music dictionary : Jc - Jz 

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JCafter Newell Jenkins (1915-1996) & Bathia Churgin (b.1928), the cataloguers of music by Giovanni Battista Sammartini (1701-1755)
JDabbreviation of 'Doctor of Jurisprudence'
je(German) always, ever, each
Jealousyan emotion and typically refers to the negative thoughts and feelings of insecurity, fear, and anxiety over an anticipated loss of something that the person values, such as a relationship, friendship, or love. Jealousy often consists of a combination of emotions such as anger, sadness, and disgust. Jealousy differs from envy in that jealousy is about something one has and is afraid of losing, while envy refers to something one does not have and either wants to acquire or to prevent another from acquiring
see 'delusional jealousy'
  • Jealousy from which this extract has been taken
jeden Ton(German) each tone
jeden Ton gleich abdämpfen(German) each note damped equally
jeder Couleur(German) of every shade, of all stripes, from all walks of life
jeder mit 3 Pauken(German) each with 3 timpani
jedoch(German) however, nevertheless
Je dois dire que(French) I must say
Je donne ma langue au chat.(French) I give up (trying to answer).
Je donnerais beaucoup pour savoir(French) I'd give a lot to know
je ein Ton von einem Pult(German) one note for each desk, respectively
JeelEgyptian music of the younger generation
Jefe(Spanish m.) head, chief, boss, manager
Jefe de negociado(Spanish m.) head of department
Jefe de prensa(Spanish m.) press director (public relations)
Jefe de redaccion(Spanish m.) editor-in-chief
Jefe de ventas(Spanish m.) sales manager
Jegeum(Korean) see bara
jeglicher Couleur(German) of all shades
Jegoganin the Balinese gamelan orchestra, the jegogan is the lowest pitched of the gangsa, made of long resonating bamboo tubes, which a seated player strikes with mallets
Jehad(Arabic) a holy war by Moslems against unbelievers (the Moslem equivalent of a crusade), a war or campaign inspired by some doctrine or principle
Jejy lavaor pikilanga, a Malagasy one-string musical bow with a smaller gourd resonator
Jejy voatavoa Malagasy zither with two adjacent faces, each with courses of strings, one with frets and one without, mounted on a gourd resonator, used to accompany epic songs
Je l'ai vu naître.(French) I've known him since he was born.
Jelia jeli, or jeli muso, is a Manding or Mandinka hereditary nomadic male or female praise singer and instrumentalist (the singer of epic songs and family histories) from Mali, Senegal, Guinea and the Gambia, whose traditions date back to the thirteenth century. Another word used to describe the jeli is griot, a term used by westerners
Jellto come to the consistency of jelly, to congeal, to set, to take shape and achieve distinctness (also figurative), to become cohesive
Jelly shoesbrightly coloured clear plastic sandals, popular attire for the beach
jemand anders(German) someone else
Jembesee djembe
Je me donnerais des coups!(French) I could kick myself!
Je m'en mords les doigts.(French) I could just kick myself.
Je me suis arrêté juste le temps de(French) I stopped just long enough to
Je me vois malheureusement obligé de refuser.(French) Unfortunately, I'm obliged to decline.
Je monte la garde(French) Beware of dog (sign)
Je m'y perds(French) I'm lost, I'm confused
Je n'ai jamais vraiment réfléchi à(French) I have never really thought about
Je n'ai pas d'opinion bien précise à(French) I don't have strong feelings on
Je n'ai pas d'opinion bien précise arrêtée sur(French) I don't have strong feelings about
Je n'ai pas pu m'en empêcher.(French) I couldn't help myself.
Je n'ai rien à voir dans cette affaire.(French) I have nothing to do with that.
J'en ai vu d'autres!(French) I've see worse!
Je ne demande pas mieux que de faire ...(French) I ask for nothing more than to do ...
Je ne demande qu'à vous voir.(French) All I ask is to see you.
Je ne dis pas non.(French) I won't say no.
Je ne fais qu'entrer et sortir.(French) I can't stop.
Je ne l'ai pas sur moi(French) I don't have it on me
Je ne me le suis jamais demandé.(French) I've never wondered about it.
Je ne me suis jamais vraiment posé la question.(French) I've never asked myself that question.
Je ne pense pas(French) I don't think so.
Je ne peux pas.(French) I can't.
Je ne peux pas les voir en peinture!(French) I can't stand them!
Je ne peux pas me libérer.(French) I'm unavoidably busy.
Je ne peux pas m'empêcher de penser que(French) I can't help thinking that
Je ne sais pas comment vous remercier.(French) I don't know how to thank you.
Je ne sais quoi(French) literally 'I don't know what', an inexpressible or indescribable something
"The je ne sais quoi is the high-quality life, the sound of words, the soul of actions, the lustre of everything that is beautiful. Other perfections are the ornament of nature, the je ne sais quoi is the ornament of perfection. It can be observed even in the way one reasons, it comes more from privilege than from study, for it even is above all disciplines. It is not limited to facileness, for it reaches as far as the most refined gallantry. It presupposes a free and disengaged mind, and to this disengagement it adds the last touch of perfection. Without it all beauty is dead, all grace is graceless. It wins out over worth, over discretion, over prudence and even over majesty. It is a political road on which business is rapidly completed. And finally, it is the art of withdrawing gallantly from every embarrassing situation. The je ne sais quoi ... is the soul of all qualities, the life of all perfection, the vigour of actions, the bonne grâce of language and the charm of everything that is in good taste. It agreeably amuses ideas and imagination, but it cannot be explained. It is something that heightens the brilliance of everything that is beautiful, it is a formal beauty. Other perfections ornament nature, but the je ne sais quoi ornaments the ornaments themselves. Thus it is the perfection of perfection itself, accompanied by a transcendent beauty and a universal gracefulness. It consists of a certain worldly air, an agrément that has no name but that is seen in speech, in behaviour, and in the way one reasons. Its most beautiful aspect comes from nature, and the rest comes from reflection, for it has never been subjugated to any imperious precept, but always to the best of every sort. It has been called a "charm" because it steals hearts away; it has been called a "fine air" because of the way it appears in action; "worldly air" because of its politeness; "cheerfulness and good humor" because it is easy and compliant. All these names come from the desire yet the impossibility of defining it." - Amelot de la Houssaye's translation of maxim CXXVII of Gracian's L'Homme de cour, 1702, p. 163
Je ne suis pas à même de dire si(French) I'm not in a position to say whether
Je ne suis pas libre.(French) I'm not free
Je ne suis pas né hier.(French) I wasn't born yesterday.
Je ne suis pas payé pour ça.(French) That's not what I'm paid for.
Je ne te le fais pas dire!(French) I'm not putting words in your mouth!
Je ne te raconte pas(French) You don't want to know, You can't imagine
Je ne veux pas de mais!(French) No buts about it!
Jenkkathe Finnish word for schottische
J'en passe et des meilleures!(French) And that's not all! It gets better!
Je n'y vois pas d'inconvénient.(French) I have no objection, I see no problems.
JeokKorean flute
JeolgoKorean drum
Jeong-ak(Korean) classical or court music
Jeongganboa special notation developed in the middle of the fifteenth century by Joseon composer Bak Yeon to notate Korean court music
je pense que non(French) I don't think so
je pense que oui(French) I think so
Jeraoriginally a religious music and dance of the Kparibas in Dagbon, performed before and after hunting expeditions. It is now performed by most Dagbamba villages in Northern Ghana on diverse social occasions: festivals, funerals, and for recreation after a hard day's work. The religious costume is however retained
jerárquico(Spanish) hierarchical
Jerigonza(Spanish f.) jargon, gibberish
Jerkina short, close-fitting coat or jacket, often sleeveless, worn in the 16th and 17th centuries
a short, sleeveless vest worn by women and girls
Jerseystretchy fine knitted fabric, used in t-shirts and sportswear and figure hugging garments; especially good for draping
Jest-bookany collection of jokes or satirical anecdotes, but especially those jokebooks produced in England, Germany, and elsewhere in the 1500s and 1600s
Jesteralso 'fool', 'buffoon' or 'boufon', 'narr' or 'naar', or 'juglar', was a specific type of clown mostly (but not always) associated with the Middle Ages. Jesters typically wore brightly coloured clothing in a motley pattern. Their hats, sometimes called the 'cap 'n bells', 'cockscomb' (obsolete 'coxcomb') (or, in German, schellenmütze and, in Italian, berretto a sonagli), were especially distinctive; made of cloth, they were floppy with three points ('liliripes') each of which had a jingle bell at the end. The three points of the hat represent the asses' ears and tail worn by jesters in earlier times. Other things distinctive about the jester were his incessant laughter and his mock scepter, known as a 'bauble' or 'marotte'
  • Jester from which this information has been taken
Jesting, Jestinglyplayful, playfully, joking, jokingly, burlando (Italian), burlesco (Italian), scherzando (Italian), scherzhaft (German), en badinant(French)
Je suis occupé.(French) I'm busy.
Je suis pris.(French) I'm otherwise engaged.
Jesus Musicthe name given to American musicians in the late 1960s and early 1970s, before the Christian music industry had begun to take form. In the UK this was known as gospel beat music
Jethard black form of lignite that takes a brilliant polish and is used in jewellery or ornamentation
coal-black, of the blackest black, similar to the colour of jet or coal
JetakhMongolian term for the Japanese koto
Jet d'eau (s.), Jets d'eaux (pl.)(French) a jet of water issuing from a pipe in an ornamental fountain
jeté(French, literally 'thrown') also known as ricochet, a violin technique in which the performer lets the bow skip or bounce across the strings of the instrument to produce fast, staccato arpeggios, gettato (Italian), geworfen (German)
jeté(French, literally 'thrown') jogado (Portuguese m.), passo de allegro (Portuguese m.), in ballet, jumping from one foot to the other in which the working leg is brushed into the air and appears to have been thrown
there are a number of different jeté:
jeté battujeté beaten
jeté entrelacéa jeté done in all directions and in a circle, usually preceded by a chassé or a pas couru to give impetus to the jump
grand jetélarge jeté
grand in attitude jetéa big leap forward preceded by a preliminary movement such as a pas couru or a glissade, which gives the necessary push-off
petit jetésmall jeté
Jeté de lit(French m.) bedspread
Jetée(French f.) jetty, pier
Je te l'avais dit.(French) I told you so.
Je te le donne en cent(French) You'll never guess (in a million years)!
Je te le donne en mille(French) You'll never guess (in a million years)!
jeter dehors(French) to throw out
jeter du lest(French) to climb down (figurative)
jeter son dévolu sur(French) to set one's heart on
jeter un coup d'oeil à(French) to glance at
Je t'invite à...(French) I invite you to...
Je te vois venir!(French) I know what you're up to!
je t'en prie(French) it was my pleasure
Je tiens à vous exprimer notre gratitude.(French) I wish to express our gratitude to you.
Je t'y prends!(French) I've got you!
Jeu (s.), Jeux (pl.)(French m.) course (of strings), Saitenchor (German m.), coro (Italian m.), córo (Spanish m.), choeur (French m.)
(French m.) stop or register on the organ
(French m.) game, play
(French m.) style of playing
Jeu à bouche(French m.) flue-stop
Jeu céleste(French m.) see 'celeste pedal'
Jeu consonant(French m.) inside playing
Jeu d'anche(French m.) a reed-stop
Jeu d'anges(French m. pl.) in an organ, soft stops including the vox angelica
Jeu d'échoes(French m.) in an organ, echo stop
Jeu de clochettes(French m.) clarion, jeu de timbres, glockenspiel
Jeu de flûtes(French m.) flute stop
Jeu de gongs(French m.) tuned gong-carillon
Jeu de jambs(French m.) footwork (ballet, football, etc.)
Jeu de mots (s.), Jeux de mots (pl.)(French m.) a pun, a play upon words
Jeu d'esprit (s.), Jeux d'esprit (pl.)(French m.) a witticism, an light hearted exercise in any artistic technique
Jeu de timbres(French m.) glockenspiel, campanelli
Jeu de violes(French m.) a consort of viols
Jeu de voix humaine(French m.) a vox humana stop
Jeu d'orgue(French m.) stop, register
Jeudg harp(Dutch, literally 'youth harp') Jew's harp. Some researchers believe the English term, Jew's harp, derives from the Dutch
Jeu dissonant(French m.) outside playing
Jeu inégal(French m.) playing inégal, described by J.J. Quantz in his Flute tutor of 1752. He comments that 'in moderate and slow tempo the fastest notes have to be played ein wenig ungleich (a little bit unequal) and he gives precise instructions as to which note has to be longer and which one shorter. He states that the inequality should be less extreme than would have been the case had there been a dot after the longer note. He adds that this "rule" is not appropriate in faster tempo, and is inappropriate also for quick cantabile passages. Further, the player must not use it, when there are dots (Striche) over the notes, when there is a slur over more than two notes, or on the quavers (eighth notes) in gigues
Jeune(French m./f.) young person
jeune(French) young
Jeûne(French m.) fast (refrain from eating food)
Jeune amour (s.), Jeunes amours (pl.)(French m.) young love, adolescent love
Jeune femme sérieuse(French f.) an earnest young woman, a young woman who is not frivolous
Jeune fille(French f.) a young girl, (clothes, etc.) suitable for a young girl
Jeune fille bien élévee(French f.) a nicely brought-up girl
Jeune fille fatale(French f.) a young woman who brings disaster on all those who love her
Jeune ingénue(French f.) a young woman of artless simplicity
Jeune premier(French m.) an actor who plays the part of a young hero or the young lover, a male juvenile lead
jeûner(French) to fast (to refrain from food)
Jeune refusé(French m.) an 'angry young man'
Jeunes, les(French m. pl.) young people
jeunes de notre temps, les(French m. pl.) young people today
Jeunes mariés(French m. pl.) newlyweds
Jeunesse(French f.) youth, youthfulness (appearance)
Jeunesse, la(French f.) the young
Jeunesse dorée(French f.) young people of wealth and fashion
Jeune voyou (s.), Jeunes voyous (pl.)(French m.) a young hooligan, a teddy-boy
Jeu-partie(French m.) also called partimen in Occitan, a poetic form from the troubadour or trouvère tradition of the Middle Ages formed of two or three sections. The first section consisted of a poem professing a particular viewpoint or asking a question calling for an answer on a courtly (secular) subject, to be provided by one or more other poets. The second section presented a response to the first poem. If necessary artistically, a third poem might attempt to resolve differences between the two poems
jeu perlé(French) pearly
Jeux(French m. pl.) plural of jeu
Jeux d'orgue(French m. pl.) stops, registers
Jeux doux(French m. pl.) soft, sweet stops
in French organ repertoire, the 'soft stops' comprises closed or open flutes with or without principals, resulting in a soft, quiet sound. This combination is most commonly used in récits to accompany solo stops
Jeux forts(French m. pl.) loud, strong sounding stops
Je viendrai avec plaisir.(French) I will be glad to come.
Je voudrais t'y voir!(French) I'd like to see you try it!
Je vous adresse mes plus vifs remerciements.(French) I send you my most sincere thanks.
je vous en prie(French) it was my pleasure
Je vous invite à...(French) I invite you to...
Je vous laisse.(French) I'm leaving.
Je vous laisse à penser...(French) You can imagine... I don't need to tell you...
Je vous le passe.(French) I'm transferring your call.
Je vous prie d'agréer, Messieurs, l'assurance de mes sentiments distingués(French) one of the formules de politesse, the French equivalent of the English expression 'Yours faithfully'
Je vous remercie.(French) Thank you.
Je vous serais reconnaissant de (bien vouloir) ...(French) I would be grateful to you (to be so kind as to) ...
Je vous serais très obligé de (bien vouloir) ...(French) I would be obliged if you could (be so kind as to) ...
Jew's harpor Jew's trump, a musical instrument placed between the teeth containing a freely vibrating metal strip that is plucked with the finger and where the player alters the note's timbre, various harmonics of this fundamental tone are made prominent, by modifying his or her oral cavity (i.e. mouth shape). The harmonic series produced is the same as that of a trumpet. It is neither a harp nor associated in any way with Jewish cultural tradition
Jew's trumpsee 'Jew's harp'
Jg.abbreviation of Jahrgang (German: year of publication/volume)
Jhalathe final, fast movement of a raga, where the melody is interpolated with strokes on the chikari (sympathetic) strings. It marks the climax after alap and jod, and is sometimes also played after the gat
JhanjIndian cymbal
J-hip hopsee 'Japanese hip hop'
Jhoolaa genre of folk song from Uttar Pradesh, India
Jhurma(Nepal) cymbals that are to be found in a Panche Baja ensemble
Jhuwaria device found on the sitar which gives the sound a buzzing quality
Ji(Japanese) chorus, for example in Noh drama
(Japanese) the meter or rhythmic feel of a piece, for example whether it is in a straight duple meter or has a swing feel
Jia hua(Chinese, literally 'adding flowers') a style of embellishment in Chinese music using various ornamental figures
Jianban(Chinese) bamboo clappers
Jianpu(Chinese, literally 'simplified notation) the numbered musical notation system widely used among the Chinese people and probably some other Asian communities. Numbers 1 to 7 represent the seven notes of the diatonic major scale, and number 0 represents the musical rest. Dots above a note indicate octaves higher, and dots below indicate octaves lower. Underlines of a note or a rest shorten it, while dots and dashes after lengthen it. The system also makes use of many symbols from the standard notation, such as bar lines, time signatures, accidentals, tie and slur, and the expression markings
  • Jianpu from which this extract has been taken
Jiao(China) horn trumpet
Jibaroa rural mountain-dwelling inhabitant of Puerto Rico
a term applied in Puerto Rico to the music from the countryside, a tradition that centres around the cuatro and drums
Jig(English, German m.) or gigue, a dance related to the hornpipe and reel
(possibly from Old French giguer, "to dance, to kick, to gambol") in Renaissance drama, a jig was a song-and-dance performance by a clown and/or other actors at the conclusion of a play. The dances were often extremely bawdy, which lead to the 1612 English banning of "public jigs" under Puritan influences
Irish jigs come in various forms for dancing:
light jigusually written in 6/8 timethe quickest of the jigs, danced in soft shoes
slip jigusually written in 9/8 timegraceful dance, traditionally performed only by girls and women
hop jigusually written in 9/8 timeno longer performed under the auspices of An Coimisiun
single jig or slideusually written in 12/8 time 
double/treble (or triple) jigusually written in 6/8 timedanced in hardshoe, and named for the doubles/trebles (triples) performed with the tip of the hardshoe
heavy jiggeneral term for a jig danced in hardshoe (modern hard shoes have fibreglass tips with elevated heels although, historically, the shoes were constructed with wooden heels)dances danced in hardshoe, also called jig shoes or heavy shoes, are normally double/treble jigs, hornpipes, trebles (or triples), reels and traditional sets
soft jiggeneral term for a jig danced in ghillies (soft shoes), pumps or slippers, made of a soft leather that moulds to the foot. They are very light and are used in the Aran Islands and are called broga uirleathairdances danced in soft shoes are normally reels, light jigs, single jigs and slip jigs
Jiga(Portuguese f.) jig
JigatchKyrgyz wooden Jew's harp. It is an older relative of the temir komuz. Its tongue is vibrated by forcefully pulling a string. The jigatch is believed to be the oldest Kyrgyz musical instrument
Jiggshort comedic performance with few characters, popular in England and continental Europe from the mid sixteenth century to the late eighteenth century, sung in verse to the tunes of popular songs and containing lively dancing
(Swedish) jig
Jig pianoin ragtime, the strict rhythmic patterns played on the piano
Jig sawa usually power-driven saw with a narrow vertical blade, used to cut sharp curves
see 'sabre saw'
JiharoPuerto Rican folk music which reflected European rather than African influence
Jikken Kobothe 'Experimental Workshop' was founded in Tokyo in 1951 by Joji Yuasa, Toru Takemitsu, and other composers and artists to explore new musical and artistic trends, including multimedia. The group formed outside of an institutional context, but in 1953, they began to work in the Sony studios, which gave them access to equipment
Jindyworobak Movementa nationalistic Australian literary movement whose white members sought to promote indigenous Australian ideas and customs, particularly in poetry. They were active from the 1930s to around the 1950s. The movement intended to combat the influx of "alien" culture, which was threatening local art
Jinglarge Korean bronze gong played with a padded stick
Jingbosee bo
Jinggongthe Jew's harp of the Bidayuh people of Borneo, hand fashioned from brass
Jing-hualso called the 'Peking Opera fiddle', a soprano version of the erhu, the jing-hu, is the chief accompanying instrument for Chinese Opera and Han Opera. It was developed during the Qin dynasty (around 1790) and is sometimes, therefore, called the hu-qin. The compass of jing-hu is the highest of all the instruments of the hu-qin family. Due to its forceful and clarion timbre, the jing-hu is suitable only for melodies
Jingle(English, German m.) or 'company song', a short, memorable piece of music, often only a few seconds long, broadcast to act as an identifier for a radio station or to promote a product
Jingle Bellsoriginally One Horse Open Sleigh, one of the best known and commonly sung secular Christmas songs in the world, though the song does not mention Christmas. It was written in 1857 by James Pierpont (1822-1893) to be sung at a Thanksgiving program at his church in Boston, and was repeated at Christmas due to its instant popularity. The song has been translated into many languages
Jinglesalso called 'jangles', small metal discs fitted into the wooden hoop-shaped frame of some types of tambourine
Jingling Johnnysee chapeau chinois
Jingo(Korean) large drum
Jing pinga variety of Dominican dance music, also referring to the ensembles that play this kind of music (also known as accordion bands). Instruments used typically include the banjo, accordion, double bass and percussion (such as the chac-chac/shak shak, boom pipe and tamboo/tambou). Jing ping is often used to accompany a style of African-influenced Dominican quadrilles
  • Jing ping from which this information has been taken
Jingu(China) barrel drum
Jingyun dagu(China) stories told in Beijing dialect with a drum accompaniment
dagu and gushu are terms that denote the same category of qu under the heading of quyi. They consist chiefly of jingyun dagu, xihe dagu and meihua dagu
Jinrickshaw(Japanese) first appearing in Japan in about 1870, a light hooded two-wheeled carriage, drawn by one or two men
Jitpercussive Zimbabwean dance music
Jitterbuga lively, improvisational, athletic style of dancing performed to syncopated (boogie woogie) music which originated in 1940s New York
Jitterbug strolla swing 'line dance' choreographed by Ryan Francois, a famous 'Lindy Hop' dancer and teacher
Jiuta sookyoku(Japanese) koto/shamisen music
Jivea blues form popular in the 1940s
a style of jazz played by 1930s big bands with flowing rhythms but less complex than later styles of jazz, synonymous with swing, swing music
generic South African term for popular music
a dance style that originated among African-Americans in the early 1940s. It is a lively and uninhibited variation of the 'Jitterbug', one of the group of 'swing' dances
in ballroom dancing, 'Jive' is one of the five International Latin dances
see 'modern jive'
jiven(German) to jive
JNDacronym for 'just noticeable difference' (in pitch)
Jobbera wholesaler who acts as a middleman in the low end of distribution. Jobbers purchased inexpensive goods from regional or national distributors, and small manfacturers, then resold them to the stores and street-traders that made the goods available to the public
Jobbing platena smaller version of the platen press. They were created, and used almost exclusively, in the United States in the latter half of the 19th century in a variety of types to accommodate the specific needs of small print houses
Jobel(Hebrew) also keren jobel, 'horn of jubilee' or signal trumpet (Joshua 6:4)
Jocose, Jocoselyjoking, jokingly, giocoso (Italian), giochevole (Italian), freudig (German), en badinant (French)
jocosus(Latin) merry, jocose
Jodin Indian classical music, the second movement of a raga, that follows the alap, where the sitar, sarod and similar instruments perform permutations of the notes and rhythms but without the accompaniment of the tabla
jodeln(German) to yodel
Jodhpurtrousers worn for horse riding, very full from hip to knee and tight over the calf, finished with a piece of elastic under the foot
Jodiessee 'cadence calls'
Jodler (s./pl.)(German m.) yodel (sound, song), yodeller (person who yodles)
Jody callssee 'cadence calls'
Jogado(Portuguese m.) or passo de allegro (Portuguese m.), jeté (French)
Jogeda secular Balinese dance style often performed at festivals and parties that comes from Bali in Indonesia. The dance is typically accompanied by a gamelan ensemble playing on bamboo instruments
Joged bumbunga style of gamelan music from Bali, Indonesia performed on instruments made primarily out of bamboo, for example, up to half a dozen marimba-like instruments called grantang or tingklik, suling (flute), kendang (drum) and ceng-ceng (cymbals)
Johannes de Grocheio (Grocheo)
Parisian musical theorist. His French name was Jean de Grouchy, but he is more commonly known by his Latinized name. He is the author of the treatise Ars musicae (The art of music) (c.1300), an attempt to describe the music of his time as it was practiced in and around Paris. He divides music into three categories:
musica simplexpopular music; music of the layperson
musica compositaaccording to metrical rules; music of the educated person
musica ecclesiasticamusic of the Church
in this regard he departs from Boethius' taxonomy, which divided music between music of the world, human music, and instrumental music
Johannes-PassionJ. S. Bach's St. John Passion BWV 245
Johnstone flutea simple flute made from metal tubing with a wooden embouchure and what he referred to as a 'spear head'. The spear head had a tapered spike to produce an effect similar to Boehm's headjoint. Robert Johnstone was born in Dublin in 1900. He had been professor of chemical engineering at Nottingham University and retired in 1967. The Johnstone flute has eleven fingerholes (you use the side and the tip of the left index finger, plus both thumbs)
John Canoe see Jonkunnu
Johnston notationnamed for Benjamin Burwell Johnston, Jnr. (born 1926), one of the best known composers writing in the just intonation system, Johnston notation is a notational system for applying 'just tuning' to traditional instruments by representing accidentals as pitch shifts in cents
John the Conquerooalso known as High John the Conqueroo, John the Conqueror, or John the Conquer root, refers to a number of roots to which magical powers are ascribed in American folklore, especially among the hoodoo tradition of folk magic among African Americans. The root, in turn, is named after a folk hero called High John the Conqueror. The root and its magical uses are mentioned in a number of blues lyrics. Regardless of which name is used, in all of these contexts "conqueror" is invariably pronounced "conker"
John Reed Clubsoriginally founded in 1929 in New York by CPUSA, by 1934 there were thirty branches across the country. The clubs were named for John Reed, an American radical leftist, and were intended to support and foster both artistic talent and sympathetic political viewpoints
Johtosävel(Finnish) leading note
Joie(French f.) delight, gladness
Joie de vivre(French f., literally 'joy of living') a feeling of happiness and physical well-being, high spirits
Joik(Sweden, Norway) also Yoik, archaic Saami mode of unaccompanied solo singing. The Joik is often compared to Amerind chanting, a description that is correct insofar it sounds similar, yet a joik is not a song about a person or place but an attempt of the joiker to sing the essence of the subject. This songmode is higly personal and touches upon the subject of Saami spirituality
joindre(French) to join, to contact, put together (hands, feet), combine (efforts), enclose (in an envelope)
joindre à(French) to join to
Joint(French m.) a join, a washer
joint (m.), jointe (f.)(French) joint (effort), together
Jointure(French f.) a joint, a join (in a line)
joli(French) pretty, nice
joliment(French) prettily, awfully (very)
Jonc(French m.) (bul)rush
jonché de(French) littered with
Jonction(French f.) junction
Jondoa more serious flamenco style
Jonduraa more serious flamenco style
jongler(French) to juggle
Jongleur (m.), Jongleuse (f.)(French m./f.) juggler
Jongleur (m.), Jongleresse (f.), Jongleurs (pl.)(French) jongleurs were public entertainers, divided (largely by Church opinion) into two classes. The jongleur was actor, conjuror and acrobat combined, and the profession suffered Church condemnation. However, the jongleur de gestes was received with respect by the high society of the day. A geste or chanson de geste was a long narrative poem recounting the deeds of national heroes. Jongleurs de gestes were later known as ménestrier
Jongoa form of samba in the states of São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and Espirito Santo
Jónico (m.), Jónica (f.)(Spanish) Ionian
Jônio(Portuguese) Ionian
Jonkunnu(Jamaica) also called 'John Canoe', a traditional dance of African origin. It is performed mainly at Christmas time and a strong feature of the dance is the characters, all males whose movements match their roles. Some of these characters are 'Pitchy Patchy', 'Devil', 'Horsehead', 'Cowhead', 'Actor Boy', 'Belly Woman', 'Warrior', 'Wild Indian', to name but a few. The rhythm of the Jonkunnu music is quite distinct from other ritual folk music with its fife and "rattling drum"- carried on the shoulders and played with sticks
Jonquille(French f.) daffodil
Jooruri(Japanese) Japanese puppet theatre plays and music including gidayuu-bushi and tokiwazu-bushi
Jordanie(French f.) Jordan
Jornaditastraditional Christmas songs from Granada (Spain) about the advent of Christ
Joropo(English, German m.) originally, joropo described a rural event of dance, string music, and singing. Now the term is used loosely to describe various celebrations, both private and public. As a name for the music involved, it can be used alongside other terms that categorize variants of it 0 corrido, galerón, golpe and pasaje. There is also the revuelta an extended version of a pasaje (although the different terms are sometimes used to refer to the same piece), and hornada, which refers to a medley of revueltas or pasajes. The joropo is fast-paced and permits polyrhythmic improvisation on the part of the performers
joropos are played by ensembles that differ, as does so much of Venezuelan music, according to region:
in the plainsthe leading instrument is the arpa llanera, or plains harp, accompanied by a cuatro and maracas. The singer, who carries the melody in tandem with the harp, does not play an instrument. A bass may be added to emphasize the lower notes. The ensemble is usually all-male
in some states, such as Apure and Cojedes, but especially in Barinas and Portuguesathe harp may be replaced by a bandola, which itself also varies in the number and arrangement of its strings according to region and state
in the central coastthe joropo ensemble is smaller, reduced to a harp or bandola and a singer who plays maracas. The music, incorporating some of the African tradition of the area, differs from the plains style in that verses are shorter and more repetitive with more improvisation
in the state of Larathe golpe, a different kind of joropo, is performed with an instrumentation that includes a cinco and a tambora, or a violin or guitar and a large drum
Joseph, lieber Joseph mein(German, literally 'Joseph, O dear Joseph mine') a fourteenth-century German carol which Johannes Brahms (1833-1897) incorporated into Two Songs for Contralto with Viola Obbligato Op. 9l (1884). The second song, entitled Geistliches Wiegenlied, is a lullaby, written for Amalie and Joseph Joachim, the noted violinist and musical confidant of Brahms, who were awaiting the birth of their first child. As the voice sings the lyric to the poem, the obligatory viola plays the melody of the carol. Brahms even wrote the words to the carol under the viola part
Jot1/30103 part of an octave. This name was given by Augustus De Morgan (1806-1871). The 10-base (Briggs) logarithm of 2 (10log 2) is 0.30102999566 - so multiplied by 10000 this makes almost exactly 30103. Expressing intervals in this measure has the advantage of being able to calculate interval combinations without using logarithms, because rounding to the nearest integer 'jot' will (usually) give the correct answer, at least for the prime numbers up to 11. In addition, the 'jot' values can be looked up in a 10-base logarithm table. The 'savart' is a similar measure
Jota(Spanish f., German f.) a quick dance with hopping steps in triple time from Aragon, Spain performed by a couple accompanied by a singer who plays the guitar
Jota de la vendimia(Spanish f.) wine harvest dance from Ciudad Real, Spain, in which guitar, bandurria and percussion accompany the dancers
Joue(French f.) cheek
jouer(French) to play, to perform, to act (theatre), to gamble (casino, etc.), to work, to put on (a film, etc.), to back (a horse), to count (to be important)
jouer à(French) to play (game or sport)
jouer à chat(French) to play tag
jouer à colin-maillard(French) to play blind man's buff
jouer à la demi-position(French) (on a string instrument) to play in half position
jouer au chat et à la souris(French) to play cat and mouse
jouer de(French) to play (an instrument)
jouer de la musique(French) to perform music, to play music
jouer d'un instrument(French) to play an instrument
jouer en cinquième position(French) (on a string instrument), to play in fifth position
jouer en deuxième position(French) (on a string instrument), to play in second position
jouer en première position(French) (on a string instrument), to play in first position
jouer en quatrième position(French) (on a string instrument), to play in fourth position
jouer en troisième position(French) (on a string instrument), to play in third position
jouer juste(French) to play right, to play accurately, to play fair
jouer la comédie(French) to put on an act
Jouet(French m.) toy, plaything (a person, figurative), victim
Joueur (m.), Joueuse (f.)(French) a player, a performer, a gambler
Joueur de cornemuse(French m.) a performer on the bagpipes
joufflu(French) chubby-cheeked, chubby
Joug(French m., from Latin jugum, literally 'yoke') yoke
Jougs(English, from the French joug, literally 'yoke') an iron collar, fastened by a chain to a wall, post or tree, in which an offender was held, once used in churches to expose sinners to public scorn
Jouhikkobowed lute of Finland and Russian Karelia. It has a flat bridge. Drone strings and one melody string are played simultaneously. The jouhiko normally accompanies narrative and epic singing
jouir de(French) to enjoy
Jouissance(French f.) pleasure, use (usage)
Joujou (s.), Joujoux (pl.)(French m.) toy (familiar)
Jouncebounce, move up and down repeatedly
Jour(French m.) day, daytime, daylight, light, gap (opening)
Jour chômé(French m.) public holiday
Jour d'action de grâces, le(French m.) Thanksgiving (Day)
Jour d'arrêt(French m.) detention
Jour de l'An, le(French m.) New Year's Day
Jour de congé(French m.) a day off
Jour de deuil(French m.) day of mourning
Jour de fête(French m.) a holiday, a feast day (particularly, the feast day of a patron saint)
Jour des Morts, le(French m.) All-Souls' Day
Jour de repos(French m.) a day off
Jour des Rois, le(French m.) Epiphany, Twelfth Night
Jour de sortie(French m.) day off, day out
Jour de travail(French m.) a working day, a weekday
Jour du Grand Pardon, le(French m.) the Day of Atonement (Jewish religious holiday)
Jour du Seigneur, le(French m.) Sunday, Sabbath
jour entra à flots, le(French m.) (the) daylight flooded in
Jour et nuit(French) day and night
Jour férié(French m.) a public holiday, bank holiday
Jour J, le(French m.) D-Day (day on which the Normandy Landings began, towards the end of World War II)
Jour mobile(French m.) discretionary or personal day
Journal(French m., English) sometimes called 'magazine', 'periodical' or 'serial', terms often used interchangeably to describe any work published on a regular basis which contains articles and has been published by an institution or a professional society
there are technical distinctions between these four terms:
journala term which describes scholarly publications
magazinea term which describes a publication more for general interest
periodicalsboth journals and magazines can be classified as periodicals, which are publications issued regularly, two or more times a year
serialsa term covering a broader range of publications: periodicals, annuals and works published on an irregular basis
Note: publications issued on a regular basis are periodicals. Weekly magazines, scholarly journals and newspapers are all examples of periodicals. Serials are any periodicals, books, yearbooks, or indexes that are issued in a series. So all periodicals are serials but all serials are not periodicals
Journal de bord(French m.) log-book
journalier (m.), journalière (f.)(French) daily
Journal intime(French m.) diary (particularly, a confidential diary, one that records the details of the life of the writer and his or her associates)
Journalisme(French m.) journalism
Journaliste(French m./f.) journalist
Journée (s.), Journées (pl.)(French f.) day
Journée de salaire(French f.) day's wages
Journées d'émeute(French days of rioting
journellement(French) daily
Jour ouvrable(French m.) a working day
Jour ouvré(French m.) weekday
... jours de suite(French) ... days in a row
Jours(French days
Les jours se suivent et ne se ressemblent pas (French: There's no telling what tomorrow will bring.)
jour tombe, le(French) it's getting dark
Jouset(Finnish) strings (i.e. orchestral section)
Joute musicale(French f., literally 'musical joust') a 'musical duel' or competition between musicians to determine which is the finer player, for example Johann Jakob Froberger vs Matthias Weckmann (1650), Georg Friedrich Händel vs Domenico Scarlatti (1707), Johann Sebastian Bach vs Louis Marchand (1717), Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart vs Muzio Clementi (1781), Ludwig van Beethoven vs Daniel Steibelt (1800), Franz Liszt vs Sigismund Thalberg (1837)
jovialisch(German) jovial, joyous, merry
joyeusement(French) joyously
joyeux (m.), joyeuse (f.)(French) joyous
joyeux drille, un(French m.) a cheery character
Joyous, Joyouslyelated, elatedly, happy, happily, giojoso (Italian), fröhlich (German), joyeux (French m.), joyeusex (French f.), joyeusement (French)
J-popan abbreviation of 'Japanese pop'. It refers to Western-influenced Japanese popular music
  • J-pop from which this short extract has been taken
J-rocksee 'Japanese rock'
JSWthe catalogue prepared by Fabian Dahlström of music by Jean Sibelius (1865-1957)
Jtekor 'Japanese techno', an electronic music genre that is also a subgenre of 'Techno'
  • Jtek from which this short extract has been taken
Juan-hsiengTaiwanese moon guitar
Jub abbreviation of Jubilate (Latin)
Juba (dance)or 'hambone', originally known as 'Pattin' Juba' (or Giouba, in Haiti, Djouba) a style of dance that involves stomping as well as slapping and patting the arms, legs, chest, and cheeks
Jubé(French, originally from the Latin phrase Jube, domine, benedicere spoken before the reading of the Gospel by the deacon from the rood-loft) a rood-screen (also choir screen or chancel screen) and gallery (also called the rood-loft) dividing the chancel of a church from the nave. Sometimes the rood loft was substantial enough to be used as a singing gallery - access was via a rood stair
Jubelflöte(German) an organ stop of the flute species
Jubelgesang(German) a song of jubilation
Jubellied(German) a song of jubilation
jubelnd(German) jubilant
Jubilación(Spanish f.) retirement, pension
Jubilación anticipada(Spanish f.) early retirement
Jubilación forzosa(Spanish f.) compulsory retirement
Jubilatethe one hundredth psalm, very prominent in the Anglican service
Jubileea term for an African American spiritual
Jubilee quartetspopular African-American religious musical groups in the first half of the twentieth century. The name derives from the 'Fisk Jubilee Quartet', a group of male singers organized by students at Fisk University in 1905 to sing Negro spirituals, which had typically been sung by mixed choirs before then. Students at other historically black schools, such as Hampton Institute, Tuskegee Institute and Wilberforce University, followed suit
jubiloso(Italian) jubilant, exulting
Jubilusan elaborate, joyful melisma on the final syllable of the word Alleluia
Jublagin a gamelan orchestra, a six-keyed metallophone played with wooden mallets padded with rubber tips, an instrument pitched higher that the jegogan
jucken(German) to itch
Juckreiz(German m.) itching, itching
Judas(French m.) peep-hole
Jude (m.), Jüdin (f.)(German m.) a Jew, a Jewess (f.)
Judenharfe(German f.) Jew's harp
Judenhetze(German f.) anti-Semitism
Judentum(German n.) Judaism, Jewry
jüdisch(German) Jewish
Juego de timbres(Spanish m.) or armónica de metal, glockenspiel
Juergaa flamenco party or 'jam session' with festive drinking and merrymaking
Juga musical instrument that reached its height of popularity in the 1920s. Most jug players produce sound by buzzing their lips near the opening of the jug. The pitch is controlled by the tension of the player's lips and the flow of air through them. The jug forms a resonant cavity to modify and enrich the sound from the pure "buzz". In this way a single jug can produce many notes. Some players augment this sound with vocalizations
JugalbandiIndian jam session
Jugalbmdiin Indian classical music, the performance of a vocal or instrumental duet
jugar a dos barajas(Spanish) to be deceitful, to indulge in double dealing
jugar a las adivinanzas(Spanish) to play at guessing riddles
jugar a las cartas(Spanish) to play cards
jugar a las sillas(Spanish) to play musical chairs
jugar al stop(Spanish) to play musical chairs
jugar con dos barajas(Spanish) to be deceitful, to indulge in double dealing
Jug band(English, Jugband (German f.)) a band employing a jug player and other traditional and homemade instruments, such as rhythm guitar, washtub bass, washboard, jug, mandolin, spoons, and kazoo. A jug player is required for a jug band, but other types of band employing a mix of traditional and homemade instruments are spasm bands and Skiffle bands
  • Jug band from which this extract has been taken
Juge(French m.) a judge, a referee
jugé au(French) by guesswork
Juge d'instruction(French m.) an examining magistrate (a magistrate who examines the evidence and decides whether there is a case for trial)
Jugement(French m.) judgement, sentence (of a court)
Jugend(German f.) boyhood, young people, youth, adolescence
Jugendblasorchester(German n.) youth brass band
Jugend, in früher(German) early in life
Jugend, in meiner(German) in my younger days
jugendlich-dramatischer Sopran(German m.) light dramatic soprano
jugendlicher Heldentenor(German m.) light dramatic tenor
Jugendsinfonieorchester(German n.) youth symphony orchestra
Jugendstil(German m.) art nouveau, a style of drawing and domestic decoration introduced between 1890 and 1900
the German term is taken from Jugend, the title of a journal devoted to the new movement and published in Munich from 1896
Jugeote(French f.) gumption (familiar), common sense (familiar)
juger(French) to judge, to consider
juger de(French) to judge
juger que(French) to judge that
Juggleractive from the 800s-900s, the terms juggler and Gaukler (German) were used to refer to general public entertainers, including actors, bear-leaders, conjurers, acrobats, and musicians
today, the term is used for conjurors, particularly those that deceive their audience by legerdemain or sleight of hand
  • Jester from which the first entry has been taken
Juglar (s.), Juglares (pl.)(Spanish m.) minstrel
juguetón (m.), juguetona (f.)(Spanish) playful, frolicsome, giocoso
juguler(French) to stifle, to check
Juhuroor Juvuro, Mountain Jews
Juif (m.), Juive (f.)(French) Jew (m.), Jewess (f.)
juif (m.), juive (f.)(French) Jewish
Juillet(French m.) July
Juin(French m.) June
Juju(Nigeria) a popular style, derived from 'Palm Wine music', that relies on the traditional Yoruba rhythms, but, instead of being played wholely on percussive instruments as tradition demands, the instruments in Juju are more Western in origin, drum kit, guitars, keyboards, often pedal steel guitar and, some times, accordion used alongside the traditional dun-dun, a talking drum
Jukluitinstrumenten(Dutch) yoke lutes (for example, the Greek lyre)
Julepan ancient Arabian name for a cooling drink that contained mucilage or opium - these days applied to a variety of cooling alcoholic cocktails
Jules(French m.) guy (familiar)
Juliennevegetables cut into fine strips
Jukeboxone of the early forerunners to the modern Jukebox as we know was the Nickel-in-the-Slot machine. In 1889, Louis Glass and William S. Arnold, placed a coin-operated Edison cylinder phonograph in the Palais Royale Saloon in San Francisco. It was an Edison Class M Electric Phonograph in an oak cabinet that was refitted with a coin mechanism patented (U.S. 428,750) by Glass and Arnold. This was the first Nickel-in-the-Slot. The machine had no amplification and patrons had to listen to the music using one of four listening tubes. In its first six months of service, the Nickel-in-the-Slot earned over $1000
Juke jointor jook joint, the vernacular term for an informal establishment featuring blues music, dancing, and alcoholic drinks, primarily operated by African American people in the southeastern United States. The term "juke" is believed to derive from the Gullah word joog, meaning rowdy or disorderly
Jumbie dance(Montserrat) the jumbie dance is said to induce spiritual possession and grant divination skills. Often, jumbie dances are intended to cure diseases, remove curses or discover the identity of a guilty party. There are generally three jumbie dancers in a unit, who perform accompanied by the tambourine (called 'jumbie drum' or babala), fife and most importantly the 'French reel', a skin drum that produces an ominous sound which is said to attract the jumbie spirits
Jumbie drum(Montserrat) or babala, a tambourine used to accompany the 'Jumbie dance'
Jumeau (m.), Jumelle (f.)(French) a twin
jumeau (m.), jumelle (f.)(French) twin
Jumelage(French m.) twinning
jumeler twin (towns)
Jumelles(French f. pl.) binoculars
Jument(French f.) mare
Jumpin jazz, a very fast 4/4, usually played by dance-bands
Jump bluesan early form of rhythm and blues, an up-tempo style that featured the horn section
Jumping jackplaything consisting of a toy figure with movable joints that can be made to dance by pulling strings
Jumpstylea style of electronic music that has evolved from hardstyle and includes influences from hard house. Unlike hardstyle, it does not have an off kick bassline, basing itself more on the kick drum. It is a new genre in the hard dance scene and has its origins in Belgium although is slowly spreading across Europe
  • Jumpstyle from which this extract has been taken
Jumpsuitboiler suit
Jump to coda
to coda sign a mark indicating the point in a piece of music from which the player should jump to a special section marked Coda
Jump the gunthe idiom 'Jump the gun' has its roots in an athlete starting a race before the starting pistol is fired. It refers to someone or refers to an act when it is started earlier than expected or when something is spoken without required thinking
Jump-Upa subgenre of jungle and drum and bass that was popular with fans of drum and bass in the late 1990s. It is characterized by deep synthesizer basslines and highly energetic and uptempo drum loops
  • Jump-Up from which this extract has been taken
Jump up musicthe term used for bouyon in Guadeloupe and Martinique
Jungle (music)the name given to an electronic music style that incorporates influences from genres including breakbeat hardcore, techno, rare groove and reggae/dub/dancehall
see 'drum and bass'
see 'oldschool jungle'
Junggeum(Korean) a medium sized bamboo flute
Junggrammatiker (s.), Junggrammatiker (pl.)(German m.) a Neogrammarian, one of a group of German philologists who in the period after 1870 laid the foundations of modern linguistic science. The most outstanding members of this movement was Karl Brugmann (1849-1919). Despite their strong influence in their time, the methods and goals of the Junggrammatiker have been criticized from various points of view, but mainly for: reducing the object of investigation to the idiolect; restricting themselves to the description of surface phenomena (sound level); overvaluation of historical languages and neglect of contemporary ones
jungverheiratete Paar(German n.) newly married couple
Juniper(Dutch Jeneverbes, European Species: Juniperus sp.) a wood similar to boxwood and used as a supplement to it. The berries are used to flavour meats (and gin)
Jun-jun(Nigeria) talking drum
Junkanooa street parade with music, which occurs in many towns across the Bahamas every Boxing Day (December 26) and New Year's Day. The largest Junkanoo happens in Nassau, the capital
  • Junkanoo from which this extract has been taken
Junker(German m., from jung Herr, 'young nobleman') an arrogant, overbearing member of the Prussian aristocracy
Junta(Spanish f.) an adminstrative council
in English, where the pronunciation is fully anglicized, the term is usually reserved for a self-selecting committee exercising undue influence on the affairs of some organisation
Junta editora(Spanish f.) editorial board
Junta rectora(Spanish f.) editorial board
Jupona tightly fitted garment resembling a leather tunic worn over armor (particulary chain mail) in the fourteenth century, often blazoned with one's coat-of-arms
Juréan African-American/Afro-Caribbean vocal tradition, sung in French Creole, accompanied only by hand clapping and foot stomping for rhythmic reinforcement. Juré has many parallels with African-American music sung in English such as the ring-shout and is one of several root sources for zydeco music. Some juré songs are religious, as are many of the ring-shouts, while other jurés are secular and spontaneously improvised. Juré singing has all but disappeared
jure dignitatis(Latin) (a degree awarded) by right of distinction (for example, to someone who has achieved a distinguished position in public life)
jure divino(Latin) by divine right
jurer par(French) to swear by
Jurkel(Mali) a guitar with only one string
Jus(French m.) juice, gravy (meat)
Jus de fruit(French m.) fruit juice
Jus lie(French m.) thickened gravy
jus primae noctis(Latin) droit de seigneur
jusqu'à(French) until, (up) to, as far as, till, even
jusqu'à ce que(French) until
jusqu'à concurrence de(French) up to
jusqu'à nouvel order(French) until further notice
jusqu'à présent(French) until now
jusqu'au bout(French) (right) to the end
jusqu'au bout des ongles(French) through and through, right to one's fingertips
Jusqu'au-boutiste policyhardline policy, extremist policy
jusqu'en(French) until
jusqu'ou?(French) how far?
jusque dans(French) as far as
jusque sur(French) as far as
Jus sanguinis(Latin, literally 'right of blood') a social policy by which nationality or citizenship is not determined by place of birth, but by having an ancestor who is a national or citizen of the state. It contrasts with jus soli
Jus soli(Latin, literally 'right of the soil') or birthright citizenship, a right by which nationality or citizenship can be recognised to any individual born in the territory of the related state
Justall consonant intervals; the voices, strings, or pipes that sound them with precision
justa(Spanish) just, exact, true, in tune, perfect (interval)
Just diatonic semitonethe interval between two notes whose frequencies are in the ratio (16:15). It is very slightly smaller than a Pythagorean chromatic semitone
Juste(French m.) righteous man, righteous person
le juste (French: the righteous)
juste(French) appropriate, just (fair, impartial, wise, equitable, ethically right), impartial, equitable, fair (just), righteous (morally justified), reasonable (fair), accurate, exact, true (musical note), in tune (piano, voice, etc.), perfect (interval), tight (garment), on the short side (quantity), right (correct, true, immediately), neither more nor less, rightly, correctly, in tune (singer), just (exactly, only a moment ago), o'clock (time), only (just)
juste à droite(French) just right
juste à l'heure(French) just in time
juste assez(French) just enough
juste à temps(French) nick of time, just in time
juste au cas où(French) just in case
juste au coin de la rue(French) just around the corner
juste avoir raison(French) to be just right
juste comme ça(French) just like that
juste dehors(French) just out
juste en face de la rue(French) just across the street
juste ici(French) just here
juste maintenant(French) just now
justement(French) just, justly
Juste milieu(French m.) happy medium, judicious moderation
(French) garder en tout un juste milieu, voilà la règle du bonheur: 'to observe a judicious moderation in everything, that is the key to happiness' (Denis Diderot: Salon de 1767)
juste pour(French) for the sake of
juste pour que tu saches(French) for the record
Justesse(French f.) accuracy, equality, purity, exactitude, correctness (with regard to intonation)
Justesse de la voix(French f.) purity of voice
Justesse de l'oreille(French f.) correctness of ear (usually a reference to a performer who plays well in tune, or at the desired pitch, or a listener who is particularly sensitive to the tuning or pitch of another)
juste un enfant(French) mere child
juste une fois(French) just once
Justice(French f.) the quality of being just or fair
(French f.) law (authorities), court (of justice)
Justierung(German f.) adjustment, setting
Justification du tirage(French f.) an enumeration of the copies of a work printed, with details of the paper, binding, etc. used, often appended to fine books printed in France
Justification, typographicsee 'typological justification'
justifier(French) to justify
justifier de(French) to prove
Justiniana (s.), Justiniane (pl.)see Giustiniana
Just intonationentonación justa (Spanish), intonazione giusta (Italian), intonation juste (French), reine Stimmung (German)
also called 'rational intonation', any tuning system which exclusively employs intervals defined by ratios of integers, though some authors restrict the term to systems whose intervals are derived from the first six overtones, that is employing 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. Such systems are often termed 'Five Limit' or 'Senary' after Zarlino's Senario (ref. Partch, 1949, 1974, 1979). The most common example of such a system is the tuning of the 'Major Mode' using the intervals 1/1 9/8 5/4 4/3 3/2 5/3 15/8 and 2/1. 'Just Intonation' differs from 'Equal Temperament' and 'Unequal Temperaments' such as 'Meantone' which combine rational with irrational intervals
[information taken from John Chalmers, Divisions of the Tetrachord]
there are two commonly used systems of just intonation
5-limit just intonation'just intonation', 'JI', 'pure temperament', consisting of 'pure', 'true', 'just', or 'justly intoned' chords, ratios or intervals just intervals can be expressed by the formula 2m x 3n x 5o, where 2m is used to optionally keep the interval limited to a single octave. 5-limit just intonation is actually a superset of Pythagorean intonation (3-limit JI), so any that are found there can be found here. By a curious mathematical 'coincidence', many of the intervals (especially the simpler ones) approximate the equal tempered ones very closely
3-limit just intonation'Pythagorean intonation', 'circle of fifths', 'cycle of fifths', 'spiral of fifths'3-limit just intonation is actually a subset of 5-limit just intonation, and is naturally one dimensional, rather than two as in 5-limit. Once again, it is curious mathematically how many of the ratios coincide closely with the intervals taken from equal temperament or 5-limit just intonation. Pythagorean intervals can be expressed very simply by the formula 2m x 3n, where 2m is used to optionally keep the interval limited to a single octave
Just minor tonethe interval between two notes whose frequency ratio is (10:9)
Just noticeable difference (in pitch)or JND, the 'just noticeable difference' in pitch is best expressed as a ratio or musical interval because the human ear tends to respond equally to equal ratios of frequencies. Frequency rations are most conveniently expressed in cents, a notation developed expressly for musical intervals. Although research reveals variations, a reasonable estimate of the JND is about five cents, regardless of the frequency range, but this proves to be an oversimplification. Measuring pitch discrimination with pure notes at about 80 dB for frequencies between 1 and 4 kHz, the JND is found to be about 0.5% of the pure tone frequency, which corresponds to about 8 cents. In addition, it has been reported that the JND depends on the frequency, the sound level, the duration of the note, the suddenness of the frequency change, the musical training of the listener, and the method of measurement
juteux (m.), juteuse (f.)(French) juicy
Juvenilepublishers use the term juvenile or children's literature to designate books suitable for children
juvénile(French) youthful
Juvenilia(Latin) works of art, literature, etc. produced during youth (often used as a title of a collection of such works)
Juvuroor Juhuro, Mountain Jews
juxtaposer(French) juxtapose
Juxtapositionthe arrangement of two or more ideas, characters, actions, settings, phrases, or words side-by-side or in similar narrative moments for the purpose of comparison, contrast, rhetorical effect, suspense, or character development
in music, the placing of two musical elements close together or side by side. This is often done in order to compare/contrast the two, to show similarities or differences
Jwago(Korean) slightly bigger than a sori-buk, this drum is hung on a wooden frame and is played by striking it with a stick. It was widely used in court music
J'y perds mon latin!(French) It's all Greek to me! I can't make heads or tails of it!
j'y suis, j'y reste(French) here I am, and here I stay