music dictionary : K - Kj 

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Kor KV, reference to the catalogue of the musical works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791), entitled Chronologisch-thematisches Verzeichnis sämtlicher Tonwerke Wolfgang Amade Mozarts (1862) made by the Austrian Ludwig Ritter von Köchel (1800-1877)
after H. Kralk, the cataloguer of music by Karl Ditters von Dittersdorf (1739-1799)
or Kk, after Ralph Kirkpatrick (1911-1984), the cataloguer of music by Domenico Scarlatti (1685-1757)
after Oskar Kaul (1885-1986), the cataloguer of the music of Franz Anton Rosetti-Rössler (1746-1792)
or Kind, referring to the catalogue of music by Ferruccio Busoni (1866-1924) prepared by Marc-André Roberge and Jürgen Kindermann
reference to Gérard Zwang's catalogue of the church cantatas by Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750)
also Kn or WKO, reference to the catalogue prepared by Walter Knape (b.1906) of music by Karl Friedrich Abel (1723-1787)
K, k(French m., Italian f.) a letter of the alphabet (in Italian, the letter K is found only in words of foreign origin and generally only as an initial letter)
Kaanon(Finnish) canon
Käänteisintervalli(Finnish) inverted interval
Kaari(Finnish) slur
Kabaa sedate ensemble-driven form played by a clarinet or violin alongside accordions and llautës. The kaba is improvised and has a melancholic style
Kabak kemanea gourd violin, used in Turkish folk music, with features that change from region to region. The instruments known as the kabak, kemane, iklig, rabab, the hegit in Hatay province, the rubaba in the Southeast, the kemança in Azerbayjan, and as the gicak, giccek or gijek among the Turks of Central Asia are all known to share the same roots
Kabarett(German n.) cabaret
Kabarettist (m.), Kabarettistin (f.)(German) cabaret artist
Kabaroor käbäro, popular single or double-headed Ethiopian drum, played with the hands, also known as kebaro or kebero
Kabbale(French f.) or cabale, cabal (a clique, often secret, that seeks power usually through intrigue)
kabbelig(German) choppy
Kabel(German n.) cable
Kabeljau(German m.) cod
Kabel mit Stecker(German n.) cable with plug
Kabelfernsehan(German n.) cable television
Kabine(German f.) cabin, cubicle, (telephone-)booth, car (of a cable-car)
Kabinbahn(German f.) cable-car
Kabinett(German n.) cabinet (political)
Kabirpoet-saint of northern India, who lived in the 15th century A.D. and who in his devotional songs, dwelt on the essential oneness of the Godhead and the harmony between Hinduism and Islam
Kabosyor mandoliny, a short four to six-stringed lute/guitar in the shape of a box, from Madagascar. With three to six strings, it is associated with cowherds, and was originally made from a turtle shell and covered with a zebra skin. Strummed, its sound is reminiscent of the mandolin or the banjo
Kaboul(French) or Kabul (English, French), the capital and largest city of Afghanistan; located in eastern Afghanistan
Kabriolett(German n.) convertible
Kabuki-bayashior Kabuki, together with Noh and Kyoogen, Kabuki is one of Japan's best-known classical performing arts. This Japanese theatrical production includes music and, sometimes, dance. Its origins lie in the Edo period. Kabuki, in contrast to the older surviving Japanese art forms such as Noh, was the popular culture of the people and not of the higher social classes or court
Kabuki OdoriKabuki Odori appeared just at the end of the Muromachi shogunate (1338-1573) and developed into Kabuki theatre, puppet theatre and all the various styles of music associated with these genres. Kabuki Odori stands right on the border between the medieval period and the Edo period, As the medieval period ended, Kabuki Odori became popular among the common people
Kabyle(English, French m.) the Berber language of the Kabyle of northeast Algeria
Kabyle(French m./f.) a member of a Berber people of northeast Algeria
kabyle(English, French) of or pertaining to the Kabyle of northeast Algeria
Kabyliaor Kabylie (English, French f.), a region in the north of Algeria
Kabylie(English, French f.) Kabylia
Kacapi(Sunda, Indonesia) a family of zithers which are to gamelan much as the piano is to the orchestra in Western music. Many gamelan pieces can be played by small chamber groups combining melodic instruments and kacapi
Kacapi indung(Sunda, Indonesia) a large boat-shaped zither with 18 brass strings. These are tuned by means of pegs which protrude from the side of the instrument. Fine tuning is achieved by adjusting the 18 pyramid-shaped bridges over which the strings pass. The ends of the kacapi are decorated with large scrolls. Traditionally, a mystical bond is held to exist between the kacapi and its player, sometimes consummated in a formal "marriage" ceremony
Kachashia dance form from Okinawan Japan
Kachel(German f.) tile
kachen(German) to tile
Kachua cow's horn used on Curaçao for performing tambú
Kadansa French Creole music genre derived from jazz, which started off in Haiti and developed in the French islands. In the 1970s, a wave of Haitian immigrants to Martinique brought with them the kadans, a sophisticated form of music that helped unite all the former French colonies of the Caribbean by combining their cultural influences
  • Kadans from which this extract has been taken
Kadaver(German m.) carcass
Kadence(Danish) cadenza
Kadennssi(Finnish) cadenza
Kadens(Swedish) cadenza
Kadenz (s.), Kadenzen (pl.)(German f.) cadence, cadenza (for a soloist), progression
Michael Zapf writes: generally, Klausel means the ending of a single voice, and Kadenz, meaning cadence, an ending involving several voices, without necessarily implying a harmonic approach. However, this rule is not universally adhered to
Kadenzerweiterung(German f.) or erweiterte Kadenz (German f.), cadential extension
[entry provided by Michael Zapf]
kadenzierender Quartsextakkord(German m.) or Vorhaltsquartsextakkord (German m.), cadential 6/4
[entry provided by Michael Zapf]
KaderBreton call singer in the kan ha diskan call and response songs
Kadett(German m.) cadet
Kadrisee balakadri
Käfer(German m.) beetle
Kaff(German n.) damp (familiar)
Kaffee(German m.) coffee, afternoon coffee
Kaffeegrund(German m.) coffee-grounds
Kaffeekanne(German f.) coffee-pot
Kaffeeklatsch(German m.) gossip over a cup of coffee, a coffee- or tea-party devoted to the exchange of gossip (especially, of literary or artistic tittle-tattle)
Kaffeemaschine(German f.) coffee-maker
Kaffeemühle(German f.) coffee-grinder
Kaffeesatz(German m.) coffee-grounds
Käfig(German m.) cage
Kafi musicmusic from the Sindh province in Pakistan
Kafir harpa simple four or five stringed harp used by the Kafir of north-east Afghanistan
Kafkaesquerelating to or in the manner of Franz Kafka or his writings, characterised by a blurring of the lines between the surreal and the real coupled with a sense of impending danger
kafkaïen (m.), kafkaïenne (f.)Kafkaesque, of or pertaining to the author Franz Kafka (1883-1924) who was born in Prague
Kaftansee 'caftan'
Kaganuor kagang, a narrow drum about two feet tall with a head about three inches in diameter, used to provide a continuous rhythm, often set in cross-rhythm to that of the larger and deeper-sounding gankogui
Kagura(Japanese) the music of shinto
Kagura-bueone of the three side-blown flutes used in gagaku, the other two being ryuteki and koma-bue
Kagura suzua hand held bell tree composed of three levels of jingle bells
Kaha di orgelthe box-shaped street organ that, originating from Berlin through Italy, Spain and Venezuela, becomes one of the European influences on Antillean music, and, in particular, the Curaçaon waltz
quaver(Finnish) a quaver, an eighth note, a note one eighth the time value of a whole note or semibreve
quaver rest(Finnish) a quaver rest, an eighth rest, a rest one eighth the time value of a whole rest or semibreve rest
Kahden sävelen korkeusero(Finnish) interval
kahl(German) bare, bald, barren, bleak
[additions to entry provided by Brian A. Jefferies]
kahlgeschoren(German) shaven
kahlköpfig(German) bald-headed
Kahn(German m.) boat, barge
Kaithroat singing of the Turkic people, the Altai, used mostly in their performances of epic poetry, which they accompany with the topshur, a two-stringed musical instrument similar to the Russian domra
(German m.) quay
Kaiambaramboa bundle of resonant grasses from Madagascar
Kaidantraditional Japanese ghost stories, especially folktales from the Edo period
Kailaoalso called Sipi Tau, a Tongan war dance, performed by the national rugby union team before each match
  • Kailao from which this information has been taken
Kaimakam(Turkish from Arabic) a deputy governor in the Turkish adminstrative system
Kaiser (m.), Kaiserin (f.)(German m.) emperor (m.) (particular of Germany or Austria), empress (f.)
Kaiserbariton (s.), Kaiserbaritone (pl.)(German m.) a rotary-valved large-bored euphonium
Kaiserbass (s.), Kaiserbässe (pl.)(German m.) bass member of a rotary-valved large-bored family of tubas, pioneered by Vaclav Cerveny of Hradec Kralove
Kaiserin(German f.) empress
kaiserlich(German) imperial
Kaisermarsch(German m. literally 'Emperor March') a work for unison male voices and orchestra by the German composer Richard Wagner (1813-1883) composed in 1871 to celebrate the victory of Germany in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870
Kaiserquartett(German n. literally 'Emperor Quartet') nickname for the string quartet in C major, Op.76 No.3 by Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)
Kaiserreich(German n.) empire
Kaiserschnitt(German m.) Caesarean (section)
Kaiserwalzer(German n. literally 'Emperor Waltz') a waltz (Op. 437) by Johann Strauss II (1825-1899), composed in 1888 in honour of Emperor Franz Josef (1830-1916), an arrangement of which was made by Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951)
Kaiso(Caribbean) originally sung in French patois, accompanied by the traditional African drum ensemble and chorus, the kaiso took as its themes, satirical, political and social commentary, and male-female relationships. Modern kaiso is called 'calypso'
kaiso is still used today as a synonym for calypso in Trinidad and some other Caribbean islands, often by traditionalists, and is also used as a cry of encouragement for a performer, similar to bravo or olé
Kajalsee kohl
Kajarsee kempli
Kajiza(Mozambique) drum
Kajrifolk music of Uttar Pradesh sung during the rains
Kajüte(German f.) cabin (boat, ship)
Kakadu Variationsa set of Variations for Piano Trio Op. 121a composed by Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827). The theme is from the song Ich bin der Schneider Kakadu by Austrian composer and conductor Wenzel Müller (1767-1835)
KakakiWest-African long trumpet
Kakao(German m.) cocoa
Kakatoès(French m.) or cacatoès (French f.), cockatoo (a white or light-colored crested parrot of the Australian region)
Kakegoe(Japanese) pitch shouts, heard in Japanese songs
Kakemono(Japanese) a Japanese scroll-picture, mounted on rollers so that it can be rolled up for storage
Kakerlak(German m.) cockroach
Kaki(French m.) khaki (colour), persimmon (any of various chiefly tropical trees of the genus Diospyros, having hard wood and orange-red fruit that is edible only when completely ripe)
kaki(French, Italian) khaki (coloured)
Kakkarissi natakomfrom Kerala, in Southern India, a satirical dance-drama based on the puranic legends of Lord Siva and his consort Parvati when they assumed human forms as Kakkalan and Kakkathi - a nomadic tribe of fortune tellers. The legend only serves as a skeletal framework for the play, which often turns into a subtle critique of contemporary society. The language is a blend of Tamil and Malayalam
Kakkoa small, highly ornate, Japanese drum
Kakofonie(German f.) cacophony
kakofonisch(German) cacophonous
Kakographicsee 'cacographic'
Kakographysee 'cacography'
Kakophonie(German f.) cacophony
kakophonisch(German) cacophonous
double flat(Finnish) double flat, the sign that lowers a note by two semitones
Kaksoisappogiatura(Finnish) double appoggiatura
Kaksoisetuhele(Finnish) double appoggiatura
Kaksoisnuottiviivasto(Finnish) grand staff
Kaksoispisteellinen nuotti(Finnish) double dotted note
double bar(Finnish) a pair of vertical lines at the end of a section of a work which if preceded by a pair of vertical dots, called repeat dots, indicate that the section should be played twice
Kaksoistempo(Finnish) duple meter
Kaksoistrilli(Finnish) double trill
double sharp(Finnish) double sharp, the sign that raises a note by two semitones
Kaktee(German f.) cactus
Kaktus(German m.) cactus
Kalahari(English, French n.) or, in French, désert du Kalahari (French m.), a desert plateau region of southern Botswana, eastern Namibia, and western South Africa
Kalamaikaan animated Hungarian dance in 2/4 time
Kalamatianós (s.), Kalamatianá (pl.)folk dance from Kalamata, widespread in many other regions of Greece
Kalb(German m.) calf
Kalbfleisch(German n.) veal
Kale(Welsh) see 'Romanichals'
Kaleidoscopea tube-shaped optical instrument that is rotated to produce a succession of symmetrical designs by means of mirrors reflecting the constantly changing patterns made by bits of coloured glass at one end of the tube, a constantly changing set of colours, a series of changing phases or events
Kaléidoscope(French m.) kaleidoscope
Kaleidoscope carda type of novelty card that contains a paper wheel, usually attached with a rivet, sandwiched between two layers of card stock. The front of the card has die cut windows so when the wheel is turned different colours appear within the image
kaléidoscopique(French) kaleidoscopic (of or pertaining to the characteristics of a kaleidoscope)
Kalelengsee pitung eelong
also calenda, kalinda or calinda, one of the most famous of Caribbean dances, originally from Dahomey, now associated particularly with Martinique, where there are at least three versions:
from the island's North Atlantic coasta virtuostic dance for successive soloists (usually male), who match wits with drummers in a form of "agonistic display"
from the southa dance for couples who circle one another slowly and gracefully
invented in the 1950s and 60sa fast and hyper-eroticized dance performed by tourist troupes
in addition, there is:
a line dance known as mabelo that is identical to a 1796 description of kalenda on Martinique by the scholar and politician Moreau de Saint-Méry
a danced martial art, danmyé, that recalls the stick-fighting kalendas of other islands (though on Martinique it is performed without sticks)
Kalender(German m.) calender, diary
Kalensor kalends, the first day of the month in Roman dating
Kalevalasee 'Kalevalaic music'
Kalevalaic musicthe older of the two major Finnish folk music traditions, of which 'rune chanting' or 'rune singing' is its most important form. Highly alliterative, 'rune chanting' doesn't rhyme and frequently tells stories about legendary heroes. The songs were memorised, not written down, and performed by a soloist, or by soloist and chorus in antiphony. Songs of this kind were compiled by Elias Lönnrot into the Finnish national epic Kalevala (named for the Kalevala region of Finland), which after its second publication in 1848 inspired a rise in Finnish nationalism. Sibelius was inspired by the Kalevala as, for example, in Kullervo, Pohjola's Daughter and Swan of Tuonela
Kaliber(German n.) calibre, bore
Kalimba(English, German n.) or kalimbe, Bantu thumb piano, in which the sound is produced by the vibration of tongues of metal or wood
Kalimbesee kalimba
KalingaPhilippine bamboo flutes
Kalium(German n.) potassium
Kalk(German m.) lime, calcium
Kalkant(German m.) bellows-treader
[entry supplied by Diethild S. Holbein]
kalken(German) to whitewash
Kalkulation(German f.) calculation
kalkulieren(German) to calculate
Kallinitikosa Thracian dance performed by three people (either two men and one woman or two women and one man), named after the kalines, or friends of the bride during her wedding, who escort her to the church performing this dance
Kalliope(German f.) calliope
see Calliope
Kallitypeor Argentotype, a photographic print based on the iron salt chemistry of cyanotypes that was developed by W.W.J. Nichol in 1889. Toned with silver nitrate, they were known as the poor man's platinum, for they were cheap to produce and can look identical to platinum prints though they are sometimes more reddish brown. Kallitypes however suffer from a major flaw in that the use of alkaline in their processing makes them susceptible to dramatic fading. They went out of fashion about 1920. Kallitypes are also sometimes known as 'Brown Prints' or 'Van Dyke Prints' because of their colour
Kalophonikon sticherariona sticherarion containing stichera (sing. sticheron) set in the ornate style termed 'kalophonic'
Kalorie(German f.) calorie
kalt(German) cold
kaltblütig(German) cold-blooded
Kälte(German f.) cold, coldness
kaltes Büfett(German n.) cold buffet
Kältewelle(German f.) cold spell
kaltherzig(German) cold-hearted
kaltschnäuzig(German) cold, coldly
Kalymnikos(Greek) a dance from the island of Kalymnos
Kalypso(German m.) calypso
Kalyukia basic Russian pipe without holes in which the the role of a whistle or pishika is carried out by the tongue
Kalzium(German n.) calcium
Kamana term applied to the Western violin when it has been adapted in tuning and playing technique for Arabic music
Kamanche(Armenia, Iran, Morocco) also called kamancha, qyamancha, kamânche, kamancheh, kamenjah, 'Pontic lyra' or 'Lyra of Pontos', a small knee or 'spiked' fiddle (or lyra) usually with four metal strings and sometimes with four sympathetic strings. The contemporary kamancheh is played held vertically. It has a conical neck with a small hollowed belly. The belly is made of walnut or mulberry wood with a thin stretched skin covering
the Lyra of Pontos can have only three steel strings, where the first string is called jil; the second, messea (middle); and the third, hamba. The strings are tuned to a-e-a or a-d-a
Kamânchesee kamanche
Kamanchehsee kamanche
Kamanjasee kamanche
Kamanjahsee kamanche
Kamarinskayaa Russian traditional dance
Kamaruor garapung, a small clapper drum
Kamayacha(India) vertically held string instrument, typically consisting of nineteen strings, three of gut for melody, two of brass for drone, and fourteen of steel for sympathetic resonance
Kambhojiancient musical modes from the INdian subcontinent. There are numerous references to Raga or Ragini called Kamboji or Kambhoji in ancient Indian musical traditions. Evidence exists that the ancient Kambojas were lovers of music. As a matter of fact, their free constitutions seem to have given rise to free philosophies. But philosophy, politics, and military training did not combine to develop a non-human type of humanity. Rather all ancient republics including those of the Kambojas were noted for their love of music, dance and art
  • Kambhoji from which this information has been taken
Kamel(German n.) camel, idiot (familar)
Kamelen ngoni(Mali) a harp with six or twelve strings
Kamenjahthe Moroccan kamanche
Kamera(German f.) camera
Kamerad (m.), Kameradin (f.)(German) companion, mate (friend), comrade
Kamerad was a term employed when surrendering to the enemy - hence, an appeal for clemency
Kameradschaft(German f.) comradeship
Kameramann(German m.) cameraman
Kameraverschluß(German m.) camera shutter
Kamermuziek(Dutch) chamber music
Kamerorkest(Dutch) chamber orchestra
Kamikaze(Japanese, literally 'god-wind') a (Japanese) suicide plane, the pilot facing certain death in the destruction of an enemy vessel
The suicide attack units from the Imperial Japanese Navy were officially called shinpu tokubetsu kogeki tai. Shinpu is the on-reading (on'yomi or Chinese-derived pronunciation) of the same characters that form the word kamikaze in Japanese
the reference is to a providential typhoon which frustrated the Mongol invasions of Japan in 1274 and 1281
Kamille(German f.) camomile
Kamin(German m.) fireplace, chimney
Kaminfeger(German m.) chimney-sweep
Kamm(German m.) comb, ridge (mountain), crest (zoological)
kämmen(German) to comb
[corrected by Brian A. Jefferies]
Kammer(German f.) chamber, small room
(German) by extension can also signify 'court'
Kammercantate(German f.) chamber cantata
Kammerchor (s.), Kammerchöre (pl.)(German m.) chamber choir
Kammerconcert(German n.) chamber concerto, a chamber concert
Kammerdiener(German m.) valet
Kammerduett(German n.) chamber duet (for a room rather than a concert hall)
Kammerkantate(German f.) chamber cantata, chamber concerto
Kammerkonzert(German n.) chamber concert, chamber concerto
Kammermusik(German f.) chamber music, música de cámara (Spanish f.), musica da camera (Italian f.), musique de chambre (French f.)
title given to eight instrumental works composed by Paul Hindemith (1895-1963) between 1921 and 1927 which imitate the Baroque concerto style
Kammermusik No. 1, op. 24 no. 11921work for twelve soloists (flute, clarinet, bassoon, trumpet, accordion, piano, xylophone, string quintet and percussion)
Kleine Kammermusik, op. 24 no. 21921work for for wind quintet
Kammermusik No. 2, op. 36 no. 11924piano concerto
Kammermusik No. 3, op. 36 no. 21924cello concerto
Kammermusik No. 4, op. 36 no. 31925violin concerto
Kammermusik No. 5, op. 36 no. 41927viola concerto
Kammermusik No. 6, op. 46 no. 11927viola d'amore concerto
Kammermusik No. 7, op. 46 no. 21927organ concerto
Kammermusiker (m.), Kammermusikerin (f.)(German) chamber or court musician, a title given to principal members of court orchestras
Kammermusikus(German) chamber musician, member of a prince's private band
Kammerorchester(German n.) chamber orchestra
Kammersänger (m.), Kammersängerin (f.)(German, literally, 'chamber singer') honorary title given to distinguished German and Austrian singers
Kammer Sonate(German f.) chamber sonata, sonata da camera (Italian)
Kammerspiel(German n.) Kammermusik
Kammerstil(German m.) style of chamber music, distinguishing it from ecclesiastical or theatrical styles
Kammerstyl(German m., older spelling) style of chamber music, distinguishing it from ecclesiastical or theatrical styles
Kammersymphonie(German f.) chamber symphony (i.e. for a small orchestra)
Kammerton(German m., literally 'chamber pitch') in modern usage Kammerton implies a pitch of a'=440Hz although the frequency of Cammerton (an older spelling) has varied throughout history. The pitch used for in Germany during the Baroque period for domestic instrumental music. The different pitches in use at this time were understood only in relation to one another rather than to any single absolute standard. However, we can relate these pitches to our present pitch standards. In Kammerton, a' was about 410-425 Hz, as opposed to its modern value of 440 Hz
pitch nameuserelative pitch
Chorton(choir pitch, organ pitch) the pitch for church organs and sacred choral musicmajor second higher than Kammerton
Kammerton(chamber pitch) the pitch for domestic instrumental musicminor second higher than Tief Kammerton
Tief Kammerton(low chamber pitch) a pitch level lower than Kammerton 
Kammervirtuose(German m.) a virtuso musician in the employ of a court
Kammgarn(German n.) worsted (textile)
Kampagne(German f.) campaign (political, commercial)
Kampf(German m.) fight, battle, contest, struggle (figurative)
kämpfen(German) to fight
Kampfer (m.), Kampferin (f.)(German) fighter
kampflos(German) without a fight
Kampfrichter(German m.) judge (sport)
kampieren(German) to camp
Kampuchéa(French m.) the former name of Cambodia (a nation in southeastern Asia that was part of Indochina under French rule until 1946)
Kampuchéen (m.), Kampuchéenne (f.)(French) a native or inhabitant of Kampuchea, the country now named Cambodia
kampuchéen (m.), kampuchéenne (f.)(French) of or pertaining to Kampuchea, the country now named Cambodia
Kan(Italian m.) or Can, khan
Kanada(German n.) Canada
Kanadier (m.), Kanadierin (f.)(German) Canadian
kanadisch(German) Canadian
Kanaka(Hawaian) a native of the South Sea Islandsm particularly one in the service of a European employer, any native employee
Kanal(German m.) (TV) channel, canal, drain, sewer
Kanalisation(German f.) sewerage system, drains
kanalieren(German) to canalise, to channel
Kanarienvogel(German m.) canary
Kanarische Inseln(German) Canary Islands, Canaries
Kandelesee kantele
Kandidate (m.), Kandidatin (f.)(German) candidate
kandidieren(German) stand
kandiert(German) candied (fruit)
Kan-dokoro(Japanese) a guide for pitch placement on the tube zither, the yakumogoto, used to help locate the correct placement of tenkan worn on the middle finger of the left hand when depressing the strings
Kanea Japanese gong or large bell
Kanéka(New Caledonia, Pacific Islands) a fusion of traditional Kanaky styles with pop and world music, stylistically a form of reggae with added flutes (including the Solomon Island panpipes), percussion and harmonies. Kanéka often has political lyrics and is sung in Drehu, Paici or other Melanesian languages, or in French
Kaner(Breton, literally 'singer/caller') the principal singer of two in kan ha diskan
Kanganua tall and narrow barrel drum from Ghana
Kangarooany of several herbivorous leaping marsupials of Australia and New Guinea having large powerful hind legs and a long thick tail
Kangen(Japanese) the purely instrument music of gagaku, Japanese court music
Kangourou(French m.) kangaroo
Känguruh(German n.) kangaroo
Kangxie dance(Tibet) kangxie, a dance to the accompaniment of a stringed instrument, is popular across the areas where Tibetans inhabit, including Qinghai, Yunnan, Batang, and Qamdo
K Anhabbreviation of Kochel-Anhang, the supplement to Ludwig Ritter von Köchel's catalogue of the works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)
Kan ha diskan(Breton, literally 'sing/call and respond') this form of mouth music comes from the tradition of Celtic Brittany in Western France. It is music to accompany dance, but with a special twist - it uses two singers overlapping their voices in a way that allows for a continuous stream of music for the dancer, and small intervals for resting or breathing by the singers. The singer (kaner) sings the first line, and near the end of that line the responder (diskaner) joins in, then repeats the whole line again while the kaner drops out. The kaner doubles on the last notes, then begins the second line, and so on. The song is sung in turns, only the end of each line being doubled. This technique is called the tuilage, and can be practiced by two singers, or two groups of singers. These songs are often sung high so that the sound carries best, so they can be heard over the sound of dancing
Kaninchen(German n.) rabbit
Kanister(German m.) canister, (petrol-)can
Kanji(Japanese, literally 'Han characters') the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana, katakana and the Arabic numerals
  • Kanji from which this extract has been taken
Kanjirasingle headed tambourine used throughout Southern India
Kankara sanshinsanshin made, in the years following World War II, from empty cans, a sign both of the poverty of the postwar years and of the Okinawans' tenacious love of music
Kankleslap-harp or kantele of Latvia and Lithuania
KankukusAfro-Brazilian dance
Kännchen(German n.) small jug, coffee pot
[corrected by Brian A. Jefferies]
Kanne(German f.) jug, (coffee- or tea-)pot, (oil-)can, (milk-)churn, watering-can
KannelEstonian kantele
Kannibale(German m.) cannibal
Kannibalismus(German m.) cannibalism
Kannyarkalialso known as desathukali, is a folk art exclusively practised by the Nair community of the Palakkad area of Kerala, Southern India. It owes its origin to the pursuit of martial arts in this region which was under constant threat of attack from neighbouring Konganadu. Kannyarkali was born when dance and comedy were added to impart vigour and colour to the martial training sessions. The art form combines the agile movements of martial arts with the rhythmic grace of folk dance performed around a nilavilakku
Ka'nohko'wahNorth-American frame drum
Kanon(German m., Swedish, Danish) canon, round, circular canon
see kanun
in Byzantine church chant, during second half of the seventh century, the kontakion was replaced suddenly by a new type of hymn, the kanon, which continues to be used in the Orthodox Church today. It is comprised of nine odes that are musically and metrically independent of one another. Like the kontakion, each ode is comprised of stanzas, this time numbering six to nine, which are modelled after the first stanza, called the heirmos. The kanon represented a great advance in musical composition, particularly because, compared to the kontakion, the kanon was less rigid melodically, and instead of one melody repeated twenty-four to thirty times, the kanon included nine melodies sung up to nine times each. The kanon was introduced by St. Andrew of Crete (c.660-c.740) and refined by Saints John of Damascus and Kosmas of Jerusalem
Kanonaki(Greek, from Turkish kanun) a plucked zither
Kanone(German f.) cannon, gun
Kanon in Augmentation(German m.) canon by augmentation, canon in augmentation
Kanon in der Quarte(German m.) canon at the fourth
Kanon in der Umkehrung(German m.) inverted canon
Kanon in Diminution(German m.) canon by diminution, canon in diminution
kanonisieren(German) canonize
Kanoonsee kanun
Kano'oskae'North-American scrapper
Kanounsee kanun
Kansaa member of the Siouan people of the Kansas river valley in Kansas, the Dhegiha dialect spoken by the Kansa
Kansas(English, French m.) a state in midwestern United States
Kansas City jazz
Kant (s.), Kanty (pl.)(Russian, from Latin) three-part vocal compositions, originally on a religious text but later including secular material, that originated in Poland and the Ukraine and were introduced into Russia by Vasily Titov (c.1650-c.1715), popular during the mid 17th to mid 18th centuries, characterised by two upper parts moving in thirds over a lower bass part
Kantate(German f.) cantata
Kantatenmesse(German f.) cantata mass
Kante(German f.) edge
Kantelealso kandele or kannel, traditional Finnish string instrument (originally bearing 5 strings, but later increased to between 14 or 30), laid on a table or across the player's knees and plucked, like a psaltery. In the neighbouring part of Russia, the same instrument is also known as a 'wing' or 'bell' gusli
Kanten(German m.) crust (of bread)
Kanter(German m.) canter
Kantianterm still often used to describe contemporary positions in philosophy of mind (rational), epistemology (the gist of Kant's position being that even though we cannot know whether there are final causes in nature, we are constrained by the peculiar nature of the human understanding to view organisms teleologically), and ethics (which revolve entirely around duty rather than emotional feelings or end goals)
"Two things fill the mind with ever new and increasing admiration and awe, the more often and steadily we reflect upon them: The starry heavens above me and the moral law within me" from The Critique of Practical Reason by Immanuel Kant
  • Kantian from which this information has been taken
kantiano(Italian) Kantian (of or pertaining to the philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
kantien (m.), kantienne (f.)(French) Kantian (of or pertaining to the philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)
kantig(German) angular
Kantilin the gamelan orchestra, a two-octave instrument made of very short resonating bamboo tubes, at which the player is seated
Kantilene(German f.) cantilena
Kantilenensatz(German m.) cantilena form
Kantillation(German f.) cantillation
Kantine(German f.) canteen
Kantional(German n.) or, in English, 'cantional', a collection of sacred songs or a hymnbook
the term is used especially for Czech collections (kancionály) and German Lutheran hymnbooks of the 16th and 17th centuries
Kantismthe doctrine or theory of Kant, the Kantian philosophy
Kantisme(French m.) Kantism
Kanton(German m.) (Swiss) canton
Kantor(German m.) choir-master and organist
(German m.) cantor
Kantorei(German m. pl.) or Cantorei (archaic), the offical church-supported choir consisting mainly of the boys from the school associated with the church and a few professional singers (probably mainly tenors and basses) who receive some remuneration for their musical assistance
in the 15th and 16th century Germany, a group of professional singers associated with a church or a court
today, the term Kantorei (German f. s.) is often used for a Protestant or evangelical church choir
[comment provided by Brian A. Jefferies]
Kanunor kanunn, a Middle Eastern instrument dating back beyond the time of Christ. This stringed instrument (similar in look to a zither) has a total of 72-75 triple-grouped strings, which are tuned flat and then raised or lowered in small semitone increments using a series of latches or bridges, called orab, which effectively lengthen or shorten the vibrating portion of the string. The sound box is trapezoidal
Kanu(German n.) canoe
Kanunnsee kanun
Kanyáhte' ká'nowa'North-American vessel rattle
Kanzel(German f.) pulpit, cockpit (of a plane)
Kanzelle (s.), Kanzellen (pl.)(German f.) groove, bar or small channel in the organ that conducts air from the wind-chest to the pipes
[entry corrected by Michael Zapf]
Kanzellied(German) a hymn before the sermon
Kanzleistil(German m.) officialese
Kanzler(German m.) chancellor
Kanzonentypus(German m.) a term used in German for the medieval French chanson
Kanzonette(German f.) canzonet
[entry provided by Michael Zapf]
Kaolin(English, French m.) white clay primarily comprised of the mineral kaolinite, used as a filler and coating pigment for papermaking, in ceramics and as an absorbent
Kap(German n.) (geological feature) cape
Kapahaka(Maori) traditional musical performance that often involves actions performed with sticks that are thumped or the poi - a small ball on the end of a string - that is twirled in the hands and slapped to provide rhythmic accompaniment
Kapazität(German f.) capacity, authority (expert)
Kapel(Dutch) chapel, but can be applied to any musical institution
Kapelldirektor (m.), Kapelldirektorin (f.)(German) director of music in the chapel
director of music at a court
Kapelle(German f.) chapel, but can be applied to any musical institution
(German f.) a loose term for "band", i.e. small brass band or dance band
[entry provided by Brian Jefferies]
Kapellknabe (s.), Kapellknaben (pl.)(German) choir boy
Kapellmeister (m.), Kapellmeisterin (f.)(German) director of music (in a church), maestro di cappella (Italian), maestro di capilla (Spanish), maître de chapelle (French)
(German, literally 'the director of the chapel music') applied to the director of music, orchestra or choir, in any establishment, for example, the church, the court
Kapelltrompeter(German m.) court trumpeter
trumpeters and drummers in the later Middle Ages constituted an indispensable element of the princely court establishment. Court trumpeters exercised their function whenever the monarch appeared in public and on his withdrawal. They accompanied him similarly for imperial council meetings, at coronations and acts of homage. To guarantee an impressive effect, it was usual at coronation and marriage festivities to offer the imperial sound of the court trumpeter as a tribute. As the climax of such events of high ceremony it was the practice to have the trumpeters of the various imperial and princely courts playing at once. From the meeting of King Ladislaus II of Bohemia and Sigismund I of Poland with the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I at Schwechat, when, on 17th July 1515, two of his grandchildren married the children of the two kings, there survives the account of the court commentator Cuspinian: 'that it was during the later celebration in Vienna Neustadt that it first happened that the Emperor appeared with 45 trumpeters and six drummers'
Kaper(German f.) caper (culinary)
kapern(German) to seize
kapieren(German) to understand , to get (the point)
Kapital(German n.) capital
Kapitalismus(German m.) capitalism
Kapitalist(German m.) capitalist
kapitalistisch(German) capitalist
Kapital schlagen aus(German) capitalize on (figurative)
Kapitän(German m.) captain
Kapitel(German n.) chapter (of a book)
Kapitulation(German f.) capitulation
kapitulieren(German) to capitulate
Kaplan(German m.) curate
Kapoc(Italian m.) or capoc, kapok
Kapodaster(German m.) capotasto (Italian, English), barre (French), capodaste (French)
Kapok(English, French m.) a silky fibre obtained from the fruit of the silk-cotton tree and used for insulation and as padding in pillows, mattresses, etc.
Kappe(German f.) cap
kappen(German) to cut
kapriziös(German) or launenhaft (German), fanciful, capricious, capriciously, a capriccio (Italian), at will, as the player wishes, freely (particularly as regards the time), capricieusement (French)
Kapsel(German f.) capsule, top (bottle)
kaputt(German) broken (familar), torn, out of order, ruined, worn out, done for, no good, useless
kaputtgehen(German) to break, to tear, to pack up (break down), to break up
kaputtlachen(German) to be in stitches (familar)
kapputmachen(German) to break, to tear, to put out of order, to wear out
Kapuzinerkresse(German f.) nasturtium
Karabiner(German m.) a steel ring with a spring clip on one side, used in climbing to attach a climber securely to a rope
Karadeniz kemençeTurkish three-string fiddle
Karaffe(German f.) caraffe, decanter
Karambolage(German f.) collision
Karamel(German m.) caramel
Karamelbonbon(German m.) toffee
Karamoudzasee karamudza
KaramudzaGreek double reed instrument sometimes played in pairs. Also known as pipiza, zounardi and zournas
Karaoke(English, German n., Spanish, Italian, from the Japanese, literally 'empty orchestra') popular nightclub style from Japan where customers sing the melody to accompanying prerecorded tracks
Karaoké(French) karaoke
Karat(German n.) carat
Karataky(Madagascar) drum
Karatea sport based on a method developed in Japan of defending oneself without the use of weapons by striking sensitive areas on the attacker's body with hands, elbows, knees, or feet
Karaté(French m.) karate
Karateka(French m.) an expert in karate
Karawane(German f.) caravan
Kardinal(German m.) cardinal
Kardinalzahl(German f.) cardinal number
Karelianamed for a province in Southern Finland, an overture (Op. 10) and a suite (Op. 11), both for orchestra, composed in 1893 by Jean Sibelius (1865-1957)
Karfiol(German m.: in Austria) cauliflower
Karfreitag(German m.) Good Friday (the Friday before Easter Sunday)
karg(German) meagre, frugal, sparse, barren, scant
kargen (mit)(German) to be sparing (with)
kärglich(German) poor, meagre, scant
Kargyraaa form of Tuvan throat-singing involving the production of extremely low notes. The vestibular folds or false vocal folds are vibrated to produce an "undertone" exactly half the frequency of the fundamental produced by the vocal folds, and the mouth cavity is shaped to select harmonics of both the fundamental and the "undertone," producing from four to six pitches simultaneously. There are two main kargyraa styles, dag kargyraa and khovu kargyraa. The dag or "mountain" kargyraa is the lower of the two. Tibetan Gyoto monks chant their prayers in a very low register that resembles the Tuvan kargyraa method
Karibik(German f.) Caribbean
kariert(German) check, checked (design), squared (paper)
Karikary(Madagascar) small bell
Karikatur(German f.) caricature, cartoon (paper)
karikieren(German) to caricature
Karimbaa 15-key thumb piano from Zimbabwe with a round wooden plate upon which the instrument is mounted and affixed with a semi-circular wooden wall around the instrument to act as an amplifier. It uses a high resonance wooden soundboard upon with a bridge is implanted on the upper part of the instrument. The metal reeds used as sound source are laid over the bridge and using a metal bar. A strand of wire us sued to bind the reeds under the bar. A metal plate, with a bottle cap affixed to it, is mounted on the lower portion of the sound board to provide a rattling sound. The rattle provides the percussive element in the music
Karinyan(Mali) a small ribbed iron pipe that is struck with an iron bar
karitativ(German) charitable
Karkabas(Morocco) metal double castanets of the Gnawa
Karma(Sanskrit) the sum total of a Buddhist's actions in one incarnation, which determines his fate in the next
the term is used in English to mean fate or destiny
Kármán trailor 'Kármán vortex street', named for the engineer and fluid dynamicist, Theodore von Kármán, the mechanism upon which organ flue pipes and other ducts flutes depend to convert a steady flow of air through a narrow slot into a periodically-driven system to which the pipe's natural frequencies can respond. In the recorder, as air emerges from the windway, the Kármán trail of vortices form alternately on either surface of the sheet-like stream (in the recorder above and below a plane containing the lateral centre-line of the exit slot of the windway and the wind-cutter or edge). The formation of vortices is periodic and a coupling between this 'driving frequency' and the natural frequency of the instrument's bore leads to the production of a musical note. The pipe may be 'overblown' by increasing the amount of energy delivered (by blowing harder) and/or by changing the natural frequency of the pipe itself (by venting at the thumbhole)
Kármán vortex streetsee 'Kármán trail'
Karmayogione who has devoted his life to action in the selfless service of others
Karnal(Nepal) a large trumpet, one of the instruments that forms the Panche Baja
Karnayone of the most ancient Uzbek musical instruments, which in the Middle Ages was a military signal instrument. One of the miniatures dating back to 1430 and decorating the manuscript Shakhname by Firdousi depicts a battle scene where together with warriors in front line there are drum-players and musicians trumpeting the long karnays. The length of this mouthpiece wind instrument without valves and holes can reach up to three metres; its cylindrical body with a funnel-shaped opening at the end is made of brass or copper
Karneval(German n.) carnival
Karnickel(German n.) rabbit
Kärnten(German n.) Carinthia
Karo(German n.) diamond, square, check, diamonds
Karomunster(German n.) check
Karoninkaa Mandinka rhythm usually played at weddings and child-naming ceremonies
Karosserie(German f.) bodywork
Karotte(German f.) carrot
Karpfen(German m.) carp
Karree(German n.) square
Karren(German m.) cart, (hand-)barrow
karren(German) to cart
Karriere(German f.) career
Karriere machen(German) get to the top
Karroo(Hottentot) an arid clayey plateau in South Africa
Karsilama(Turkish) a Turkish dance in 9/8 danced face-to-face by couples who do not hold hands, known in Greece as the antikrystos
  • Karsilama from which some of this information has been taken
Karsticsaid of limestone or dolomite which has been attacked by the erosive action of water on its surface and underground, forming potholes as it infiltrates the cracks (for example, the Burren on the west coast of Ireland, the landscape of El Torcal de Antequera in Southern Spain)
karstique(French) karstic
Kart(French m.) cart, go-cart
Karte(German f.) card, ticket, menu, map
Kartei(German f.) card index
Karteikarte(German f.) index card
Kartenspiel(German n.) card-game, pack or deck of cards
Kartenvorverkauf(German m.) advance booking
Karting(French m.) carting, go-carting
Kartoffel(German f.) potato
Kartoffelbrei(German m.) mashed potatoes
Kartoffelpüree(German n.) mashed potatoes
Kartoffelsalat(German m.) potato salad
Karton(German m.) cardboard, carton, cardboard box
Kartondämfer(German m.) cardboard mute
kartonneret(Danish) in boards (referring to the binding of a book)
kartonnert(Norwegian) in boards (referring to the binding of a book)
Karussell(German n.) roundabout
Karwocke(German f.) Holy Week
Karyendadrums, the main traditional symbol of Burundi and its mwami (kings). In the large percussion orchestras of The Master Drummers of Burundi, the largest drums are called ingoma, the next largest inkiranya, then amashako and finally the smallest, ibishikiso. However there are other drums, for example rukinzo, which always accompanies the mwami
Kasasee sofa
KasatEgyptian cymbals
Kasbah(French f. from Arabic) or, in English 'casbah', a palace-citadel of an Arab chieftain in North Africa, the district surrounding a citadel, the native quarter in a North African town
Käse(German m.) cheese
Käsekuchen(German m.) cheesecake
Kaserne(German f.) barracks
kasher(French) kosher
Kashugeneral term for a Japanese singer
KasikTurkish spoons
käsinkirjoitettu Nuotti(Finnish) autograph, a work written in the composer's own hand
Kasino(German n.) casino
Kaskavel(East Africa) a rattle
Kasperle(German n./m.) Punch (as in Punch and Judy)
Kasperletheater(German n.) Punch and Judy show
Kassation(German m.) cassation
Kasse(German f.) till, cash register, cash desk, check-out (supermarket), box-office (theatre, etc.), pool (of money), kitty (pool of money), health insurance scheme, savings bank
Kassettenrekorder(German m.) cassette recorder
Kastafter Emerich Kastner, the cataloguer of music by Richard Wagner (1813-1883)
Kastagnette (s.), Kastagnetten (pl.)(German f.) castanet
Kasten(German m.) (instrument) case (for a violin, cello, etc.), astuccio (Italian), custodia (Italian - e.g. for a violin), Etui (German - for a flute, oboe, etc.), étui (French), housse (French - cover or case)
Kastrat(German m.) castrato
Katabasis(Greek) a military retreat
Katachresis(Greek) or catachresis, in music, the use of a discord, when not allowed according to the strict rules of counterpoint
Katachresis is the harsh (improper) use of a noun or a verb, to point to something which does not have its own name. But it differs from metaphor, which gives a word to something that already has one, because it makes use of a word that belongs to something else, like calling someone who has killed a brother a parricide, and calling something which has no fish a fishpond.
Katajjaq(Inuit) see 'Inuit throat singing'
Kát'a Kabanováan opera in three-acts (first performed by 1921) by the Czech composer Leos Janácek (1854-1928)
Katalog(German m.) catalog (US), catalogue
Katapayadi sankhyaa way of determining the number of a melakarta ragam from the first two syllables of the name of the raga
Katcharseelively celebratory music, the staple ending of every Okinawan party
Katerina Izmaylovafirst produced in 1963, the composer's revised version of his youthful second opera, Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District (1936), by the Russian composer Dimitri Shostakovich (1906-1975)
Kat' exochen(Greek) pre-eminently, par excellence (usually written in Greek characters)
Kathakone of the classical Indian dance forms, kathak derived from the word katha or story, originated as a form of story-telling in Northern India and later flourished as two separate schools under the patronage of Mughal and Rajput kings
Kathakalian ancient dance-drama form from Kerala in south India, which can also be found in Hindu parts of Indonesia
Katharsisan alternative spelling of catharsis
Kathedrale(German) cathedral
Kathedralekirche(German) cathedral
Kathistiká(Greek, literally 'sitting-down music') music to be listening to, not for dancing
Katra(Madagascar) rattle
Katsa(Madagascar) rattle
Katzenjammer(German, literally 'caterwauling') the spiritual and physical discomfort following sensual excess (particularly the headache and nausea associated with an excess intake of alcohol)
Katzenmusik(German f., literally 'cats' music') charivari
Kauaha(Easter Island) a percussion instrument made fro the jaw bone of a horse
Kaulafter Oskar Kaul (1885-1986), the cataloguer of music by Franz Anton Rosetti-Rössler (1746-1792)
kaum(German) barely
kaum hörbar(German) barely audible, scarcely audible
Kaur(Oceania) end-blown flute
Kavadiyattoma ritual temple dance of Tamil origin in which the dancers twist and spin in a row. The dancers gradually move towards a frenzy, in step with the rising beats of percussion instruments like udukku, chenda etc., accompanying the procession. Sometimes the nadaswaram, a wind instrument, is also used
the picture above is a Bulgarian kaval in the key of D made by the late master maker Slavi Ivanov, Kameno, Bulgaria. It is made of Cornelian cherry, or dryan in Bulgarian, which is a very hard, dark, and increasingly rare wood. It comes apart into three pieces at the enlarged black sockets. The mouthpiece (the left end) is made of cow horn, as are the other black reinforcements. The metal inlay is pewter, in a traditional pattern
a long, end-blown flute from Bulgaria, Albania, and Macedonia the counterpart in the West of the Asian ney or nay. It is made in various sizes from 15 to 50 cm in length. It can be made out of different materials, e.g. cane, wood, bronze, iron, bone and plastic. The kaval is held at a slightly oblique angle toward the right, so that the player's breath will strike the sharply angled lip of the instrument on the opposite side, thus producing sound
Kavalierbariton(German m.) dramatic or Verdi baritone
Kavatine(German) cavatina
Kawachi ondoa genre of Japanese music that evolved out of folk music which accompanied the bon-odori festival in Kawachi
Kawalaan Egyptian bamboo flute played in religious festivals
Kayaguma Korean 12-string zither
Kayak(English, French m., from Eskimo) an Eskimo canoe consisting of a light framework originally covered in sealskin
Kayagum(Korea) also called kayago, Korean tube zither
Kayamb(Reunion) or caiambe, a wooden frame filled with grains that is shaken in a flat motion to give the 6/8 rhythm of maloya
käyden(Finnish) andante
Kayokyoku(Japanese) a genre of Japanese popular song that appeared in the early twentieth century
Kayrokan Uzbeck percussion instrument consisting of two pairs of polished stones. Ancient Khiva men's dances are performed to the accompaniment of these peculiar castanets
Kazachoka Cossack dance, often in a minor key, in a steadily accelerating quick duple time
Kazoe(Dutch) kazoo, mirliton
Kazooa toy-like instrument consisting of a tube witha membrane at one end into which the player hums. The result is a curious nasal tone. Among a legion of alternative names we may note 'zazah', 'vocophone' and 'zobo-flute'
Kbalso K.B. or Kb., abbreviation of Kontrabass (German: double-bass - contrebasse (French))
kbd abbreviation of 'keyboard'
KBEabbreviation of 'Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire'
KbKlarabbreviation of Kontrabass-Klarinette (German: contrabass clarinet - clarinette contrebasse (French))
KbTubabbreviation of Kontrabass-Tuba (German: contrabass tuba - tuba contrebasse (French))
KChabbreviation of Kinderchor (German: children's choir - choeur d'enfants (French))
KCVO abbreviation of 'Knight Commander of the Royal Victorian Order'
K.Dr.abbreviation of 'kettle drums'
K-Eor E, Alfred Einstein's revision of Ludwig Ritter von Köchel's catalogue of the works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)
Kebab(Turkish from Arabic) one of a variety of Oriental dishes consisting of meat cut into small pieces, seasoned and roasted
Kebaropopular single- or double-headed Ethiopian drum, played with the hands, also known as kabaro or kebero
Keberosee kebaro
Kecakan ancient Balinese trance dance with choral music, originally a sanghyang (literally meaning 'spirit') trance dance performed to appease the gods in times of difficulty
Kechumarana family of non-Indo-European languages spoken in the Andes of South America
keck(German) audacious
Keckheit(German) audacity, boldness, vigour
Kedgereean Indian breakfast dish of fish, egg and rice flavoured with curry
Kedivale(Italian) or of pertaining to the Khedive
Kedive(Italian m.) Khedive
Keef(Arabic) or kif, Indian hemp, a state of dreamy intoxication induced by a narcotic
Keelholte(Dutch) pharynx
Keel Rowor Weel May the Keel Row, an English north-country folk song, first published in A Collection of Favourite Scots Tunes (Edinburgh, 1770). Claude Debussy (1862-1918) used it as the basis for his Gigues, the first movement of his orchestral work Images (1909-1912)
Keen(from the Irish, caoine) an Irish funeral song
Keenerssingers engaged to sing lamentations over the dead, usually performed at night and to the accompaniment of a harp
Keep silenttacet (Italian), ruhig verhalten (German), gardez le silence (French)
Kefafasee kaiambarambo
Kehalsee kohl
Kehle(German f.) the voice, the throat
kehlig(German) guttural
Kehlkopf(German m.) larynx, voice box
Kehlkopfentzündungs(German f.) laryngitis
Kehlkopfmikrofon(German n.) throat microphone
Kehlstimme(German f.) throat voice
Kehnsee gaeng
Kehraus Tanz(German) sweep out dance, usually one that concludes a period of celebration. For example, at the carnival celebrations that started in Europe in the Middle Ages as a period of merrymaking before Lent, the Kehraus Tanz would take place just before Ash Wednesday
Keilarge Japanese gongs used in Buddhist ceremonies
Keilriemen(German m.) V-belt
Keilriemenantrieb(German m.) V-belt drive
Keilriemenscheibe(German f.) V-belt pulley
kein anderer(German) no one else
kein Blatt vor den Mund nehmen(German) not to mince one's words (figurative)
keine Dämpfer(German) no mutes
keine die Spur(German) not in the least (familiar)
Keineswegs(German) no way
keine Triole(German) not a triplet
keine Umschweife machen(German) to come straight out with it
kein Pedal(German) in piano music, release the right pedal
Keith stylea fingerpicking style played with picks on the thumb, index and middle fingers. It centers around playing scales in a linear fashion. This contrasts with "3-Finger" or Scruggs style, which is centered around arpeggios, or chord notes played in rapid succession
Kekreksee kotak
Keledisee keluri
Kelelia two or three string long necked lute from Chad
Kelima misspelling of kilim
Kelmscott Manor
founded by William Morris as his part-time home, as an inspiration for a whole movement in architecture and as the final destination of the utopian traveller in News from Nowhere. Morris is buried with his wife and daughters in the graveyard of the small chapel in Kelmscott village
Kelurialso called keledi or enkulurai, extremely rare bamboo free-reed mouth organs found in northwestern Borneo, bearing a strong resemblance to the hulusheng
Kemansee kamanche
Kemanchehsee kamanche
Kemençethe name kemençe is actually shared by two different stringed instruments, one used in Ottoman music and the other in folk music of the Black Sea region. Until the middle of the twentieth century, the first of these was known as the armudi (pear) or fasil kemençe, although these have now given way to the classical kemençe'. The second is a folk instrument, and is known as the Black Sea kemençe
Kemenchesee kamanche
Kemetzessee kamanche
Kempe's Morrissee muscadin
Kempliin the gamelan orchestra and also called kajar, the time keeper marking the pulses in the pokok (main theme). It is a small horizontally mounted gong
Kempul(Javanese) an 18-inch suspended tuned gong, normally used, in two sets of between 6 and 10 smaller gongs, in gamelan orchestras, one tuned to slendro and the other to pelog
Kempurin Balinese gamelan, the kempur is similar to the gong suwukan in Javanese gamelan. i.e. the smaller gong in the gamelan set used for smaller phrases
Kempyang(Javanese) a cradled gong found in Javanese gamelan orchestras, that looks like a small kenong and sounds at a higher pitch than a ketuk
Kenasee quena
Kendabbain old Vedic mythology, the Kendabba were a group of beings who protected and served Soma. Later, the Kendabba became musicians in the heavenly court of Taishakuten and protectors of Buddhist teachings, as well as deities of medicine and guardians of children. In paintings, they are sometimes depicted sitting in royal ease surrounded by the twelve animals of the yearly cycle. They are sometimes shown with halo, and are said to nourish themselves with fragrances particularly those of herbs
Kendang(Javanese) a double-ended or double-headed drum beaten with the hands, the lead instrument of the gamelan orchestra. There are five different sizes of kendang with diameters ranging from 20 cm. to 45 cm.
Kendang ageng(Javanese) a large double-headed drum, used in gamelan ensemble styles and in accompanying traditional court dance
Kendang batangan(Javanese) or ciblon, a medium-size double-headed drum, used in gamelan ensemble styles and in accompanying traditional court dance
Kendang ketipung(Javanese) a small double-headed drum, used in gamelan ensemble styles and in accompanying traditional court dance
Kendappain early Indian mythology, the Kendappa were known for their skills with horses and music, and for their ability to cast illusions. They were also spirits of the mountains, air, and forests, and sometimes served as attendants to the Deva
Kendatsubaor Sendan Kendatsuba, a king among the Kendappa
Këngë kreshnikësh(Albanian) Albanian folk ballads, one of the styles of sung epic poetry
Këngë popullore(Albanian) Albanian popular music, generally based on Italian models
Këngë trimash(Albanian) Albanian songs of bravery, part of the folk music tradition of sung epic poetry
Kenkenthe metallic bell attached to a dunun drum
Kennedy-Fraser, Marjory
Scottish folk-song collector and singer who made a valuable collection of Hebridean folk-songs
Kenner (m.), Kennerin (f.)(German) connoisseur, expert
Kenner in der Musik(German) professor of music
Kenningin literature, a kenning is a compound poetic phrase, a figure of speech, substituted for the usual name of a person or thing. In its simplest form, it comprises two terms, one of which (the 'base word'), is made to relate to the other to convey a meaning neither has alone. It is a type of epithet as for example in the term 'whale-road' used in Beowolf to mean 'sea'
  • Kenning from which part of this extract has been taken
Kennmelodie(German f.) signature tune
Kennzeichen(German n.) distinguishing mark
Kennzeichnung(German f.) characterisation
Kennziffer(German f.) reference number
Kenong(Javanese) high-pitched tuned kettle gongs laid horizontally on crossed cord, inside a wooden frame. A complete set of kenong, in each of the two tunings, slendro and pelog consists of ten gongs
Kenosis(Greek, literally 'emptying') in Christianity, the relinquishment of the form of God by Jesus in becoming man and suffering death
Kenraalibasso(Finnish) figured bass, thorough bass
Kent bugle, Royalsee 'keyed bugle'
Kenthorn(German n.) Kent Bugle
Kentishthe Old English dialect spoken in Kent
Kentonafter Egon Kenton, the cataloguer of music by Giovanni Gabrieli (1556-1612)
Kentonganfrom Bali, an instrument hung from tree branches and struck, used as a signal for assembling people and at the commencing of ceremonies
  • Kentongan from which this short extract has been taken
Kentucky(English, French m.) a state in east central United States, a border state during the American Civil War
Kentucky Running Setthis is a dance form Cecil Sharp found in Kentucky in the Appalachian Mountains, and published in the Country Dance Book V. Firstly it should be made clear that Running Set is not what the people in Kentucky called it; to them it was `dancing', perhaps `Square Dance' as opposed to `Ballroom Dance'. We don't know why Cecil Sharp gave it this name; probably he was confused by the term they used "to run a set" which meant to dance the same figure through for each couple in turn
Kenya(English, French m.) a country of east-central Africa bordering on the Indian Ocean
Kenyan hip hop
Kényen (m.), Kényenne (f.)(French) a native or inhabitant of Kenya
kényen (m.), kényenne (f.)(French) of or pertaining to Kenya
Kepatihana type of cipher musical notation that was devised for notation of the Indonesian gamelan. The system was devised around 1900 at the Kepatihan in Surakarta, and was based upon the Galin-Paris-Cheve system of 1894
  • Kepatihan from which this short extract has been taken
Kepiképi (French m.)
Képi(French m.) a French military cap with a flat top and a peak
kepleriano(Italian) or of pertaining to Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) the German astronomer who first stated laws of planetary motion
Kepraksee kotak
Keranaa long trumpet, formerly used among the Persians
Keranimsee keren
Keras(ancient Greece) curved horn instrument
Keratina fibrous scleroprotein that occurs in the outer layer of the skin and in horny tissues such as hair, feathers, nails, and hooves
Kératine(French f.) keratin
Keraulophoninvented by the organ builders Gray and Davison, a reedy sweet-toned 8ft organ stop, whose particular tonal character arises from the boring of a small round hole near to the top of the pipe
Kerbe(German f.) notch
see Kermesse
Kerbflöte(German f.) notched-flute (for example, the shakuhachi of Japan and the quena of the Andes, South America)
Kerbschnitt(German m.) chip-carving, a form of wood-carving in which slivers of wood are gouged out from a flat surface
Keren(Hebrew) or keranim, horn, trumpet or cornett (Joshua 6:5)
Kereplö(Hungary) a simple ratchet rattle made of wood. It can be found as a toy, an instrument in a symphony orchestra or used as a bird scarer
Keretoka bamboo cowbell found in Thai farming villages
  • Keretok from which this short extract has been taken
Kerfa groove or notch made by a cutting tool (such as a saw or an axe), the width of a groove made by a cutting tool
Kerf liningon a string instrument, this lining is glued around the perimeter of the top to side joint and the back to side joint inside the instrument. It provides a solid gluing/mating surface between the two
Keringutsee selingup
Kerk(Dutch) church
Kerker(German m.) dungeon, prison
Kerkkoor(Dutch) church choir
Kerklied(Dutch) hymn, chant, carol
Kerktoonaard(Dutch) church mode
Kerktoonladder(Dutch) church mode
Kerl(German m.) fellow (familiar), bloke
Kermesse(English, French f.) (corruption of kirkmisse (old Dutch: church-mass)) also Kermis and Kerbe, an annual fair or carnival in the Low Countries
the word Kermesse (generally in the form Kirmess) is applied in the United States to any entertainment, especially one organised in the interest of charity, for example a bazaar or charity fête
c'est une vrai kermesse là-dedans (French: it's absolute bedlam in there) (figurative)
  • Kermesse from which some of this information has been taken
Kermesse paroissiale(French f.) church fête, church bazaar
KernGerman m.) pip, stone (of a cherry), kernel (of a nut), core, nucleus (atomic), centre (town), heart (of the matter)
(German m.) block, the languid in an organ pipe
Kernenergie(German f.) nuclear energy
Kernfrage(German f.) or Gretchenfrage (German f.), crucial question
Kerngehäuse(German n.) core
kerngesund(German) perfectly healthy
kernig(German) robust, pithy (remark)
kernloss(German) seedless (grape, etc.)
Kernphysik(German f.) nuclear physics
Kernspalt(German m.) windway, air-passage, camera d'aria (Italian f.), canal pour l'air (French m.), canal de viento (Spanish m.)
Kerntuch(German n.) bushing cloth
[entry provided by Michael Zapf]
Kerosenea thin oil distilled from petroleum or shale oil, used as a fuel for heating and cooking, in lamps, and as a denaturant
Kérosène(French m.) kerosene
Kerrenaan Indian trumpet
Kerygma(Greek) systematic preaching, proclamation of religious truth
Kerze(German f.) candle
kerzengerade(German) straight, bolt upright, sheer (drop, face)
Kerzenhalter(German m.) candlestick
keski-C(Finnish) middle C
Keskikorkuinen miesääni(Finnish) baritone
Keskisävel(Finnish) mediant, the third degree of the scale
Keskisävelviritys(Finnish) meantone temperament
keß(German) pert
Kesse(German m.) kettle, boiler
Kessel(German m.) cup, shell
Kesselpauke (s.), Kesselpauken (pl.)(German f.) kettle drum
Kesseltrommel(German f.) kettle drum
Kessestein(German m.) fur (in a kettle, etc.)
Kesto(Finnish) duration
Ketecommonly found in the royal courts of traditional Akan communities. It is performed in the courts of every chief whose status entitles him to be carried in a palanquin. The music therefore can be heard on state occasions and festivals. There are three parts of the performance: drum music, pipe interludes, and vocal counterpart of the pipe tunes. At least, eight pieces are played during a performance. These pieces are identified by the general name for the type of drumming and dancing, by name of its usual context, function or general character, by name commemorative of an event, or by name indicative of the participants. Adaban also called topre is used when the chief has to perform the ceremonial "shooting dance". Apente is used mostly for processions
Kete drumsa set of four drums from the Ashanti region in Ghana
Keteltrom(Dutch) kettle drum
Kette(German f.) chain, necklace
Ketten(German f. pl.) chains
ketten(German) to chain
Kettenladen(German m.) chain store
Kettenraucher(German m.) chain-smoker
Kettenreaktion(German f.) chain reaction
Kettentriller(German m.) a chain or sequence of shakes
Kettle drumtimpano (Italian s.), timpani (Italian pl.), Pauke (German s.), Pauken (German pl.), timbale (French s.), timbales (French pl.), hemispherical orchestral drum with a head of vellum or plastic that can be individually tuned, although they are usually played in pairs, the larger producing any note between F and c, while the smaller drum produces a note between Bb and f
Kettle gongsee 'drum gong'
Ketug(Javanese) or ketuk, a small cradled gong, mounted horizontally, of the Javanese gamelan orchestra
Ketuksee 'ketug'
Ketzer (m.), Ketzerin (f.)(German) heretic
Ketzerei(German f.) heresy
keuchen(German) to pant (to breathe hard)
Keuchhusten(German m.) whooping cough
Keule(German f.) club, leg (of lamb, etc.), drumstick (chicken)
keusch(German) chaste
Keuschheit(German f.) chastity
Keytasto (Italian s.), tasti (Italian pl.), Taste (German s.), Tasten (German pl.), touche (French s.), touches (French pl.), on a piano, organ, harpsichord, virginal, etc., the levers which the performer depresses to activate the action and, thus, to produce notes
on a woodwind instrument, the device used to cover a hole which is out of the reach of a finger. The finger controls the "touch piece" which is linked by a "rod" or "sleeve" running over an "axle" or "steel" (USA) to the "cup" which holds the airtight "pad" which stops the tone hole
tonalita (Italian), Tonart (German), tonalité (French), specific scales or series of notes defining a particular tonality, for example, certain keys may, on the basis of the sequence of successive intervals, be defined as major or minor and are then named after their tonic or key note
the name formerly given to what we now called a 'clef'
alternatively 'tuning key', 'tuning hammer' or 'hammer', an implement used for turning the tuning pins on pianos, harpsichords, etc.
Key bedon a piano, the base, or foundation, on which the key frame and 88 piano keys rest
Keyboard(English, German n.) tastiera (Italian), Klavier (German), Klaviatur (German), Tastatur (German), clavier (French), on a piano, organ, harpsichord, etc., the row, or rows, of keys which are operated by the performer to initiate the sounding of notes on the instrument
Keyboard fingeringon a keyboard instrument, and in order to produce smooth scale sequences, the fingers are employed in a standard manner (called the 'German' or 'International' fingering convention) usually marked in the score using the arabic numerals 1 to 5, where 1 represents the thumb and 2 to 5 indicate the successive digits counting away from the thumb. Using the right hand and beginning on the key note, a standard ascending major or minor scale would be fingered 1, 2, 3, (after which the thumb passes under the middle finger) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 where 5 plays the key note one octave higher than the first note. When descending, the fingering would be 5, 4, 3, 2, 1, (then the middle finger passes over the thumb) 3, 2, 1. The sequences are reversed when using the left hand
older piano music may be marked using the English convention (which is now obsolete), where X indicates the thumb and the arabic numerals 1 to 4 represent the fingers
some early keyboard music, for example that for virginals, appears to have been played without either thumb, a discovery important in our understanding of the phrasing and articulation possibilities available to the original performers
"Praetorius, after describing various methods of tuning, makes the following wry comment:
'I do not consider it very important how each player tunes his violin or viol as long as he is able to play his part correctly and well. Some persons get special notions about such things, and are wont to scorn organists who do not use this or that fingering. But this, it seems to me, is not worth discussing. Let one run up and down the keyboard with the front, middle, or rear finger, and even with his nose if it helps, for as long as what one plays sounds fine and pure, and is correct and pleasant to the ear, it is not very important how one accomplishes it.'"
Michael Praetorius, Syntagma Musicum, III, 1620, cited in 'The History of Violin Playing: from its origins to 1761', David B. Boyden
Keyboard guslisee gusli
Keyboard heightfrom floor to keytop, most single-manual harpsichord, spinet and clavichord keyboard heights are between 26-30.7" (67-78 cm). On a modern piano the standard height is about 28.74" (or 73cm)
Keyboard instrumentan instrument with a keyboard operated by the player's fingers, or pedal board operated by the player's feet
Keyboard partituraa term coined by musicologist Willi Apel for keyboard music laid out in full score, i.e. each voice-part on its own staff. One of the last works laid out in this manner was the Capricci da sonare (Naples, 1687) by Gregorio Strozzi (c.1615-c.1690)
Keyboard percussionsee 'mallet instruments'
Keyboard scalingwhen programming a sound on a synthesiser, some sounds get weaker in volume, the higher up the keyboard you play, for example, on an acoustic piano. Scaling is used to reproduce this effect
Keyboard scorea term used to describe music for keyboard, written on two or three staves, with multiple voices on each staff
strictly speaking what is described above is a 'tablature', not a 'score'. A score should have individual voices on separate staves, while a tablature can have two or more voices on a single staff. It is for this reason that polyphonic music rewritten as a keyboard score, where each staff has more than one of the original vocal lines, is said to be 'intabulated'. However, a J. S. Bach Two-Part Invention is written in keyboard score, one voice on each staff
Keyboard tablaturealso called 'Piano tablature', an emerging system of tablature or musical notation written using letters and numbers that designate the timing and keys to hit on a keyboard or piano
Key buglesee 'keyed bugle'
Key centre(in the US, 'key center') in music theory, the key centre is the root of the tonic triad, the chord, major or minor, which represents the final point of rest for a piece, or the focal point of a section. Although the key, and therefore the key centre, of a piece may be named in the title (e.g. Symphony in C), or inferred from the key signature, the establishment of key is brought about via functional harmony, a sequence of chords leading to one or more cadences
Key chordthe tonic triad
Key clicksthe sound made by woodwind instruments when the key hits the body of the instrument. Some composers have exploited these extraneous sounds in their compositions
Keydesksee 'console'
Keyed buglebugle à clefs (French), bugle des llaves (Spanish), corno segnale con chiavi (Italian)
in 1810 the Irishman Joseph Halliday, bandmaster of the Cavan Militia, was granted a patent for a keyed bugle, the so-called Royal Kent Bugle. This conical instrument had copper tubing (125-135 cm long with a diameter of 12-25 mm), a rapid flare to a 15 cm wide bell and at least six keys. This very agile instrument was used as a powerful soprano instrument for playing the melody line in brass bands, but was only seldom asked for in symphony orchestras (an exception is Rossini's opera Semiramide, 1823). In France this instrument was called the trompette cromatique or bugle à clefs, in Germany it was known as the Klappenhorn
Keyed didgeridooa didgeridoo having keys somewhat like those of a saxophone, that allows the performer to play melodically was developed in the late twentieth century by the U.S. didgeridoo player Graham Wiggins
Keyed glockenspielglockenspiel à clavier (French), Klaviaturglockenspiel (German), campanelli a tastiera (Italian)
with an action similar to that of the piano, the keyed glockenspiel predates the standard orchestral instrument and would have been played by a keyboard player, not a percussionist. Those parts written originally for this older instrument are played today on the standard orchestral instrument by a percussionist
Keyed harmonicaan instrument with keys that actuate hammers which strike plates of glass
Keyed trumpetforerunner of the modern valved trumpet, this instrument, bearing between four and six keys instead of valves, came into use in the late eighteenth century and continued in use for about a hundred years
Key flapsalso called 'flat key flaps', flat, pad-retaining end of an early woodwind key that was padded with a piece of soft leather to cover its tonehole. The shape was usually square or round, with many decorative variations
Key frameon a piano, the key frame consists of front and centre-rails of hard maple and the key frame with its front and centre-pins, and provides for the proper location and spacing of the piano keys
Key harpinvented in 1819 by Dietz and Second, a piano-like instrument that has tuning forks instead of strings
Key mechanismsee 'keywork'
Keynoteor 'key note', tonica (Italian f.), Tonika (German f.), tonique (French f.), the first note, or tonic, of any scale
Key-novelSchlüsselroman (German m.), roman à clef (French m.), livre à clef (French m.)
a narrative that represents actual historical characters and events in the form of fiction. Usually in this fictional setting, the author presents descriptions of real contemporary figures but uses fictitious names for them. However, the character's common traits and mannerisms would be so well-known that readers "in the know" would recognize them
Key releasesan extended technique on wind-instruments, where a depressed key is intentionally suddenly released, so making a slight mechanical noise
Key signaturean arrangement of sharps or flats, placed on the far left hand side of each line of the staff, indicating the notes in the music that are consistently altered (that is, sharpened or flattened). Although it is common for the key signature to be the same as the 'key' of the music, this is not what the key signature specifies and indeed they can be different
all major sharp keys
the major sharp keys and the key of C major which has neither sharps nor flats in the key signature
the minor keys have a key note a minor third below that of the corresponding major key. Thus, A minor has the same key signature as C major and G sharp minor has the same key signature as B major
all major flat keys
the major flat keys and the key of C major which has neither sharps nor flats in the key signature
the minor keys have a key note a minor third below that of the corresponding major key. So, A minor has the same key signature as C major and G minor has the same key signature as Bb major
Key slapsslapping instrument keys to produce a sound effect
Key slipon a piano, that part of the case in front of the natural or white keys, and attached to the key bed by wood-screws
Key-stopa key (called a 'key stop') attached to the fingerboard of a violin (then called a 'key-stopped violin') to be used in place of the finger when stopping individual strings
Key topthe ebony, bone, ivory (or plastic), boxwood or other material applied to the top of a natural key on a keyboard instrument, e.g. on harpsichord, clavichord or piano keys
Key trumpetsee 'keyed trumpet'
Keyworkor key mechanism, all those mechanical parts that on a wind instrument operate and regulate the keys covering the various tone holes, meccanismo delle chiavi (Italian m.) Klappenmechanik (German f.), m&eacuate;canisme des clefs (French m.), mecanismo de llaves (Spanish m.)
KFor K.F., abbreviation of kleine Flöte (German: piccolo)
acronym for Köchel-Verzeichis (J. J. Fux) (German: Köchel Catalogue (J. J. Fux))
KFagabbreviation of Kontrafagott (German: contrabassoon - contrebasson (French))
Kfzabbreviation of Kraftfahrzeug (German: motor vehicle)
Kgalso Kinsky or Kinsky-Helm, reference to George Kinsky (1882-1951) who, with Hans Halm, prepared a catalogue of music by Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)
kgabbreviation of 'kilogram', kilogramme (French: kilogram = 1000 grams)
KGBabbreviation of K(omitet) G(osudarstvennoi) B(ezopasnosti) (Russian - the intelligence and internal security agency of the former Soviet Union)
Kglabbreviation of Königlich(e, er, es) (Dutch: Royal)
Khaddar, khadiHand-spun and hand-woven cloth
Khaenthe khaen is a sixteen reed bamboo mouth organ (a double row of bamboo reeds fitted into a hardwood sound box) native to the Isaan people of northeastern Thailand and Laos. It can also be found in regions of the highlands of northwest and south central Vietnam
Khâgne(French f.) or cagne (French f.), an art class to prepare for the extrance examination for the École normale supérieure
khâgneux (m.), khâgneuse (f.)(French) or cagneux (m.), cagneuse (f.), knock-kneed, crooked (limbs)
Khaia native throat singing style that comes from the region of Khakassia which lies to the north of Tyva
Khaki(English, German n., from the Urdu, 'dusty') a dull brownish-yellow fabric or uniform
khakifarben(German) dull brownish-yellow colour
Khalala small square double-headed Moroccan frame drum
Khaliin Indian classical music, un unstressed (weak) beat in a tala pattern
Khalife(French m.) or calife (French m.), caliph
Khamaksee khomok
Khamsasee hamsa
Khamsin(Arabic) an oppressively hot south-east wind which blows in Egypt and neighbouring countries for about fifty days during March, April and May
Khan(English, French m. from Arabic) title of rulers and officials in Central Asia, Afghanistan, etc.
(Arabic) an unfurnished building for the accommodation of travellers in the East
Khanatea form of government in which the head of state (or ruler) bears the title of Khan
Khandmeruin Indian classical music, the permutation and combination of notes
Khanendehmugham singers of Azerbaijan
Khanjiraa Southern Indian form of tambourine
Khartal(India) a pair of lightweight rectangular wooden blocks played with the hands, a kind of castanets
Khartoum(English, French) the capital of Sudan located at the confluence of the Blue Nile and White Nile
Khasápikosalternative name for hasapiko
Khayal(Hindustani, from Persian, literally 'imagination', 'creative thought') applied to the elaboration of a raga with a lyrical composition consisting of two stanzas, the most popular classical form of Hindustani vocal music. The khayal form partially liberated melody by changing the role of poetry which was no longer the determining factor in shaping the melodic line, raga, etc. In addition, khayal introduced the use of vowels (aakaar), sargam (solmisation) and meaningless consonants (tarana) as alternative articulations available to the vocalist, and granted much greater improvisational freedom to the performer. In addition, it introduced the taan, a high-density melodic run, which almost entirely liberated melody from poetry, moving it towards a degree of abstraction
Khaza form of music notation used for Armenian religious chants
Khediveone of the Turkish viceroys who ruled Egypt between 1867 and 1914
Khédive(French m.) khedive
Khedivial Opera Houseor Royal Opera House was the original opera house in Cairo, Egypt. It was dedicated on November 1, 1869 and burned down on October 28, 1971. Verdi's opera Rigoletto was chosen as the first opera to be performed at the opera house
Khelimaski djilia dance song performed by the rural Hungarian Roma
Khenesee khaen
Khimsee kim
Khishba(Iraq) a drum open at one end and with a very small drumhead glued to the other end of the body. The drum is suspended at the diagonal by a cord from the player's shoulder and is played with the fingers of both hands. The instrument emits a high, dry sound
  • Khishba from which this information has been taken
Khitmutgar(Hindi) a male servant who waits at table
Khlui(Central Thailand) a bamboo recorder with seven holes covering one and a half octaves
Khmer(English, French m.) the Mon-Khmer language spoken in Cambodia
(English, French m.) a member of a people of Cambodia whose civilisation reached its height from the 9th to the 15th century
khmer (m.), khmère (f.)of or pertaining to the Khmer
Khodebshchik(Russian) a person carrying advertisement hoarding, or hawking his wares round the street, or house-to-house salesman, or trading peddle in 16th-19th centuries in Russia
Khoisana family of non-Indo-European languages spoken in the southwestern regions of Africa
Khola terracotta two-sided drum, played with the player's palms and fingers, used in northern and eastern India for the accompaniment of devotional music
Khôl(French m.) kohl (English, French), kohol (English, French), kohal (English), kajal (English, Southern Asia), kol (English), kehal (Arabic), surma (English, Southern Asia)
Khomokalso called ananda lahari (literally 'wave of joy'), gubgubi or khamak, a small drum, of the baul (minstrels) of Bengal, with a wooden body and a skin head, played by pulling on or plucking one or, occasionally, two string that by changing the tension on the drum skin produce its characteristic sound
KhomusTuvan jew's harp
Khöömeiwhile khöömei is used as a generic term to designate all throat singing techniques in this region, it is also more specifically a technique where the drone is in the middle-range of the voice, with harmonics between one and two octaves above
see 'throat singing'
Khorotot(from khoro, literally 'thunder') a large trumpet with neither valves nor fingerholes, once played as a signaling devices for community meetings, or in military contexts, but nowadays very little used. The tone is very loud and penetrating, so that it can be heard at a distance
  • Khorotot from which this information has been taken
Khorovod(Russian) a circle dance
Khulesee serdu
kHzabbreviation of 'kilohertz' (1000 cycles per second)
Kibboutz(French m.) kibbutz
Kibbutz (s.), Kibbutzim (pl.)(English, from Hebrew, literally 'gathering') communal settlement in Israel usually involved in farming
Kibitka(Russian) a Tartar tent of lattice and felt, a Russian covered cart or sledge
Kibosh(English slang of unknown origin) 'put the kibosh on' means 'to put an end to'
K'iche and kaqchikela Guatemalan instrumental style performed on flute and drum
kichern(German) to giggle
Kickin dance, a foot and lower leg action that imitates a kick
in jazz, a composed phrase that is played in rhythmic unison by the accompanying instruments, behind a melody that may or may not be composed
Kick druma large drum that produces a note of low definite or indefinite pitch. The type seen on drum kits is often incorrectly referred to as a 'kick drum', usually by non-drummers and especially by recording and sound engineers
Kicks(German) see couac
Kidi(Ghana) Ewe stick drum
Kidnappage(French m.) kidnapping
Kidnapping(English, French m.) the unlawful act of capturing and carrying away a person against their will and holding them in false imprisonment
Kidnappeur (m.), Kidnappeuse (f.)(French) kidnapper
Kidumbaka musical style from Zanzibar, like a stripped down version of taarab, only more percussive and dance-based
(Zanzibar) a set of cup drums similar to the Arab darbouka, used in taarab
Kiefer(German f.) pine(-tree)
(German m.) jaw
Kiel(German m.) harpsichord jack, keel (of a ship)
Kielflügel(German m., literally 'quill-wing') a harpsichord jack, a (wing-shaped) harpsichord
Kielwasser(German n.) wake (of a ship)
Kiemen(German f. pl.) gills (of a fish, etc.)
Kies(German m.) gravel
Kieselstein(German m.) pebble
Kiesgrube(German f.) gravel pit
Kif(English, French m., from Arabic) also keef (English) or kef (French), Indian hemp, a state of dreamy intoxication induced by a narcotic
c'est du kif (French: it's all the same, it's all one, it makes no odds) (colloquial)
Kigoa traditional "season-word" in Japanese haiku. The kigo must appear within a haiku's text or be strongly implied by imagery. These words place the haiku within a specific month or season, establishing an atmosphere for the poem while maintaining brevity
Kihembea double-headed East African drum. The player hangs the drum from his shoulder and supports it under the arm while beating it with the fingers and palm. A pebble is inserted into the drum shell and rattles against the drumheads
  • Kihembe from which this information has been taken
Ki ho'alu(Hawaiian) slack key guitar
kiihdyttäen(Finnish) accelerando
Kikuyu popthe Kikuyu, the largest ethnic group in Africa, have their own form of pop music, which can be distinguished by female backing singers, rare in the rest of Kenya
Kil de rouge(French m.) a bottle of plonk (a bottle of cheap, inferior wine)
Kilembe(Zaire) a lamellaphone of the Luba people of the western Kasai region
Kilim(Turkish) or kelim (which is a mispelling), a woven carpet without a pile
Kilimandjaro(French m.) Kilimanjaro
Kilimanjaroat 5898.7 m (19,340 ft), the highest peak in Africa, located in northeast Tanzania near the border with Kenya
Kilobar(English, French m.) 1000 bar (unit of pressure)
Kilobytea unit of storage capacity (1024 (2) bytes), a binary 1,000
Kilocycle(English, French m.) 1000 cycles per second (unit of frequency)
Kilogramm(German n.) kilogram (1000 grams)
Kilogramme(French m.) kilogram (1000 grams)
Kilohertz(English, French m.) 1000 cycles per second (unit of frequency)
Kilometer(German m.) kilometre (1000 metres)
Kilométrage(French m.) mileage, marking with a milestone
Kilométre(French m.) kilometre (1000 metres)
kilométrer(French) to mark with a milestones
kilométrique(French) of or pertaining to the marking out of distance
Kilo-octet(French m.) kilobyte
Kilotonne(English, French m.) in metric units, one thousand metric tons (a metric ton is 1,000 kg.)
besides the metric ton (or tonne, see above), there are two other units called the ton: the long ton (UK imperial measure: approximately 1016 kg) and the short ton (North American unit of mass: approximately 907.2 kg)
Kilowatt(English, French m.) a unit of power equal to 1000 watts
Kilowatt-heure (s.), Kilowatts-heures (pl.)(French m.) kilowatt-hour
Kilowatt-houra unit of energy equal to the work done by a power of 1000 watts operating for one hour
Kilt(English, French m.) a knee-length pleated tartan skirt worn by men as part of the traditional dress in the Highlands of northern Scotland
(French m.) pleated or kilted skirts for women
KiltartaneseLady Augusta Gregory's term for English with Gaelic syntax, i.e., the dialect of English spoken in Kiltartan, a townland close to her home at Coole Park. Lady Gregory chose to use this dialect and its distinctive Gaelic features for her translations of Old Irish tales in Gods and Fighting Men
Kim(Vietnam) see nguyeät
(Southern Thailand) a hammered dulcimer with three strings per course similar to the Chinese yang chin. Both have Arabic origins
Kim Iin 1976, David Behrman (b. 1937) used a Kim-1, the first of the small, affordable microcomputers that began to appear in the market, to compose 'On the Other Ocean'. In a performance, the Kim-1 'listened to' a flute and bassoon and generated sounds
Kimono(English, French m., Italian m., from the Japanese) or, in Italian, chimono, a long Japanese coat-like robe with loose sleeves, Obi sash belted. The fabrics used are often luxurious and highly decorated
Kina primitive cittern-like instrument of the Chinese, with from five to twenty-five silken strings
Kinaesthesiaor 'proprioception', the sense of the relative position of neighbouring parts of the body
Kinaestheticor 'kinesthetic', of or pertaining to kinaesthesia
Kinaesthetic feedbackor 'kinesthetic feedback', sensory information about position or movement of various parts of the body. In regard to speech, this information coming from the tongue, lips, and other articulators is thought to be important in regulation of speech motor control
Kinatsua warriors/hunters dance of the Konkonba tribe of Northern Ghana. Although it began as a warriors/hunters musical performance, it now functions as a harvest dance during funerals, festivals, national day celebrations, and other social occasions
Kindor K, referring to the catalogue of music by Ferruccio Busoni (1866-1924) prepared by Marc-André Roberge and Jürgen Kindermann
Kind (s.), Kinder (pl.)(German n.) child
Kind auf, von(German) from childhood
Kinderarzt (m.), Kinderärztin (f.)(German) paediatrician
Kinderbett(German n.) child's cot
Kinderei(German f.) childish prank
Kinderfilm(German m.) children's film (a film for children)
Kindergarten(German m.) nursery school
the term is applied most widely to nursery schools conducted on the principles devised by Friedrich Fröbel (1782-1852) which aims to develop the intelligence of children by means of games which will retain their interest
Kindergärtnerin(German f.) nursery-school teacher
Kindergeld(German n.) child benefit
Kindergottesdienst(German m.) Sunday school
Kinderlähmung(German f.) polio
kinderleicht(German) very easy
kinderlos(German) childless
Kindermädchen(German m.) nanny
kinderreiche Familie(German f.) large family
Kinderreim(German m.) nursery rhyme
(German pl.) in English, 'Scenes from Childhood', thirteen pieces for solo piano Op. 15, by Robert Schumann (1810-1856) composed in 1838:
1. Von Fremden Landern und Menschen
2. Curiose Geschichte
3. Hasche-Mann
4. Bittendes Kind
5. Gluckes Genug
6. Wichtige Begebenheit
7. Traumerei
8. Am Camin
9. Ritter Von Steckenpferd
10. Fast zu Ernst
11. Furchtenmachen
12. Kind im Einschlummern
13. Der Dichter Spricht
Kinderspiel(German n.) children's game, child's play (colloquial)
Kinderstimme(German f.) child's voice
Kinderstück(German) piece for children, children's piece
Kindertagesstätte(German f.) day nursery
Kinderteller(German m.) children's menu
Kinderwagen(German m.) pram, baby carriage (US)
Kinderzimmer(German n.) child's room, children's room, nursery (for a baby)
Kindheit(German f.) childhood
kindisch(German) childish, puerile
kindlich(German) childlike, simple, artless
KinesicsKinesik (German f.), Gesichtsausdruck mit Augenkontakt (German m., older term), the interpretation of body language such as facial expressions and gestures - or, more formally, non-verbal behaviour related to movement, either of any part of the body or the body as a whole
Kinesik(German f.) kinesics
Kinésithérapeute(French m./f.) physiotherapist
Kinésithérapie(French f.) physiotherapy
kinesthésique(French) kinaesthetic
Kinfuitia drum used in a ritual of the same name associated with the Congolese slaves in Cuba
Kingletsmall birds (of the genus Regulus) resembling warblers but having some of the habits of titmice
a petty, unimportant king
King postthe standard name in the U.S. for a modern silver flute's central post, into which the ends of the right-hand and left-hand key section steels fit, usually by means of either a conical or a cylindrical bearing
Kingri(India) a crude fiddle with a resonator of unglazed pottery
  • Kingri from which this information has been taken
King's and Queen's Highway (Gents go left, Ladies go right)one of the big circle figures danced by all couples in one large circle facing the centre which are traditionally associated with square dancing
King's and Queen's Highway (Promenade)one of the big circle figures danced by all couples in one large circle facing the centre which are traditionally associated with square dancing
King's and Queen's Highway Subsetone of the big circle figures danced by all couples in one large circle facing the centre which are traditionally associated with square dancing
Kingsley Hall Settlementfounded in 1915, Kingsley House, London, was a mixed sex settlement where residents agreed to the communal sharing of all income, housework, and responsibilities. When Gandhi visited London in 1931, he insisted upon staying at Kingsley Hall rather than in a hotel
Kinkhorn (s.), Kinkhörner (pl.)(German) cornet, clarion
Kinnhalter(German m.) chin rest (for example, on a violin), mentoniera (Italian f.), mentonera (Spanish f.), mentonnière (French f.)
Kinnorsee 'David's harp'
Kinnor harpsee 'David's harp'
Kino(German n.) movie theatre, cinema, picture palace, picture-theatre, motion pictures, the 'pictures' (familiar)
Kinophonin 1911 Molzer Jr. built a Kinophon for the U.S.A, which is similar to a theatre or movie house organ. The Kinophon had two manuals and a pedal and had 40 stops, making it a demanding instrument from the point of view of the performer
Kinskyalso Kinsky-Helm, after George Kinsky who, with Hans Halm, catalogued the music of Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)
Kiosque(French m.) kiosk, stall, pavilion (garden), summerhouse, conning tower (submarine), wheelhouse (boat)
Kiosque à journaux(French m.) newspaper kiosk
Kiosque à musique(French m.) bandstand
Kiraran ancient five or six-stringed Ethiopian African lyre
Kirche(German f.) church
Kirchenarie(German f.) church aria
[corrected by Luise Wascher]
Kirchencantate(German f.) church cantata (archaic spelling)
Kirchenchor(German m.) church choir
Kirchencomponist(German m.) composer of church music
Kirchendienst(German m.) church-service, form of prayer
Kirchenfest(German n.) church festival
Kirchengesang(German m.) spiritual song, plainsong, canticle, psalm, hymn, hymn tune
Kirchenjahr(German n.) liturgical year
[entry supplied by Brian A. Jefferies]
Kirchenkantate(German f.) church cantata
Kirchenlied(German n.) spiritual song, plainsong, canticle, psalm, hymn, hymn tune
Kirchenmusik(German f.) church music
Kirchenorchester(German n.) church orchestra
Kirchenschluss(German m.) church cadence
[entry by Michael Zapf]
Kirchensonate(German f. - more common form) or Kirchen-Sonate (German f.), church sonata, sonata da chiesa (Italian)
[entry amended by Michael Zapf]
Kirchen-Sonate(German f.) or Kirchensonate (German f.), church sonata, sonata da chiesa (Italian)
[entry amended by Michael Zapf]
Kirchenstil(German m.) ecclesiastical style, the style of church music
Kirchenstück(German n.) piece or composition specifically written for church use
Kirchenstyl(German m., older spelling) church style, ecclesiastical style
Kirchentanz(German m.) church dance
Kirchenton(German m.) church mode or tone
Kirchentonart(German f.) church mode
Kirchentonarten(German f. pl.) church modes
the church modes, in fact misnamed ancient Greek modes, are named, according to the Western and Eastern Church traditions, as follows:
Western nameEastern Namefinal
finalis (Latin)
Hauptton (German)
repercussio (Latin)
reciting note
Reperkussa (German)
lowest note
tiefster Ton (German)
authentic modes (authentischen Modi)
First mode
Erster Ton (German)
Third mode
Dritter Ton (German)
Fifth mode
Fünfter Ton (German)
Seventh mode
Siebenter Ton (German)
plagal modes (plagalen Modi)
Second mode
Zweiter Ton (German)
Fourth mode
Vierter Ton (German)
eaB natural
H (German)
Sixth mode
Sechster Ton (German)
Eighth mode
Achter Ton (German)
new modes (neuen Modi) (only known in the Western tradition)
 b natural
h (German)
noneb natural
h (German)
Kirchentonleiter(German f.) church mode
Kirchentrio(German) an obsolete species of composition for two violins and bass
Kircher, Athanasius
(2 May 1601/2-1680)
important works
Musurgia Universalis sive Ars Magna Consoni et Dissoni (Rome, 1650) This encyclopedia on music is probably Kircher's most famous work. It deals with music from almost every possible aspect: historical, physical, technical, medical, mythological, mathematical and so on. There are articles on musical instruments from different times and cultures, harmonic science, tuning of instruments, acoustics, instrument making, musical theory, the "music" of birds and other animals, tonal systems from antiquity and onwards etc, etc. It also contains some historical documents, as a reproduction of the music to Pindaros' First Pythian Ode (this was declared to be a "falsification" in the 1930s) and a translation of Abraham ben Ghia Hanassis history of Jewish music. The theory and practice of automatic instruments and of a device that could compose music are treated, and so is Tarantism, a disease that was belived to be caused by the sting of the Apulian tarantula, a big spider.
Phonurgia Nova (Kempten, 1673) A book about acoustics. In this book Kircher treated the problems of amplifying and controlling sounds and how to construct and build rooms with good acoustic properties. He showed how many such problems could be solved by the use of two methods, anaclasis, reflexion, and anacampsis, refraction. Reflection is still in use, while "refraction", i.e. the use of tubes and funnels, has been outdated by modern amplifiers. The book also deals with the design of echo chambers and different kinds of "funnel-amplifiers" for various purposes, how to use underwater bell-bouys as a substitute for lighthouses and how to measure the speed of sound . It contains a famous description of a puppet that dances only when certain tones are played on an instrument.
Oedipus Aegyptiacus (Rome, 1652-1654) Kircher seems to have regarded Oedipus Aegyptiacus as his most important work. It is a work on egyptology in several volumes, in which Kircher declared that he had found a method to interpret hieroglyphic inscriptions. Unfortunately the method was soon found to be incorrect. His basic theory, that the Coptic language is a descendant of Ancient Egyptian, was correct, though, and became of great importance to later, more successful, egyptologists.
Magnes sive De Arte Magnetica (First printed in Rome, 1641) In this work Kircher put forward a theory concerning the fundamental causes of motion and natural forces. According to this theory, all motions in nature, as well as all natural forces, can be described in terms of attraction and repulsion. As he thought that magnetism was the most obvious example of this phenomenon, he used the term "magnetism" to describe it. Thus he discussed the "magnetic properties" of things that are usually regarded as having no magnetic properties at all, like water, stones, air, plants etc, and this has caused persistent misunderstandings of the theory. Magnes contains pictures and descriptions of many devices working according to the principle of attraction and repulsion, and in one section that deals with "the magnetism of the four elements" there is a treatise on electricity and electrical experiments, called Elektromagnetismos.
Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae (Rome, 1646; Amsterdam, 1671)

Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae contains all there was to know about light and optics in the middle of the seventeenth century. It begins with a survey of the properties of light (according to Kircher) and continues with the design, building and use of astronomical, and sometimes astrological, instruments. One section deals with the design of various types of sundials (in some cases "moondials") for different purposes, some highly advanced and some designed for use in different parts of the world. Much of the book is devoted to astronomy in practice and in theory, and it also supplies the beginner astronomer with the necessary knowledge of mathemathics. Another subject in the book is how to grind and polish various kinds of lenses and mirrors.

The last of the ten books of Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae treats the "natural magic of mirrors and lenses", i. e. optical toys and other devices, such as "magical" parabolic mirrors that could project pictures of angels, saints and even of Christ in suitable places, an everchanging picture, a stroboscope or "star-wheel", a giant focusing mirror and a "high-power" parabolic floodlight. In a separate treatise, Cryptologia Nova, he describes how to build and to use projecting devices.

There are also some really weird designs in the book, e.g. a tiny replica of the Memnon sculptures that sings when air, heated by the sun in a specially designed vessel, expands through an organ pipe, hidden in the throat of the sculpture, and "Flying Dragons", i.e. illuminated box-kites decorated with "prodigous images".

kirchlich(German) sacred, spiritual, ecclesiastical
Kirchliche(German n.) spirtuality
kirchliche Amt(German f.) Christian ministry
kirchliche Begräbnis(German f.) Christian burial
kirchliche Musik(German f.) sacred music
Kirketoneart(Danish) church mode
Kirkkosävelasteikko(Finnish) mode
Kirkkosävellaji(Finnish) church mode
Kirkpatricksee 'K'
kirlen(German) to quill the jacks of a harpsichord, etc.
Kirmesssee Kermesse
Kiroba`Are`are (Malaita, Solomon Islands) music for sound play on water
Kiromboi also called krommoi; a hand held percussive instrument of the Bidayuh people of western Sarawak, in Borneo, made from two giant snail shells attached to two ends of a split bamboo stick, that when struck with a small stick, produce a rattling sound remarkably similar to that of the local frogs
Kirsch(English, French m., German m.) a clear liqueur distilled from cherries and their almond-flavoured stones
(German m.) cherry
Kirschwasser(German n.) or Kirsch (German m.), a clear liqueur distilled from cherries and their almond-flavoured stones
Kirtan(from the Sanskrit, 'to sing') a Bangladeshi classical song-form which gives freedom to the singer to introduce parenthetical comments, phrases not in the original song
also called mantra music, kirtan is a religious chant, associated with the Bhakti movement in fifteenth-century India, in which a Sanskrit mantra is sung over and over again, often faster and faster, a style that originated in East India. The leader sings out the mantra, one of hundreds of different simple Sanskrit phrases of devotion to the Divine, and the participants sing it back
Kirtlea short skirt worn by women
a long gown or dress worn by women
a long tunic worn by men
Kirwanian Indian raga specially suited for instrumental music, the scale being the same as the harmonic minor in Western music
Kismet(Turkish, from Arabic) fate, destiny
Kissanje(Angola) a lamellaphone similar to the sanza
Kissarbowl-shaped lyre
Kissenbezug(German m.) cushion cover
Kissentanz(German m.) cushion dance
Kissograma trade name for a novelty card issued by Valentine's Company in 1906. After wetting one's lips and kissing the man printed on the card, another kiss would be made to the blank space below. This caused a transfer of red pigment that provided the recipient of the card with a kiss from the sender
Kita small pocket violin popular with dancing masters who could play and demonstrate the dance steps at the same time
or 'kitbag' (in which case, the kit is what the bag is designed to contain), case for containing a set of articles
young of any of various fur-bearing animals
(English, French m.) multiple unassembled separate parts that make up a model or product (for example, a kit for making a harpsichord)
Kitab al-Aghanicollection of poems in many volumes compiled by Abu al-Faraj Ali (897-967) of Esfahan. It contains poems from the oldest epoch of Arabic literature down to the nineteenth century. The poems were put to music, but the musical signs are no longer readable. Because of the accompanying biographical annotations on the authors and composers, the work provides detailed information about the culture and social life of medieval Islam
Kitarne citre(Slovenia) guitar zither
Kitchen departmentan unkind description of the percussion section of an orchestra
Kitchenette(English, French f.) a cooking area in motel and hotel rooms, small apartments, college dormitories, or office buildings, often fitted out with subsized equipment
Kithara(English, German f., from Greek) an ancient Greek lyre-like instrument, the kithara had a square or rounded resonator box (body) and as many as eleven gut strings supported by a yoke attached to two arms attached to and rising from the body
Kitsch(English, German m., literally 'sentimental rubbish') a work of art that is shallow, pretentious, gaudy, without substance, or calculated to have popular appeal
kitschig(German) slushy, kitschy
Kitt(German m.) (adhesive) cement, putty
Kittel(German m.) overall, smock, white coat (laboratory coat, etc.)
kitten(German) to stick, to cement (figurative)
Kitty Foylea dress style of the 1940s characterized by a dark fabric and contrasting (usually white) collar and cuffs
Kitty-kattya musical instrument described as being "nothing but a flat piece of board beat upon by two sticks". The term may be a derived from catta or kata. In Trinidad, a similar instrument was called a cotter
Kitz(German n.) kid (zoological)
Kitzel(German m.) tickle, thrill
kitzeln(German) to tickle
kitzlig(German) ticklish
Ki un kia wind instrument used by the Siberian tribe of the Udegeys. It is a two metre long stalk, and the sound is produced by inhaling. As the instrument has no finger holes, the pitch can only be altered by lip pressure
KiwiNew Zealander (colloquial)
(French m.) kiwi (bird), kiwi (fruit), Chinese gooseberry (fruit)
Kiyaksee tapan
Kízh kízh díhíNorth-American fiddle
Kizombaan Angolan musical style based on the semba, rumba and quilapanga. Sung in Portuguese or Portuguese Creole, it is a genre of music with a Euro-centric romantic flow mixed with African rhythm sections. The kizomba dancing style is also very sensual
  • Kizomba from which some of this information has been taken
Kizomba crioulaalso Creole kizomba or Capeverdean kizomba, divergent from Angolan 'kizomba' because it is performed in Portuguese Creole instead of Portuguese, is more romantic and has softer rhythms and lyrics