inherited and were conservators of the Mesopotamian cultural heritage
islancio(Italian) impetuosity
ISM abbreviation of 'Incorporated Society of Musicians'
Ism(colloquial and usually derogatory) any distinctive doctrine or practice
ISMEabbreviation of 'International Society for Music Education'
ISO-acousticsinternationally agreed standards in acoustics
Isochromatichaving the same colour or wavelength, of or corresponding to constant colour, of uniform colour
Isochronousoccurring at the same time, occupying equal time
Isocratima(Greek) or isokratema, a feature of Byzantine liturgical music, a simple accompaniment to the chant melody. This Greek term means 'to hold the ison', that is the base note of the musical 'mode' in which the troparion is chanted
the isokratema, ... (is found) from the Byzantine times in manuscripts either with the mention of the name of the person that does it (vastaktes = holder/supporter) or with the definition of the job of a vastaktes
Isocrátima(Spanish f.) isocratima
Isochronousperformed in equal times
Isoglosswhen linguists create maps showing where dialects are spoken, the isoglosses would be the boundary lines they draw. These isoglosses chart where a particular linguistic feature appears or does not appear
Isokratemasee isocratima
isolato con corde(Italian) roped off
Isomelic(from Greek, isos, 'equal', and meloidia, 'melody') in which a figure is repeated using the same notes but employing a different rhythm, a feature used in the fifteenth century by English and continental composers
a technique used constantly in dodecaphony
Isomelossee 'isomelic'
Isometricof equal measure
where the rhythm in each part exactly matches that in the other(s) so the structure is chordal rather than contrapuntal, also called 'homorhythmic'
a work with the same time signature throughout
(of muscle action) developing tension while the muscle is prevented from contracting
(of a drawing etc.) with the plane of projection at equal angles to the three principal axes of the object shown
isometrisch(German) isometric
Isorhythm(from Greek, isos, 'equal', and rhythmos, 'rhythm') a technique for musical organisation, where repeated rhythmic patterns (called the talea), usually occurring in the tenor line, are set against a pattern of notes or pitches (called the 'colour') - the talea and colour may be different in length
a feature found in motets, and therefore called isorhythmic motets, and some mass settings from the early 14th- and mid 15th-centuries. Early examples of isorhythmic composition appear in the works of Philippe de Vitry (1291-1361) and Guillaume de Machaut (1300-1377), both of whom were considered to be part of the school called Ars Nova. Later composers who also used isorhythm include John Dunstable (ca. 1385-1453) and Guillaume Dufay (1400-1474)
isorythmique(French) isorhythmic
isorhythmisch(German) isorhythmic
Isorhythmus(German m.) isorhythm
Isorythmie(French m.) isorhythm
isotónico(Spanish m.) isotonic
Isotonic systema tuning system consisting of intervals, in which each concord is tempered alike, and in which there are twelve equal semitones
isotonique(French m.) isotonic
Isotopeone of two or more atoms having the same number of protons in its nucleus, but a different number of neutrons and, therefore, a different mass
Isotropichaving the same physical properties in all directions (otherwise, anisotropic)
Ispirazione(Italian f.) inspiration
ispirato(Italian) inspired
Israel Center for Electronic Musicthe first electronic music studio in Israel, founded in 1961 at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem by composer Joseph Tal. A student of Paul Hindemith in Berlin in his youth, and consequently schooled in European style, Tal sought to create a new Israeli music, distinct from European models. Upon Tal's retirement in 1980, Menachem Zur became director of the studio
Israeli folk dancecalled folk dances, though some argue that they are not actually folk dances in the strictest sense because they are modern, dating only from the foundation of the State of Israel. However, others have argued that every folk tradition was once newly created
Israeli hip hop
Israjthe dilruba and israj are very similar Indian classical instruments that share a common link with thesarangi, but they are more recent (nineteenth century). Both instruments have necks similar to the sitar, but smaller, with sitar frets and sympathetic strings. On the israj the bridge is seated on a skin stretched over the instrument's body. Most dilrubas and israjs have 4 steel/bronze playing strings and 11-15 sympathetic strings. They are both played with a violin bow, or a sarangi bow (with convex tension) held in the right hand
  • Israj from which this information has been taken
Issuein the theatre, to leave the stage
quantity of coins, copies of a newspaper, etc., circulated at one time
each of a regular series of a magazine etc. (for example, the April issue)
point in question, important subject of debate or litigation
result, outcome
Istampita(Italian f.) estampie
Istanpitaan Italian dance form that dates from the late fourteenth century (c. 1390). Eight examples of this form survive, all in duple meter. Like the estampie, the istanpita consists of several verses with the same first and second endings, and the playing sequence is the same. Unlike the estampie, there is more structure within the verses in some examples. The istanpita named Parlamento, for example, has the following verse structure: A B 1 A B 2 C B 1 C B 2 D B 1 D B 2 E F 1 E F 2 G F 1 G F 2. (The structure can get considerably more complex.) Istanpita are more chromatic than estampie, and the verses are much longer (up to about 100 measures). The melodic range is similar to that of the estampie
istesso(Italian) the same
istesso tempo, l'(Italian m.) the same time (or speed) as before
that a bar (measure) or principal beat (measure note) remains unchanged after a change in time signature
that the tempo should return to that of an earlier, but not the immediately preceding section where the tempo was different
istesso valore, ma un poco più lento(Italian) the notes to have the same value, but a little slower
Isthmusnarrow piece of land connecting two larger bodies of land
Istmeñossee sones istmeños
Istoriato(Italian m.) (a prcelain vase) whose surface is wholly covered with representative decoration
Istrian scalea distinctive five-tone musical scale from the regions of Istria and Kvarner in Croatia
Istrionica(Italian) the theatrical art
istrionica(Italian) histrionic
Istrumentale(Italian) instrumental
Istrumentazione(Italian f.) instrumentation
Istrumento (s.), Istrumenti (pl.)(Italian m) instrument
(Italian pl.) the plural form can mean 'instrumentation', as well as 'instruments'
Istrumento d'acciaio(Italian m.) glockenspiel
Isukutia dance from the Kakamega people of the Luhyia ethnic group of western province of Kenya. It is performed mainly during festivities and ceremonies associated with wedding, child naming, bull fight and commemoration of new homes. Most of the songs that are used emphasize and praise the heroes and leaders of the communities
ITabbreviation of 'information technology'
It.abbreviation of 'Italian'
ital.abbreviation of italienisch (German: Italian - italien (French))
Italia(Italian f.) Italy
Italiannative or national of Italy, person of Italian descent, of or relating to Italy
Romance language of Italy
Italian ars novaa term sometimes applied to the music of Francesco Landini or Landino (c.1325-1397) and his contemporaries
Italianateof Italian style or appearance
Italian ConcertoJ. S. Bach's Italian Concerto BWV 971
Italian folk music
with regard to folk music, Italy is often divided into four cultural regions:
northern ItalyCeltic-influenced, major mode
southern ItalyArabic and Greek-influenced, minor modes, strong melodies
central Italymultiple influences combine, while indigenous traditions like endecasillabo singing (using phrases of eleven syllables) remain
island of Sardiniadistinct from that of the rest of Italy, best known for the polyphonic chanting of the tenores
Italian hip hop
Italiano (m.), Italiana (f.)(Italian) Italian
italiano (m.), italiana (f.)(Italian) Italian
Italian overturea work for orchestra, originating from the 17th- and 18th-centuries, in three movements arranged quick - slow - quick, from which the symphony evolved
Italian pitchsee 'Venetian pitch'
Italian Sacred Music (seventeenth century)'psalms' and 'motets', with their relatively free choice of texts, were the first to embrace the new expressive ideals of secular music, the mass somewhat slower to adopt these new techniques. Composers of masses frequently cultivated both old and new styles. Among the older styles found in the first four decades are 'parody masses', masses based on hexachords and/or one of the church modes (as, for example, Missa primi toni) for one to four choirs. The new style of mass is the messa concertata, a term which begins to appear around 1614, signifying the presence of soloists with a true organ basso continuo, as distinguished from the messa da cappella, sung only by full choir(s) and organ basso seguente. Participation of solo voices rapidly led to clearly marked textural and stylistic contrasts between soli and tutti. Very soon, instruments other than the organ were introduced into mass publications, around 1615. Works begin to appear offering flexibility in performance possibilities (ad libitum instruments and se piace ripieno choirs). Prints from the 1630s and 40s reflect the growing influence of instrumental forms and idioms on the mass (for example, a Mass by Tarquinia Merula based on a popular instrumental ground bass, the Ruggiero). By this time nearly every musical chapel of any size had a resident string ensemble, and wind players were often hired for ceremonial occasions. Furthermore, increasing virtuosity in vocal solos, ceremonial masses involving large numbers of voices and instruments, and few-voiced masses for smaller forces, all mark the stylistic changes in this most conservative of liturgical forms, the mass
Italian School (ballet)the Imperial Dancing Academy connected with La Scala in Milan was opened in 1812. Its greatest period began when Carlo Blasis, Italian dancer and teacher, became its director in 1837. Blasis published two textbooks, Treatise on the Art of Dancing and Code of Terpischore, in which he codified his teaching methods and all that was known of ballet technique. These books form the basis of our modern classical training. Blasis trained most of the famous Italian dancers ot the era, and his pupil Giovanni Lepri was the teacher of Enrico Cecchetti, one of the greatest teachers in the history of ballet. It was Cecchetti who brought the Italian School to its peak. The Italian School was known for its strong, brilliant technique and the virtuosity of its dancers, who astonished the audience with their performances
Italian sixth chordan augmented sixth chord consisting of a major third and augmented sixth above a given note. The Italian sixth chord is sometimes called an 'augmented sixth three chord'. It contains only three different notes (althoug the third may be doubled), as opposed to a German sixth chord, or a French sixth chord which both contain four different notes
Italian sonnetanother term for a Petrarchan sonnet
Italian vermouthsweet kind of vermouth
Italian versificationalthough subjected to some criticism by modern scholars, the traditional view of Italian versification assumes that it is governed by the number of syllables in a line (whether even, in which case the stress patterns are regulated, or odd, in which case the stress patterns are much more flexible - but neither by their length or by their quantity), and by the position of stressed syllables in the line (baring in mind that the majority of Italian words are stressed on the penultimate syllable)
Italicof the sloping kind of letters now used especially for emphasis and in foreign words (for example, italienisch)
(of handwriting) compact and pointed like early Italian handwriting
the branch of Indo-European languages giving rise to Latin and Romance languages like Spanish, French, and Italian
Italicizeor italicise, to print in italics
italien (m.), italienne (f.)(French) Italian (for example, à l'Italienne, 'in the Italian style')
italienisch(German) Italian
Italo-Celtictogether, the Italic and Celtic branches of Indo-European are called Italo-Celtic
Italo discoItalo disco is a musical marketing term introduced in 1983 by Bernhard Mikulski, the founder of ZYX Music. The term applied to Italian electronic dance music of the 1980s and to music from other parts of Europe and from North America that imitated the sound thereof. A typical Italo-disco song had contrasting verse-chorus form, had synthesizer based accompaniment and was usually sung in English by European artists
Italo housea form of house music popular in Italy in the late 1980s that fuses house and Italo disco. The main defining characteristic is its use of (predominantly electronic) piano chords
Ita missa est(Latin, literally 'Go, the mass is ended') The dismissal from the Mass, sung by the priest at the very end of the service, from which phrase the name Missa or "Mass" has come to mean the entire service
Itchirritation in the skin, impatient desire
Itching palmavarice
Itemany of a number of enumerated things, separate or distinct piece of news etc.
item(Latin, literally 'in like manner') also, likewise (used to introduce each article in an enumeration or catalogue)
Itemizestate item by item
Iteraterepeat, state repeatedly
Iterativesomething (e.g. a set of instructions) that is repeated as in an iterative process
Itineranta person who spends their time travelling from place to place (generally having no fixed abode)
Itinerario(Italian m.) itinerary
Itinerarydetailed route (for example, the details set out for a concert tour giving travel, hotel and other relevant details), guidebook, record of travel
Itonea wooden striker used with the biankomeko drums of the Abakwa people
Itótelethe middle drum in the set of three Cuban batá drums
Itterizia(Italian f.) jaundice
ittico(Italian) fishing
Iubilate Deo(Latin) rejoice in God
IVAabbreviation of Imposta sul Valore Aggiunto (Italian: Value Added Tax, VAT)
Ives processthe original halftone process developed by Frederick Ives in 1878 where an image could be reduced to a series of black & white dots that gave the illusion of a full tonal image
Ivgili(Siatista, Greece) an alternative name for the 'violin'
I-VI-II-Vin a jazz, a common progression (in the key of C, the progression might be Cmaj7A7Dmin7G7 or Cmaj7Amin7Dmin7G7)
Ivoirian hip hop
Ivoriesa article made of ivory, (slang) thing made of or resembling ivory (for example,, a piano key or a tooth)
Ivoryhard substance of the tusks of an elephant etc., creamy-white colour of this
Ivory towera derogatory term for a place, situation, or philosophical outlook that ignores or overlooks practical, worldly affairs
IworoIgede leg rattles worn by dancers. They are made from the large seeds of the ochichingbo vine
Iyáthe largest of the set of three Cuban batá drums, also called mother drum or lyá llú. It is believed to communicate directly with the orishas during sacred ceremonies
Iyailusee batá drums
Iyesáa set of four sacred, cylindrical, two-headed drums made of hand-carved cedar and played with sticks
the Iyesá are a Yoruba speaking, Lucumí 'nation', based in Cuba, still recognized as having a distinct musical style. Iyesá drums are played usually in groups of three, with a fourth drum added for certain toques. Their combined rhythmic patterns are more unified than the three-way conversation among the batá drums. Agogó, or dance gongs, of different pitches that play interlocking patterns accompany these drums. The last surviving Iyesá cabildo in Cuba is San Juan Batista, which was founded in 1854 in the City of Matanzas
Izba(Russian) a Russian log-house or wooden hut
IzezeTanzanian Gogo traditional fiddle
Izlan s Tamazight(izlan, 'song') sung poetry in any of the group of closely related Berber languages (Tamazight) performed particularly by the Berbers of the Middle Atlas and High Atlas
Izq.abbreviation of izquierda (Spanish: left)
izquierdo (m.), izquierda (f.)(Spanish) left (as in left-hand)
Izvorna bosanska muzika(literally 'Bosnian roots music') music that came from the Drina valley and Kalesija in Bosnia, that is usually performed by singers with two violinists and a sargija player
Izvoschick (s.), Izvschiki (pl.)(Russian) a Russian taxi-driver