music dictionary : Ni - Nz 

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ni(Danish, Norwegian) nine
(French) neither, nor
Niais (m.), Niaise (f.)(French) simpleton, foolish person
"A clever and adept man who pretends to be simple-minded is said to be "playing the niais." And proverbially, a man who is adept and alert as far as his own good is concerned and who acts like a simpleton is called a niais de Sologne: "He is one of those niais de Sologne [a rural area of France] who only makes errors in his own favour." - Dictionnaire de l'Académie Françoise, 1694 [Note: the niais de Sologne as the model of the shrewd peasant, is mentioned as early as Richelet (1681)]
niais (m.), niaise (f.)(French) simple-minded (foolish), inexperienced, silly, foolish
Niaiserie (s.), Niaiseries (f.)(French f.) silliness, simplicity, foolishness, a simple or foolish action
ni aun(Spanish) not even
ni aun así me quedaría(Spanish) even then I wouldn't stay
ni aun trabajando 12 horas al día(Spanish) (not) even if we worked 12 hours a day
ni borracho(Spanish) never in a million years
Niche programmingTV or radio programming or channels targeting particular demographics or interests
nicht(German) not
nicht abweichend(German) undeviating
nicht auf dem Damm(German) under the weather (familiar)
nicht ausgeschlafen haben(German) to be still tired, to sleep off
nicht ausgeschlafen sein(German) to be still tired, to sleep off
nicht auszuhalten(German) unbearable
nicht beachten(German) ignore
nicht brechen(German) non-arpeggio (on harp)
nicht dehnen(German) don't stretch (the time)
nicht die Spur(German) not in the least
nicht eilen(German) don't hurry, don't rush
nicht eine 8va höher!, (ja) nicht eine Octave höher(German) not an 8ve (octave) higher! (to the basses)
nicht ernst(German) ironicamente (Italian), tongue in cheek (familiar), ironically, ironiquement (French), irónicamente (Spanish)
nicht gebrochen (German) non-arpeggio (on harp)
nicht harmonieren(German) to clash
nicht hinaufziehn(German) not marching
nicht im mindesten(German) not in the least
nicht in Betracht kommen(German) to be out of the question
nicht mehr aktuell(German) no longer relevant
nichts besonders(German) nothing special
nicht schleppen(German) don't drag
nicht schleppend(German) without dragging
nicht schnell(German) not quick
nicht schreiende Stimmen(German) not shrill stops (in organ playing)
nichts dergleichen(German) nothing of the kind
nicht so schnell(German) not to quick
nichts taugen(German) to be no good
nichts zu danken(German) don't mention it
nicht teilen(German) non-divisi
nicht theilen(German) non-divisi
nicht transponierend(German) non-transposing
nicht trillern (German) do not trill
nicht unbedingt(German) not necessarily
nicht zu(German) not too
nicht zu begreifen(German) incomprehensible
nicht zu geschwind(German) not too quick
nicht zu glauben(German) unbelievable
nicht zu langsam(German) not too slow
nicht zuletzt(German) not least
nicht zum Aushalten(German) unbearable
nicht zurückhalten (German) not held back (tempo)
nicht zu schnell(German) not too fast
nicht zu sehr(German) not very
nicht zu Unrecht(German) not unfairly
nicht zu vereinbaren(German) incompatible
Nickelodeonon November 26, 1905, John Harris and Harry Davis of Pittsburgh opened the first theater exclusively created for the showing of motion pictures. Located in their penny arcade on Smithfield Street, Harris and Davis partitioned off a portion of the building, They installed a screen, projection booth and 96 folding chairs. Their first attraction was The Great Train Robbery. Admission was a nickel. The theater proved extremely popular and, before long, was open from 8 a.m. until Midnight. Word got around quickly and other entrepreneurs followed suit. Nickelodeons sprang up all over the country. At first, they were mainly patronized by the working class. There was still a lot of resistance from the gentility. But the reputation of the movies was improving. Theater owners, like the Warner brothers of Pittsburg and Louis B. Mayer of Haverhill, Massachusetts, worked to make their places acceptable to all. Floors and seats were swept and cleaned every night. Some owners went whole hog and even put cushions on the seats. Nickelodeon programs were changed twice a week and consisted of about five different films -- a drama, a comedy, an adventure, a novelty and maybe even a documentary -- with a combined running time of about an hour. Since the films were silent, accompanying music was provided by a piano or accordion
ni de broma(Spanish) never in a million years
nieder(German) down
niederdrücken(German) to press down, to depress
niedere Adelstitel(German m.) Dame
Niederschlag(German m.) bow down-stroke, down beat or accented part of the bar
Niederstrich(German m.) bow down-stroke
niedriger(German) lower
nie eilen(German) never rushing
Niello (s.), Nielli (pl.)(Italian m.) inlaid enamelwork
niemand anders(German) no one else
niende(Danish) ninth
niente(Italian) nothing, as in diminuendo a niente, sound dying away to nothing
niente a che fare con(Italian) nothing to do with
Niet (s.), Nieten (pl.)(German m.) rivet
nieten(German) to rivet
Nietenbecken(German n. pl.) rivet or sizzle cymbals
niet te zingen(Dutch) unsingable
niet verwante toonaarden(Dutch) remote keys
NIFFabbreviation of 'Notation Interchange File Format', a music notation file format, primarily for transferring music notation between different scorewriters. It is now considered obsolete due to the MusicXML standard, and as of February 2006 the NIFF project web site has been closed
  • NIFF from which this information has been taken
Nigenkinan variant of the yakuma-goto, a two string Japanese zither used exclusively in Shinto shrines, developed to offer it a secular role
Nigerian gospel musicNigeria has a long history of Christian devotional music springing from the hymnody of the church. However it was only in the last part of the twentieth century that 'Gospel' came into its own
Nigerian hip hop
Nigerien hip hop
Niger-Kordefaniana group of languages spoken in the southern part of Africa
Niggunthe Hasidic theory of the niggun, a melody without lyrics, maintained that melodies, too, contain divine sparks, so that defiled melodies can be redeemed by being sung in sanctity. Further, melodies, like souls, are of divine origin, yet not all are equal. There therefore exists a hierarchy among the various kinds of niggun. The lowest melodic form is simply an expression of joy. Higher up are liturgical songs that express the inward meaning of the prayers. But the highest melodies are those created by the tzaddikim, Hasidic leaders and saints; the musical patterns of their songs were believed to express secret Kabbalistic ideas. A melody's place in the musical hierarchy varied also with its relationship to a text, in that melodies with texts are like souls with bodies, whereas melodies without texts are like pure souls. Therefore the Hasidim composed many melodies with any text and sang them with nonsense syllables such as ya-ba-bam or doy-doy-doy and the like
Nightclub Two Stepalso called the 'California Two-step', a dance initially developed by Buddy Schwimmer in the mid-1960s
Nightingale flutesee flauto usignuolo
Night musicsee Nachtmusik
Night officeMatins; the choir service of the daily round of divine office performed during the night
Night piecenotturno (Italian), Nachstück (German), nocture (French)
Night raila garment in which some wealthy women slept. Sleeping in the nude or in a shift was more common, however
ni grand ni petit(French) neither large nor small
Nihil ad rem(Latin) not all all to the point, quite irrelevant
Nihil obstat(Latin, literally 'there is no objection') a censor's statement that a religious book contains no unorthodox doctrine
Nihon Buyooclassical Japanese dance
Nihumbedrum from Mozambique
Nijemo kolo(Croatia, Bosnia) the 'mute' circle dance accompanied only by the sound of stamping feet, the clanging of the women's jewellery or the clash of silver ducats on the women's aprons
Nil desperandum!(Latin) never despair!
Nilkkuone of the forms of humppa that is based on a 'slow, slow, quick, quick' rhythm
Nilo-Saharana group of languages spoken in the central sections of Africa
ni l'un ni l'autre ...(French) 'neither one nor the other ...' (usually contracted to 'neither ...')
Nimbleagile, fluent, sciolto (Italian), flüchtig (German), agile (French), léger (French m.), légère (French f.)
Nimbus (s.), Nimbi (pl.)(Latin) cloud, the cloud of glory surrounding a person or thing, a golden disk surrounding the head of a saint, a halo
nimmt(German, from nehmen) take
N'importe comment(French) Any way
N'importe lequel(French) Any (one)
N'importe où(French) Anywhere
N'importe quand(French) Anytime
N'importe quel(French) Any
N'importe qui(French) Anyone
N'importe quoi(French) Anything
NinattaHittite goddess of music, serving Ishtar, the ancient Sumero-Babylonian goddess of love and fertility. She and Kulitta accompanied Ishtar when she sang of her love for the farm god Tammuz
Ninbuchaawandering priest-subsitute minstrels who sang nembutsu songs which invoked the Buddha
Nine Elms Settlementfounded in London in 1914, a Womens Freedom League Settlement where children were served dinners of vegetarian soup and large slices of pudding, which they could either eat at the settlement or take home. The settlement also distributed free milk
Nine Natural Laws of Creativitythe foundation of an organic creative process according to John Stasberg, included in the title of his 1998 book Accidentally on Purpose: Reflections on Life, Acting, and the Nine Natural Laws of Creativity
Nineteenthan interval comprising two octaves and a fifth
an organ stop tuned a nineteenth above the diapasons, e.g. Larigot
Nineteenth-century danceindustrial development, the move to the towns and the political upheavals of the late nineteenth century produced changes in social structure that also affected the world of dance. Couple dances which permitted many people to take the floor simultaneously became prevalent with the advent of the waltz and polka. Both of these were initially regarded as scandalous because of the close proximity of man and woman and because of the exhilaration of constant spinning. As quadrilles gained in popularity, so the steps were gradually simplified until, by the end of the century, they were virtually walked. By then, however, more modern fashions were beginning to be seen, as the tango and ragtime moved into Europe from the Americas
Ninthan interval of an octave plus a diatonic second, nona (Italian), None (German), neuvième (French)
Ninna-nanna(Italian f.) lullaby, cradle song
Niños cantorcicos(Spanish m.) children's choir
Nintha compound interval consisting of an octave plus a major or minor second
Ninth chorda triad with a seventh with an added ninth
see 'suspended ninth'
nio(Swedish) nine
nionde(Swedish) ninth
Nip hopsee 'Japanese hip hop'
ni por asomo(Spanish) by no means, no way, no chance
Nippon Houso Kyokaisee 'NHK'
Nirvana(Sanskrit) salvation, the extinction of individual existence with its desires and passions, regarded by Buddhists as the ultimate reward of holiness (the Buddhist equivalent of moksha)
Nisi(Latin) unless
(in law) (a decree, order, etc.) which will come into force after a stated interval unless some implied contingency occurs
nitten(Danish, Norwegian) nineteen
nittende(Danish, Norwegian) nineteenth
nitti(Norwegian) ninety
nittio(Swedish) ninety
nitton(Swedish) nineteen
ni un alma viviente(Spanish) not a living soul
Niveau(French m.) level, as in 'dynamic level'
Niveau de vie(French m.) standard of living
Nível de fundo(Portuguese) background level, a term from Schenkerian analysis
Nixreject, say no to (colloquial)
Niyabinghi chantingtypically including recitation of the Psalms and including variations of well-known Christian hymns, a musical genre adopted by Rastafarians. The rhythms of these chants were eventually an influence of popular ska, rocksteady and reggae music
Njarkaone-string fiddle with a long neck and a gourd resonator used in Malian music
Njurklemonochord guitar used in Malian music
N'konidrum from Mozambique
Nlapaa Malagasy hourglass-shaped one-headed drum
Nmanewedding music and dance of the Dagbamba women of Northern Ghana. This music is performed exclusively by women in honor of a new bride. Songs used in this celebration relate to topical, human, marriage, and other social issues
abbreviation of número (Spanish m.: number), 'number'
no acabo de entenderlo(Spanish) I just don't understand
no acababa de gustarle(Spanish) she wasn't totally happy about it
no acepto excusas(Spanish) I won't accept any excuses
no acepto que me digas eso(Spanish) I won't have you saying that to me
no anticipemos acontecimientos(Spanish) we'll cross that bridge when we come to it (figurative)
no aparenta los años que tiene(Spanish) she doesn't look her age
no aparentas la edad que tienes(Spanish) you don't look your age
no apto para el consumo(Spanish) not fit for consumption
no atinaba con la calle(Spanish) I couldn't find the street
no atiné a decir nada(Spanish) I couldn't say a word
no atino a comprenderlo(Spanish) I can't understand it
Nobat(from the Persian naubat, literally 'nine types of instruments') the Nobat is the royal orchestra which has been used for centuries in the Malay States especially during installation ceremonies. The four Malay states that have a Nobats are Perak, Kedah, Selangor and Terengganu. The nobat orchestra of Perak, Malaysia is a percussion-dominated ensemble comprising of membranophones and aerophones. In one of the royal ceremonies described in the Misa Melayu, the gong is mentioned together with the known nobat instruments still in use today. Since the Kedah nobat and the old Riau-Lingga set exhibited in the Riau Kandis museum have gongs, it is also probable that gong was part of the original Perak nobat, at least during the middle of the eighteenth century. Today, the instrumentation of a complete nobat ensemble includes a kettledrum called nengkara, two gendang (double headed drums) called gendang nobat and gendang peningkah, one quadruple-reed shawm known as the serunai and a long silver trumpet called the nafiri
no bien(Spanish) as soon as
Nobile(Italian m.,/f.) noble
nobile(Italian) noble, grand, impressive
nobilezza(Italian) nobility
nobilmente(Italian) nobly, grandly, impressively
Nobiltà(Italian f.) nobility
Noble(French) nobleman
(English, French) (someone) elevated above commoners by birth or by ennoblement
noble(English, French) grand, elevated, impressive, lofty, nobile (Italian), vornehm (German), noble (French)
noblement(French) nobly, grandly, impressively, loftily, in a noble manner
Noble savageas a literary motif, a characterisation of exotic, primitive, or uncivilized races and characters as being innately good, dignified, and noble, living harmoniously with nature. They are thought to be uncorrupted by the morally weakening and physically debilitating effects of decadent society. The motif goes back as far as the Christian tales of Adam and Eve
Noblesse(French) persons of noble rank, the aristocracy
Noblesse de robe(French) persons who have been ennobled for professional services to the State
Noblesse oblige(French) (of the ennobled) position has its obligations (in other words, the aristocracy must behave honourably)
no cantes victoria antes de tiempo(Spanish) don't count your chickens before they're hatched
no cantes victoria, aún no ha acabado el partido(Spanish) it's still too early to sing your praises
no ceder un ápice(Spanish) to not give an inch
Nocetta(Italian f.) Zäpfchen (German n.) Plättchen (German n.), bouton (French m.), talon (French m.), on a violin, etc., the small semicircular extension (called the button) of the back that provides extra gluing surface for the crucial neck joint, and is neglected when measuring the length of the back. Occasionally a half-circle of ebony surrounds the button, either to restore material lost in resetting the neck of an old instrument, or to imitate that effect
noch(German) still, yet
noch dazu(German) in addition to that
Noche(Spanish f.) night
Noche sombre(Spanish f., 'the dark night [of the soul]') the conviction of utter desolation experienced by mystics as a stage in their spiritual development
noch etwas langsamer(German) still somewhat slower
noch immer und allmählich zurückhaltend(German) still always and gradually holding back
noch mehr drängend(German) still more pressing forward
noch nie dagewesen(German) unprecedented
noch rascher(German) still more quickly
noch schneller(German) still faster
no creo que este clavo aguante(Spanish) I don't think this nail will hold
Nocturne(English, German f., from the French nocturne, 'noctural') a moderately slow night-piece, usually for piano, of dreamy, reflective, contemplative character and song-like melody, the title being first used by John Field (1782-1837)
(in painting) a night-scene (a term popularised by Whistler although not introduced by him)
nocturno (m.), nocturna (f.)(Spanish) night, evening
Nocturnsportions of the Office of Matins, the first canonical hour
no daba señales de vida(Spanish) he showed no signs of life
Nodal figuresor 'nodal lines', points of rest in a vibrating plate that are observed as Chladni patterns, named after the German physicist Ernst Chladni (1756-1827), when sand is sprinkled on the plate while it is vibrating, although a similar experiment was performed by by Robert Hooke (1635-1703) at Oxford University on 8 Jul. 1680
Nodal linessee 'nodal figures'
no darse por aludido(Spanish) to turn a deaf ear
Nodding ogeean S-shaped arch which bends in three dimensions
Nodethe point in a vibrating string, pipe, sound-board, etc. that remains at rest while vibration continues in the immediately adjacent parts: a point of maximum displacement is called an 'anti-node'
(Danish) note
Nodehovede(Danish) note head
Nodelinie(Danish) line (on a staff)
No depressionsee 'alternative country'
Nodestik(Danish) engraving
Nodesystem(Danish) staff
Nodeværdi(Danish) note value
Nodo(Korean) a smaller version of the nogo
No dramasee noh drama
Noé(Burgundian) noël
Noego(Korean) six conical-shaped drums suspended from a wooden frame played by striking with a stick
Noël(French m., German n., from the Latin natalis, literally 'birth') used since the Middle Ages to refer to a song, dance, or carol having to do with Christmas which is what the word means in French
Rousseau in his Dictionnaire of 1768 defines Noëls as:
tunes intended for certain canticles which people sing at Christmas: these types should have a rustic and pastoral character consistent with the simplicity of the words and of the shepherds who were supposed to have sung them while paying homage to 'Christ in the crib'.
when Rousseau made this entry, French organists had long been aware of the significance of their nation's heritage of such melodies. Numerous settings had been published since the seventeenth century, and no doubt many Noëls were used as the basis for liturgical improvisation
Noël-parodythe conversion of secular musical works into religious pieces by the substitution of a new text was a common technique in the sixteenth century. The noël-parody is one example, where a text describing the nativity would replace a secular text, thus creating a 'new' piece without changing the music. The model for the noël-parody, the form into which the new text was introduced, was the chanson rustique, a form of popular origins that was part of an oral tradition. As many of the texts of the noël-parodies are preserved in printed collections, they can provide information about their models that is not available to us by any other means, such as the strophic design of a chanson rustique and its approximate date of circulation
no era el momento apropriado(Spanish) it wasn't the right moment
no es amiga de las fiestas(Spanish) she's not keen on parties
no es apto para el cargo(Spanish) he's not suitable for the job, he's not right for the job
¿no es así?(Spanish) isn't that right?
no es asunto mío(Spanish) it's none of my business
no es asunto tuyo(Spanish) it's none of your business
no es mala persona(Spanish) he isn't a bad sort
no es necesario que abundes más en ello(Spanish) don't go on about it
no está a la altura de su predecesor(Spanish) he doesn't match up to his predecessor
no está a la altura de su rival(Spanish) he doesn't measure up to his rival
no estoy de ánimo para ir allí(Spanish) I'm not in the mood to go there
Noga wooden block built into a masonry wall to hold nails that support joinery structures; a wooden peg or pin
Nogaku(Japanese) music played during performances of noh drama, consisting of a chorus, the hayashi flute, the tsuzumi drum and other instruments
Nøgle(Danish) clef
Nogo(Korean) a pair of conical-shaped drums suspended from a wooden frame and lying at right angles to one another
Nohbased on philosophical concepts from Zen Buddhism, noh (also no or noo) is an ancient form of traditional Japanese theatre with its origins in the fourteenth century. The actors of noh plays are masked and they speak (kotoba is the Japanese for 'recitation') and sing (uta in the Japanese for 'song') in a monotonous way, accompanied by a chorus (ji is the Japanese for 'chorus') and traditional music instruments (hayashi is the Japanese for 'instrumental music'), including elements of dance (mai is the Japanese for 'dance'). The noh stage is usually located outdoors and has a roof supported by four columns. It has been suggested that nothing of importance has been written in this form since 1600
see Dengaku noh, Sarugaku noh
no había ni un alma(Spanish) there was not a living soul
no hacer aprecio(Spanish) to disregard, to pass over, to ignore
no han abierto la matrícula aún(Spanish) registration hasn't begun yet
no hay ningún antecedente de la enfermedad en mi familia(Spanish) there's no history of the illness in my family
Nohkana Japanese bamboo flute with a three octave range used in hayashi ensemble of the noh theatre, in narimono ensemble of the kabuki theatre and nagauta, and in the accompaniment of certain folk performing arts
  • Nohkan from which some of this information has been taken
noioso(Italian) boring, tiresome
crotchet(French f.) a crotchet (quarter note), a note one quarter the time value of a whole note or semibreve, Viertelnote (German)
no ir en zaga(Spanish) not be inferior
Noire pointée(French f.) a dotted crotchet, a dotted quarter note
Noisethe sensation of a musical tone is due to a rapid periodic motion of the sonorous body; the sensation of a noise to non-periodic motion
from On the Sensation of Tone (1862), Hermann Helmholtz (1821-1894)
Luigi Rossolo in his essay The Art of Noises notes that "the composers of genius (show) a tendency towards the most complicated dissonances. As these move further and further away from pure sound, they almost achieve noise-sound. This need and this tendency cannot be satisfied except by the adding and the substitution of noises for sounds." Rossolo classified six families of noises which would feature in the Futurist orchestra:
1 2 3 4 5 6
noises obtained by percussion on metal, wood, skin, stone, tarracotta, etc.voices of animals and men:
"I believe that the use of noise to make music will continue and increase until we reach a music produced through the aid of electrical instruments ..." (1937) John Cage (1912-1992)
Noise controlin architectural acoustics, noise control refers to the method by which interior sound reverberation is reduced. Noise control is commonly employed to assist in soundproofing, or to improve a room's overall acoustics. Common noise control methods include the installation of acoustical gypsum, ceiling tiles, ceiling panels, carpet and draperies. None of this necessarily helps provide the optimal acoustic environment for musical performance
Noisecoresee 'noise rock'
Noise Harmoniumsee 'Rumorarmonio'
Noise health effectsthe collection of health consequences of elevated sound levels, constitute one of the most widespread public health threats in industrialized countries
Noise musicmusic that uses sounds regarded as unpleasant or painful under normal circumstances. "Noise" music is regarded by some as a contradiction in terms, because "noise" is generally defined as unwanted and undesigned or unintentional sound and music as the opposite. However, "noise" in a more general sense refers to any extremely loud or discordant sound, and that these sounds are often the basis of noise music. Secondly, as famous noise musician Masami Akita said, "If by noise you mean uncomfortable sound, then pop music is noise to me." Noise music is not necessarily "noise" to the listeners, although it is certainly "noisy" in the more general sense of the term
Noise rocka musical genre that developed in the 1980s as an experimental outgrowth of punk rock. Fusing punk rock's attitude with the atonal noise and unconventional song structures of early industrial and noise music, the noise rock introduced a new kind of avant-garde music to the alternative rock landscape. The style is sometimes referred to as "noisecore", though this term can also refer to a variety of fast, distorted hardcore techno music
Noisette(French f.) nut (large hard-shelled seed), a cut from a boned out loin of lamb
Nokansee nohkan
Nokia tuneheard as a ringtone on Nokia mobile phones, one of best known musical trademark in the world, the Nokia Tune is taken from Grand Vals by the Spanish composer Francisco Tarrega (1852-1909). The Nokia Tune quotes the motif that repeats throughout the original work by Tarraga
no la apuntes con el dedo(Spanish) don't point (your finger) at her
Noleggio con diritto di riscatto(Italian m.) hire purchase
no le hables así(Spanish) don't talk to him like that
no le hagas caso(Spanish) don't take any notice
Nolens volens(Latin, literally 'unwilling, willing') willy-nilly, having no alternative
Noli me tangere(Latin, literally 'do not touch me') in art, a representation of Christ appearing to St. Mary Magdalene at the Sepulchre
(Latin) a warning against meddling or interference
no lo consentiré en absoluto(Spanish) there is absolutely no way I will agree to it
no los aguanto(Spanish) I can't stand them
no lo utilicen hasta nuevo aviso(Spanish) don't use it until further notice
Nom(French m.) name, noun (in grammar)
Nomade(French m./f.) nomad
nomade(French) nomadic
Nomarch(from the Greek nomos, a term for the concept of law in ancient Greek philosophy) semi-feudal provincial governors ruling Ancient Egyptian provinces, the senior administrator in a Greek nomarchy
Nomarchya provincial system of government, as in modern Greece, under officials called nomarchs
nombrar a ... apoderado(Spanish) to give ... power of attorney (somebody)
Nombre(French m.) number
nombreux (m.), nombreuse (f.)(French) numerous, large (important)
Nombril(French m.) navel
Nom de famille(French m.) surname
Nom de guerre(French m.) a fictitious name, a pen name, a pseudonym (especially, literary)
Nom de jeune fille(French m.) maiden name
Nom d'emprunt(French m.) alias, assumed name
Nom de note(French m.) in music, note name, Note (German), Notenname (German)
Nom de plume(pseudo-French) pen-name, nom de guerre (French m. - the correct term in French)
Nom de théâtre(French m.) a pseudonym adopted in connection with the theatre
Nom d'une pipe!(French) By jingo!
Nom d'utilisateur(French m.) username (IT)
no me agrada(Spanish) the idea doesn't appeal to me
no me agrada que me hable en ese tono(Spanish) I don't like being spoken to like that
no me apura(Spanish) I'm not in a hurry for it, I'm in no hurry for it
no me apures(Spanish - Latin America) don't hurry me, don't rush me
no me atrae la idea(Spanish) the idea doesn't attract me, the idea doesn't appeal to me
no me atrevo a decírselo(Spanish) I daren't tell him
no me gusta el aspecto que van tomando las cosas(Spanish) I don't like the way things are going, I don't like the way things are looking
no me ha cogido por sorpresa(Spanish) I wasn't surprised
no me mires así(Spanish) don't look at me like that
no me mires así, que me aturullo(Spanish) don't look at me like that - you're getting me in a tizzy!
Nomenclatura(Italian f., Spanish f.) terminology
Nomenclatura latina(Spanish f.) the naming of notes using some form of the Aretinian syllables (i.e. Do, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, La, Si)
Nomenclaturethe terminology applied in music to the various signs used to represent time, pitch, the duration of sounds, etc.
no me pude aguantarse y me puse a llorar(Spanish) I couldn't contain myself and burst into tears
no me vengas con amenazas(Spanish) don't threaten me
Nominalthe partial of a tuned bell, one octave above the prime
Nominal pitcha terminology applied to wind and percussion instruments "in" a certain key. On brass instruments, this is generally the fundamental pitch of the tube without keys or valves being pressed or slides extended. On woodwinds other than bassoons, this is generally one tone lower than the `six-finger' note in the lowest register for instruments overblowing at the octave, in the second register for instruments overblowing at the twelfth. For example, the instrument with traditional English nomenclature `Bb Piccolo' has the nominal pitch Ab. If instruments exist in a very wide variety of sizes, a designation of the octave of the nominal pitch should be given, following the American Standard convention. For example, the descant recorder is "in" C5, indicating the note a tone lower than its lowest six-finger note. The designation of the nominal pitch of an instrument does not necessarily indicate the transposition used by its players
Nom inapproprié(French f.) misnomer
Nomina sacra(Latin) names referring to the deity or highly sacred concepts
Nominatim(Latin) by name
Nomination(French f.) appointment
Nomine, insee in nomine
nommément(French) by name
nommer(French) to name, to appoint
Nomos(Greek) a tune, a melody, a melodic sequence
Nom propre (s.), Noms propres (pl.)(French m.) proper noun (that is, the names of people and places)
NomTomin Hindustani classical music, the syllables employed in the development of a raga in alaap/alapchari
Nomus(Latin) a tune, a melody, a melodic sequence
non(French, Italian) not, no
Nona(Swedish, Italian f., Portuguese) the interval of a ninth
nonaginta(Latin) ninety
Non-Akkorde(German f. pl.) ninth chords
non allineato con(Italian) out of line with
non arp.(Italian) in piano music, do not arpeggiate (for example, after a passage which was marked arp., possibly including simile) [suggested by Joseph Tatroult]
non avere nessun legame con(Italian) have no association with
non avere niente a che fare con(Italian) not have anything to do with
Nonchalance(English, French f.) indifference, unconcern, imperturbability, lack of enthusiasm
nonchalant (m.), nonchalante (f.)(French) indifferent, unconcerned, imperturbable
Nonchord notesee 'nonharmonic note'
Non-circulating temperamentsee 'temperament'
Non compos mentis(Latin, literally 'not sound in mind') in law, a person classed as unfit to conduct or defend legal proceedings
Non-diatonic circle of fifthssee 'diatonic circle of fifths, non-'
non di nostra edizione(French) not published by us
Non-distinctivein linguistics, any two sounds (often quite similar) that are not capable of signaling a difference in meaning
Nondoit consists of a large steel sheet that is strung lengthwise with music wire to create a shallow "U" curve similar to the base of a rocking chair. One end of the metal body has an obtuse bend for lateral rigidity. The weight of the body and the tension of the strings create a balance that can be momentarily altered by pressing or lifting different points along the rigid end of the sheet. The strings are struck with mallets and can be dampened with fingers
  • Nondo from which this extract has been taken
Nondominant seventh chordany seventh chord other that the dominant seventh, V7
None(Latin) the sixth service of the Divine Office, usually performed at 3:00 p.m., consisting of several responsories and psalms which are sung
(German f., Danish) ninth, (interval of a) ninth
None akkord(Dutch) ninth chord
Non-ego(Latin, literally 'not I') objective existence
Nonenakkord(German m.) ninth chord
Nonesthe 5th or 7th day of the month, depending on the month, in Roman dating
Non-essential notesee 'non-harmonic note'
non essere d'accordo con(Italian) to part company with, to disagree with, to not go along with
non essere in linea con(Italian) out of step with (have a different opinion)
non essere in relazione con(Italian) to not relate to
Noneta group of nine players, a piece written for such a group to perform
in opera, a musical number for nine solo singers. There is a fine example in act one scene two of Falstaff by Giuseppe Verdi (1813-1901)
Noneto(Spanish m.) nonet
Nonett(German n.) nonet
Nonette(French m.) nonet
Nonetto(Italian m.) nonet
non fig.(Italian) in piano music, do not figurate (for example, after a passage which was marked arp., possibly including simile) [suggested by Joseph Tatroult]
Non-finite formin grammar, a category of verbs that includes the infinitive and participle forms. Basically, a non-finite form is any form of a verb that doesn't indicate person, number, or tense
Nonfluent aphasiasee 'Broca's aphasia'
Non-functional chordsnon-functional harmony is a characteristic of modal jazz, hard bop, jazz-rock fusion, and other post-bebop styles. In these genres, the expression 'non-functional harmony' refers to the use of chords in such a way that their horizontal association is more aptly referred to as a succession rather than a progression. A single chord may be considered non-functional if it does not interact with its fellow chords in a key-defining, goal-oriented manner
there are three basic types of non-functional chord:
auxiliary chordauxiliary chords are formed by the stepwise movement (up or down) of one or more of the voices away from a harmony note in one chord to form a new chord. The voice(s) then return to the originals note(s) to re-form the original harmony. The auxiliary chord is thus made up solely of notes from the original chord plus notes involved in the auxiliary movement. Auxiliary chords are non-functional whereas the chords surrounding them are functional. This is because the auxiliary chord merely elaborates the main functional chord, its purpose being to prolong the functional harmony. Auxiliary chords are used extensively to prolong the tonic harmony in static harmony. They can also be used to extend the dominant to form a dominant prolongation. Sometimes auxiliary chords can be used to decorate individual chords in dynamic harmony especially where this is slow moving
passing chordpassing chords are formed by the stepwise movement of one or more of the voices from a harmony note in one chord to form an intermediate chord or chords on the way to becoming a harmony note in another chord. In other words, passing chord(s) are formed by the stepwise filling in of notes between chords. The stepwise movement may be a filling in by one step or multiple steps. If the filling-in is by multiple steps one refers to this as a linear progression. One or more voices may be involved in similar or contrary motion. This type of chord has its origins in a contrapuntal technique called second species counterpoint. For a chord to be a passing chord it must normally be made up solely of notes from the preceding chord plus linear moving notes (the one exemption to this is that chromatic auxiliary notes are sometimes used). The passing chords so formed are thus non-functional and the chords on which the movement starts and ends are functional chords
appoggiatura chordthe appoggiatura chord is named by analogy with the appoggiatura note. An appoggiatura note does not create a sense of a change in harmony. However, an appoggiatura chord is an extension of the appoggiatura such that the duration of the appoggiatura(s) and/or the way the notes sound in conjunction with the other notes of the chord create a sense of a change in harmony. Appoggiatura chords are non-functional and the chord onto which they resolve are functional. This is because the appoggiatura chords merely elaborate the main functional harmony. Their purpose is to prolong the functional chord. Appoggiatura chords are used most commonly to decorate and extend the perfect cadence
  • from which these definitions have been taken. The referenced site has a large number of useful illustrations
Nong-akKorean rural band music
Nonganthe kenong, a type of gong used in the Indonesian gamelan, usually has a specific part in the colotomic structure of the gamelan, marking off parts of a structure smaller than a gongan (the space between each strike of the gong). The contents of each part between strikes of a kenong is called a nongan. In a fast, short structure these can only last a second or so; in a longer gendhing (the longest and most complicated of the gendhing structures), particularly in a slow irama, they can last several minutes. There are usually two or four nongans in a gongan
Non-harmonic arpeggioin a melody a non-harmonic arpeggio is an arpeggio whose notes or chord does not appear in the harmony of the accompaniment
Non-harmonic modulation
though modulation generally refers to changes of key, any parameter may be modulated
metric modulationtempo modulation, change in tempo
timbral modulationgradual changes in tone color
spatial modulationchanging the location from which sound occurs
Nonharmonic noteor nonchord note or non-harmony note, a note (tone) that does not belong to the chord with which it sounds, for example, a passing note or an appoggiatura
Non-harmonic tonethe term used in North America for a 'non-harmonic note'
non-idiomatic improvisationin jazz, a form of improvisation in which no concessions are made to the conventions of any particular style
Non-idiomatic musica term formulated by Derek Bailey applied to a freely improvised music, independant of all existing musical languages. For others, it is synonymous with 'abstract music'
Non-imitative polyphonya common feature of medieval polyphony, two or more independent melodic lines that do not share material with one another
Nonmetricmusic lacking a strong sense of beat or meter, common in certain non-Western cultures
non-legato(Italian) or slegato (Italian), not slurred, ungebunden (German), non lié (French)
Non licet(Latin) it is not allowed
non lié(French) as in clavicorde non lié, meaning 'unfretted clavichord', which denotes that each note has its own string
non-legato (Italian), slegato (Italian), not slurred, ungebunden (German)
Nonlinear musicsee 'interactive music'
non mi garba(Italian) I don't like it
non molto allegro(Italian) not very quick
Nonnengeige(German f., literally 'Nun's violin') tromba marina
Nonnentrompete(German f., literally 'Nun's trumpet') tromba marina
nono (m.), nona (f.)(Italian) ninth
Nonoctavesee 'pseudo-octave'
no nos anticipemos a los acontecimientos(Spanish) let's not jump the gun
no nos apresuremos demasiado(Spanish) let's not be hasty
nonostante(Italian) in spite of, although
non ped.(Italian) in piano music, release the right pedal
non più con noi(Italian) no longer with us
Non placet(Latin, literally 'it does not please [me]') the formula used in giving a negative vote in university or ecclesiastical assemblies
Non plaudite(Latin) don't applaud
Non plus ultra(Latin) nothing above that (in other words, the ultimate)
(Italian m.) height, highest pitch, perfect specimen
non presto(Italian) not fast
non procedere con(Italian) not proceed with
non può trattenere le lagrime(Italian) cannot hold back the tears
non qualifié (m.), non qualifiée (f.)(French) unqualified, unskilled
Nonretrogradable rhythmor 'non-retrograde rhythm', a rhythmic pattern that sounds the same whether played forward or backwards and so the retrograde version cannot be distinguished from the original version
Non-rhoticin linguistics, any dialect lacking an /r/. Some dialects of English are non-rhotic. Others only pronounced the /r/ before a vowel sound
non sans mal(French) not without difficulty
Non-sens(French m.) absurdity
Non sequitur(Latin) it does not follow (a false or erroneous line of argument, a conclusion which does not follows from the premisses)
non sta bene(Italian) it is not right
non tanto(Italian) not too much, moderately, not so much
non tanto allegro(Italian) not so quick, not too quick
non temere!(Italian) never fear!
non tempéré(French) untempered, for example, pure intervals
Non-temperedin tuning, 'just'
Non-tertian chordschord structures not based on thirds; e.g. quartal chords
Nontraditional time signaturesmeters (time signatures) using values other than 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12 for the top number
non tratto(Italian) do not drag
non troppo(Italian) not too much, moderately
non trippo presto(Italian) not too quick
Nonupleta group of notes dividing a bar or part of a bar into nine rather than eight or six equal portions
nonus(Latin) ninth
Nonverbalpertaining to communication that does not involve the use of spoken language
Non vib.abbreviated form of non vibrato an expression mark directing that the player uses no vibrato
non voler avere più nulla a che fare con(Italian) done with
Non-Western musicforms of music and sounds alien to the Western tradition of music, including music and instruments of Asia, the Middle East, Africa, the Pacific Islands, the Native Americans, etc.
Non-Western soundssounds that form part of Non-Western music
Noosee noh
Noodlinga kind of musical doodling, for example, random, improvised musical phrases a musician might play while warming up
Noon(Dutch) the interval of a ninth
Nooni(Finnish) the interval of a ninth
Noot(Dutch) note
Nootballetje(Dutch) note head
Nootnamen(Dutch) pitch names
Nootwaarde(Dutch) note value, note duration
no pararse en barras(Spanish) stop at nothing
nopeasti(Finnish) allegro
no pude llegar antes(Spanish) I couldn't arrive earlier
no puede evitar hacer alarde de sus conocimientos(Spanish) she can't help showing off her knowledge
no puedo aguantar este dolor de muelas(Spanish) this toothache's unbearable
no puedo aguantar más tu prepotencia(Spanish) I can't stand your arrogance any longer
no puedo pagar tanto(Spanish) I can't afford (to pay) that much
no quiero ni acordarme(Spanish) I don't even want to think about it
Nor.abbreviation of 'Norwegian'
noranta(Catalan) ninety
Nordic cultureor 'Scandinavian culture', a collective term that covers cultural material from Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Sweden, and Finland
Norisheets of Japanese seaweed used in the making of sushi
Norma(Italian f.) rule, instruction
Normalthe scales of C major and A minor are called 'normal' because all the other major and minor scales are fashioned after them
Normal diesissee diesis
Normal formwhen applied to chords, synonymous with 'root position'
Normalizeto boost the volume of a track on a recording so that it's as loud as possible without distortion. This maximizes sound quality, eliminates noise, and produces an even volume among tracks from different sources
Normal modesee 'natural frequency'
Normalton(German m.) concert pitch (the pitch, in particular that of the note A, to which instruments in an orchestra would be tuned)
Normaltonarten(German f.) the natural or normal keys - C major and A minor
Normaltonleiter(German f.) the natural or normal scales - those of C major and A minor
Normanan inhabitant of Normandy, a region along the northern coast of France. The word Norman comes from a cognate for "northmen," for the Norman aristocracy of the region originally descended from Danish (i.e. Viking) settlers who took over the region in the ninth and tenth centuries
the term is used for Romanesque architecture in Britain
Normandea term applied to dishes that contain apple or apple derivatives (named after the French province Normandy which is famous for its apples)
Norman Frenchform of French spoken by the Norman conquerors of England; also referred to as Anglo-Norman
in terms of English's linguistic development, Norman French profoundly influenced our language after the Norman Invasion of 1066
Norman invasionDuke William of Normandy's conquest of England from 1066-1087 which had profound impact on English by importing Norman-French vocabulary into Anglo-Saxon, bringing about the formation of Middle English
Normaphona brass instrument looking like a saxophone but with valves like a trumpet, invented by Richard Oskar Heber (1872-1938) of Markneukirchen, according to Ines Ann Heber, the great-granddaughter of the inventor. Between 1924-1930, Heber built the Normaphon in four sizes
Normedreferring to a test or assessment instrument on which data from a broad population have been gathered and used in interpreting a test taker's performance
Norisheets of Japanese seaweed used in the making of sushi
Norsecorea style of black metal
Nortec(from the combination of "norteño" and "techno") an electronic musical genre from Tijuana (a city in the north of Mexico) that first gained popularity in the late 1990s. Nortec music is characterized by hard dance beats and samples from traditional forms of Mexican music such as La Banda Sinaloense and Norteño - unmistakably Mexican horns are often used
Norteño(Spanish, literally 'northern') also known as conjunto, a traditional style of Mexican music that originated in rural northern Mexico in the early twentieth century, a form of music based largely on corridos and polka. Performed characteristically on accordion and bajo sexto, norteño is extremely popular among first-generation Mexicans in both the inner city barrios and the rural countryside of the United States and Mexico
  • Norteño from which this extract has been taken
North American drumalso called a 'deerskin drum', this untuned hand drum originates from the native peoples of the West Coast of Canada is a type of frame drum
North American whistlea cedar whistle from the native peoples of the West Coast of Canada
Northern dialecta dialect of American English stretching through the northernmost sections of the United States
Northern soulthe success of the 'Motown Sound' inspired many musicians in the United Kingdom to adopt a similar sound, resulting in the genre of Northern soul
North Germanicthe sub-branch of the Germanic languages that contains Swedish and Old Norse
North Midland dialecta dialect of American English spoke in a strip of land just south of the Northern Dialect. This should not be confused with the Midlands dialect of English spoken in Britain
Northumbrianthe Old English dialect spoken in the kingdom of Northumbria (i.e., north of the Umber river)
Northumberland-Dudelsack(German m.) Northumbrian smallpipes
Northumbrian smallpipesan English bellows-blown bagpipe with a small cylindrical closed-end chanter, and 3 or 4 drones
Norwegiana person from Norway
the language spoken mainly in Norway. There are two official forms of written Norwegian: Bokmål (literally "book language") and Nynorsk (literally "new Norwegian"). Bokmål is the form generally taught to foreign students. It is based on the language spoken by the urban upper and middle class in East Norway, whereas Nynorsk is more common in rural areas. A 2005 poll indicates that 86.3% of Norwegians use primarily Bokmål as their daily written language, whereas 7.5% use primarily Nynorsk, and 5.5% use both. Bokmål is used in 92% of all written publications and Nynorsk in only 8%, but all governmental agencies are required to support both written languages
of or pertaining to Norway
Norwegian hip hop
Norwegian music
Norwich Sol-fathe solmization system developed by Sarah Glover of Norwich (1785-1867) and described in her book Scheme for Rendering Psalmody Congregationally (1835) which formed the basis for a system promoted by John Curwen (1816-1880)
no sabes aguantar una broma(Spanish) you can't take a joke
nos amenazó con llamar a la policía(Spanish) he threatened to call the police
¿nos arriesgamos?(Spanish) shall we risk it o take a chance?
nos colmaron de atenciones(Spanish) we were showered with attention(s)
nos conocimos por accidente(Spanish) we met by chance, we met by accident
nos cortaron la luz sin previo aviso(Spanish) they cut our electricity off without notice
nos dio alojamiento(Spanish) he put us up
no se admiten mascotas(Spanish) no pets allowed
no se alejen demasiado(Spanish) don't go too far
no seas aprovechado(Spanish) don't take advantage (of the situation)
no seas así(Spanish) don't be like that
¡no seas pelma!(Spanish) don't be such a bore
no se asuste, no es nada grave(Spanish) there's no need to worry, it's nothing serious
no se dio por aludido(Spanish) he didn't take the hint
Nose flutepopular musical instrument played in Polynesia and the Pacific Rim countries. Other versions are found in Africa, China and India
[entry prompted by O. Ware Page]
no se le puede decir nada, en seguida se amohína(Spanish) you can't tell her anything; right away she starts to sulk
no se lo des antes (de) que yo lo vea(Spanish) don't give it to him until I've seen it
no se me da un bledo(Spanish) I couldn't care less
nos están apurando para que lo terminemos(Spanish) they're pushing us to finish it
Nose whistlea wind instrument of the woodwind family. The nose provides the air into the open mouth, which acts as a soundboard
nos hacía señales para que nos acercáramos(Spanish) she was signaling for us to come nearer, she was gesturing for us to come nearer
nos hallamos ante un problema(Spanish) we are faced with a problem
nos han avisado que ...(Spanish) they've notified us that ...
no soy de aquí(Spanish) I'm not from these parts, I'm not from around here
no soy muy ahorradora(Spanish) I'm not very good at saving (money)
nos pintó un panorama muy poco alentador(Spanish) he painted a very bleak picture of the future
¿nos podría anticipar de qué se trata?(Spanish) could you give us an idea of what it is about?
Nostalgia(English, Italian f.) homesickness, yearning for an earlier time
Nostalgie(French f.) nostalgia
Nostalgie de la boue(French f., literally 'yearning for mud') ascribing higher spiritual values to people and cultures considered "lower" than oneself, the romanticization of the faraway primitive which is also the equivalent of the lower class close to home, the yearning of civilized man for physical degradation
Nostosthe theme or motif of the homecoming - a return to one's family, community, or geographic origins after a long time away
Nostratica hypothetical superfamily of languages that might embrace other large family language groups - including Indo-European, Finno-Ugric, possibly Afroasiatic, and other family groups. Its existence is highly contested, however, since its origins would go back beyond the 5,000 BC marker - long before written records existed to help corroborate that nostratic ever really existed
Nostrum(Latin, literally 'ours') a secret medicine prepared by the person who recommends it, a patent medicine, any remedy or specific cure recommended by its inventor
Not(Swedish) note
Notnon (Italian), nicht (German), non (French)
Nota(English) an English dance form that dates from the late thirteenth century. Like the estampie and istanpita, the nota has several verses. It does not appear to have the alternate endings that characterise the other forms. Each verse may consist of the same phrase with different counterpoints above or below. One example has five verses, with the same melody occupying the bottom part of verses 1 and 2 and the upper part of verses 3 through 5 (and transposed a fifth). As with ductia, there are no surviving pieces labelled as notas in period, and identification is based on the c. 1300 description given by Johannes de Grocheio
Nota(Latin, Spanish f., Italian f., Portuguese f.) note, sign
(Latin) an abbreviation or shorthand sign (particularly one adopted by the medieval scribes from the ancient Roman system of Tironian notes (Latin: notae Tironianae), a system of shorthand said to have been invented by Cicero's scribe Marcus Tullius Tiro. Tiro's system consisted of about 4,000 signs, somewhat extended in classical times to 5,000 signs. In the Medieval period, Tironian notes were taught in monasteries and the system was extended to about 13,000 signs. The use of Tironian notes declined after A.D. 1100 but some use can still be seen used as late as the seventeenth century
Nota abbieta(Italian f.) a useless or chancelled note
Nota abjecta(Latin) a useless or chancelled note
Nota accentata(Italian f.) an accented note
Nota al aire(Spanish f.) unstopped note (on a string instrument)
Nota ausiliare(Italian f.) auxiliary note
Nota auxiliar(Spanish f.) auxiliary note
Nota bene(Latin, 'note well') or N.B., note well, take a careful note, observe carefully
an abbreviation denoting that the reader of an article should make a particular note of the article mentioned
Nota bianca(Italian f.) a minim
Notabilia(Italian) noteworthy things, remarkable things
notable(French) remarkable
Nota blues(Spanish f.) 'blues' note
Nota buona(Italian f.) an accented note, a strong note
Nota cambiata(Italian f., literally 'changed note') a contrapuntal device where, expecting a consonant note, a dissonant note has been used. Allowed in 'third species counterpoint', the nota cambiata is a five note figure whose contour is a step down, a leap down a third followed by two upward steps. The first, third and fifth notes must be consonances but the second and fourth can be dissonant
Nota caratteristica(Italian f.) the leading note
Nota cattiva(Italian f.) a weak or an unaccented note
Notación(Spanish f.) notation
Notación inglesa(Spanish f.) the naming of notes using letters of the alphabet (i.e. C, D, E, F, G, A, B)
Notación musical(Spanish f.) musical notation
Notación neumática(Spanish f.) neumatic notation
[entry supplied by Donald Skoog]
Nota con dos puntillos(Spanish f.) double dotted note
Nota con puntillo(Spanish f.) dotted note
Nota contra notam(Latin, literally 'note against note') see 'counterpoint'
Nota cromatico(Italian f.) synonymous with nota nere
Nota d'abbellimento(Italian f.) a grace note
Nota del diablo(Spanish f.) the name formerly given to the seventh degree of the scale, the note which, in solfeggio, is today called Si
Nota de paso(Spanish f.) a passing note, note de passage (French), nota di passaggio (Italian), Durchgangston (German), Übergangsnote (German)
Nota di passaggio(Italian f.) a passing note, note de passage (French), nota de paso (Spanish), Durchgangston (German), Übergangsnote (German)
Nota di piacere(Italian f.) an optional grace note
Nota doppiamente puntata(Italian f.) double dotted note
Notae(Latin pl.) note, sign
Notae Tironianae(Latin) Tironian notes, a system of shorthand said to have been invented by Cicero's scribe Marcus Tullius Tiro
Nota falsa(Italian f.) a changing note, wrong note, false note
Nota fondamentale(Italian f.) or tonica, the key note of a scale, the first degree of a scale
Nota inaccentato(Italian f.) an unaccented note
Nota nere (s.), Note nere (pl.)(Italian f., literally 'black notes') crotchets (quarter notes), quavers (eighth notes), etc., notes with black, filled-in note heads as opposed to 'white notes' like breves (double whole notes), semibreves (whole notes) and minims (half notes)
Nota principale(Italian f.) an essential note
nota puntata(Italian f.) dotted note
Nota romana(Italian f.) synonymous with neuma
Notas(Portuguese f. pl., Spanish f. pl.) notes
Nota semiminima(Italian f.) a crotchet
Nota sensibile(Italian f.) the leading note
Nota sensibis(Latin) the leading note
Notas guia(Spanish f. pl.) cue notes
Notas individuales(Spanish f. pl.) individual notes
Notas ligadas(Spanish f. pl.) slurred notes
Nota sostenuta(Italian f.) a sustained note
Nota tapada(Spanish f.) stopped notes
Notatie(Dutch) notation
(English, German f., French f.) the method used to write down music specifically to determine eight variables:
pitchin distematic or intervallic notation, the higher the symbol is on the staff, the higher the pitch. In addition, inflections (double flat, flat, sharp and double sharp) are also used to indicate the required pitch
durationthe choice of note symbol and whether or not the note is followed by one or more dots
articulationfor example, notated using some form of tenuto or staccato sign
tempofor example, through the use of phonetic tempo markings, the choice of metronome marking, etc.
dynamicsfor example, through the choice of phonetic dynamic marking i.e. p, f, etc.
silenceusing rests, fermata, caesura, G.P., etc.
timbrefor example, on a bowed stringed instrument, by using the mute or by moving the bow closer to, or further away from the bridge, on a brass instrument, by using a mute or placing a hand into the bell
orderusing supplementary information describing the order of different sections, for example through the use of repeat, first time section and second time section marks, da capo and dal segno signs, through the presence of guida or presa symbols, or by employing certain forms where the order is understood, as in a rondo, minuet and trio, pair of dances in eighteenth-century suites, etc.
information is provided in three distinct domains:
logical domaindescribes a piece of music as the composer might think of it; e.g. a note is a crotchet (quarter note)
performance (also called gestural) domaindescribes it as sound waves or manipulations of a musical instrument; e.g. a note lasts 3 seconds
the graphic (also called visual) domaindescribes it as a collection of marks on paper; e.g. slurs, beams, octave signs, ornaments, etc.
a fourth domain has been proposed by Sloan (1997)
analytical domaininformation about the work, which might include bibliographic information, as well as interpretive information that ranges from phrase markers and roman numeral analysis of underlying harmony to a Schenkerian graph
Notation(French f.) notation, remark
Notation abrégée(French f.) abbreviated notation (for example, where ornaments are indicated symbolically rather than by being written out explicitly as groups of smaller notes
Notation, actionsee 'action notation'
Notation allemande(French f. literally 'German notation') system of pitch-naming of notes using the letters of the alphabet (for example, A, B, C, D, E, F, G)
Notation anglo-saxonne(French f., literally 'Anglo-Saxon notation') system of pitch-naming of notes using the letters of the alphabet (for example, A, B, C, D, E, F, G)
Notation à pointes liés(French f., literally 'notation of dots bound together') the French term for Norman neume notation although this is misleading as the Norman notation is of the 'accent-neume' form
Notation à pointes superposés(French f.) the French term for 'point-neumes', a form of neume notation
Notation, Boethiansee 'Boethian notation'
Notation, chord diagramsee 'chord diagram notation'
Notation, classical guitarsee 'classical guitar notation'
Notation, common practicesee 'common practice notation'
Notation, dancechoreology
Notation, distematicsee 'distematic notation'
Notation, figured basssee 'figured bass notation'
Notation, Gregorian chantsee 'Gregorian chant notation'
Notation, guitarsee 'guitar notation'
Notation, Helmholtz pitchsee 'Helmholtz pitch notation'
Notation, mensuralsee 'mensural notation'
Notation, microtonalsee 'mictrotonal notation'
Notation musicale(French f.) musical notation
Notation, neumaticsee 'neumatic notation'
Notation neumatique(French f.) neumatic notation
Notation, processsee 'process notation'
Notation, proportionalsee 'mensural notation'
Notation, Romansee 'Roman notation'
Notation, scientific pitchsee 'scientific pitch notation'
Notation, slashsee 'slash notation'
Notation, standardsee 'standard notation'
Notation, TABsee 'TAB'
Notation, tablaturesee 'tablature'
Notausgang(German m.) emergency exit, emergency door
Notazione(Italian f.) marking, notation
Notazione musicale(Italian f.) or semiografia, musical notation
Notched flute or 'end-blown notched flute', refers to any vertical flute provided with an edge (or 'notch') cut on one side of the open upper end across which the player must direct the airstream. The Japanese shakuhachi may be the most efficient instrument using this principle. Its relatively thick bamboo wall affords a wide, deep, clean edge with a relatively shallow notch. Other instruments in this category made from thinner-walled materials involve a narrower and more steeply cut notch, making them harder to play. An elegant example of this type is the Chinese jade flute, feng huang xiao
Notenota (Italian f.), Note (German f.), note (French f.)
(German f.) a score, a mark, a note (musical), a grade, a character, a bill
parts of a note
(English, French f., German f.) a single sound of a particular pitch and length which is notated with a symbol made up of a notehead (in all cases), a stem or tail (in some cases) and a flag (in some cases), and which with notes bearing flags are grouped together using a beam
Note accentuée(French f.) an accented note
Note à eviter(French f.) avoid note
Note-against-notesee 'homorhythm'
Note-against-note organumthe oldest written organum (c. 900), which evidently reflects a prevailing improvisational practice, consists of two lines moving simultaneously, note against note, the added line often paralleling the chant line a fourth or a fifth below
later, note-against-note organum progressed to become a succession of consonant intervals by a mixture of contrary, oblique, similar and parallel motions in the parts
Note ajoutee(French f.) added note
no te amargues la existencia(Spanish) don't get all uptight about it (familiar)
no te atarantes(Spanish - Chile) don't rush into it (colloquial)
no te atolondres, piénsalo bien(Spanish) don't rush into it, think it over carefully
Note auxiliaire(French f.) auxiliary note
¿no te avergüenza salir así a la calle?(Spanish) aren't you ashamed to go out looking like that?
Note bémolisée(French f.) flattened (or flatted) note
Note bouchée(French f.) stopped note
Note caracteristique du blues(French f.) blue note
Note changeante(French f.) a changing note
Note changée(French f.) an auxiliary note
Note-cible(French) guide note, guide tone
Note clusteror 'tone cluster', a group of notes played together that lie adjacent on the piano keyboard usually with the forearm or a piece of wood, a concept pioneering in 1912 by the American composer Henry Cowell (1897-1965)
Note constitutive(French f.) see note réelle
Note cromatico(Italian f. pl.) plural form of nota cromatico, synonymus with note nere
Note d'agrément(French f.) a grace note, nota d'abbellimento
Note d'appogiature(French f.) a changing note
Note de bas de page(French f.) footnote
Note de l'accord(French f.) chord note
Note de passage(French f.) passing note, nota di passaggio (Italian), nota de paso (Spanish), Durchgangston (German), Übergangsnote (German)
Note diésée(French f.) sharpened (or sharped) note, a note marked with a sharp
Note doublement diésée(French f.) double sharpened (or double sharped) note
Note doublement bémolisée(French f.) double flattened (or double flatted) note
Note doublement pointée(French f.) double dotted note
Note duration namessee 'duration names'
Note écrite(French f.) written note
Note en bas de la passage(French f.) a footnote
Note entendue(French f.) the note heard, sounding note
Note étrangère (à l'accord)(French f.) nonharmonic note, inharmonic note
Note fantôme(French f.) ghost note
Note frappée(French f.) an accented note
Note headthe head, or round part of the note symbol as distinguished from the stem or any other part of the note; other note heads have been used including diamond shaped and square shaped
Note inférieure(French f.) lower note (of an interval)
Note intégrante(French f.) an essential note
Note jalon(French f., jalon, literally 'marker') landmark note
Note jouée(French f.) note played
Note liée(French f.) tied note
no te lo aconsejo(Spanish) tI don't advise it
Note namessee 'pitch names'
Note namingsee 'pitch names'
although upper or lower case naming can be used when naming notes there are certain conventions that is is well to be aware of when one case or the other might be used selectively. Major chords and chords that have a major 3rd such as G, G7, GMaj7, can be identified quickly because they are written in upper case. Minor chords and chords that have a minor 3rd are written: gm, gm7, gm7b5. Case is also used to indicate register (for example, CC C c c' c''). In form analysis, upper case is often used to indicate larger sections and lower case to indicate phrase structure
Notenarchiv(German n.) music archive, music library
Notenarchivar(German m.) music archivist, music librarian, orchestral librarian
Notenausgabe(German f.) sheet music, music
notenbalk(Dutch) staff
notenbalken(Dutch) staves
Notenbezeichnung(German f.) (musical) note name
Notenbild (s.), Notenbilder (pl.)(German n.) the score image (work-as-score : spatialisation, as distinct from work-as-performance : temporality)
Notenbildung(German) the score layout
Notenblatt(German n.) a sheet of music
Notenbuch(German n.) a music book, a note book
Notenbuchlein(German n.) a musical score in booklet form
Notendruck(German m.) an engraving, music publishing
no tener abuela(Spanish) to blow one's own trumpet (figurative)
no tener arte ni parte(Spanish) to have nothing to do with
no tener desperdicio(Spanish) to be good all the way through
Note nere(Italian plural form of nota nere
no tener pelos en la lengua(Spanish) to be outspoken
Notengestell(German) a music stand
no tengo ánimo(s) de nada(Spanish) I don't feel up to anything
no tengo ánimo(s) para nada(Spanish) I don't feel up to anything
no tengo por qué aguantar esto(Spanish) I don't have to put up with this
Notenhals(German m.) the stem (of a note)
Notenhalter(German m.) a music lyre (for holding music when playing)
Notenkopf(German m.) a note head
Noten lesen(German) to read music
noten lezen(Dutch) to read music
Notenlinie(German f.) the line (on a staff)
Notennamen(German m.) a note name (for example, C, D, etc.)
Note non accentuée(French f.) an unaccented note
Notenpapier(German n.) music paper
Notenplan(German m.) the stave, the scale
Notenpult(German n.) music desk
Notenrolle(German f.) a piano roll
Notenschlüssel(German m.) clef
Notenschreiber(German m.) music copyist
Notenschrift(Dutch, German f.) staff notation
Notenständer(German m.) music stand, pupitre (French m.)
Notenstecher(German m.) a music engraver
Notensystem(German n.) system
Notentext(German m.) notation
Notenübersicht(German f.) musical score summary
Notenwert(German m.) note value, note duration
Notenzeichen(German n.) note sign (i.e. note symbol itself)
Notenzeiger(German m.) custos, direct, guidon (French m.)
Notenzeile(German f.) staff
Note-octave notationan alternative term for 'scientific pitch notation'
Note of anticipationsee 'anticipation'
Note pointée(French f.) dotted note
no te pongas así(Spanish) don't get so worked up
Note portée(French f.) a note to be played with a legato accent, a note to be played portamento style
Note principale(French f.) essential or principal note
Note réelle(French f.) or note constitutive, harmonic note or essential note, a note that belongs to the sequences of thirds that make up triads and seventh, ninth or eleventh chords
Note repetitionsuccessive notes are identical, movement is stationary, and, as a result, there is no motion
Note résolutive(French f.) resolution, note that resolves a discord
Note ribbattute(Italian f. pl.) an instrumental effect, the rapid repetition of a single note
Note rowa sequence of the twelve notes of the dodecuple scale (in effect the chromatic scale), each and every note (or one of its octaves) appearing only once in the sequence, to form the basis of a musical composition, a concept 'invented' by Arnold Schönberg (1874-1951) and championed by, what is sometimes called, the 'second Viennese school'
Note sans timbre(French f.) ghost note
Notes de goût(French f. pl.) notes of embellishment
Notes de passage, les(French f. pl.) passing notes
Notes du medium(French f. pl.) a term applied to the notes in the range of a voice type that are most easily achieved, being neither too weak, as with the notes towards the bottom of the range, nor prone to 'yelling' as with the notes towards the top of the range
Note secondaire(French f.) auxiliary note
Note sensible(French f.) the leading note, nota sensibile
Notes extrêmes(French f.) also degrés extrêmes or pôles, the notes the furthest apart in a scale or row
Note sign
Notes inégales(French f. pl.) see inégal, inégale
Notes liées(French f. pl.) "Notes liées are two or several notes that are played with a single bowstroke on the violin and cello, or with a single tongue stroke on the flute and oboe. In short, all the notes under a slur." - Rousseau (1768)
notés l'un au dessus de l'autrenotated one on top of the other
Notes mobiles(French f. pl.) or degrés mobiles, the sixth and seventh degrees of the scale, so called because according to the particular form of minor scale these notes may be altered (that is, raised or lowered)
Notes piquées(French f. pl.) "Series of notes ascending or descending diatonically or on the same note (tone), over each of which a dot is placed. Sometimes it [the dot] is elongated to indicate that they must be played equally by tonguing or bowing with dry and detached strokes, without lifting the bow or pushing it back, but by making it move and jump on the strings as many times as there are notes, in the same direction as he began his bowing." - Rousseau (1768)
Note supérieure(French f.) upper note (of an interval)
Note sur une corde à vide(French f.) unstopped note (on a string instrument)
Note valuein music notation, a note value indicates the relative duration of a note, using the color or shape of the note head, the presence or absence of a stem, and the presence or absence of flags. A rest indicates a silence of an equivalent duration
Noteur(French m.) music copyist
Note voisin(French f.) auxilary note, neighbouring note
notevole(Italian) remarkable
¡no te vuelvas a aparecerse por aquí!(Spanish) don't you dare show your face round here again!
Notfall(German m.) emergency
notfalls(German) if need be
notgedrungen(German) of necessity
Notgroschen(German m.) nest-egg
Nothuvud(Swedish) note head
Noticia (s.), Noticias (pl.)(Spanish f.) piece of news, item of news, news (most commonly using the plural form)
noticia lo afectó mucho, lo(Spanish f.) the news upset him terribly
Noticias de acutualidad, las(Spanish today's news, this weeks news
Noticias de última hora, una(Spanish a late-breaking news item, a last-minute news item
no tiene alimento ninguno(Spanish) it has no nutritional value
no tiene autorización de sus padres(Spanish) he doesn't have his parents' permission
no tiene idea alguna(Spanish) he hasn't any idea at all
no tiene quien lo atienda(Spanish) he has no one to look after him
no tienes pruebas(Spanish) you have no evidence
notieren(German) to notate, to note down, to quote
nötig(German) necessary
nötigen(German) to force, to press
nötigenfalls(German) if need be
nötig haben(German) to need
Nötigung(German f.) coercion
Notine(Italian m.) cue notes, small notes used to indicate the preparation(s) to an ornament (for example, the appoggiatura to a trill)
Notiz (s.), Notizen (pl.)(German f.) note, programme note, item
Notizblatt(German n.) notepad
Notizblock(German m.) notepad
Notizbuch(German n.) notebook
Notizia(Italian f.) (piece of) news, information
Notiziario(Italian m.) news
Notizkalender(German f.) diary
Notiz nehmen von(German) take notice of
Notizzettel(German m.) notepad
Notlage(German f.) plight
notlanden(German) to make a forced landing
Notlandung(German f.) forced landing
notleidend(German) needy
Notlinje(Swedish) line (on a staff)
Notlösung(German f.) stopgap
Notlüge(German f.) white lie
notorisch(German) notorious
no trabajo por amor al arte(Spanish) I'm not working for the good of my health (ironic)
Notre Dame organumin the late twelfth century, at the great Paris cathedral of Notre Dame, the most elaborate style of organum, polyphony based on plainchant, developed, incorporating rhythmic passages and florid melismas in the added voices
Notre Dame schoolThe group of composers working at or near the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris from about 1170 to 1250, along with the music they produced, is referred to as the Notre Dame school, or the Notre Dame School of Polyphony
Notre-Dame-Schule(German f.) Notre Dame school
Notruf(German m.) emergency call, distress call, emergency services number
Notsignal(German n.) distress signal
Not so muchnon tanto (Italian), gemässigt (German), pas tant (French)
Notstand(German m.) state of emergency
Notsystem(Swedish) staff
Nottryck(Swedish) engraving
Notturnino(Italian) diminuative of notturno
Notturno (s.), Notturni (pl.)(German n., Italian m., literally 'noctural') from the eighteenth century, a work, usually instrumental, composed to be played at night (a serenade)
Notunterkunft(German f.) emergency accommodation
no tuvimos alternativa(Spanish) we had no choice
no tuvo ninguna atencione con ella a pesar de su hospitalidad(Spanish) he didn't show the slightest appreciation despite her hospitality
Notvärde(Swedish) note value
Notwehr(German f.) self-defence
notwendig(German) necessary, essential, urgently
Notwendigkeit(German f.) necessity
Notzucht(German f.) rape
nou(Catalan) nine
Nougat(French m.) a sweetmeat made of almonds and other nuts in a sugar paste
Nouille(French f.) idiot (familiar)
Nouilles(French f. pl.) noodles
Noumenon (s.), Noumena (pl.)(Greek) in psychology, an object of purely intellectual intuition
Nounours(French m.) teddy bear
nourri(French) intense (figurative)
nourri au sein(French) breastfed
Nourrice(French f.) child-minder, wet-nurse
nourrir le son(French) (in singing) to commence or attack a note forcibly and then sustain it
nourrir(French) to feed, to provide for, to nourish (also figurative), to be nourishing
nourrissant (m.), nourrissante (f.)(French) nourishing
Nourrisson(French m.) infant
Nourriture(French f.) food
Nous(Greek) mind, intellect, commonsense, shrewdness
(French) we, (to) us, ourselves, each other
Nouseva intervalli(Finnish) ascending interval
nous-mêmes(French) ourselves
Nous serions très heureux de vous y accueillir (chez nous).(French) We would be very happy to welcome you (to our home).
nous sommes (date)(French) it's (date)
Nous vous sommes extrêmement reconnaissants.(French) We are very grateful to you.
Nouveau-né (m.), Nouveau-née (f.)(French) new-born baby
nouveau-né (m.), nouveau-née (f.)(French) new-born
Nouveau riche (m.), Nouvelle riche (f.), Nouveaux riches (pl.)(French) an indivudal or a group of individuals, of humble origin, who has (or have) acquired wealth (the implication being that their wealth does not conceal their origins)
Nouveau roman(French m.) a novel in which conventional plot and structure (and sometimes grammar and punctuation) are discarded
Nouveauté(French f.) novelty, new thing
Nouveau Testament(French m.) New Testament
nouveau venu (m.), nouvelle venue (f.)(French) newcomer
nouveaux (m.), nouvelle (f.)(French) new
Nouveaux Jeunes, Lesa group of composer assembled by Erik Satie around himself, forerunners of Les Six. The group broke up after only a year
Nouveaux mariés(French) newly-weds
(le) Nouvel An(French m.) New Year's Day
Nouvelle(French f.) short novel, short story (although looser in structure), (piece of) news
Nouvelle chanson(French f.) created as a counter-blast to "noise" music, rock and pop, nouvelle chanson was the very breath of Parisian bohemian nocturnal existence, a liberating change from the sweetly sentimental love ballads and comic patter songs of the pre-war era. Charles Trenet lead the way to these new musical expressions of satirical and experimental literary genius while great mid-century writers and poets like Jean-Paul Sartre, Louis Aragon, Guillevic, Raymond Queneau and Boris Vian turned their superb literary talents to the art of the 'new chanson' a combination that appealed to intellectuals, to the politically aware rebels of the 1968 street wars, as well as to the general public, the upper classes and the proletarians. Etienne Roda-Gil stands out as one of that period's immortals, a born parolier
Nouvelle cuisine(French f.) the name given to the style of food that became popular in the 1980s that gave back the flavours of the food. It stepped away from the heavy sauces, etc. of classical French cuisine
nouvelle l'a un peu sonné, La(French) He was rather taken aback by the news.
nouvellement(French) newly, recently
nouvelle musique, la(French f.) (the) new music
Nouvelles(French f. pl.) news
Nouvelle Zélande(French) New Zealand
Nouvelle vague(French f., literally 'new wave') a revolutionary techinque of film-making combining a small budget, non-professional or little-known actors and cinéma vérité camera-work
Nouvelle version(French f.) new version
Nova(Italian) a species of small flute or pipe
Nova (s.), Novae (pl.)(Latin) a new star (particularly one that becomes visible because of a temporary increase in brightness)
Novaes, Guiomar
Brazilian pianist noted for individuality of tone and phrasing, singing line, and a subtle and nuanced approach to her interpretations. She was one of the greatest pianists of the twentieth century. In 1922 she married Ocatavio Pinto, a civil engineer who was also a pianist and composer
novanta(Italian) ninety
no van a la iglesia(Spanish) they don't go to church
no van a llegar antes de dos horas(Spanish) they won't be here for two hours
Novato(Portuguese) beginner
Nove(Italian) nine
Novel(from the French, nouvelle, Italian novella, 'new') Roman (German), roman (French), romanzo (Italian), an extended, generally fictional narrative in prose. Until the eighteenth century, the word referred specifically to short fictions of love and intrigue as opposed to romances, which were epic-length works about love and adventure. During the eighteenth century, the novel adopted features of the old romance and became one of the major literary genres. It is today defined mostly by its ability to become the object of literary criticism demanding artistic merit, a specific 'literary' style and a deeper meaning than a true story of the same content could claim to have
Novela(Spanish f.) novel
Novela corta(Spanish f.) short story
Novela de acción(Spanish f.) adventure story
Noveletsee 'novelette'
Novelette(French f.) a free-form romantic instrumental piece
or 'novelet', a piece of short prose fiction
the distinction between a novelette and other literary forms, like a novella, is usually based upon word count
the word was used by the composer Robert Schumann as a title for some piano pieces (op. 21, and op. 99 no. 9); this music is more episodic than narrative in character
  • Novelette from which the second and third entries have been taken
Novell(Swedish) short story
Novella (s.), Novelle (Italian pl.)(Italian f.) short story, usually realistic, often satirical (the term originates as news of town and country life that was considered worth repeating for general amusement and edification)
(English) a written, fictional, prose narrative longer than a novelette or short story but shorter than a novel, and which is called romanzo breve in Italian
some scholars in previous generations made a distinction between what they called the novella (short stories in Italian, French, and German that served as later influences on English prose) and the novelette (English extended prose narratives shorter than a short story but not quite as long as a novel.) Today, most American critics use the two terms interchangeably
Novelle(Danish, Norwegian, German f.) short story, usually incorporating the Wendepunkt (German: an unexpected turn of events)
(German) novella
Novellette(German) a term first used by Schumann for his op. 21 for piano, which has come to mean a free-form romantic instrumental piece
Novel of sensibilitysee 'sentimental novel'
Novelty cardany postcard created with features beyond a standard postal size or containing a simple picture. Many novelties were printed on unusual substances such as wood or leather, and were die cut into strange shapes or puzzles. Metallic powders, silk embroidery, coins, feathers, and many other items were often added to them. Many have moveable parts and some actually make sounds. These cards were often mailed in envelopes for protection of the card and the handler. Many forms of novalties began as advertising for products or businesses and only later moved onto postcards
Novelty dancessee 'fad dances'
Novelty pianoa genre of American music that was popular during the 1920s. A successor to 'ragtime' and an outgrowth of the piano roll music of the teens, novelty piano can be considered a pianistic cousin of 'jazz', which appeared around the same time. Its originators were mostly piano roll artists from the Chicago area, where two of the largest piano roll companies, QRS and Imperial, had their headquarters. It is distinct from stride piano, which was developed in New York at about the same time
novem(Latin) nine
Novembergruppe(German) group of German artists named after the German Revolution of November 1918, founded in Berlin on 3 December 1918 and active until 1932. In the wake of World War I and the German Revolution, a number of Expressionist artists including Max Pechstein and César Klein invited all the 'revolutionaries in spirit (Expressionists, Cubists, Futurists)' to form an association of 'radical creative artists'. Their intention was not to form an exhibition society but to influence and demand participation in all activities of importance to the arts and to artists: in architecture as a public affair; in the reorganization of art schools; in the restructuring of museums; in new exhibition spaces; and in new laws to protect the arts and artists. A hope for a new and better society, a tendency towards socialism and a belief that the arts would be able to change society formed the Expressionist basis for the association. The composers Hanns Eisler and Kurt Weill also joined the group
Novemole(German) a nonuplet (a group of nine notes to be performed in the same time as six of equal value)
Novena(Latin) a devotion consisting of special prayers recited on nine successive days
novena(Spanish) the interval of a ninth, neuvième (French)
noveno(Spanish) ninth
noventa(Spanish) ninety
Noverre, Jean-Georges
a French dancer and ballet master, and is considered to be the creator of ballet d'action a precursor of the narrative ballets of the nineteenth century. His birthday is now observed as International Dance Day
Novio (m.), Novia (f.)(Spanish) a fiancé (m.), a bridegroom (m.), a fiancée (f.), a bride (f.)
Novísima Trova(Spanish, literally 'newest song') used to describe a new generation of Cuban songwriters
Novokomponovana muzika(SFR Yugoslavia) extremely popular in the 1970s and 1980s, commercial folk, a blend of Roma music, Middle Eastern beats, Turkish & Greek pop music, and Serbian brass bands on one side, as well as rock and roll and contemporary electronic dance music on the other
Novokomponovana narodna muzika('newly-composed folk music') a twentieth-century genre based on sevdalinka which is mixed with many other folk influences from the Balkan region
novus(Latin) new
Novus homo (s.), Novi homines (pl.)(Latin, literally 'new man') an upstart, a person of humble origins who has recently come to rank and dignity
No Wavea short-lived but influential offshoot of punk rock centered in New York City during the late 1970s and early 1980s
  • No Wave from which this comment has been taken
Nowell (English)a Christmas carol, noël
Nowell Codexthe common scholarly nickname for the medieval manuscript that contains Beowulf. The official designation for this manuscript is Cotton Vitellius A.xv.
Noun classsee 'gender'
Noyard(French) execution by drowning
Noyau(French m.) stone or kernel of a fruit, a liqueur made by steeping the kernels of certain fruits in brandy, nucleus of a cell (biology), group, core (figurative: centre)
noyauter(French) to infiltrate
Noyé (m.), Noyée (f.)(French) drowning person, drowned person
noyer(French) to drown, to flood, to inundate
n.p.abbreviation of 'no place of publication'
NPRabbreviation of 'National Public Radio' of 'no publisher'
nrabbrevation of 'near'
Nr.abbrevation of Nummer (German: number, numéro (French))
NRK abbreviation of Norsk Rikskringkasting (Norwegian broadcasting system)
N.S.abbreviation of Nostro Signore (Italian: Our Lord)
Nsansia thumb piano from Mozambique
n.s.g.abbreviation of 'not so good'
N.S.G.C.abbreviation of Nostro Signore Gesù Cristo (Italian: Our Lord Jesus Christ)
n-TETthe usual mnemonic for n equal steps to an octave
Graham writes "I prefer 'n-equal' because it's easier to say. Also, the first "T" stands for "tone" which is an Americanism in this context. And the other "T" stands for temperament. Well, single interval scales needn't be temperaments. That is, they needn't imitate integer frequency ratios. So, 'n-equal' covers the full generality"
Nuance(French, German f., from Latin nubes, 'cloud') a shade of colour or tone, a delicate gradation, a fine shade or small difference of meaning, shading
in music, a symbol added on the score to indicate the volume or tempo at which, or degree of accent with which, a note or a series of notes are to be played or sung
Nubpoint or gist (of a matter or story), (also nubble) small lump, especially of coal
Nuba (s.), Nubat (pl.)or nuuba (s.), nuubaat (pl.), a "musical suite" in a single mode or maqam. In the ancient classical music of Andalusia, al-âla (or aala, 'instrumental'), there used to be twenty-four nubat linked to each hour of the day, but only four nubat have survived in their entirety, and seven in fragmentary form. An entire nuba could last six or seven hours and they were divided into as many as five parts called mizan, each with its corresponding rhythm. Today, thirteen nubat make up the core of the Tunisian maluf (or malouf, 'customary'). In Algeria, gharnati (or gharnaattii, 'Granadan') is also arranged in nubat; there are four unfinished and twelve complete. The lyrics to these nubat, however, consist almost entirely of zajals and muwashshahs, Andalusian poetic forms that swept through the entire Arab-speaking world during the late Middle Ages and rapidly became two of the most common of Arabic literary genres
Nubbyhomespun, (of textiles) having a rough surface
Nubileready for marriage, of a marriageable age or condition
(when used of young women) sexually mature and attractive)
Nubilitythe state of being marriageable
Nuclear familya couple and their child or children
Nudepainting, sculpture, etc. of a nude human figure
naked, bare, unclothed
Nudillo(Spanish m.) finger joint (knuckle)
Nudgeprod, gentle push
to prod gently with the elbow to attract attention, to push gradually
Nueva canción(Spanish f., literally 'new song') the Nueva canción movement in the late 1960s brought about a revival of the traditional music of the Andes and infused it with lyrics that dealt with the ideals and struggles of the times (In Chile & Argentina dictatorships were brutally repressing democracy and musicians were often forced into exile or, in the case of the great Victor Jara, even tortured and killed). The most renowned exponents of Andean music today are veterans of that era. They have incorporated the traditional music of the Andes Cordillera (Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Ecuador), of the Inca, Aymara and other indigenous peoples, which, like the mountains themselves, has an ancient, mystical quality, especially the flutes and panpipes known as quenas and zampoñas and the small mandolin-like instrument called the charango
Nueva trova(Spanish f.) a movement in Cuban music that emerged in the mid-1960s, and combined traditional folk music idioms with progressive and often politicized lyrics. Though originally and still largely Cuban, nueva trova is popular across Latin America, especially in Puerto Rico and Venezuela
Nueva versión(Spanish f.) new version
nuevo(Spanish) nine
(Spanish) new
Nuevo flamenco(Spanish m.) the name given, during the 1980s, to a younger generation of flamenco artists who were influenced by other contemporary and traditional forms of music, jazz in particular, but also rock and pop, as well as the South American mix of salsa and rumba. One of the most popular performers associated with this genre are the Gypsy Kings
Nuevo ritmo(Spanish m.) the D section added to the end of the danzón in the late 1930s and early 1940s, that served as the takeoff point for the mambo or montuno section and, later, the cha-cha
Nuevo Testamento(Spanish m.) The New Testament
nuire à(French) to harm
Nuit(French f.) night
Nuit blanche(French f.) a sleepless night
Nuit de noces(French f.) wedding night
Nu-jazzsometimes called 'electro-jazz' or 'phusion', the term nu-jazz was coined in the late 1990s to refer to styles which combine jazz textures and sometimes jazz instrumentation with electronic music. Like the term 'electronica', 'nu jazz' is a loosely defined umbrella musical style
  • Nu-jazz from which this extract has been taken
Nul (m.), Nulle (f.)(French) no one
nul (m.), nulle (f.)(French) no, nil, useless, null
Nul autre(French) no one else
nul en(French) no good at
Nullah(Hindi) a watercourse, a gully
nullement(French) not at all
Nulle part(French) nowhere
Nullifidiana sceptic, an unbeliever, of no faith, not trusting to faith for salvation
nulli secondus(Latin) second to none (i.e. the best)
Nullité(French f.) uselessness, a useless person
Nullpunktabweichung(German f.) zero error
Numbera musical item taken from an opera or oratorio, for example, an aria, a chorus
a single piece in a concert programme
an opus number
Numbered musical notationsee jianpu
Numbering-at-pressto number a job on the printing machine by means of numbering boxes
Number operaa term applied to eighteenth-century operas, and, in particular, opera seria, where the arias, ensembles and, where they are included, choruses are self-contained while the recitative or spoken dialogue stands apart
Number piecesthe American composer John Cage (1912-1992), wrote some 45 of these pieces over the last five years of his life, aided by software developed by his long-time assistant Andrew Culver. By then, Cage was about to turn 80 and had started to become almost respectable in proper music circles. All of the elements that had interested him as a composer throughout his mature career - indeterminacy, nonunderstanding, inconsistency, imitation, variable structure, contingency, anarchy - are present. The title of each work in the 'Numbers Series' is a number written out as a word (One, Two, Fourteen etc.). That indicates the number of performers for which the piece was composed. If Cage wrote several works for the same number of performers, he would make a further distinction in the title by adding a superscript numeral; for instance, Four (1989) is for string quartet, while Four4 (1991) is a quartet for percussion. All the late Number Pieces use what Cage called 'time brackets'. The instrumentalists are assigned parts which contain mostly single notes and chance-distributed time brackets indicating the period of time (as measured by a stopwatch) within which the notes are to be played
Numen(Latin) divine power
Numeración(Spanish f.) numbering, numeration
Numeración cronológica(Spanish) chronological numeration
Numéraire(French m.) cash
Numéral (s.), Numéraux (pl.)(French m.) numeral
numerato(Italian) figured (as in figured bass)
numerico(Italian) numerical
numérico(Spanish) numerical
numérique(French) digital (clock, watch), numerical
numerisch(German) numerical
Numero(Italian m.) number, numeral, issue (of a magazine,etc.)
Número(Portuguese m., Spanish m., French m.) number, numeral, issue (of a magazine,etc.), act (spectacle)
Numéro(French m.) number, numeral, issue (of a magazine,etc.)
Numero arretrato(Italian m.) back number
numérater(French) to number
Numeroitu basso(Finnish) figured bass, thorough bass
Numerologynumber symbolism, especially the idea that certain numbers have sacred meanings
Números de Fibonacci(Spanish m. pl.) Fibonacci numbers
Números primos(Spanish m. pl.) prime numbers
Numerus(Latin) number (used to denote rhythm, musical time and harmony)
Numerus clausus(Latin) a fixed or limited number (of vacancies in a school, class, etc.)
Nu-metalalso called 'aggro metal' or 'nü-metal', a popular music genre that has origins in the mid 1990s. It typically fuses influences from the grunge and alternative metal of the early 1990s with hip-hop, electronic music, thrash metal and death metal amongst other metal genres
Nummer (s.), Nummern (German pl.)(German f., Norwegian) number, act (in the circus), issue (periodical)
Nummeroper(German f.) number opera
Numnah(Hindi) or numdah (which is more correct, but rare), a saddle-cloth of thick felt, a felt pad placed under the saddle to prevent soreness
Nuna female living in a regular order under vows of poverty, chastity and obedience
Nuncabbreviation of Nunc dimittis (Latin)
nunca desayuno, pero almuerzo algo a las once(Spanish) I don't have breakfast, but I have something at eleven
nunca digas de esta agua no beberé(Spanish) you never know when the same thing might happen to you
Nunc dimittis(Latin, literally 'now let [thy servant] depart' - a declaration of willingness or joy at the prospect of departing from life or from some occupation) one of the 'Evangelical Canticles', sung at the service of Compline in the Roman Catholic Church, or Evensong in the Anglican Church, and often coupled in musical settings with another of the same Canticles, the Magnificat
Nuncio(old Latin) or nuntio, a permanent diplomatic representative of the Pope, nunzio (Italian)
Nunneryan establishment of nuns
Nu-NRGa form of electronic dance music that evolved from the 1980s hi-NRG
  • Nu-NRG from which this extract has been taken
Nun's fiddleNonnengeige, tromba marina
Nunzio(Italian m.) nuncio
Nuo dance(China) the nuo dance was originally performed to drive away evil spirits at sacrificial rituals during ancient times. The nuo ceremony was first recorded on bones and tortoise shells during the Shang Dynasty (sixteenth to the eleventh century BC), and flourished in the Zhou Dynasty (eleventh century to 256 BC). As the number of its participants increased from 100 to 1,000, the ceremony became more and more magnificent. At the time, besides the grand nuo ceremony held by the royal court, the folk nuo ceremony also appeared in the countryside
  • Nuo dance from which this extract has been taken
Nuotin aika-arvo(Finnish) note value
Nuotin pää(Finnish) note head
Nuotti(Finnish) note
Nuottiavain(Finnish) clef
Nuottijärjestelmä(Finnish) system, a collection of staves used to write notation music
Nuottipalkki(Finnish) stem (of a note)
Nuottiviiva(Finnish) line (on a staff)
Nuottiviivasto(Finnish) staff
nuovamente(Italian) again, anew
Nuova versione(Italian f.) new version
Nuova musica(Italian f.) the new music
Nuove musiche(Italian) stile moderno, seconda prattica
nuovo (m.), nuova (f.)(Italian) new
nuovo di zecca(Italian, literally 'newly minted') brand-new
nu-pieds(French) see pieds nus
Nuque(French f.) nape (of the neck)
nur(German) only
nur 2 Spieler(German) only 2 players
nur die ersten 2 Pulte(German) only the first 2 desks
nur die Hälfte(German) only half (the section)
nur Pedale(German) only pedals
Nursery rhymea traditional song or poem taught to young children, originally in the nursery. Learning such verse assists in the development of vocabulary, and several examples deal with rudimentary counting skills. ("Eeny, meeny, miny, moe" is an example of a counting-out game.) In addition, specific actions, motions, or dances are often associated with particular songs
Nurturancephysical and emotional care and nourishment
nuschelm(German) mummble, speak indistinctly
Nu skool breaksa form of breakbeat music genre, combining the futuristic sense of drum and bass, the sounds of techno, the bass of dub and the beats from real drummers and drum machines. The genre also prominently features electro and hip hop influences and tracks typically run at 130 to 140 bpm
Nüstern(German f. pl.) nostrils
Nut (s.), Nuten (pl.)(German f.) groove
Nutcapotasto (Italian), Sattel (German), sillet (French), a slightly raised bar at the top of a violin (or guitar, mandolin, etc.) neck, or between the tuning pins and the bridge of a keyboard instrument, that forms one end of the vibrating or speaking string length, the other end being at the bridge. Its other purpose is to provide proper string height and spacing before the strings enter the pegbox or machine, heads, tuners, etc.
an alternative name for the 'frog' on bow, where one end of the hair is held and which, by turning a screw allows the tension in the hair to be adjusted
the lower nut is to be found on members of the violin family - a ridge that lies between the tailpiece and the tailpin (or button)
Nutcrack Nightsee 'All Hallows Eve'
Nute (s.), Nuten (pl.)(German f.) groove
Nutrendo(Italian) full rich or well-sustained tone
Nutriathe light brown fur of the coypu
nutriente(Italian) nourishing
Nutrientscomponents of food required for good health; proteins, fats, vitamins, carbohydrates, mineral salts and water
nutrire(Italian) to nourish, to harbour (affections, etc.)
nutritif (m.), nutritive (f.)(French) nutritious, nutritional
nutritivo(Italian) nourishing
Nutrimento(Italian m.) nourishment
nutrito(Italian m., 'nourished') full rich or well-sustained (tone)
nutrito con cereali(Italian) grain-fed
nutrito con foraggio(Italian) grass-fed
Nutrizione(Italian f.) nutrition
Nut- und Federbrett(German n.) tongue and groove board
Nuuba (s.), Nuubaat (pl.)see 'nuba (s.), nubat (pl.)'
Nuu isuisuha`Are`are (Malaita, Solomon Islands) vocal music
Nuuriyat al-tubuu`a term used in Algeria for some of the 'suites' or nubat drawn from the Andalusian tradition
Nuvola(Italian f.) cloud
nuvoloso(Italian) cloudy
ny(Danish, Norwegian, Swedish) new
Nyanssiosoitus(Finnish) expression marks
Nyanyeroa Gambian one-string violin
Nyatitian eight-stringed double-necked lyre with a skin resonator and a metal ring tied to the toe on one neck, of the Luo of Kenya
Nyckelharpakeyed fiddle used throughout Scandinavia and N. Germany. The modern nyckelharpa has 16 strings - three melodic, one drone and 12 sympathetic. It has 37 wooden keys arranged to slide under the strings. The player uses a short bow with the right hand and pushes the keys with the left
Nylonsaite(German f.) nylon string, corda di nylon (Italian f.), corde de nylon (French f.)
Nylon string guitaran acoustic guitar that has three nylon strings
Nyonganyongaa lamellaphone, an instrument consisting of thin metal or split cane tongues mounted on a resonating board or box. Depressing the free ends of the tongues with the thumbs produces a gentle ringing sound, sometimes augmented by jingling objects attached to the board. The instrument may be amplified by holding it in a hollow gourd.
Nymphaeum (s.), Nymphae (pl.)(Latin, from the Greek) a gallery in a Roman villa decorated to simulate the grotto of a nymph
Nymphe(French f.) nymph
Nynorsk(Norweigan, literally 'New Norwegian') one of the two official written standards of the Norwegian language, the other being Bokmål. Just above 10% of the Norwegian population use Nynorsk as their primary written language. Nynorsk is based on Norwegian dialects and was created by Ivar Aasen during the 1800s to provide a Norwegian alternative to the Danish language (upon which Bokmål is based) which was commonly written in Norway at the time
  • Nynorsk from which this material has been taken
Ny trychning(Swedish) reprint
Nytryk(Danish) reprint
Nyunga nyungasee karimba
n'y voir goutte(French) to not see a thing
n'y voir que du feu(French) to be completely fooled
Nzelea Kenyan music style created in the late twentieth century by Uyoga, a famous Kenyan band. Nzele essentially borrowed its rhythmic beats from mwanzele. Nzele's most distinct facet is the call and response style. This involves the lead singer, who lyrically calls out and the backing vocals answer in a chorus response. The instrumental accompaniment revolves around the bass guitar, drums, percussion, keyboards, flute, horns (sax/trumpet) and what Uyoga refers to as a 'stinging' rhythm guitar strum
nuziale(Italian) nuptial