music dictionary : N - Nh 

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NAACPacronym for 'The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People' which was founded in 1909 under the leadership of W.E.B DuBois as an institution dedicated to fighting discrimination against African-Americans. Originally, the organization planned protests and participated in court cases to draw attention and opposition to racism. The also lobbied to pass laws against racism
Nabalsee nahbal
Na bas singing(Croatia) the newer style of diatonic two-part singing from Croatia. What distinguishes the older style from the more modern, na bas singing, are the endings. They in on the unison in the older tradition, but on a perfect fifth in the newer tradition, na bas style
Nabatny bellin Russia, the public tocsin or alarm bell
Nacaire(French m.) a brass kettle-drum with a loud, metalic sound, once much used in France and Italy
(French m.) nakers
Nácar(Spanish m.) mother-of-pearl, nacreous, pearly
Nacara(German f.) nakers
nacarado (m.), nacarada (f.)(Spanish) mother-of-pearl, nacre
nacarino (m.), nacarina (f.)(Spanish) mother-of-pearl, nacre
Naccara(Italian f. s.) a castanet, a kind of Turkish drum
Naccare(Italian f. pl.) also nacchere or gnaccare, castanets
Nacchera (s.), Nacchere (pl.)(Italian f.) see naccara, naccare
Naccheretta(Italian f.) a small kettle-drum
Naccherino(Italian m.) a kettle-drummer
Naccherone(Italian m.) nakers, a large pair of kettle-drums
Nacelle(English from French f., literally 'little boat') the protective covering over a generator or motor, a separate streamlined enclosure on an aircraft for sheltering the crew or cargo or housing an engine, basket or car suspended from a hot-air balloon, the bowl-like framework enclosing the front or rear lamps of a motor-car
nacer(Spanish) to be born, to hatch, to hatch out, to sprout, to come up (a plant), to begin to grow, to spring, to spring up, to originate, to start, to arise
nach(German) after, to (in the sense of 'going from one thing to another')
(German) according to
nachahmen(German) to imitate, to copy, to counterfeit, to emulate, to mime, to mimic, to simulate, to taker the edge off something
nachahmend(German) imitative
nachahmenswert(German) worth imitating
Nachahmer(German m.) an imitator, an echo
Nachahmung(German f.) an imitation, a copy, an imitation, a shadow, a sham, a simulacrum, a take-off
als Nachahmung von (German: in imitation of)
die genaue Nachahmung von (German: the echo)
nach Art der/des/von(German) in the manner of, alla maniera di (Italian), a la maniera (Italian), à la manière (French)
nach Art der Zigeuner(German) alla zingarese (Italian) alla zingara (Italian), in a gypsy style, in the style of gypsy music, à la tzigane (French)
nach außen(German) outwards
Nachbarton (s.), Nachbartöne (pl.)(German m.) neighbouring note, neighbouring tone
nach Belieben(German) or frei in Vortrag (German), free in style or delivery, as you like, at (the performer's) pleasure), ad libitum (Latin), a piacere (Italian), a bene placito (Italian), à volonté (French)
nach dem Spiegel geschnitten(German) débité sur maille (French), taglio radiale (Italian), quarter-cut, wood cut in a radial direction to form a wedge, rather like cutting a slice of cake
nach diesem Buch(German) according to this book
Nachdruck (s.), Nachdrucke (pl.)(German m.) emphasis, accent, expressiveness, energy
(German m.) reprint, reproduction
nachdrücklich(German) emphatic, energetic, forcible, strongly marked, accented, expressive
nachdrücksam(German) emphatic, energetic, forcible, strongly marked, accented, expressive
nach Feierabend(German) after work
Nachfolge(German) imitation
nachgeben(German) give way, relax, rallentando
nachgebend(German) cedendo (Italian), getting slower, yielding, en cédant (French)
nach Gefallen(German) ad libitum
nachgehend(German) following
nachglassen(German) posthumous
nachgiebiger(German) still slower
Nachhall (s.), Nachhalle (pl.)(German m.) an echo, a reverberation, a response
nachhallen(German) to echo, to reverberate
nach jedem Schlag abdämpfen(German) dampen after each beat
Nachklang(German m.) a resonance, an echo, a reverberation
nachklingen(German) to ring, to resound, to echo
Nachlass (s.), Nachlass (pl.), Nachlässe (pl.)(German m.) discount, estate, legacy (also figurative), rebate, reduction, property (inheritance), abatement, bequest, deduction, allowance, residue (of an estate), assets, diminution, drawback, sales discount
(German m.) or Nachlaß, used in academia to describe the collection of manuscripts, notes, correspondence, and so on left behind when a scholar dies. The word is not commonly used in English, and when it is, it is often italicized or printed in capitalized form to indicate its foreign provenance
nachlassen(German) slackening speed (usually while reducing the volume)
nachlassend(German) slackening speed (usually while reducing the volume), releasing, rilasciando
nachlässig(German) carelessly, negligently
Nachmittagsvorstellung(German f.) afternoon performance, matinee
nach oben abrunden(German) to round (a number) up
Nachricht(German f.) communication, report, notice
Nachrichtentrommel(German f.) talking drum
Nachsatz (s.), Nachsätze (pl.)(German m.) fugal answer, comes, response, antithesis, consequent (i.e. what follows)
(German m.) postscript
(German m.) transcript
nachschallen(German) to ring, to resound, to echo
Nachschlag (s.), Nachschläge (pl.)(German m., literally 'after-beat') the two notes that sometimes terminate a trill, and which, when taken in combination with the last two notes of the shake, may form a turn
nachschlag example
(German m., literally 'after-beat') in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, a supplementary note that, placed after a main note, 'steals' time from it, similar to the 'springer'
nach sich ziehen(German) entail (figurative)
Nachsilbe(German f.) suffix
nachsingen(German) to repeat a song, to sing after
Nachspiel(German n.) postlude, or concluding piece
(German n.) sequel (figuratively)
nachstehend(German) following, below
nächstemal, das(German) next time, the
nächsteverwandte Töne(German m. pl.) the nearest relative keys
nachstimmen(German) to retune
Nachtanz(German m., literally 'after dance') the second of two contrasting dances, the first rather slow and the second normally a quick dance in triple time, for which reason it is also called Proportz (a reference to the particular relationship between the meters of the two dances) or Tripla (because it is in triple meter)
Nachtglocke(German) night bell, curfew
Nachthorn(German n,) a covered stop in the organ, usually at 2 ft., 4 ft. or 8 ft. pitch, with a horn-like tone
Nachtigall(German f.) nightingale
nach Tisch(German) after the meal
Nachtlokal(German n.) a night-club
Nachtmusik(German f., literally 'night music') a serenade, as, for example, Mozart's Eine Kleine Nachtmusik
Nachtrag(German m.) appendix, postscript, supplement
nachträglich(German) subsequent, later
Nachtschall(German m.) Nachthorn
Nachtschläger(German m.) nightingale
Nachtstück (s.), Nachtstücke (pl.)(German n., literally 'night-piece') nocturne
(German n.) a work that evokes the sounds and atmosphere of night
nach türkischer Art(German) alla turca (Italian), à la turque (French), im Stil der Janitscharen-Musik (German), in the Turkish style
Nachtwächter, Deror Hajnal, a melody found in many sources from central and eastern Europe and often quoted by eighteenth-century composers, often appearing in Christmas pastorellas. Haydn quotes it in Symphony No. 60; Divertimento a nove (Hoboken II/17); Sextet for Horns and Strings in Eb (original versions of H.II/21); the canonic setting of Hagedorn's Wunsch (H.XVIIb/13), Baryton Trio No. 35 (H.XI/35), Piano Sonata in C# minor (H.XVI/36), and Baryton Duo No. 19 (H.XII/19). Haydn's characteristic use of folk material is well demonstrated in these works
nach und nach(German) bit by bit, little by little, gradually, by degrees, poco a poco, peu à peu
nach und nach immer rascher, schneller(German) by degrees, continually increasing the speed
nach und nach schneller(German) gradually quicker, getting quicker by degrees
nach ungarischer Art(German) all'ungarese (Italian), all'ongherese (Italian), in the Hungarian style, which usually means 'in the Gypsy style', à la hongroise (French)
nach unten(German) down (downwards), downstairs (the floor below)
nach unten abrunden(German) to round (a number) down
Nachweise(German f.) proof, record
nach wie vor(German) 'as before', 'as previously'
Nachwort(German n.) concluding remarks, epilogue, afterword, postscript
nach Wunsch(German) at pleasure, a piacimento (Italian), a piacere Italian), a bene placito (Italian), ad libitum (Latin)
nacido (m.), nacida (f.)(Spanish) born
Naciente(Spanish m.) East
naciente(Spanish) new, recent, growing, rising (sun)
Nacimiento(Spanish m.) birth, origin (figurative), beginning (figurative), source (of a river), Nativity scene, crib, crèche
Nación(Spanish f.) nation, country, state, people
Nacional(Spanish m./f.) national (person of a particular country)
nacional(Spanish) national, domestic
Nacionalidad(Spanish f.) nationality
Nacionalismo(Spanish m.) nationalism
Nacionalista(Spanish m./f.) nationalist
nacionalista(Spanish) nationalistic
Nacionalización(Spanish f.) naturalisation, nationalisation
nacionalizar(Spanish) to nationalise, to naturalize
nacionalizarse(Spanish) to become nationalised, to become naturalised
nacionalizarse español(Spanish) to take up Spanish nationality
nació para músico(Spanish) he was born to be a musican
Nacktkultur(German f.) nudism, the expression of the belief that absence of clothing leads to emancipation of the spirit. In German the movement became part of the Freikörperkultur (German: Free Body Culture), a movement that endorsed a naturistic approach to sports and community living
Nadathe Javanese concept of 'note', see laras
in the Indian classical music tradition, 'sound', 'cosmic energy'
(Spanish f.) nothingness
nada(Spanish) nothing, anything
Nadador (m.), Nadadora (f.)(Spanish) swimmer
Nadales(Spain) the name given to Christmas songs in Catalonia and Galicia
nadar(Spanish) to swim
nadar entre dos aguas(Spanish) to sit on the fence
Nadaswarama South Indian version of the shehnai, it is also called nagaswaram. It is substantially larger than the shehnai and has a simple double reed rather than the more complex quadruple reed. It is considered an auspicious instrument and is found at temples and at weddings. It is normally accompanied by a surpeti, ottu and a tavil. There is a smaller version of the nadaswaram which is played in folk music and is known as the mukhavina
Nadel(German f.) needle (on a gramophone player)
Nadelspitze(German f.) needlepoint
nadie acudió en su ayuda(Spanish) nobody went to his aid
nadie trabaja por amor al arte(Spanish) nobody works out of the goodness of his heart
Nádihegedü(Hungarian, literally 'reed violin') an instrument formed of a length of hollow dried reed over which are stretched two strings, attached to small wooden pegs, that are bowed with a primitive arched bow
Nadimbaan African name for the marímbula
Nadir(Arabic) the point in the celestial sphere opposite the zenith, and thereofre directly below the observer
in general usage, the lowest point, the time of greatest degradation
Nadruk(Dutch) stress
Naenia(Latin) dirge
Naevus (s.), Naevi (pl.)a birthmark, a mole (small permanent dark spot on the skin)
Nafa(Tonga) huge drums made from discarded 200 litre, iron, fuel drums, covered with a leather skin
Nafirian Indian trumpet
Nagado-daikolong-bodied Japanese drum
Nagahk(Korean) or nagak, a low toned, whistle-like instrument, introduced to Korea from the Ming dynasty, made of shells
Nagak(Korean) nagahk
Nagaswaramsee nadaswaram
Nagauta(Japanese, also called 'long song') Japanese classical music form derived from kabuki
Nagel(German m.) fingernail
Nagelgeige(German f.) violino di ferro (Italian), nail-fiddle, violon de fer (French)
Nagellack(German m.) nail varnish
Nagellackentferner(German m.) nail varnish remover (a solvent)
Nagelzange(German f.) nail clippers
Naghmehsee naymeh
Nagkulaa simple Indian bamboo-stick zither
Naglaa dance performed by the Kasena Nankeni people of Paga and Navrongo in the Upper East Region of Ghana. In the olden days, it was performed at funerals but today, even though it still maintains this function, it can also be seen on most social occasions excluding marriage ceremonies. Movements in nagla reflect the spirit of togetherness
Nagphania serpentine horn from Tibet
Nag's Head Swelldeveloped by Kirkman, a form of lid swell, it consisted of two frames with, if you will, fixed shutters (flush to the face of the frame). These frames were, in turn, placed on the front of a three-sided box. One frame was positioned vertically in front of the other, and was arranged so that it could be raised or lowered, thus altering the co-incidence of the horizontal openings, creating more, or less egress for the tone to emerge. I believe that there was a counter-balancing device, to assist in moving the weight of the frame
[part quoted from a contribution to Mander Organs Forum]
nah am Steg(German) near the bridge (for example, the direction for playing flageolet tones on a guitar)
Nahbal(Korean) a one-note Korean brass instrument
nahe(German) near, close to
nahe am Griffbrett(German) near or on the fingerboard, sul tasto (Italian), sulla tastiera (Italian), flautando (Italian), sur la touche (French)
nahe am Korpus anzupfen(German) near the soundboard
nahe daran(German) on the point
nähere Angabe(German) particulars
näher kommend(German) coming nearer
nahverwandte Tonart (s.), nahverwandte Tonarten (pl.)(German f.) closely related key
[entry provided by Michael Zapf]
NaiRomanian panpipes with about 20 pipes, each of different length and diameter, set in a row
see ney
naïf (m.), naïve (f.)(French) unaffected, simple, artless, sincere, without artifice, natural, artless, ingenuous
in English, the feminine form is used as the general form, written 'naive'
Nailheaddecorative carved design of a line of pyramids
Nailon(Spanish m.) nylon
Nail pizzicatoon a stringed instrument, plucking the strings with the fingernail
Nail violinviolino di ferro (Italian), Nagelgeige (German), violon de fer (French)
a wooden board into which nails are driven, set in a semicircle, which the German violinist Johann Wilde is credited with inventing in 1740, and which was played with a violin bow
naiv(German) simple, simple, unaffected, artless, naïve
naïvesee naïf
Naïve arta classification of art that is often characterized by a childlike simplicity in its subject matter and technique. While many naïve artists appear, from their works, to have little or no formal art training, this is often not true
naïvement(French) plainly, artlessly, simply, naively
Naïveté(French) ingenuousness, absence of affectation, artlessness, simplicity of a person who does not use disguises
"It is also used for that natural simplicity with which something is expressed or represented according to truth and verisimilitude. It also means a simplicity that is niais." - Dictionnaire de l'Académie Françoise, 1694
Nairile haolaibao(Inner Mongolia) one of the forms of Mongolian quyi known as haolaibao, specifically one in which the singer is accompanied by more than one musical instrument
Nakajiru(Okinawan, literally 'middle-string') the middle of the three strings of the sanshin
Nakedalso called 'bare', a two note chord (a dyad) is said to be 'naked' which requires an additional note to make the combination more pleasing to the ear
Naked fifthtwo notes of a triad, the root and the fifth, with the third missing
Nakersfrom the Arabic naqqarat, small Medieval kettledrums used mainly for marital music, but also for processionals, dance music and ensemble music
Nakhchivan music
  • Nakhchivan - a region of Azerbaijan with its own distinctive folk music tradition
Nallarisee taepyongso
Namaskarthe Indian salute with folded hands
(1469-1538 or 1539 AD)
founder of Sikhism
Name battenthe narrow strip of wood at the bottom edge of the nameboard on a keyboard instrument which must be taken off to permit the keyboard(s) to be removed. The maker of the instrument often inscribes his name on this piece
Nameboardthe fixed part of the case of a harpsichord or bentside spinet which is located transversely above the keys. To be distinguished from the 'name batten' which is screwed or pegged to it
Namenszug(German m.) signature, monogram
Naming notessee 'pitch names'
Naming octavessee 'octaves'
nämlich(German) the same, namely
Nam-shuban incantation, chant, poem, or speech thought to have magical power in Sumerian texts
Nana(Spanish f.) lullaby
Nanako shakuhachi(Japan) an instrument with two finger holes more than the traditional five-hole shakuhachi, the extra holes been added in an attempt to improve the instrument's capacity to produce a chromatic scale. It was used by the Kinko school, but fell into disuse after World War II
Nanaru a ting tinga vertical slit drum of the South Pacific
Nanda(Brazil) a goblet-shape drum found in Amazonia
Nanga(Uganda) a seven-string harp, cousin to the ancient Egyptian harp
Nangaraan Indian two-piece drum played with sticks
Nanhusee erhu
Nänie(German) naenia
NankasaUgandan drum
Nanne(Corsica) lullabies that mothers sing to their children
Nanourismata(Greek) lullabies
Naosee bo
Naobosee bo
Ñaøn baàuan instrument consisting of a trapezoidal wooden resonator, on which is stretched a brass string. Fastened at one end to a peg and at the other to a flexible bamboo plate, the string passes again and again through a gourd shaped wooden amplifier. The thin bamboo plate is used to modulate of pitch
Naphil (s.), Nephilim (pl.)(probably derived from Hebrew napal, 'to fall') in ancient Hebrew tradition, a race of giants
Naphtaline(French f.) mothballs
Napolitana (s.), Napolitane (pl.)(Italian) in French Napolitaine, an early light madrigal of Neapolitan origin (whose greatest master was Giovanni de Nola who died in Naples in 1570), revived in modern times as a type of popular song in which the verse is in the minor and the chorus is in the major
Napolitain (m.), Napolitaine (f.)(French) Neapolitan
napolitain (m.), napolitaine (f.)(French) Neapolitan
Napolitaine(French f.) napolitana
Nappage(French m.) in cooking, coating
näppäillen(Finnish) pizzicato
Nappe(French f.) table-cloth, the sheet of water falling over a weir, layer (of water, petrol, etc.)
Nappe d'autel(French f.) altar cloth
Nappe de brouillard(French f.) blanket or layer of fog
Nappe de feu(French f.) sheet of flame
Nappe-phréatique(French f.) ground water
napper(French) in cookery, to coat or mask with sauce
Napperon(French m.) (cloth) table mat, doily, mat (for a vase, light, etc.)
Napperon individuel(French m.) place mat
Naqqaraor naqqare, North African kettledrums, tuned a third or fourth apart, played in pairs with two thin, stick-like beaters, one in each hand
Naqqaresee naqqara
Naqqaratsee naqqara
naquit(French) was born
Naqussmall Egyptian cymbals
nar(s)abbreviation of 'narrator(s)'
Narcisse(French) Narcissus
(French m.) narcissus (bulb, flower)
(French m.) narcissistic individual
Narcissique(French m.) narcissist
narcissique(French) narcissistic
Narcissismself-love, an exceptional interest in and admiration for yourself
Narcissisme(French m/f.) narcissism
Narcissusin Greek mythology, a young man who pined away in love for his own image in a pool of water and was transformed into the flower that bears his name
nadar en la abundancia(Spanish) to be rolling in money
Narghile(Persian, literally 'coconut') an Oriental pipe in which the smoke bubbles through scented water before being inhalded through a long flexible tube (so called because the tobacco-bowl was originally made from a coconut)
narguer(French) to mock
NarimonoJapanese term for small, handheld percussion instruments, as, for example, those used to accompany kabuki theatre
Narine(French f.) nostril
Nariz(Spanish f.) nose, nostril
Narodna muzika(Serbian) indigenous folk music
narquois (m.), narquoise (f.)(French) derisive, bantering, mocking, sneering
Narración(Spanish f.) narration, narrative, account
Narrador (m.), Narradora (f.)(Spanish) narrator
narrante(Italian, Spanish) narrating, in a declamatory manner
narrar(Spanish) to narrate, to tell
narrare(Italian) to narrate, to tell
Narrategive a continuous story or account of, provide a spoken accompaniment for (a film, etc.)
Narrateur (m.), Narratrice(French) narrator
Narration(French f.) narrative, narration, composition (a piece of writing)
narration is the act of telling a sequence of events, often in chronological order. Alternatively, the term refers to any story, whether in prose or verse, involving events, characters, and what the characters say and do
Narrativa(Spanish f., Italian f.) narrative, fiction
Narrativena story that is created in a constructive format (as a work of writing, speech, poetry, prose, pictures, song, motion pictures, video games, theatre or dance) that describes a sequence of fictional or non-fictional events
  • Narrative from which this extract has been taken
Narrative balleta ballet in one act that has a plot, or story
Narrative mode(also known as the mode of narration) the set of methods the author of a literary, theatrical, cinematic, or musical story uses to convey the plot to the audience. The collection of all narrative modes in order to construct a complete narrative is also called the narration (the process of creating the narrative); the terms are sometimes differentiated. It encompasses several overlapping areas of concern, most importantly narrative point-of-view, which determines the person whose perspective the story is viewed through, narrative voice, which determines how the story is expressed to the audience, and narrative tense, which determines whether the story occurs in the past, present, or future
narrativo (m.), narrativa (f.)(Spanish, Italian) narrative
Narratologyexamines what all narratives, and only narratives, have in common as well as what enables them to differ from one another qua narratives. It aims to describe the narrative-specific system of rules presiding over narrative production and processing. The term 'narratology' is a translation of the French term narratologie - introduced by Tzvetan Todorov in Grammaire du Décaméron (1969) - and the theory historically falls into the tradition of Russian Formalism and French Structuralism. Narratology exemplifies the structuralist tendency to consider texts (in the broad sense of signifying matter) as rule-governed ways in which human beings (re)fashion their universe. It also exemplifies the structuralist ambition to isolate the necessary and optional components of textual types and to characterize the modes of their articulation. As such, it constitutes a subset of 'Semiotics', the study of the factors operative in signifying systems and practices. One important starting point in the development of narratology was the observation that narratives are found, and stories told, in a variety of media: oral and written language (in prose or in verse), of course, but also sign languages, still or moving pictures (as in narrative paintings, stained-glass windows, or films), gestures, (programmatic) music, or a combination of vehicles (as in comic strips). Furthermore, a folktale can be transposed into a ballet, a comic strip turned into a pantomime, a novel brought to the screen, and vice versa. This arguably means that narrative, or more specifically, the narrative component of a narrative text, can and should be studied without reference to the medium in which it occurs
Narrator the 'voice' that speaks or tells a story, a story teller (for example, in a dramatic work), someone who provides a spoken accompaniment (to a film, etc.)
in Passion music, the Evangelist, by convention a tenor, narrates the story to recitative
Narratore (m.), Narratrice (f.)(Italian) narrator
Narrator, unreliablesometimes used for purposes of irony or humour, an unreliable narrator is a storyteller who "misses the point" of the events or things he describes in a story, who plainly misinterprets the motives or actions of characters, or who fails to see the connections between events in the story
Narrazione(Italian f.) narration, story
Narrazione con le immagini(Italian f.) photojournalism (narration through images)
narrer(French) to narrate
Narrowcastnetwork or programming aimed at a specialised audience
Narrow-mindedrigid or restricted in one's views, intolerant
Narrow-mindednessthe state of being narrow-minded
Narrow transcriptionin linguistics, phonetic transcription that shows minute details, i.e., highly accurate transcription. The opposite term, broad transcription, implies quickly made or comparative transcriptions designed primarily to illustrate general pronunciation
Narsiga(Nepal) or narsiha, a snake shaped metal trumpet, an instrument of the pance baja instrumental ensemble
  • Narsiga from which this extract has been taken
Narsihasee narsiga
Narthex(Greek) the rear portion of the nave of an early Christian church, partitioned off for use of women and catechumens (Christian converts under instruction before baptism)
Narwhal(English from Dutch which is itself from Danish) Arctic white whale, the male of which has a long tusk
nasaal(Dutch) nasal
Nasalin linguistics, any sound that involves movement of air through the nose
(English, German, French, Spanish) or 'nasality', one of the most important yet misunderstood aspects of singing technique, is the routing of air from vocal folds directly through the nostrils (nose) so as to impart a buzzy intense character to the voice. In general speech, the letters m, n and ng are sounded through the nose (you can demonstrate this by trying to sound the letters while pinching the nose so that air cannot pass through it)
nasale(Italian) nasal
Nasalización(Spanish f.) nasalisation
nasalizar(Spanish) to nasalise
nasallant(German) nasal sound, or tone
Nasallaut(German m.) nasal sound (in phonetics)
(French) an organ stop found at a variety of pitches including 1 1/3 ft., 2 2/3 ft., 5 1/3 ft. and the pedal stop Grossnasat, 10 2/3 ft.
Nasb(Arabic) secular songs
nascere(Italian) to be born, to sprout (to germinate), to rise
nascere da(Italian) to arise from (figurative)
Nascita(Italian f.) birth
nascondersi(Italian) to hide
Nascondiglio(Italian m.) hiding-place
Nascondino(Italian m.) hide-and-seek
nascosto(Italian) hidden
Nase(German f.) nose
Nasello(Italian m.) hake (fish)
Nasenflöte(German f.) nose flute
Nasetto(Italian m.) point (or tip) of a bow
Nasheedsmany Muslims have adopted the idiom of a cappella music, songs known as nasheeds, since mainstream traditional Islam prohibits the use of instruments except for some basic percussion
Nashville notationa method of writing, or sketching out, musical ideas, using numbers in place of chord names
Nashville number systemsimilar to the method invented by J. J. Rouseau and developed by Galin, Paris and Chevé for numbering the different notes in a scale, the Nashville number system is widely used for notating chords
Nashville sounda style of music created in the late 1950s that includes piano, strings, and background vocals along with the more traditional sounds of banjo and solo fiddle. The two record producers thought to be responsible for 'the sound' are Chet Atkins and Owen Bradley
NasisCentral American vessel rattle
naslag-akkorden-spel(Dutch) after-beat
Naso(Italian m.) point (or tip) of a bow
(Italian m.) nose
Nasonor 'nason flute', in older organs, a very quiet, sweet-toned flute stop of 4 ft. scale, which makes a pleasing addition when combined with the diapasons
Nastro(Italian m.) ribbon, tape
Nastro magnetico(Italian m.) magnetic tape
Nastro trasportatore(Italian m.) conveyor belt
Nasturzio(Italian m.) nasturtium
nat.abbreviation of naturale (Italian: natural - a mark instructing the player to discontinue a special effect, such as col legno, sul tasto, sul ponticello or playing in harmonics)
Natale(Italian m.) Christmas
natale(Italian) birth
Natalità(Italian f.) (number of) births
natalizio(Italian) Christmas, of one's birth
Natante(Italian m.) craft (boat)
natante(Italian) floating
Nataraja(literally, 'The King of Dance') the dancing posture of Lord Shiva, the aspect of God as the Destroyer in Hinduism. To understand the concept of Nataraja we have to understand the idea of dance itself. Like yoga, dance induces trance, ecstasy and the experience of the divine. In India, consequently, dance has flourished side by side with the austerities of meditation (as fasting, absolute introversion etc.). Shiva, therefore, the arch-yogi of the gods, is necessarily also the master of the dance. Dancing is an art in which artist and the art he creates are one the same, evoking the oneness of God and Creation, This dance is also called the 'Dance of Bliss' (anandatandava)
  • Nataraja from which this extract has been taken
Natica(Italian f.) buttock
natio(Italian) native
National anthema song, usually an anthem, fanfare, march, or hymn, that is used as a national symbol, one of the oldest being the British, God Save the Queen or God Save the King depending on circumstances
inno nazionale (Italian m.), Nationalhymne (German f.), hymne national (French m.), himno nacional (Spanish m.)
see 'Royal anthem'
Nationalhymne(German f.) national anthem, inno nazionale (Italian m.), hymne national (French m.), himno nacional (Spanish m.)
Nationalismin music, a pride in those musical elements that can be identified with a particular country, nation or ethic group, and which were then incorporated into new works written during the nineteenth century
Nationalistmusic identified with a particular nation, in particular that inspired by folk music, a term applied to certain nineteenth-century composers
National musicsee 'nationalist'
Native American hip hop
Native American music
Native languagesee 'first language'
Natividad(Spanish f.) nativity
Natividad de Nuestro Señor Jesucristo(Spanish f.) nativity of Jesus, celebrated annually in the Roman Catholic Church on the evening of 24th and the 25th December
Nativitythe birth of Christ
nato(Italian, Spanish) born
nato con la camicia(Italian) born lucky, born with a silver spoon in one's mouth
Natura, artis magistra(Latin) nature, the mistress of art
Naturala note that is neither sharpened nor flattened, or the sign that is used to contradict a sharp or flat in a key signature or that was used as an accidental earlier in the bar
a white key on a piano keyboard
naturalor 'natural sign' bequadro (Italian), Auflösungszeichen (German), Quadrat (German), bécarre (French), béquarre (French), the sign placed before a note that is neither sharpened or flattened
Natural accentsee 'regular accent'
naturale(Italian) natural, that is neither flattened (flatted) nor sharpened (sharped)
(Italian) in a natural (or normal) manner, for example, without using the mute (for example as a marking cancelling a special effect)
(Italian) natural, easy, free
(Italian) a mark instructing the player to discontinue a special effect, such as col legno, sul tasto, sul ponticello or playing in harmonics)
Natural flatsee 'double accidental'
Natural frequencyalso call the 'normal mode', the frequency of vibration or oscillation which a system (anything from a road bridge to an violin string) will inherently adopt according to its structure given a suitable excitation, such as a gale force wind or a bow
Natural genderthe assignment of nouns to grammatical categories based on the gender or lack of gender in the signified object or creature. This term contrasts with grammatical gender, in which the designations are more or less arbitrary and do not correspond closely with any gender in the signified object or creature
Natural harmonicsa vibrating string stopped at both ends, produces a fundamental note, determined by its unit mass, tension and length, as well as an infinite series of steadily frequencies, each an integral multiple of the fundamental. Thus, for a string with a fundamental frequency of 100Hz, the harmonic series will be notes with frequencies given by 100*n where n is an integer, i.e. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, etc. Vibrating columns of air also have associated harmonic series
on a stringed instrument, an effect produced when whilst bowing, the player lightly touches the string at a nodal point with a finger of the left hand. This produces a light, "fluted" sound. When a harmonic is required the composer will write a small circle above the note
there is a lack of consistency in the use of the terms 'natural harmonics' and 'artifical harmonics'. Many writers distinguish between the harmonics present in any note, the contribution of which gives a note its particular character (which they call 'natural' because to some degree they are a feature of any note and are therefore part of the 'nature of the note'), and those which have to be produced by the intervention of the performer (for example, by the careful placing of a finger on a vibrating string, in order to stiffle particular harmonics including the fundamental, while allowing the presence of others, thereby causing a change in the pitch of the resultant note), which they term 'artificial' because the string is no longer vibrating in its natural modes. Other writers make no distinction and use both terms synonymously.
natural harmonics are only obtainable at certain positions along each string:
1/2 of the way alongan octave above the pitch of the open string
1/3 of the way alongoctave + 5th above the pitch of the open string
1/4 of the way alongtwo octaves above the pitch of the open string
1/5 of the way alongtwo octaves + a major 3rd above the pitch of the open string
there are more natural harmonics, but these are relatively unreliable
Natural harmonic seriesthe sequence of natural harmonics
Natural harmonythe harmony of the triad or common chord
Natural hexachordsee 'hexachord'
Natural horna valveless horn
Natural intervalany interval between two notes of a diatonic major scale, unaltered by an accidental
naturalis, naturale(Latin) natural
Naturalismin art, naturalism refers to the depiction of realistic objects in a natural setting. The Realism movement of the nineteenth century advocated naturalism in reaction to the stylized and idealized depictions of subjects in Romanticism, but many painters have adopted a similar approach over the centuries. One example of Naturalism is the artwork of American artist William Bliss Baker, whose landscape paintings are considered some of the best examples of the naturalist movement. An important part of the naturalist movement was its Darwinian perspective of life and its view of the futility of man up against the forces of nature
Natural keya key whose signature contains neither sharps nor flats, C major or A minor
naturalmente(Italian) naturally, easily, simply, in an unaffected style
Natural minor scalescala minore naturale (Italian), forme du mode mineur ancien (French), reines Moll (German)
natural minor scale
a mode consisting of the rising interval sequence T-S-T-T-S-T-T, (T=tone or whole-step, S=semitone or half-step)
Natural modulationa transition from one key to one of its relative keys
Natural noteany note produced on a wind instrument with a cupped mouthpiece without using keys, values or the slide
Natural pitchthe pitch of any wind instrument when it is not overblown
Natural scalea scale written without flats or sharps, i.e. a term applied particularly to the C major and A natural minor scales
Natural sharpsee 'double accidental'
Natural signsee 'natural'
Natural tonesee 'natural note'
Natural trumpettromba naturale (Italian f.), Naturtrompete (German f.), trompette naturelle (French f.), trompeta naturale (Spanish f.)
see 'baroque trumpet'
Natural turn
Nartura non facit saltum(Latin, literally 'nature does not make a jump') nature works by gradual progression
Nature(French f.) nature
nature(French) plain, unadulterated
Naturel(French m.) nature, naturalness
naturel (m.), naturelle (f.)(French) natural
(French) native character, temperament, or disposition
naturelement(French) naturally
Nature morte(French f.) still life, a representation of cut flowers, etc.
Naturhorn(German n.) the natural horn, the horn without valves
Naturklangspeicher(German m.) sound sampler
natürlich(German) in a natural (or normal) manner, for example, without using the mute (for example as a marking cancelling a special effect)
natürliche Intervalle(German n.) natural intervals, those proper to the key, i.e. not altered by additional sharps or flats. More especially, those belonging to the C major scale without any sharps or flats at all
natürliche Position(German f.) bell down (when holding the French horn)
natürliches Flageolettton(German m.) natural harmonic
natürliches Moll(German n.) natural minor
natürliche Molltonleiter(German f.) natural minor scale
Natürlich-Moll-Tonleiter(German f.) natural minor scale
Naturtheater(German n.) outdoor theatre
Naturton (s.), Naturtöne (pl.)(German m.) natural or open note, one member of the natural harmonic series which on a horn, for example, can be produced without stopping or any mechanical means
Naturtonreihe(German f.) natural harmonic series
Naturtrompete(German f.) natural trumpet (trumpet without valves), tromba naturale (Italian f.), trompette naturelle (French f.), trompeta naturale (Spanish f.)
natus(Latin) born
natuurlijke mineur Toonaard(Dutch) natural minor scale
Naufrage(French m.) shipwreck
Naufragé (m.), Naufragée (f.)(French) shipwrecked person
naufragé (m.), naufragée (f.)(French) shipwrecked
Nauh(Arabic) sung elegies
nauséabond (m.), nauséabonde (f.)(French) nauseating
Nausée(French f.) nausea
nautique(French) nautical, aquatic (sports)
Navaho violinor 'Apache fiddle', a chordophone of North America which consists of a wooden tube with a single horsehair string that is strung over a bridge and tuned with a peg. The instrument is played with a horsehair bow. It is apparently a cross between the European fiddle and the Native Indian musical bow
Navarinbrown stew of lamb or mutton
Navarraisea Spanish dance originating from Navarre
Navethe western arm of a church, and more specifically the central axial section of that arm, used by the congregation and for sermons
Navet(French m.) turnip, dud (film, etc.)
Navette(French) shuttle (service)
Navidad(Spanish f.) Christmas
Navidás(Spanish f. pl.) Christmas songs
Navideño(Spanish) Christmas
Navigateur(French m.) seafairer, navigator (aeroplane)
naviguer(French) to sail, to navigate
Navire(French m.) ship
n'avoir de cesse que(French) have no rest until
n'avoir plus pied(French) to be out of one's depth
navré(French) sorry
navrer(French) to upset
Nawsee hulusheng
Nawbah (s.), Nawbat (pl.)(Arabic, literally, 'turn') Zaryab (who died c. 850), a freed slave who moved from Baghdad to Cordoba where he became a highly respected singer, 'ud player, and music teacher, is credited with compiling a repertoire of twenty-four nawbat, each of which was a composite of vocal and instrumental pieces in a certain melodic mode. The nawbat were reportedly associated with the different hours of the day. According to Dr. Subhi Anwar Rasheed in his reference book Mujaz Tarikh Al Musiqa Wa Al Ghinae Al-'Arabi, published in Baghdad in 2000, the term nawba in its literary meaning was first used during the Abbasid Era (750-1258 AD), more exactly, under the reign of the third Caliph Al-Mahdi Ibn Abi Ja'afar Al-Mansur (Caliph from 775 to 785). The term was used to designate whose turn it was to entertain the Caliph. It was, hence, the poet's nawba, the dancer's nawba, the singer's nawba, etc., meaning the poet's turn, the dancer's turn, the singer's turn, etc. Under Harun Ar-Rasheed (Caliph from 786 to 809), the meaning of the term widened and started to be assigned to the actual program performed by an artist. It wasn't a turn anymore, but rather the structure of the repertoire performed. The structure of the nawba evolved over time and varied from one place to another
Naysee ney
NaymehIranian fishermen's songs from Bushehr
n.b.abbreviation of nota bene (Latin: note well - observe carefully)
NBCabbreviation of 'National Broadcasting Company'
N.C.chords may be notated using chord symbols, for example, C, F#m, Badd9, etc. The symbols are written above the top staff of the written music usually where the chords change. Sometimes, when reading chord symbols, there may be a bar (or several of them) that has no chord symbol. In this case, the performer continues playing the same chord as indicated in the previous bar (or measure). N.C., meaning 'no chord', is used where no specific chord is to be used at that point in the music, although when the melodic material has a strong harmonic element the marking N.C. is probably inappropriate
[entry prompted by Tammy Ford]
Nconfia 5-stringed lyre of Congolese origin
n.d.abbreviation of 'no date of publication'
Ndende(Senegal) a low-pitched Wolof drum
N'der(Senegal) a high-pitched solo Wolof long drum, with open bottom, used in a sabar drum set
NdereAfrican end-blown flute
NdingidiUgandan one stringed fiddle
Ndomu(Central Africa) Pygmy bow harp
NDLRabbreviation of note de la rédaction (French: editor's note)
Ndomboloa variant of kwassa kwassa, a Congo dance form
Ndongoan African bowl lyre with eight-strings
NDRabbreviation of Norddeutscher Rundfunk (German)
NdTabbreviation of note du traducteur (French: translator's note)
Ndzumara(Comoros) a small flute
Ne(French) or n', used in French to mean 'not'
(French m.) born
il est né (French: he was born), premier-né (French: first born), dernier-né (French: last born)
NEAabbreviation of 'National Endowment for the Arts'
néanmoins(French) nevertheless
Néant(French m.) nothingness, none
le néant is used particularly with reference to existentialist philosophy
Neapolitan chordNeapolitan chord
in music theory, a Neapolitan chord (or simply a "Neapolitan") is a major chord built on the lowered second (supertonic) scale degree. It most commonly occurs in first inversion so that it is notated either as bII6 or N6 and normally referred to as a Neapolitan sixth chord
Neapolitanische Opernschule(German f.) Neapolitan school of opera
neapolitanischer Sextakkord(German m.) any chord built upon the flat second degree of the tonic key
Neapolitan mandolinesee 'mandolin, mandoline'
Neapolitan massalso called 'cantata' mass, a style in which the text (especially the Gloria and Credo) is divided into a number of short sections or movements each set variously as arias and choruses in contrasting styles. Although this style was associated with early eighteenth-century Neapolitan composers, the greatest work of this style is Bach's Mass in B minor
Neapolitan operasee opera seria
Neapolitan scaleneapolitan scale
Neapolitan minor scaleneapolitan minor scale
Neapolitan Schoolin the 18th century, a school of composition supposedly centred around Naples, comprising the likes of Alessandro Scarlatti, Pergolesi, Cimarosa, and others, many of whom were active outside Naples
Neapolitan sixthor 'Neapolitan sixth chord', the first inversion of a major chord on the flattened second degree (bII) of a major scale, also called a 'flat two chord', which in the key of C would be the notes F-A flat-D flat, called 'sixth' because it is a first inversion. Harmonically, the F-A flat-D flat followed by the triad E-G-C involves three descending semitones (F to E, Ab to G and Db to C) which provides the strong 'pull' between the triads. Altthough, from its name, one might expect it to have been a characteristic of music written by the Neapolitan school it is to be found beyond Naples and much earlier, for example, in the music of Purcell and Corelli
an equivalent analysis of the chord would be to say that the chord is composed of a minor third and a minor sixth to the sub-dominant (4th degree) of the scale, although this would tend to mislead as to why it is called a 'sixth chord'
Neapolitan sixth chordsee 'Neapolitan sixth', 'Neapolitan chord'
Nearlyalmost, quasi (Italian), beinahe (German), wie (German), presque (French)
Near rhymeanother term for inexact rhyme or slant rhyme
Nebel(Hebrew) translated as 'psaltery' (1 Samuel 10:5), the name of various large harps
Nebelhorn(German n.) siren, foghorn
neben(German) near, 'at the side of', subsidiary
Nebenbedeutung(German f.) cobbotation
Nebendominante(German f.) secondary dominant
Nebendreiklang (s.), Nebendreiklänge (pl.)(German m.) secondary triad
Nebeneingang(German m.) side entrance
Nebeneinkommen(German n.) additional income
Nebengebäude(German n.) outbuilding
Nebengedanke (s.), Nebengedanken (pl.)(German m., literally 'subsidiary thought') accessory idea, secondary subject
Nebendarsteller (m.), Nebendarstellerin (f.)(German) supporting actor (m.), supporting actress (f.)
Nebenbebäude(German n.) outhouse
nebeneinanderstellen(German) to juxtapose
nebeneinanderstellung(German f.) juxtaposition
Nebengeräusch(German n.) background noise
Nebenhandlung(German f.) episode
nebenher(German) incidentally
Nebenkosten(German f.) extra charges, extra expenses
nebenläufig(German) concurrent
Nebenlinie (s.), Nebenlinien (pl.)(German f.) leger line, ledger line
Nebennote (s.), Nebennoten (pl.)(German f.) secondary note, auxiliary note
Nebenregister(German n.) secondary or accessory stops in an organ, such as couplers, tremulant, bells, etc.
Nebenrolle(German f.) bit part, minor part, minor role (in the theatre, etc.)
nebensächlich(German) accidental, incidental, circumstantial, indifferent, immaterial
Nebensatz(German m.) see Seitensatz
nebenstehend(German) accompanying
Nebenstimme (s.), Nebenstimmen (pl.)(German f.) subsiduary, subordinate or secondary voice or line, a term first used by Arnold Schönberg (1874-1951)
Nebenstimmen(German f. pl.) secondary or mutation stops in an organ
Nebenstunden(German f.) off-peak hours
Nebentätigkeit(German f.) additional work
Nebentonart(German f.) secondary key area
Nebenverdienst(German m.) additional income
Nebenzimmer(German n.) adjoining room
Nebesko(Croatia) a folk dance with energetic jumps, found in the northern part of Croatia
nébuleux (m.), nébuleuse (f.)(French) nebulous, cloudlike, indistinct, vague
Nebra Sky Discattributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt in Germany, and associatively dated to c.1600 BC and associated with the Bronze Age Unetice culture, this bronze disk of around 30 cm diameter, with a blue-green patina, is inlaid with gold symbols. These are interpreted generally as a sun or full moon, a lunar crescent, and stars (including a cluster interpreted as the Pleiades). Two golden arcs along the sides, marking the angle between the solstices, were added later. A final addition was another arc at the bottom surrounded with multiple strokes (of uncertain meaning, variously interpreted as a Solar Barge with numerous oars, as the Milky Way or as a rainbow)
nebst(German) 'together with', including
Nebula (s.), Nebulae (pl.)(Latin) a luminous patch of gaseous or stellar matter lying in space beyond the solar system
Nebuloso(Spanish) misty, vague, indistinct
necesidad acuciante de dinero(Spanish) pressing need for money
necesito alejarseme de todo(Spanish) I need to get away from everything
necesito que alguien me aconseje(Spanish) I need some advice
necesito silencio absoluto para poder escribir(Spanish) I need total silence to be able to write
Nécessaire(French m.) a bag, kit
le Nécessaire (French: the neccessities)
nécessaire(French) necessary
nécessairement(French) necessarily
necessario(Italian) necessary
Nécessité(French f.) necessity
Nécessité fait loi.(French) Beggars can't be choosers.
nécessiter(French) to necessitate
Neck (of a stringed instrument)manico (Italian m.), Hals (German m.), manche (French m.), the part of a stringed instrument which bears the finger- or fretboard
Neck blockin a string instrument, the neck block is found inside of the body at the base of the neck. It provides a strong point where the neck in attached to, or mounted on, the body
Necked lute
a large family of related instruments many from the Middle East including:
tanbur(s)which includes long-necked lutes called tanbur, tambura, etc. but excluding those found in South Asia
nefer(s)spiked lute from North Africa
pandour(s)including the long-necked lutes of Ancient Greece and Byzantium, as well as pandir, panturi, fandyr, etc.
saz(s)Turkish long-necked lutes found in Asia Minor
bozuq(s)long-necked lutes found in the vicinity of the Arabian Peninsula
sehtar(s)the long-necked lutes of Iran
dutar(s)long necked lutes of Afghanistan and Central Asia
dombra(s)Central Asian and Eastern European lutes including dumbrak, dambura, dambiro, etc.
sitar(s) and tamburaslong-necked lutes of South Asia excluding those found above
neckisch(German) teasing
Neck pickupon a guitar, a reference to the pickup closest to the neck
Neck platein some models of guitar, a metal plate screwed to the neck which is the means to fastening the neck to the guitar body
Neck pressequipment that uses gentle heat and pressure to straighten a guitar neck
Neck reseta procedure performed on guitars, the purpose of which is to restore the correct angle between the fingerboard bridge which provides the correct action needed to play the instrument
Necrologia(Spanish f.) obituary (column, etc.)
Nécrologie(French f.) obiturary (column, etc.)
Necropolis(Greek, literally 'city of the dead') an Egyptian burial ground
Necrosis(Latin, from Greek) the mortification of death of a piece of bone or tissue
Nectar(Latin, from Greek) the drink of the Gods (in Classical mythology), any delicious drink, the sugary fluid produced by plants and collected by bees
Nederpopa Dutch term that was invented during the early 1980s to name the sudden growth of Dutch language pop music from the Netherlands. The name roughly translates to Netherpop (obviously a play on the name of the country and of the language)
  • Nederpop from which this extract has been taken
Née(French f.) born
née Smith (French: [a woman] born with the surname 'Smith')
Needle feelingthe sensation perceived by the operator when the insertion of an acupuncture needle reaches the acupuncture point
Needle springthe term pertains to some of the post and rod key designs found on key wind instruments in which round, tapered springs wedged into small post holes controlled key return for some or all of the keys that pivoted on a hinge rod assembly. They usually work in parallel to the axis of the key, and the narrow end of the spring is engaged by a small hook brazed to a key element
Needle stick injuryaccidental puncture of the skin by needles while in use or as a result of inappropriate disposal with the risk of introducing infectious agents
neergaande Beweging(Dutch) descending motion
Néerlandais(French m.) Dutch (language)
Néerlandais (m.), Néerlandaise (f.)(French) a person from the Netherlands, a Dutchman or Dutchwoman
néerlandais (m.), néerlandaise (f.)(French) Dutch
Neerslag(Dutch) downbeat
neerwaartse Stok(Dutch) downward stem (of a note)
Nef(French f.) nave
Nefas(Latin) not right, not proper (usually, socially or according to convention)
néfaste(French) harmful, ill-fated
néfaste à(French) harmful to
[c.1370 BC - c.1330 BC]
the Great Royal Wife (chief consort) of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten
NegaritEthiopian kettledrum, played with sticks
Négatif (m.), Négative (f..)(French) negative
négatif (m.), négative (f..)(French) negative
Negativfilm(German m.) negative (of photographic film)
negen(Dutch) nine
negende(Dutch) ninth
negentig(Dutch) ninty
Neghinoth(Hebrew) or Neginoth, a term prefixed to certain of the psalms which is believed to indicate that they were to be sung to particular tunes or accompanied or performed in a particular manner
negli(Italian pl.) in the, at the
other forms include nel (s.), nella (s.), nello (s.), nell' (s.), nei (pl.), nelle (pl.)
Negligé(Spanish m.) négligée
Négligé(French) informal dress (especially that worn by a woman), a 'wrap', a thin dressing gown
Negligee(English, from French) a 'wrap', a thin dressing gown
Negligencia(Spanish f.) negligence, carelessness
Negligente(Spanish m./f.) negligent person, neglectful person, careless person
negligente(Spanish) negligent, neglectful, careless
negligénte(French) negligently, unconstrained, careless
negligente(Italian) negligently, unconstrained, careless
negligentemente(Italian) negligently, unconstrained, careless
Negligenzia(Italian) negligence, carelessness
negociable(Spanish) negotiable
Negociación(Spanish f.) negotiation
Negociación colectiva(Spanish f.) collective bargaining
Negociado(Spanish m.) department, section, shady deal (Latin America)
Negociador (m.), Negociadora (f.)(Spanish) negotiator
negociador (m.), negociadora (f.)(Spanish) negotiating
Negociante(Spanish m./f.) dealer
Negocio de compraventa(Spanish m.) second-hand shop
Negozio di rigattiere(Italian m.) junk shop
crotchet(Catalan f., Spanish f.) a crotchet (quarter note), a note one quarter the time value of a whole note or semibreve
Negras por minuto(Spanish) crotchets or quarter notes to the minute (a tempo marking)
nègre(French) Negro
negrear(Spanish) to turn black, to turn dark
Negrero (m.), Negrera (f.)(Spanish) black-slave trader, slave driver (figurative)
negrero (m.), negrera (f.)(Spanish) of the black slave trade
Negri, Cesare
Italian dancer and choreographer. Born in Milan, he founded a dance academy there in 1554. He was an active court choreographer for the nobility in Milan. He wrote Le Grazie d'Amore, the first text on ballet theory to expound the principle of the "five basic positions". It was republished in 1604 as Nuove lnventioni di Balli (New Inventions of the Dance)
negrilla(Spanish) bold (face)
Negrillascolonial Spanish villancicos written in rhythms understood to be the rhythms of African music with lyrics generally written in the creole dialect of West African slaves
negrita(Spanish) bold (face)
Negrito nose flutea nose flute from the Negrito (pygmy) peoples of Central Malaysia
Négritude(French) an idea of 'blackness', of 'belonging to a black culture', that developed in the 1930s led by a group that included the future Senegalese President Léopold Sédar Senghor, Martinican poet Aimé Césaire, and Léon Damas. The Négritude writers found solidarity in a common black identity as a rejection of French colonial racism. The term négritude was first used in 1935 by Aimé Césaire in the 3rd issue of L'Étudiant noir, a magazine which he had started in Paris with fellow students Léopold Senghor and Léon Damas, as well as Gilbert Gratiant, Leonard Sainville, and Paulette Nardal
Negro (m.), Negra (f.)(Spanish) negro, negress
Negro como el azabache(Spanish) jet black
Negro spiritual(English, Spanish m., Negrospiritual (German m.)) see 'spiritual'
NEHabbreviation of 'National Endowment for the Humanities'
nehmen(German) to take
nehmen nach und nach die Dämpfer ab(German) remove mutes one by one (i.e. one player at a time)
Nehrung(German f.) a spit of land which nearly encloses the mouth of a river
nei, nel, nello, nella, nell', nelle(Italian) in the, at the (see also negli)
Neiderstrich(German m.) down-bow
nei dintorni di(Italian) in the vicinity of
Neige(French f.) snow, (in cooking) egg whites beaten to a froth
neiger(French) to snow
Neighboring tone(US) see 'neighbouring note'
Neighbouring noteor 'neighbour note' (US, 'neighbor tone'), a non-harmonic note (tone) that leaves and returns to the same chord note by a tone (whole step) or semitone (half step)
ne jamais(French) never
nel battere(Italian) at the downbeat, on the accented part of the bar
nel bel mezzo(Italian) right in the middle
nel corso di(Italian) during
Ne le prends pas sur ce ton(French) Don't take it like that
crotchet(Finnish) crotchet or quarter note, a note one quarter the time value of a semibreve or whole note
crotchet rest orcrotchet rest(Finnish) crotchet rest or quarter rest, a rest one quarter the time value of a semibreve rest or whole rest
nella parte di sopra(Italian) in the higher (or highest) part
nell'insieme(Italian) as a whole
nel stilo antico(Italian) in the ancient style
nel tempo(Italian) in time, in the previous time
Nembutsusongs originally used by Buddhist priests to popularize Buddhist teachings, but which, after substituting the Buddhist prayers with folk texts, became the songs that precede eisa dance
nem.con.abbreviation of nemine contradicente (Latin: with no opposition)
the term is often used to mean 'unanimous' although this is incorrect. Nemine contradicente may still imply that there were abstentions
nem.diss.abbreviation of nemine dissentiente (Latin : with no one disagreeing)
Nemesis(Greek) the goddess of vengeance, retributive justice (an inevitable consequence of doing wrong)
Ne mets pas tous tes oeufs dans le même panier.(French) Don't put all your eggs in one basket.
Nemine contradicente(Latin, 'with no one speaking in opposition') with no opposition
the term is often used to mean 'unanimous' although this is incorrect. Nemine contradicente may still imply that there were abstentions
Nemine dissentiente(Latin) with no one disagreeing
Nemo propheta in patria (sua)(Latin) 'no one is a prophet in their own country'
Nene(Spanish m./f.) baby, child
Nenia(Italian) naenia
n'en pas se laisser(French) to not be taken in, to be easily fooled
ne pas arriver à(French) to not be able to
ne pas être dans son élément(French) to be out of one's element
ne pas être d'attaque(French) to not feel up to it
ne pas être en forme(French) to not feel well
ne pas être libre(French) to not be free, to not be available
ne pas laisser de(French) to not fail to, to not refrain from
ne pas laisser ... faire sans réagir(French) to not let ... get away with
ne pas réveiller le chat qui dort(French) to let sleeping dogs lie
ne pas ouvrir la bouche(French) to not say a word
ne pas pouvoir faire autrement que de(French) to have no choice but to
ne pas savoir ce que c'est la honte(French) to have no shame
ne pas savoir où donner de la tête(French) to not know which way to turn
ne pas savoir où se mettre(French) to not know what to do with oneself
ne pas se le faire dire deux fois(French) not to have to be told twice
Nénuphar(French m.) waterlily
neo(Greek) a prefix indicating a revived interest in something old, for example, neo-classical and neo-romantic
Neobarocksee Neubarock
neoclásico(Spanish) neo-classical, néoclassique (French), neoclassisch (German)
Neoclassican adjective referring to the Enlightenment
Neo-classical(literally, 'new classicism') in music, a twentieth-century interest in concerto grosso form and contraputal writing, both associated with music from the classical period
in European art and architecture, a style in vogue from the mid-eighteenth century until the end of the nineteenth century. Based as it was on the use of ancient Greek and Roman models and motifs, its development was greatly influenced by the excavations at Pompeii and Herculaneum, and by the theories of the German art historian Johann Joachim Winckelmann (1717-1768). Intellectually and politically it was closely linked to the Enlightenment's rejection of the aristocratic frivolity of Rococo, the style of the Ancien Régime. Among Neoclassicism's leading figures were the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1744-1825), the German painter Anton Raffael Mengs (1728-1729), and the Italian sculptor Antonio Canova (1757-1822)
Neoclassical balleta term describing the ballet style which uses traditional ballet vocabulary, but is generally more expansive than the classical structure allowed
Neoclassic coupletsee 'heroic couplet'
Neoclassicismsometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism, the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture. These movements were in effect at various times - during the English Restoration, the Enlightenment and the early twentieth century. What any "neo"-classicism depends on most fundamentally is a consensus about a body of work that has achieved canonic status. These are the "classics." Ideally - and neoclassicism is essentially an art of an ideal - an artist, well-schooled and comfortably familiar with the canon, does not repeat it in lifeless reproductions, but synthesizes the tradition anew in each work. This sets a high standard, clearly; but though a neoclassical artist who fails to achieve it may create works that are inane, vacuous or even mediocre, gaffes of taste and failures of craftsmanship are not commonly neoclassical failings. Novelty, improvisation, self-expression, and blinding inspiration are not neoclassical virtues; neoclassicism exhibits perfect control of an idiom. It does not recreate art forms from the ground up with each new project, as modernism demanded. "Make it new" was the modernist credo of the poet Ezra Pound
Neoclassic movementanother name for the Enlightenment
néoclassique(French) neo-classical, neoclásico (Spanish), neoclassisch (German)
neoclassisch(German) neo-classical, néoclassique (French), neoclásico (Spanish)
Neoclassicismo(Italian m.) neo-classicism
Neo-Dadathe term refers to musicians who use elements of the bizarre and outrageous in an integral way. Picking up where the Dadaists left off, these artists assault you with an array of disparate influences and sounds, making strange and wonderful contributions to the world of music
Neofito (s.), Neofiti (pl.)(Italian) neophyte
Neofolka form of folk music that emerged from European ideals and post-industrial music circles. Neofolk can either be solely acoustic folk music or a blend of acoustic folk instrumentation aided by varieties of accompanying sounds such as pianos, strings and elements of industrial music and experimental music. The genre encompasses a wide assortment of themes including traditional music, heathenry, romanticism and occultism. Neofolk musicians often have ties to other post-industrial genres such as neoclassical and martial music, or have links with Heathen circles and various other societies
  • Neofolk from which this extract has been taken
Neo-Gallican chanta style of composition for the neo-Gallican religious movement in seventeenth-century France, consisting mainly of pseudo-plainchant
Neo-grammariansee Junggrammatiker
neoklassisch(German) neoclassical
Neoklassizismus(German m.) neoclassicism
Néo kýma(Greece) in the 1960s, a mixture of éntekhno and French chansons
Neo-LatinLatin forms or words (especially scientific ones) invented after the medieval period, as opposed to classical or medieval Latin as a naturally occurring language
Neolatino(Italian) neo-Latin, Romance
neolitico(French) neolithic
Neologisma word, term, or phrase which has been recently created ("coined") - often to apply to new concepts, or to reshape older terms in newer language form. Neologisms are especially useful in identifying inventions, new phenomena, or old ideas which have taken on a new cultural context. Occasionally, the neologism is so useful it becomes a part of common usage, such as the word 'new-fangled' that Chaucer invented in the 1300s
Néologisme(French m.) neologism
Neologismo(Italian) neologism
neonato(Italian) new-born
Neonato (m.), Neonata (f.)(Italian) new-born child, infant, baby
Neoprenea man-made fabric, used for wetsuits and other water sports attire that has a stiff, body hugging quality that seals body heat in
Neo-progressiveor 'neo-prog', a sub-genre of rock music, a form of progressive rock developed and briefly popular in the 1980s, although it lives on today
Neo-romanticthe use of nineteenth-century Romantic forms in twentieth-century idiom
neoromantisch(German) neo-Romantic
Neoromantizismus(German m.) neoromanticism
Neo soula mixture of 1970s soul-styled vocals and instrumentation with a contemporary R & B sound and hip hop beats and rap interludes that appeared in the mid-1990s
Neotericof recent origin, modern
Neoterisma neologism
Neoteristan innovator, expecially a coiner of new words
Neotraditional countryalso known as "new traditional" country, a country music style that rejects most elements of modern Top 40 country music. Neotraditional country emphasizes the instrumental background, and often even the dress and fashions, of country music of the 1940s, 1950s and early 1960s. Some neotraditional artists are frequently associated with the alternative country movement
see 'alternative country'
Néo-zélandais (m.), Néo-zélandaise (f.)(French) New Zealander
néo-zélandais (m.) néo-zélandaise (f.)(French) New Zealand
Nepalese hip hop
Nepal peppertimur, winged prickly-ash, a red sweet chilli (Zanthoxylum armatum)
Nepalpfeffer(German m.) or Flügelstachelige Stachelesche (German f.), Nepal pepper
ne pas(French) no, not
ne pas être dans son assiette(French) feel out of sorts
ne pas mâcher ses mots(French) not mince one's words
Nepal peppertimur, winged prickly-ash, a red sweet chilli (Zanthoxylum armatum)
Nephilimsee naphil
ne plus(French) no longer, not any more
ne plus avoir de raisons de vivre(French) to have nothing left to live for
ne plus ultra(Latin) no further, beyond which one cannot go, the uttermost limit (usually of perfection)
ne point(French) no, not
Nepotismo(Italian m.) nepotism
neppure(Italian) not even
ne que(French) only
Ne quittez pas.(French) Please hold. (speaking on the telephone)
Nequizia(Italian f.) wickedness, iniquity
crotchet(Italian f.) or semiminima, a crotchet (quarter note), a note one quarter the time value of a whole note or semibreve
nerastro(Italian) blackish
Nerdcore hip hopor geeksta rap, a subgenre of hip hop music that is performed by nerds, and is characterized by themes and subject matter considered to be of general interest to nerds
Nereggiamento(Italian m.) blackening
nereggiare(Italian) to turn black, to be nearly black, to appear black
Neretto(Italian m.) heavy type, thick type
neretto(Italian) blackish
Ne réveillez pas le chat qui dort.(French) Let sleeping dogs lie.
Nerezza(Italian f.) blackness
Nerf(French m.) nerve, stamina (figurative: stamina)
nericcio(Italian) blackish
ne rien avoir à perdre(French) to have nothing to lose
ne rien donner(French) to have no effect
ne rien laisser à désirer(French) to be all that one could hope for
ne rien laisser voir(French) to show no sign of, to show no inkling of
Nero(Italian m.) a black man, a black boy, a man of colour
nero(Italian) black, dark, swarthy, brown (bread), gloomy
Nerofumo(Italian m.) lamp-black
nerognolo(Italian) blackish
Nerone(Italian m.) Nero
Nerume(Italian m.) quantity of black, black things
Nervatura(Italian f.) nervous system, ribbing (book-binding, architecture)
nerveo(Italian) nerve, of the nerves
nerveusement(French) nervously
nerveux (m.), nerveuse (f.)(French) nervous, nervy, nerve- (centre), responsive (car)
Nervio(Spanish m.) nerve, sinew
nervioso(Spanish) nervous, sinewy, highly-strung
Nervo(Italian m.) nerve, sinew, vein (leaf), rib (architecture), energy (figurative), vigour (figurative)
nervosissima(Italian) very nervous
Nervosità(Italian f.) nervousness
Nervosité(French f.) nervousness, touchiness (irritability)
nervoso(Italian) in an agitated or vigorous style, nervous, vigorous (style)
nescientemente(Italian) unknowingly, unwittingly
n'est-ce pas?(French) right? isn't that so?
Nestinarstvo(Bulgaria) the Nestinari dance in which villagers fell into a trance and danced on hot coals as part of the joint feast of Sts Konstantin and Elena on May 21
Nestorianismthe doctrine that Christ exists as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, or Logos, rather than as two natures (True God and True Man) of one divine person. The doctrine is identified with Nestorius (c. 386-c.451), Archbishop of Constantinople. This view of Christ was condemned at the Council of Ephesus in 431, and the conflict over this view led to the Nestorian schism, separating the Assyrian Church of the East from the Byzantine Church
... n'est pas donné à tout le monde.(French) Not everyone is gifted with ...
NETabbreviation of 'National Educational Television'
net(French) neat, clear, plain, neatly, clearly, plainly
net, nette, netto, netta(Italian) neat, clear, plain, neatly, clearly, plainly
Nete(Greek) the last and highest string of the lyre
Ne tourne pas autour du pot!(French) Don't beat around the bush!
Netsuké(Japanese) a small piece of carved wood or ivory worn by the Japanese on a cord suspended from the belt
nett(German) neat, clear, plain, neatly, clearly, plainly
nettamente(Italian) neatly, clearly, plainly (in a neat, clear, distinct style)
Nette(French) neatness, clarity, plainness
nettement(French) neatly, clearly, plainly (in a neat, clear, distinct style)
Netteté(French) neatness, clarity, plainness
Nettheit(German) neatness, clarity, plainness
Nettigkeit(German) neatness, clarity, plainness
netto (m.), netta (f.)(Italian) neat, clear, quick, nimble
Network Improvisationthe Hub, formed in 1984 in and around San Francisco, by Tim Perkis, John Bischoff, Scot Gresham-Lancaster, Phil Stone, Chris Brown, and Mark Trayle, used a network approach to improvisation, where each player controlled an aspect of the same compostion
  • The Hub from which this extract has been taken
neu(German) new
(French) new
Neuanfrage(German f.) new request
Neuaufl.(German) abbreviation of Neuauflage (German: reprint, new edition)
Neuauflage(German f.) new edition, reprint, remake
neu auflagen(German) to reprint
Neuausg.(German) abbreviation of Neuausgabe (German: reissue, revival)
Neuausgabe(German f.) reissue, revival
Neubarock(German m.) or Neobarock, neobaroque
neu belebend(German) enlivening
Neubesetzung(German f.) recast (play, etc.)
Neudruck(German m.) reprint
neue(German) new
neue Abdruck(German m.) reissue
Neue Bach-Ausgabethe most recent effort by Bärenreiter, Kassel (from 1954) to publish a critical edition of J. S. Bach's entire musical oeuvre. It replaces the Gesamtausgabe der Bach-Gesellschaft that was published over a century ago
Neue Bach-Gesellschaftsee Bach Gesellschaft
neue Folge(German f.) new series, new issue
this term is used to distinguish the serial numbers of the volumes of a journal which has changed editorship or passed into different hands
Neueinstudierung(German f.) a fresh study of a work of art, a re-appraisal of an artist's intentions
Neue Musik(German f.) new music, contemporary music
neue Reihe(German f.) new series
Neue Sachlichkeit(German f., literally 'new objectivity') a German artistic movement from the late 1910s. The term Neue Sachlichkeit was first used by museum director Gustav Hartlaub in 1923 in preparation for an exhibition of recent paintings that he said were grounded in the depiction of reality. Two major trends were identified under Neue Sachlichkeit. The so-called Verists, including Otto Dix and George Grosz, aggressively attacked and satirized the evils of society and those in power and demonstrated in harsh terms the devastating effects of World War I and the economic climate upon individuals. Max Beckmann was connected with these artists. A second term, Magic Realists, has been applied to diverse artists, including Heinrich Maria Davringhausen, Alexander Kanoldt, Christian Schad, and Georg Schrimpf, whose works were said to counteract in a positive fashion the aggression and subjectivity of 'German Expressionist' art. They employed a controlled manner and naturalistic coloring in painting unpeopled city views, seemingly airless spaces, escapist themes, portraits, and family scenes. Neue Sachlichkeit was replaced in the 1930s by the conservative style prescribed by the Nazis. In theatre and music the Neue Sachlichkeit movement found expression through Die Dreigroschenoper (The Threepenny Opera) (1931) by Bertolt Brecht (1898-1956) and Kurt Weill (1900-1950), in Brecht songs set by Hanns Eisler (1898-1962) and Paul Dessau (1894-1979) and in many of the German cabaret songs of this inter-war period
neues Buch(German n.) new book
Neue Tanz(German f.) the Ausdruckstanz movement, which flourished alongside the Bauhaus movement in art and architecture, in the work of Mary Wigman (1886-1973), a pioneer of German Expressionism in dance
neuf(French) nine
(French) new
Neufassung(German f.) new version
Neuinszenierung(German f.) a new production or staging of a dramtic or operatic work
Neuma(Greek, Spanish f.) neume
Neumae(Latin) old term for divisions
neumático(Spanish) pneumatic
Neumatic melodya musical setting in which, in the main, there are two to six notes per syllable, although the occasional syllable may only contain a single note
Neumatic notationnotation neumatique (French f.), notación neumática (Spanish f.), neumes are an ancient musical notation used to write down Gregorian chant, a monophonic singing style used by the Catholic church throughout its history
the notation of neumes was never standardised although certain characteristics allow one to distinguish betwen them:
type of notationdescriptionwhere used
accent-neumesuse mainly strokes (virgae) in a cursive hand that make ligatures bound togetherSangallian (the abbey of St. Gall, in modern-day Switzerland), French (Isle de France), Norman (Laon, Chartres, Montpellier), Beneventan (from the monastery of St. Benevant in southern Italy)
point-neumesvirga rarely used so that the ligatures are not tiedAquitanian (southern France, also used in Spain), Paleofrankish
mixed point and accent-neumesemploy both formsMessine (from the monastery of Metz in northeast France)
mixed point and accent-neumesemploying thicker-cut quills of the Gothic era, a darker, heavier form derived from Messine notationGothic or Hufnagel (in Germany Gothic neumes continued to be used until the sixteenth century)
accent-neumesemploying thicker-cut quills of the Gothic era, darker heavier form derived from Norman notationSquare (in thirteenth-century England, Sarum chant was notated using square noteheads, a practice which subsequently spread throughout southern Europe)
Neume (s.), Neumes (English pl.)(English, German f., Dutch, Greek, literally 'gesture' or 'sign') a neum is a note or a group of notes (melisma) belonging to one syllable, one of the set of symbols (simple or compound) used in medieval times for writing music. Neumes are quite different from modern musical symbols, both in appearance and meaning
Neumen(German f. pl., Dutch) neumes
Neumenschrift(Dutch) neumatic notation
Neumes, diastematicsee 'diastematic neumes'
Neumes, heightenedsee 'heightened neumes'
neun(German) nine
Neunachteltakt(German m.) 9/8 time
neunte(German) ninth
Neunvierteltakt(German m.) 9/4 time
neunzehn(German) nineteen
neunzig(German) ninety
Neurasthenia(Greek) functional nervous debility
neuriend(Dutch) mouth closed
Neurofunkcommonly abbreviated 'neuro', a subgenre of 'Drum and bass'
Neurofunk from which this extract has been taken
Neurosis (s.), Neuroses (pl.)(pseudo-Greek) a functional nervous disorder
Neutral clefsee 'indefinite pitch clef'
Neutral secondthere is no such a thing as a quarter tone in Persian music, but there are two intervals not used in Western music. One is the neutral second, which is very flexible, but always noticeably larger than the minor second (half-step, semitone) of our western scale, and smaller than the major second (whole-step, tone). The other interval peculiar to some of the Persian modes is an interval which is larger than the major second, but not as large as an actual augmented second. In authentic Persian music the Western augmented second is not used
neuve(French) new
Neuvième(French) the interval of a ninth
neuvième(French) ninth, the interval of a ninth
ne varietur(Latin, literally 'that it may not vary') (a document, edition, etc.) intended to be definitive and authoritative
Névé(French m.) granulated snow on the upper part of a glacier, not yet compressed into ice
Neven-toonaarden(Dutch) related keys
ne voir aucun mal à ...(French) to not see any harm in ...
New Acoustic Musican alternative term for 'New Age music'
New Age music(English, Newage-Musik (German f.)) a compositional style conducive to meditation, produced by layering sounds over sounds to produce a deep, many-faceted wave of music, including natural sounds such as waves, rain, birds, wind, etc.
New BeatNew Beat music was a contemptorary genre to Techno and House music from Detroit and Chicago respectively, although not intrinsically linked
  • New Beat from which this extract has been taken
New comedythe Greek comedy the developed circa 300 BC, stressing romantic entanglements, wit, and unexpected twists of plot
New Countryknown also as 'Country Pop', 'Hot Country' or 'Poptry', 'New Country' is contemporary, highly produced, pop-oriented country music style, commonly played on commercial country-music radio and cable TV stations
New Culture Movement (1917-1923)a Chinese socio-cultural movement, embedded within which the movement for a 'New Literature' encouraged writing in the vernacular language, which had only just replaced classical Chinese as the country's official written language. In terms of genre, the New Literature drew heavily on Western examples, preferring the realist novel and short story over traditional romance, the spoken drama over Peking Opera and free verse over rhymed lyrics. The New Culture Movement, spearheaded by young, partly Western-educated intellectuals, was an anarchist movement that promoted Esperanto, forged links between social radicals and labor and helped to understand the Russian Revolution. It aimed to overthrow Confucian tradition and modernise China on the basis of science, democracy and respect for the freedom of the individual. Participants in this movement advocated all manners of change, reform or revolution, some more extreme than others. Perhaps the one thing on which all New Culture advocates agreed was the necessity to overhaul the Confucian family system and to allow young men and women to make their own life choices, including especially their choice of marriage partner. It culminated in the 'May Fourth Movement' of 1919
New England Contradancean American traditional dance evolved from English country dance and European contredanse
New England Schoollate nineteenth-century group of American New England composers, trained in the Germanic tradition, who aimed to create a music which was distinctly American but within the contemporary German aesthetic
New England short Oin linguistics, this term refers to the lax vowel used by some New Englanders in road and home corresponding to tense [o] in standard English
New Flamencosee Nuevo Flamenco
New Forest Shakers
founded by Mary Ann Girling, a community of 160 'Shakers' who lived at New Forest Lodge, Hordle, Hampshire. They were the followers of Mrs Girling who they saw as a female messiah. They were evicted from the Lodge in 1875 and moved to a farm at Tiptoe
New German organ tablatureor NGOT - according to Ibo Ortgies this should be more properly termed New German 'Organist's' tablature to discern it from the Old GOT that used letters only in the lower parts (tenor, bass), while the treble was written in mensural notation. The later NGOT gave up the mensural notation of the treble and was an all-letter-notation - the way in which organists from Northern Germany notated not only organ compositions (i.e. study material for improvisation and composition), but also vocal-instrumental repertoire. The first known source in NGOT is in the hand of the famous painter Albrecht Dürer from some time at the beginning of the 16th century! NGOT was spread in Germany in it's then boarders of the Holy Roman Empire (even in print, especially in the earlier phase, like Wolz, Bernhard Schmid, et al.), and regions influenced by German culture, especially Scandinavia, the Baltic area in general, and the Netherlands. The tradition faded out shortly after about 1700 - due, among other reasons, to the rise of modern minor-major tonality that made notation of remote keys awkward. Also the newer staff notation had advantages to the letter notation. Bach, early on in his career. Later in his life he used it to notate some of his own music (for example the Orgel-Büchlein et al. - where he seems to have used it only when running out of space, making good use of the place-saving properties of NGOT) and that of others (for example the recently discovered and probably earliest extant copies of the large chorale fantasias by Buxtehude and Reincken)
Newgrasssee 'progressive bluegrass'
New jack swing(English, New Jack Swing (German m.)) or 'swingbeat', is a hybrid style popular from the late-1980s into the mid-1990s, which fuses the rhythms, samples and production techniques of hip-hop with the urban contemporary sound of R&B
Newlyn Artists Colony
artists settled in Newlyn after a series of summer painting seasons. Some had been at the French artists colonies. They lived in lodgings and used fishermen's huts as studios. An art school and gallery were set up. The artists ran an Amateur Dramatic Society and played an annual cricket match with the colony at St Ives
Newman, John Henry (1801-90)author of the poem The Dream of Gerontius set to music by Edward Elgar (1857-1934)
New Musicsee 'contemporary music'
New musicologythe cultural study, analysis, and criticism of music. It is often based on the work of Theodor Adorno (and Walter Benjamin) and feminist, gender studies, or postcolonial hypotheses. As Susan McClary says, "musicology fastidiously declares issues of musical signification off-limits to those engaged in legitimate scholarship," including politics
New Negro Movementsee 'Harlem Renaissance'
New Philharmonic pitchin England, the name of a pitch also called Diapason Normal or Concert where a'=439 Hz at 68° Fahrenheit (middle C=261 Hz.). The Old Philharmonic or military (Kneller Hall) pitch was higher (a'=455 Hz. and middle C = 270Hz.)
New Objectivitysee Neue Sachlichkeit
New Orleans bluesthe phrase New Orleans blues is sometimes used to refer to a type of blues or R & B music that is characterized by extensive use of piano and horn sections, complex rhythms and celebratory lyrics. The lazy, plodding rhythms are perhaps most distinctive of all of Louisiana blues
New Orleans jazzan early style of jazz originating in New Orleans in the first two decades of the twentieth century, produced by small ensembles and involving improvisation based on formulas and conventional figurations
New Romanticisma term applied to the 'neo-romanticism' movement that flourish in 1970s United States
New Romantica 'new wave' music subgenre and fashion movement that occurred primarily in England during the early 1980s
New Simplicitya 1970s movement among composers from Germany, Holland and Scandinavia who had been hugely influenced by American 'minimalism'
Newsprintlow-cost, non-archival paper most commonly used to print newspapers, plus other publications and advertising material. It usually has an off-white cast and distinctive feel. It is designed for use on printing presses that employ a long web of paper (web offset, letterpress and flexographic) rather than individual sheets of paper
New Testamentthe latter part of the Bible, particular to the Christian religion, detailing the life, death and resurrection of Christ and its aftermath
New Wavean American response to punk rock, utilising poetic lyrics and simple melodies
New Wave of New Waveor 'NWONW', a term coined by music journalists to describe a sub-genre of the British alternative rock scene in the early 90s. NWONW bands typically consisted of young, white, working class males playing guitar-based rock music. The movement was short lived and several of the bands involved were later linked with the more popular and commercially successful Britpop
New York bluesa type of blues music, characterized by significant jazz influences and a more modernized, urban feel than the country blues. It arose in New York City in the early part of the twentieth century, and quickly spread to other urban areas and, often, more affluent listeners than country blues, which is distinctively rural in nature
New Zealand hip hop
Nexo(Spanish m.) link
Nexus(Greek) old term for a phrase or sequence
(Latin) a link or connection, a cluster of connected ideas or images suggested by a single stimulus
Nexus anacamptos(Greek) descending
Nexus circumstans(Greek) descending and ascending
Nexus rectus(Greek) ascending
Ney(from old Persian ney, literally 'reed') a Middle Eastern flute, the ney, probably the oldest pitched instrument known to man, is an oblique rim blown reed flute with five finger holes in front and one thumb hole in the back. It is one of the principle instruments in traditional Persian music. The ney has a range of two and a half octaves. The upper end is covered by a short brass cylinder which is anchored in the tiny space between the player's upper incisors. Sound is produced when a stream of air is directed by the tongue toward the opening of the instrument. In this way, sound is produced behind the upper teeth, inside the mouth, which gives the ney a distinct timbre than that of the sound produced by the lips on the outside of the mouth
Ney-anbonIranian bagpipe, the earliest-known bagpipe, originating thousands of years ago in Mesopotamia
Ney-hindiIndian flute played in Iran
Neylavak(Iran) a wooden transverse flute with a tapered bore
  • Neylavak from which this information has been taken
Nez(French m.) nose
NFabbreviation of norme française (French: approved French standard of manufacture, French seal of approval)
Nga chenlarge pan-like bass drums, struck with curved drumsticks, by Tibetan monks as part of Buddhist rites
Ngbitithe mouht bow of the Aka Pygmies
Ngo(Bali) a free reed instrument cut from a pice of sugar cane bark. The back surface of the instrument is placed tightly against the lips, and a sound is made by inhaling and exhaling
  • Ngo from which this information has been taken
Ngomaalso known as palo ("stick") drums, the ngoma were the instruments used in ceremonies and celebrations of the Palo Order. This religion was brought to Cuba by various ethnic groups of the Bantu peoples. The ngoma ensemble may have two, three or four drums of different sizes which together produce complicated cross-rhythms. In general these drums are barrel-shaped, although sometimes they may also be of a tubular cylindrical shape. They have a single head stretched over the upper opening while the lower end is open. The head is tacked to the wooden body of the instrument and its tone is brightened by placing it near a fire
each drum is named in reference to the function it serves:
cajathe largest drum, also called llamador (caller)
mulathe middle-sized drum, also called segundo and dos y dos
cachimbothe smallest drum, also called quinto
the ngoma drum can be played with the drummer seated with the drum between the legs and resting on the ground. The drumhead is struck with both hands using both palms and fingers. Occasionally the drummer might strike the head with one or two sticks. The resulting cross-rhythms underlay the improvisations of a singer alternating with responses sung by a chorus. The music may serve a religious purpose for a ritual of the Palo Order, although it is also used for secular celebrations staged by people of Congo heritage. The ngoma or palo drums are also used to accompany the kinfuiti drum. This practice, however, survives only in the village of Quiebra Hacha in the province of Havana, Cuba
Ngombi(Central Africa) a stringed instrument from the Baka forest people of southeast Cameroon and the Central African Republic. The strings are made from fibres that run the length of a bamboo stem. If a string breaks, another can be separated from the body of the instrument. It is also known as the arched harp
Ngomiextended improvised musical works, performed by orchestras made up of a dozen or so mbila (a xylophone from Mozambique, plural form timbila), the music, associated with the Chopi people of the coastal Inhambane region
N'gonior ngoni, from Burkina Faso, Niger, Sengal and Mali, a small traditional four-stringed lute in the form of a teardrop, also known as koni in Gambia
NgugaTanzanian Gogo ankle bells
Nguyeät(Vietnam) also called the kìm, a guitar-like instrument with a long neck, which emits muted sounds, having 2 strings made of silk braid
Nhac Hue(Vietnam) Hue music, one of the two genres of Vietnamese chamber music
Nhac tài tu(Vietnam) tài tu music, one of the two genres of Vietnamese chamber music
NHKNippon Houso Kyokai (Japanese Broadcasting Company) housed the first institutional electronic music studio in Japan, founded in 1955
Nhò(Vietnam) a fiddle with two braided silk strings and a resonator covered with a snake skin membrane