music dictionary : Oq - Oz

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Orossia (Italian), oder (German), ou (French)
(French m.) gold (chemical symbol Au)
or(French) now, well
Ora(Italian f.) hour, time (on a watch, etc.)
ora(Italian) now, presently, now (then)
Oracha garden plant with red and green leaves used as a vegetable and a salad herb
Oración(Spanish f.) prayer, oration (French)
(Spanish f.) clause, sentence
Oración compuesta(Spanish f.) complex sentence
Oración principal(Spanish f.) main clause
Oración simple(Spanish f.) simple sentence
Oración subordinada(Spanish f.) subordinate clause
Oracle(English, French m.) a shrine consecrated to the worship and consultation of a prophetic deity, as that of Apollo at Delphi
a person or agency considered to be a source of wise advice or prophetic opinion, an infallible authority (usually spiritual in nature)
Oracolo(Italian m.) oracle
Oráculo(Spanish m.) oracle
Ora di punta(Italian f.) rush-hour
Orador (m.), Oradora (f.)(Spanish) speaker, orator
Orafo(Italian m.) goldsmith
Orage(French m.) thunderstorm, storm
orageux (m.), orageuse (f.)(French) stormy, tempestuously
Orain Luaidhsee 'waulking song'
Oraison(French f.) prayer
Oraison funèbre(French f.) a funeral oration, a funeral eulogy
Oraison jaculatoire(French f.) fervent prayer
Oral cavitythe oral cavity is formed by a bewildering array of tissues which function in or are associated with the processes that are performed with what we typically refer to as our mouth, including the tongue, the glands which empty their secretory products into the oral cavity, the salivary glands and the lip. In medicine, the oral cavity is usually divided in a vestibule, the area "outside" the teeth, and an oral cavity proper
Orale(Italian m.) oral
orale(Italian) oral
Oral formulaichaving traits associated with works intended to be spoken aloud before an audience of listeners
Oral traditionmusic that is passed from person to person by imitation and example rather than by written notations, as, for example, most folk music, the music performed by medieval minstrels, etc.
Oral transmissionthe spreading or passing on of material by word of mouth. Before the development of writing and the rise of literacy, oral transmission and memorization was the most common means by which narrative and poetic art could spread through a culture
Oramicsin London in 1962, Daphne Oram (1925-2003) designed and built the 'Oramics Graphic System', allowing composers to specify sounds by drawing shapes on multiple strips of 35-millimeter transparent film. The film was then illuminated from above and passed over a cluster of photocells that measured changes in the intensity of light on the film and controlled a synthesizer accordingly
  • Oramics from which this extract has been taken
Orangerie(French) or orangery (English), a building designed for the cultivation of orange-trees in climates in which they would not survive in the open
orante(Spanish) praying
Ora pro nobis(Latin) pray for us
orar(Spanish) to pray
Orario(Italian m.) time
(Italian m.) or tabella dell'orario, timetable
orario(Italian) time, per hour
Orateur(French m.) speaker
orat(s)abbreviation of 'oratorio(s)'
Oratio(Latin) speech
Oration(English, German f.) a prayer
Oratio obliqua(Latin) indirect speech, reported speech
Oratio recta(Latin) direct speech, quoted speech
Oratore(Italian m.) orator (speaker)
Oratoria(Spanish f., Italian f.) oratory (the art of speaking)
Oratorio(Italian m., French m., English, Spanish m., Latin, literally 'oratory', a building for prayer (a chapel), from the Latin, oratio, 'prayer') originally the name given to the building itself where such works were performed, the term was, from about 1640, applied exclusively to a musical work, performed without costume or stage settings, using a religious text, employing an orchestra, choir and solo singers, although from the nineteenth-century nonreligious narrative might be used
oratorio (m.), oratoria (f.)(Spanish) oratorical
Oratorio eroticooratorio with popular subjects, some of them secular, but including the lives, and loves, of the saints
Oratorio latino(Italian m., German n.) an oratorio in which the text is in Latin
Oratorio vespertino(Italian m.) in the sixteenth century, after Vespers, the practice begun by St. Philip Romolo Neri (1515-1595) during which sermons in Italian, motets and hymns or lauda were combined as an aid to meditation and to nurture spiritual health of the laity, and which developed to become the oratorio
Oratorio volgare((Italian m., German n.) an oratorio in which the text is not in Latin
Oratorium (s.), Oratorien (pl.)(German n.) oratorio
Orazione(Italian f.) oration (a speech)
Orazione funebre(Italian f.) oration at a funeral (speech at a funeral)
Orbite(French f.) orbit, socket (of the eye)
Orbiter dicta(Latin) miscellaneous remarks
Orbiter dictum(Latin) said in passing
Or blanc(French m.) white gold (an alloy of gold and at least one white metal, usually nickel or palladium. Like yellow gold, the purity of white gold is given in carats)
Orchabbreviation of Orchester (German), orchestra, orchestre (French)
orchabbreviation of 'orchestra', orchestre (French), orchestration', 'orchestral'
orchdabbreviation of 'orchestrated (by)'
Orchésographie(French) the art of scientific dancing for ballet
Orchesography (1589)a manual that is one of the most important sources of information about Renaissance Dance. Written by Jehan Tabourot (born 1519), using the pseudonym Thoinot Arbeau, the Orchesography supplies detailed instructions for many dance styles including the branle, galliard and pavane), as well as some details about various dance forms including Morris dance, the Canary (reputed to be dances from the Canary Islands), the almain (or allemande), courante and bassadance
Orchester(German n.) orchestra (Engish, Italian f.), orchestre (French m.), orquesta (Spanish f.)
(German n.) (dance)band, (the) music (i.e. the body of musicians playing the music)
Orchesterarrangement(German n.) orchestration
Orchesterbegleitung(German f.) orchestral accompaniment
Orchesterbesetzung(German f.) orchestral personnel
(German f.) orchestration, scoring for orchestra, the disposition of parts
Orchestergraben(German m.) orchestra pit
Orchestermusik(German f.) orchestral music
Orchestermusiker (m.), Orchestermusikerin (f.)(German) member of an orchestra
Orchesterprobe(German f.) orchestral rehearsal
Orchesterraum(German m.) orchestral pit (in a theatre or opera house)
Orchestersatzsee Satz
Orchestersuite(German f.) orchestral suite
Orchesterverein(German) an orchestral society, an instrumental association
orchestique(French) an obsolete term meaning the art of dancing, the science of movement in dance, or pertaining to dancing
the term, which originated in Ancient Greece, was originally applied to the exercises associated with gymnastics
Orchestra(from Greek, 'dancing place') orchestra (Italian f.), Orchester (German n.), orchestre (French m.), orquesta (Spanish f.)
(English, Italian f.) in ancient Greece, the orchestra was the space between the auditorium and the proscenium (or stage), in which were stationed the chorus and the instrumentalists. This is how the modern orchestra got its name. In some theatres, 'the orchestra' is the area of seats directly in front of the stage (called primafila or platea) which are also called 'the stalls'
the term more properly applies to the place in a theatre, or concert hall set apart for the musicians
an ensemble of players of musical instruments arranged in sections, namely, the strings, the woodwind and brass and the percussion, plus occasionally a harp or, for some twentieth-century repertoire, a piano
by the late nineteenth century, the orchestra we recognise today, which had grown in size from its seventeenth-century beginnings, usually comprised:
woodwind3 flutes (1 doubling the piccolo)
3 oboes (1 doubling the cor anglais or English horn)
3 clarinets (1 doubling the bass clarinet)
3 bassoons (1 doubling the contrabassoon)
brass4 (or sometimes 6) French horns
3 trumpets
3 trombones (2 tenor and 1 bass)
1 tuba
percussion3 timpani (played by 1 player)
snare drum, bass drum, cymbals, gong, triangle, xylophone, vibraphone, etc. (2 or more players)
stringsabout 14 first violins
about 14 second violins
about 12 violas
about 10 cellos
about 8 double basses
other instruments2 harps, 1 piano
Orchestra Baobaba Senegalese Afro-Cuban, Son, and Pachanga band. Organized in 1970, as a multi-ethnic, multi-national club band, Orchestre Baobab adapted the then current craze for Cuban Music (growing out of the Congolese Soukous style) in West Africa to Wolof Griot culture and the Mandinga musical traditions of the Casamance. One of the dominant African bands of the 1970s, they were overshadowed in the 1980s and broke up, only to reform in 2001 after interest in their recordings grew in Europe
Orchestra bellsglockenspiel
Orchestra concertistica(Italian f.) concert band
Orchestra da ballo(Italian f.) dance band
Orchestra da camera(Italian f.) chamber orchestra
Orchestra d'archi(Italian f.) string orchestra
Orchestra da salotto(Italian f.) salon orchestra
Orchestra della radio(Italian f.) radio orchestra
Orchestra dell'opera(Italian f.) opera orchestra
Orchestra di stumenti corda(Italian f.) string orchestra
Orchestra d'opera(Italian f.) opera orchestra
Orchestra hitalso known as an orchestral hit, orchestra stab, or orchestral stab, a sound created through the layering of the sounds of a number of different orchestral instruments. The orchestra hit sound was propagated by the use of early samplers, particularly the Fairlight CMI, and it has similarly appeared as a voice on many keyboards. When used in music it usually appears at the beginning or end of a musical phrase, in effect punctuating it
Orchestral bell
there are many types of bell used in the orchestra:
tubular bellsmetal tubes, suspended either singly or within a frame. The framed tubular bells come with a pedal for damping and the performer uses small wooden mallets. The written range is usually from F3 to F5
Swiss cowbells
a chromatic range from C3 to A5
handbellsusually performed by specialist ensembles, there are 61 bells in a complete handbell set, covering a chromatic range from C2 to C7
tubaphonebrass or copper tubes suspended xylophone-style across a frame. The range is C4 to C6, but the instrument is rare
orchestrale(Italian) orchestral
Orchestral harpsee 'pedal harp'
Orchestral hitsee 'orchestra hit'
Orchestral hornsee 'French horn'
Orchestralistmember of a professional orchestra
Orchestral oboea solo reed stop found in 'romantic' organs
Orchestral layoutsee 'layout, orchestral'
Orchestral piano playingworks for the piano that seek to resemble writing for the orchestra, a style developed by Franz Liszt (1811-1886) and his disciples
Orchestral scorefull score, where each instrumental or vocal parts lies on a separate line of the staff
it is sometimes wrongly stated that the 1582 publication of the Balet comique de la Royne, with music by Jacques Salmon and either Girard or Lambert de Beaulieu, was the first orchestra score. In fact it does not contain any music in score. The four-staff 1577 open score of Cipriano di Rore's music, Musica de diversi autori and Tutti madrigali di Cipriano di Rore a quattro voci both published in 1577, was particularly designed for study at the keyboard; manuscript scores on four staves intended for the organ have been found in Brussels. The music, by Annibale Padovano and Florentio Maschera, had originally been printed in parts in 1582 and 1593. The practice of writing out and printing keyboard music in open score lasted into the eighteenth century
Orchestral stabsee 'orchestra hit'
Orchestra of the Age of Enlightenmentor OAE, a British period instrument orchestra. Formed in 1986 by a group of players, it does not have a principal conductor, but rather is led artistically by a board of musicians elected by the musicians themselves
Orchestra pitan area in front of, and sometimes slightly beneath the stage in an opera house from where the orchestral musicians play
orchestrare(Italian) to orchestrate
Orchestra sinfonica(Italian f.) symphony orchestra
Orchestra stabsee 'orchestra hit'
Orchestrationthe art, and some might say the science, of arranging a musical work for performance by an orchestra having regard to balance, colour and texture
Orchestre(French m.) orchestra (English, Italian f.), orquesta (Spanish f.), Orchester (German n.)
(French m.) stalls (in a theatre)
Orchestre à cordes(French m.) string orchestra
Orchestre Colonne de Paris(French m.) Eduard Colonne (1838-1910) wasn't the only musician appalled during his youth at the standards of French orchestral performance and the lack of concerts devoted to modern French music, but he was one of the few determined to do something about it. His Artistic Association of Colonne Concerts, formed in 1873, premiered over the years a host of fine works by the likes of d'Indy, Saint-Saëns, Debussy, Ravel, Widor, Massenet, Fauré, Dukas, and Chabrier, as well as rediscoveries such as Berlioz's La damnation de Faust. (Colonne claimed to have known the composer and witnessed his interpretations.) His great rival as a conductor, Jules Pasdeloup, was said to be more meticulous in preparation, but it was Colonne people claimed brought more energy and temperament to the podium; and it was Colonne's orchestra that has lasted through to the present day
Orchestre d'Auvergne(French m.) a chamber orchestra founded in 1981 at the initiative of Ministère de la Culture, of the Conseil régional d'Auvergne and the city of Clermont-Ferrand
Orchestre de chambre(French m.) chamber orchestra
Orchestre de chambre de la SRC à Québec(French m.) CBC Quebec Chamber Orchestra
Orchestre de Chambre de Lausanne(French m.) the Lausanne Chamber Orchestra was founded in 1942 by violinist and conductor Victor Desarzens, who served as its resident conductor for 30 years. Desarzens gave pride of place to contemporary music and directed a great many premieres of new works by composers such as Frank Martin and Bohuslav Martinu. Originally a string ensemble, the orchestra today features 44 musicians
Orchestre de chambre de la Monnaie(French m.) when Gérard Mortier took over the direction of La Monnaie in 1981, several chamber music ensembles were created that derived from the Orchestre Symphonique de La Monnaie (string quartet, string trio, wind quintet, wind octet, brass quintet, double bass quartet, etc.). Since then, the soloists of the orchestra also appear in a polyvalent formation, as the Chamber Orchestra of La Monnaie
Orchestre de Chambre Français(French m.) founded in 1989 and is now based in Senlis near Paris, where it is the resident orchestra of the 18th century Théâtre Impérial in Compiège
Orchestre de chambre McGill(French m.) McGill Chamber Orchestra
Orchestre de Chambre National de Toulouse(French m.) a French chamber orchestra based in Toulouse
Orchestre de danse(French m.) dance band
Orchestre de fanfare(French m.) brass-band, silver band
Orchestre de genre(French m.) regional band, orchestre de genre (Spanish)
Orchestre de jazz(French m.) Jazz band
Orchestre de la francophonie canadienne(French m.) or OFC, was created in 2001 for the fourth Jeux de la Francophonie in Ottawa-Hull, a major cultural and sporting event that promoted the talent of young classical musicians from across the country
Orchestre de la radio(French m.) radio orchestra
Orchestre de la Radio Difusion Française(French m.) the symphony orchestra known called Orchestre national de France
Orchestre de la Société des Concerts du Conservatoire(French m.) a symphony orchestra established in Paris in 1828. Administered by the Philharmonic Association of the Paris Conservatoire, the orchestra occupied the centre-stage of French musical life throughout the 19th and most of the 20th centuries. In 1967, the orchestra was dissolved and recreated in its present guise as the Orchestre de Paris
Orchestre de la Suisse Romande(French m.) the Orchestra of French-speaking Switzerland, OSR, was founded in 1918 by Ernest Ansermet
Orchestre de l'opéra(French m.) opera orchestra
Orchestre de l'opéra national de Lyon(French m.) the orchestra based at the opera house in Lyon, France
Orchestre de Paris(French m.) a French orchestra founded in 1967, based in Paris
Orchestre de salon(French m.) salon orchestra
Orchestre des Champs-Élysées(French m.) an orchestra that devotes itself to the performance of classical and romantic repertoire on period instruments thanks to its creation by the the joint initiative of Alain Durel, Director of the Théâtre des Champs Elysées, and Philippe Herreweghe
Orchestre de vedettes(French m.) all-star band
Orchestre d'harmonie(French m.) band of wind, brass and percussion instruments
Orchestre d'opéra(French m.) opera orchestra
Orchestre Lamoureux(French m.) officially known as the Société des Nouveaux-Concerts and the Concerts Lamoureux, an orchestral concert society which once gave weekly concerts by its own orchestra, founded in Paris by Charles Lamoureux in 1881
Orchestrelleoften advertised as 'the home orchestra', a reed organ of the late 19th and early 20th centuries constructed on the principle of the mechanical player piano, using perforated rolls driven using 'harmonium style' pedals, and designed for home use. It came in a variety of sizes, had stops giving the effects of muted strings, piccolo, trumpet, etc., and among a number of proud owners can be included the noted American journalist and author Mark Twain
Orchestre musette(French m.) musette ensemble, musette orchestra
Orchestre national de Bordeaux-Aquitaine(French m.) or ONBA, a French regional symphony orchestra based in Bourdeaux
Orchestre national de France(French m.) the French National Orchestra is a symphony orchestra run by Radio France. It has also been known as the Orchestre National de la Radiodiffusion Française (French National Radio Broadcasting Orchestra) and Orchestre National de l'Office de Radiodiffusion Télévision Française (ORTF)
Orchestre national de Lyon(French m.) a French regional orchestra founded as Société des Grands Concerts de Lyon in 1905 by Georges Martin Witkowski and based in Lyon. Its current primary concert venue is l'Auditorium de Lyon. The orchestra works with subsidy from the French Ministry of Culture and from the Rhône-Alpes regional council
Orchestre national des Pays de la Loire(French m.) or ONPL, a French regional orchestra based in Angers and Nantes, France
Orchestre national du Capitole de Toulouse(French m.) the orchestra of the city of Toulouse. It acts as both a symphony orchestra whose main residence is Toulouse's Halle aux grains, and the permanent orchestra of the Théâtre du Capitole in Toulouse
Orchestre Philharmonique de Luxembourg(French m.) one of the leading orchestras in Europe, created by Radio Luxembourg in 1933, it has been a pillar of excellence in the cultural life of Luxembourg and was appointed as the National Orchestra in 1966
Orchestre Philharmonique de Radio France(French m.) a French radio orchestra providing music for Radio France. It specialises in contemporary music and was founded in 1937
Orchestre Poly-Rythmo de Cotonou(French m.) arguably West Africa's best-kept secret. Their output, both in quantity and quality, was astonishing. During several trips to Benin, Samy Ben Redjeb managed to collect roughly 500 songs which Orchestre Poly-Rythmo de Cotonou had recorded between 1970 and 1983
orchestrer(French) to orchestrate
Orchestre Regional de Cannes(French m.) for more information: Orchestre Regional de Cannes
Orchestre symphonique(French m.) symphony orchestra
Orchestrierung(German f.) orchestration, instrumentation
Orchestrik(German) the art of scientific dancing for ballet
Orchestrina di cameraa small keyboard free-reed instrument invented by W.E. Evans in the nineteenth century that was made with the ranges of the oboe, flute, violin, bassoon, violoncello, clarinet and French horn in six stops. This allowed these instruments to be substituted for by the orchestrina di camera
Orchestrinoan instrument of the Bogenclavier family invented by the Pouleau of Paris in 1808
Orchestrion(Italian m., English, German m., French m.) also called 'nickelodeons', the orchestrion was a mechanically operated producer of music that might incorporate a piano, organ pipes, mandolin, snare drum, bass drum, timpani, cymbal and triangle. Using a pneumatic action powered by an electric motor, the instrument is operated by changeable perforated paper rolls
Or clinquant(French m.) gold leaf
ord.on a stringed instrument, it is assumed that a passage is bowed unless marked otherwise. However, once a pizz. indication has been given, arco must be indicated for the next bowed passage. Where unusual bowing techniques are used, ord. will return the player to normal bowing. On a brass instrument, ord. commonly marks where a previously inserted mute should be removed
ordbog(Danish) dictionary
ordbok(Norwegian, Swedish) dictionary
Orden(Spanish m.) order
Ordenanza(Spanish m.) messenger, orderly (military)
Ordenanzas(Spanish regulations, code
Ordenanzas municipales(Spanish by-laws (regulation made by a local authority or corporation)
Orden de allanamiento(Spanish m.) search warrant
órdenes de arriba(Spanish) orders from above
Orderthe way in which the notes of a chord are set out above the lowest, bass note
the expressions 'open' and 'close order' are sometimes used in the same sense as 'open' and 'close harmony'
Ordered pitch intervalalso called 'directed interval'. In atonal or musical set theory there are numerous types of intervals, the first being ordered pitch interval, the distance between two pitches upward or downward. For instance, the interval from C to G upward is 7, but the interval from G to C downward is -7. One can also measure the distance between two pitches without taking into account direction with the unordered pitch interval, somewhat similar to the interval of tonal theory
Order of the Garteran elite order of knights first founded around 1347-1348 by King Edward III
Orderswith respect to the monastic or regular life, groups of communities following the same rule or under a common administrative and spiritual structure
with respect to the Christian ministry, the various grades consisting of the major orders - bishop, priest, deacon, sub-deacon - and the minor orders - acolyte, exorcist, reader, doorkeeper
Orders of angelsthere were held to be nine ranks of angels; Seraphim, Cherubim, Thrones, Dominations, Virtues, Powers, Principalities, Archangels and Angels
Orders of clergythe various grades consisting of the major orders - bishop, priest, deacon, sub-deacon - and the minor orders - acolyte, exorcist, reader, doorkeeper
Ordinaire(French) ordinary, usual, normal, common
an instruction to return to playing using standard technique after the use of some unusual or extended technique
Ordinalbook containing instructions for the conduct of services, but which does not contain the texts or prayers
Ordinario(Italian) ordinary, normal, common, usual
for example, à tempo ordinario (Italian: in the usual time, at the usual speed)
an instruction to return to playing using standard technique after the use of some unusual or extended technique
Ordinarium (s.), Ordinarien (pl.)(German n.) the Ordinary (of the Mass)
Ordinarya liturgical genre is 'ordinary' if its text is does not change from day to day
in the mass, the musical items of the ordinary are the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus and Agnus Dei and, in certain circumstances, the Ite missa est and the Benedicamus Domino as well
Ordinateur musical(French m.) music computer
Ordinationthe rite of admission into the ministry of the church; only admission to the major orders of the ministry was considered to be a sacrament
Ordine(Italian m.) order
Ordine (s.), Ordines (pl.)(Latin) the registers, or stops, in an organ
Ordner(German m.) a ring-binder (for keeping invoices, letters, etc.)
Ordnung(German f.) order, organisation
(German f. literally 'order' or 'organisation') one of three processes identified in post-seventeenth-century instrumental compositional practice, the other two being Zusammenhang ('connection' or 'continuity') and Verhältnis ('relation' or 'proportion')
Ordo (s.), Ordines (pl.)(Latin) a phrase constructed from one or more statements of one modal pattern and ending in a rest. Ordines were described according to the number of repetitions and the position of the concluding rest. "Perfect" ordines ended with the first note of the pattern followed by a rest substituting for the second half of the pattern, and "imperfect" ordines ended in the last note of the pattern followed by a rest equal to the first part. Imperfect ordines are mostly theoretical and rare in practice where perfect ordines predominate
Ordonnance(French f., literally 'order') the sytematic arrangement of the elements of a work or art or literature
(French f.) prescription (for medicine), orderly (soldier)
ordonné(French) tidy
ordonner(French) to order, to arrange, to rescribe (medicine), to ordain (priest)
ordonner à ... de(French) to order ... to
Ordre(French m.) order, tidiness
a term used by certain French composers of the baroque period to mean 'suite'
(French m.) course (of strings)
Ordre de grandeur(French m.) approximate idea
Ordre du jour(French m.) (with military associations) an order of the day, an announcement from the High Command on a special occasion, agenda (for a meeting)
Orecchi(Italian pl.) ears
Orecchia(Italian f.) ear
Orecchia musicale(Italian f.) a musical ear
Orecchie(Italian pl.) ears
Orecchio(Italian m.) ear
Orecchio assoluto(Italian m., literally 'absolute ear') perfect pitch
Orecchio per la musica(Italian m.) musical ear, tin ear (derogatory)
Oreille(French f.) ear
Oreille absolue(French f.) perfect pitch
Oreille juste(French f.) perfect pitch
Oreille musicale(French f.) an ear for music
Oreille parfaite(French f.) perfect pitch
Oreja(Spanish f.) ear
Ore rotundo(Latin) with full voice
Orfeón Lamas(Latin) a Venezuelan choir that first performed on 30 July 1930 that brought to the Venezuelan public works of Venezuelan composers of the School of Santa Capilla, disciples of Vicente Emilio Sojo, and sacred works of Venezuelan composers of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries
Orff, Carl (1895-1982)a German composer and educator who developed a unique approach to music education. Orff defined the ideal music for children as "never alone, but connected with movement, dance, and speech - not to be listened to, meaningful only in active participation." Orff said, "Experience first, then intellectualize." Based on this ideal, the Orff approach builds understanding of concepts and skills through connecting students with the music by experiencing it on all levels
Orff Schulwerkthe Orff Schulwerk or Orffschulwerk (or simply the Orff-Approach) is an approach to music education for children. It was developed by the German composer Carl Orff (1895-1982), while he was music director of a school of dance and music known as the Günther-Schule, in Munich. He collaborated extensively with Gunild Keetman to fully develop the methodology. The term schulwerk is the German term for schooling or school work, in this regard in the area of music
Orff time signatureexamples of Orff time signatures
Carl Orff proposed replacing the lower number of the time signature with the actual note value, as shown above. This system eliminates the need for compound time signatures (described above), which are confusing to beginners. While this notation has not been adopted by music publishers generally (except in Orff's own compositions), it is used extensively in music education textbooks
Org, org, Org.abbreviation of Orgel (German), 'organ', orgue (French)
Organorgano (Italian), Orgel (German), orgue (French), a keyboard instrument comprising one or more manuals including, sometimes, a pedal-board, where the sound is produced by air, under pressure, being blown through valves operated via the keys into a set, or sets, of wood and/or metal pipes
Organa(Old English, literally 'organ') the organ was also known in Anglo-Saxon England, both in a fixed form for large churches and cathedrals, as well as a portative form, which may have been used for secular as well as clerical music. The portative type of organ could be quite small and as easy to carry. Winchester Cathedral reputedly had the largest organ in Northern Europe, and there are references to organs that necessitated a team of sixteen men or boys on the bellows to keep it running. The Harley psalter shows a number of people pumping the bellows of just such an organ. These organs were played only with sliding stops, not a keyboard like a modern organ. Both hydraulic and pneumatic organs were known and used at this time. There has been one find of a fragmentary organ that has been identified as a Water Organ from the Padaborn region of Northern Germany. The water in this case is not part of the musical process, but a method of regulating a steady flow of air to the organ pipes
Organal stylesee organum
Organ choralea number of different organ music genres, usually contrapuntal and used to introduce the lines of hymns (or chorales) or as decorated variations played alone (as fantasias) or during the singing of the chorale
Organ divisionsee 'division'
Organetto(Italian m.) a light portable precursor of the organ, from Medieval Italy, it has a button keyboard and only one note can be played at a time
(Italian m.) street organ
Organetto a manovella(Italian m.) musical clock
Organetto automatico(Italian m.) musical clock
Organetto diatonico(Italian m.) usually referring to a one-row diatonic button accordion with a short helper row
Organ, housea portable member of the organ family containing its own bellows, often operated by the player, a limited number of ranks of pipes, and designed for domestic use
Organ, Iberiansee 'Iberian organ'
Organicalpertaining to the organ
Organico (stumentale)(Italian m.) instrumentation, ensemble
Organic unityan idea common to Romantic poetry and influential up through the time of the New Critics in the twentieth century, the theory of organic unity suggests all elements of a good literary work are interdependent upon each other to create an emotional or intellectual whole. If any one part of the art is removed - whether it is a character, an action, a speech, a description, or authorial observation - the entire work diminishes in potency as a result. The idea also suggests that the growth or development of a piece of good literature - from its beginning to its end - occurs naturally according to an understandable sequence. That sequence may be chronological, logical, or otherwise step-by-step in some productive manner
Organic voice disordera disorder that is not functional; one that is caused by an abnormality of the organ, congenital, inflammatory, traumatic, or neoplastic
Organillo(Spanish m.) also piano mécanique (French) or orgue de Barbarie (French), an automatic hammered cordophone, also called the 'automatic piano', it was invented in England at the beginning of the nineteenth century. The performer turns a mechanical handle that drives in rotating cylinder into which carefully placed pins have been driven, the pins placed to actuate hammers that strike piano strings and/or hit various percussion instruments, for example, tambourines, metal plates, drums, etc.
Organ 'in cornu Epistolae'(Italian) as a reference to an organ's position, placed on the right side of the church, chapel, etc.
Organ 'in cornu Evangelii'(Italian) as a reference to an organ's position, placed on the left side of the church, chapel, etc.
organique(French) pertaining to the organ
Organische Musik(German) organ music
Organised sounda term coined by Edgar Varèse (1883-1965) as a more inclusive alternative for what we call 'music'
Organista player of the organ
Organist (m.), Organistin (f.)organist
Organista(Italian m./f., Spanish m./f.) organist
Organiste(French m./f.) organist
Organiste titulaire(French) an organist employed by the parish, under contract, and who is paid every month and provided with a pay slip. This term serves for differentiating organists under contracts of those who are freelance, i.e. have no contract
[definition provided by Yannick Merlin]
Organistrum(Latin) a large-size twelfth-century medieval instrument from Europe that was usually played by two musicians. It is known as the predecessor of the hurdy gurdy and there are records of it found on the reliefs of European cathedrals in France, Spain, Scotland, Germany and the Czech Republic. Luthiers from Galicia (Spain) recreated some in the 1980s
Organitoa portable player-organ, an important ingredient in nineteenth-century Argentine tango
Organi vocali(Italian) the vocal organs
organizzato per una esecuzione(Italian) orchestrated (arranged for an orchestra)
Organ mass, Bach'sthe 'Great Organ Mass' of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) comes from Volume III of his Clavier-Übung, so named because it consists of a series of chorale preludes on texts pertaining to the Lutheran Mass and Catechism
Organ mass, Frencha type of 'low Mass' that came into use during the Baroque Era, essentially a Low Mass with organ music playing throughout
Organo(Italian m.) organ
Órgano(Spanish m.) organ
Organo automatico (s.), Organi automatici (pl.)(Italian m.) automatic organ
Órgano chino de boca(Spanish m.) sheng (ancient Chinese mouth organ)
Organo de cristal(Italian m.) glass harmonica
Órgano de fuelle(Spanish m.) bellows-organ, orgue à soufflet (French)
Organo di Barberia(Italian m.) barrel-organ
Organo di campana(Italian m.) an organ with bells
Organo Eco(Italian m.) Echo organ (a division of an organ)
Órgano eléctrico(Spanish m.) electric organ (for example, the Hammond organ)
Organo elettronica(Italian m.) electronic organ
Organographia(Latin) a description of instruments
Organographie(Latin) a description of an organ and all its various stops
Organo Hammond(Italian m.) Hammond organ
Organologia(Italian f.) organology
Organologie(Latin) organology
Organología(Spanish f.) organology
Organologie(French f.) organology
Organologythe science of musical instruments including their classification and development throughout history and cultures as well as the technical study of how they produce sound
Órgano percusión(Spanish f.) orgue percussif
Organo pieno(Italian m. , literally 'full organ') or organo pleno, on the organ, the term used for principal chorus with mixture
Órgano positivo(Spanish f.) positive organ, orgue positif
Organ pipesthe sound-producing elements of the organ, which distinguish it from all other musical instruments. Each pipe produces a single tone, and it takes a series of them, one per key, to play the entire gamut of the keyboard. Such a series is called a Rank, because the pipes are usually arranged in a row for mechanical reasons
pipes are of two classes:
flue pipese.g. principals, flutes, and stringsno moving parts except the air, essentially end-blown whistles
reed pipese.g. trumpets or vox humanasa vibrating tongue produces the tone and a resonator modifies its quality
short length reed pipesa vibrating tongue produces the tone and the resonators, often of unusual shape, are called 'vowel chambers'
Organo pleno(Latin, literally 'full organ') or organo pieno, on the organ, the term used for principal chorus with mixture
Organo portatile(Italian m.) a portable organ
Organo portabile(Italian m.) portable organ
Organo portativo(Italian m.) portative organ
Organo simplex(Latin) an old term that appears to relate to the unisonus accompaniment, in religious music, of the tenor or some other single voice in the versicles of the service
Organo suave(Italian m., literally 'sweet organ') or organo di legno, an organ with wooden pipes much favoured for vocal accompaniment
Organo tedesco(Italian m.) barrel-organ
Organ pointpoint d'orgue (French), pedale (Italian), Orgelpunkt (German), nota pedal (Spanish)
or 'pedal point', a note sustained in one part (most commonly in the bass or pedal part of an organ work) while harmonies progress in the other parts
Organ preludesynonymous with 'chorale prelude'
Organ quartetthere are two possible interpretations for the term organ quartet, 4 players playing on the same organ instrument (8 hands, 8 feet), or, 4 players playing on four distinct (electronic) organs
Organ scorea vocal score arranged to be used by an organist
formerly, a term for the multistave score used by an organist which may have anything from two to four staves
Organ shoesspecial shoes worn by organists, designed to facilitate playing of an organ pedalboard and reduce the risk of receiving a marching fracture. Also, since organ shoes are worn only at the organ, the use of special footwear avoids picking up grit or grime that could scar or stain the pedals
Organ stopregistro (Italian), Registerzug (German), jeu d'orgue (French), registre (French)
stops have particular names according to the kind of pipes used to create the sound and the style of organ:
single-rank, single stopsthe majority, which are usually marked with an arabic numeral indicating the pitch; it originated as the length, in feet, of the rank's longest pipe. Registration usually begins with an 8' on the manual and a 16' on the pedal; the pedal thus normally sounds an octave lower than played, providing the "full-bodied" sound typical of the organ. Halving the number raises the pitch by an octave; in growing a registration it is usual to draw next the 4', 2', etc. on the manual and the 8', 4', etc. on the pedal. Numbers other than powers of 2 appear; these are called mutations. The 5 1/3', 2 2/3', 1 1/3' series sounds a G for a C; the rarer 3 1/5', 1 3/5', 4/5' sounds an E for a C
multi-rank stopsthe most common are mixtures, and are usually marked with a roman numeral indicating the number of ranks. Though it seems somehow wasteful to not provide the ranks separately, a mixture rank may break - drop an octave - as one goes up the scale to avoid shrillness, making it inappropriate for use apart. The name applied to the mixture usually codes for the particular chord provided, but octaves and fifths are most common; e.g. a Quint III might provide the 5th, 8ve, and 12th; an Acuta IV might have the 15th, 17th, 19th, and 23rd. Mixtures are usually used to boost harmonics, but some are appropriate as solo stops
the next most common multi-rank stops are celestes, two identical ranks except one is slightly out of tune. But celestes are often presented as pairs of stops, since they don't break like mixtures
single-rank, multiple stopssometimes a single rank has multiple stops
divided or half stop where only the higher or lower pipes are drawn on
borrowing or unification where each stop may draw the rank to a different keyboard or to one keyboard at different pitches
Organ tablaturesee Tablatur
Organ tonealso called 'Diapason tone', the note produced by the 8ft. Open Diapason pipe on the Great Organ manual
Organum(Latin) an instrument, an organ
(English, German n., Latin) the earliest style of polyphonic music (late ninth to mid-thirteenth century), organum was usually a neumatic and melismatic chant section by the choir at the beginning and end of a piece. The number of voices contained in a section of organum determines its nomenclature (ie: 2 voices is organum duplum, three is organum triplum, etc.). There were several distinct types:
parallel organumstrict homophony with parallel 4ths, 5ths, and 8vas. It is 'syllabic', meaning there is only one note per syllable
modified parallel organumeach phrase begins in unison, spreads to parallel 4ths and contracts again to unison. It is syllabic
free organuma style of note against note. It is not melismatic, (meaning many notes per syllable), between the two voices. But it is melismatic between the text and music of each individual voice. The phrases end on a unison or 8va, and the voices are independent within phrases
organum duplum is usually linked to Leonin and existed in at least three styles:organal style - sustained tenor with a moving duplum voice above
discant style - all parts are in "rhythmic modes", a specific method to indicate particular rhythmic "groups"
plainchant "parallel" organum - two voices moving at the same interval
Latin name for the Old Testament's Book of Psalms
Órganum(Spanish m.) organum
Organum de Notre Damea style of organum, associated with Notre Dame, Paris, France
Organum de San Marciala style of melismatic organum, associated with St. Marcial, nr. Limoges, France
Organum duplumsee organum
Órganum florido(Spanish m.) florid organum
Órganum libre(Spanish m.) free organum
Órganum melismático(Spanish m.) melismatic organum
Órganum paralelo(Spanish m.) parallel organum (in which the two or more lines move in parallel are a set interval apart)
Organum portabile(Latin) portable organ, barrel organ, orgue de barbarie
Organum pneumaticum(Latin) an organ
Organum puruma style of organum in which all voices are unmeasured
Organum triplumsee organum
Organuto(Italian) organical, pertaining to the organ
Organ verseta short organ composition that is usually improvised and used in place of a verse that would have been sung by the choir
Órgão(Portuguese) organ
Orgel(German f., Dutch) organ
Orgel-bälge(German m. pl.) organ bellows
Orgelbauer(German m.) organ builder
Orgelbewegung(German f.) a German organ movement, particularly based around the rediscovery of the baroque ideals of organ building, and the belief, espoused by Albert Schweizer and others, that a new organ without a Rückpositiv did not make sense. The Rückpositiv was, therefore, a trademark of the Orgelbewegung. From a tonal point of view, the Orgelbewegung led to such a dominance of the Baroque style that Romantic organ music was ignored. More recently, however, this music has been revisited and it is now appreciated that, in any organ design, every styles must be accommodated
Orgelbouwer(Dutch m.) organ builder
Orgelchor(German m.) organ loft
Orgelchoral(German m.) see 'organ chorale'
Orgelgehäuse(German n.) organ case
Orgelkonzert(German n .) organ concerto
Orgelmesse(German f.) organ mass
Orgelmusik(German f.) organ music
Orgelnachspiel(German n.) organ voluntary
Orgelpfeife (s.), Orgelpfeifen (pl.)(German f.) organ pipe
Orgelplatz(German m.) organ loft
Orgelpunkt(German m.) organ point, pedal point, pedal note, drone
orgelpunt(Dutch) organ point, pedal point, pedal note, drone
Orgelregister(German n.) an organ stop
Orgelschule(German f.) school or method for the organ
Orgelstücke(German n. pl.) pieces for the organ
Orgeltablatur(German) organ tablature
Orgeltreter(German m.) organ treader, bellows treader (the person whose job it is to pump the bellows in an organ)
orgel-vibrato(Dutch) vibrato stop (on an organ)
Orgelvirtuose(German) an accomplished organ player
Orgelvorspiel(German n.) organ prelude
Orgelwerk(German n.) the working parts of an organ
Orgelzug(German m.) organ stop, or row of pipes
Orgia(Italian) orgy
Orgoabbreviated form of organo (Italian: organ)
Orgoglio(Italian m.) pride
orgoglioso(Italian) proud, proudly, haughty, haughtily, arrogant, arrogantly
John Worrall, who suggested this entry, comments that the 1st movement of Carl Nielsen's Symphony No. 1 bears the marking Allegro orgoglioso
Orgue(French m.) organ
Orgue à soufflet(French m.) bellows-organ
Orgue d'Allemagne(French m.) a street or barrel organ
Orgue de Barbarie(French m.) a street or barrel organ
Orgue de cristal(French m.) glass harmonica
Orgue de salon(French m.) harmonium
Orgue de table(French m.) bible regal, table regal, a small portable organ often with its own legs
Orgue électrique(Spanish m.) electric organ (for example, the Hammond organ)
Orgue électronique(French m.) electronic organ
Orgue expressif(French m.) harmonium, physarmonica
Orgue Hammond(French m.) Hammond organ
Orgue mecanique(French m.) a street or barrel organ
Orgue-mélodium(French m.) a reed organ introduced by Alexandre & Fils in 1844, similar to the harmonium of François Debain developed in the early 1840s
Orgue percussif(French m.) órgano percusión
Orgue plein(French m.) full organ
Orgue portatif(French m.) portative organ
Orgue positif(French m.) positive organ, órgano positivo (Spanish)
Oriental (m.), Orientale (f.)(French) Oriental, Eastern
Orientalisman exotic manner of depicting the people, culture, and land from the Levant. Orientalism was widely employed in the arts and literature in the later half of 19th century. It has been argued that the concept of Orientalism created a false image of the Muslim world in order to rationalise European exploitation
Oriental scaleoriental scale
although there are many 'oriental' scales, this oriental scale (the eight-note scale most commonly given this name) is the second mode of the double harmonic minor scale
Oriente Medio, el(Spanish m.) or el Medio Oriente (Spanish m.), the Middle East (geographic region)
Orificio(Italian m.) the orifice of organ pipes, in front and at the top
Orifizio(Italian m.) the orifice of organ pipes, in front and at the top
Oriflamme(French) the sacred orange-red banner of St. Denis used by the early Kings of France, any banner or ensign which is designed to serve as a rallying point, anything conspicuous (or glorious, or golden)
orig.abbreviation of 'original', 'original', 'originally'
Origami(Japanese) the Japanese art of cutting and folding paper into attractive forms and designs
Original(German n.) the original (recording), the master (recording)
in printing, the term applied to copy which is to be reproduced
original(Engish, French, German, Spanish) earliest, not derivative or imitative, not a copy
in jazz, a tune written by a member of the band
Original Ausgabe(German) original edition
originale(Italian) original
Originalhandschrift(German f.) autograph (a document in the hand of the originator rather than in the hand of a copyist)
Originalität(German) originality, in composition
Originalitythe view that originality is the main force in the creative process grew out of the extended period of influence that humanism held over the arts in England and the rest of Europe. During this time, imitation of ancient authors was an accepted and even required practice. The reaction of those concerned with the excesses and questionable morality of artists who copied literally from other sources led to a considerable literature on imitation and plagiarism. It is in the middle of the eighteenth century, and first in England, that the concepts of both originality and plagiarism became significant elements in critical writings. To be unoriginal could only mean a lack of genius. This foundation of new ideas made possible much of the further development of aesthetic criticism and artistic achievement in all the arts in the nineteenth century
Original sina theological doctrine arguing that all humans at the moment of conception inherit collective responsibility and guilt for the sins of Adam and Eve along with an innate tendency towards evil
Original speed, Original tempotempo primo (Italian), erster Zeitmass (German), mouvement du début (French)
Originalton(German m.) direct sound
Originalzeichnung(German f.) original drawing
Originell(German) original, newly invented, not borrowed from another
Oriscusa neume modifier or a free-standing neume form, written in some shape similar to the tilde of some modern languages, to indicate a variety of nuances in the vocal rendering. It is hard to distinguish an oriscus note from a regular one in the Vaticana print, but the mediaeval manuscripts made a pretty clear distinction between the two. The real meaning of the oriscus has been heavily debated throughout this century, but scholars generally agree that the oriscus underlines the importance of the following note
Orissisee odissi
'ori Tahiti(Tahitian dance) a more correct name for tamure, a dance from Tahiti
Or jaune(French m.) yellow gold (a gold alloy that is usually made by combining gold, copper and silver)
orkest(Dutch) orchestra
orkest-instrumenten(Dutch) orchestral instruments
orkestpartitituur(Dutch) open score
orkesttoon(Dutch) concert pitch
Orla(Spanish f.) edging, trimming, graduation photograph
Orlo(Italian m.) border, hem, rim, edge (of a drum), brink, verge
(Spanish m.) cromorne
Ornament(English, German n.) ornamento (Italian), Verzierung (German), ornement (French), in music, an ornament is a musical flourishe that is not necessary to the overall melodic (or harmonic) line, but serves to decorate or "ornament" that line. Many ornaments are performed as "fast notes" around a central note. The amount of ornamentation in a piece of music can vary from quite extensive (it was often so in the Baroque period) to relatively little or even none. The word agrément is used specifically to indicate the French Baroque style of ornamentation
see 'ornamentation'
Ornamentação(Portuguese) ornamentation
Ornamentación(Spanish f.) ornamentation
Ornamental resolutionsee 'resolution'
Ornamentationelaboration of a written melody, in some circumstances indicated by marks placed in the score by the composer, and, in other cases, when performing in a style that was considered appropriate at the time when the work was composed, allowing that the choice of ornament would have been left to the taste and discretion of the performer. An essential feature of ornamentation, particularly that of music written before the nineteenth century, is that it is not the product of a need to 'decorate' a melodic line, but rather a realisation that music notation of the period, despite the best efforts of composers and publishers, could not reproduce adequately the details of contemporary musical practice, including the expectation that the performer, who was very often the composer, might extend or elaborate at the moment of performance
it is not likely that anybody could question the necessity of ornaments. They are found everywhere in music, and are not only useful, but indispensable. They connect the notes; they give them life. They emphasise them, and besides giving accent and meaning they render them grateful; they illustrate the sentiments, be they sad or merry, and take an important part in the general effect. They give to the player an opportunity to show off his technical skill and powers of expression. A mediocre composition can be made attractive by their aid, and the best melody without them may seem obscure and meaningless
C.P.E. Bach Versuch über die wahre Art das Clavier zu spielen (Berlin, 1753)
Ornamenti(Italian pl.) ornaments, grace notes
Ornamentos(Spanish) ornaments, grace notes
ornaments, els(Catalan) ornaments
ornando(Italian) adornando (Italian), adorning, zierend (German), schmückend (German), en ornant (French)
ornare con il vetro(Italian) to glass (to glass in)
Ornatamente(Italian) with embellishments, gracefully, adorned, ornamented
Ornato(Italian) adorned, embellished, ornamented
orné(French) adornato (Italian), embellished, decorated, ornamented, florid, adorned, verziert (German)
Ornement (s.), Ornements (pl.)(French) ornament(s), grace note(s)
Oroa Balkan folk dance with the same origins as the hora
Orologio a carillon(Italian m.) musical clock
Orologio a soneria(Italian m.) musical clock
Oroshi(Japanese) characterized by a series of hits on the taiko, where the player starts out slowly with lots of ma (space between hits) and gradually shortens the ma between each hit, until the drummer is playing a rapid roll of hits
Oro zecchino(Italian m.) pure gold
Orphanin printing, an orphan is a single short line beginning a paragraph but separated from all the other lines in that paragraph by a page break, thus appearing by itself at the bottom of the previous page or column
Orphariona wire-strung instrument, part of the bandora family, usually tuned like a lute. with a flat-backed body and scalloped sides. Unlike most other string instruments, the orpharion had slanted bridges and frets, so that the string length increased progressively from treble to bass. Ornamental carving above the peg box often features the head of a woman or a god. It is played with a plectrum and was popular from the late sixteenth to late seventeenth century. The sole example of sixteenth-century orpharion music (Barley 1596) is written in French tablature, similar to tablature for the seven-course lute
Orphéon(French) the name of choral societies of men in France
Orpheusin Greek mythology, Orpheus was the son of Calliope and either Oeagrus or Apollo. He was the greatest musician and poet of Greek myth, whose songs could charm wild beasts and coax even rocks and trees into movement. He was one of the Argonauts, and when the Argo had to pass the island of the Sirens, it was Orpheus' music which prevented the crew from being lured to destruction
Orpheus' violsee viole d'Orpheé
Orphicabetween 1795 and 1830 an instrument called the orphica was produced which could be slung across the shoulder and played almost anywhere, being a miniature acoustic piano with a Viennese-type action. The English called the orphica the 'weekend piano', as it could be played outside
Orphisma mystic cult of ancient Greece, believed to have been drawn from the writings of the legendary poet and musician Orpheus
Orphreyembroidered panel found along the opening of a cope
Orquesta(Spanish f.) orchestra (English, Italian f.), orchestre (French m.), Orchester (German n.)
Orquestación(Spanish f.) orchestration
Orquesta completa(Spanish f.) full orchestra, grand orchestre (French)
Orquesta de baile(Spanish f.) dance orchestra
Orquesta de cámara(Spanish f.) chamber orchestra
Orquesta de jazz(Spanish f.) jazz orchestra, jazz band
Orquesta de música popular(Spanish f.) light music orchestra
Orquesta filarmónica(Spanish f.) philharmonic orchestra
orquestal(Spanish) orchestral
Orquesta no típica
orquestar(Spanish) to orchestrate, to score a piece of music
Orquesta regional(Spanish f.) regional orchestra, orchestre de genre (French)
Orquesta sinfónica(Spanish f.) symphonic orchestra
Orquesta tipica(Spanish f., literally 'typical orchestra') a Cuban musical group used to perform the contradanza and orchestras that were the traditional interpreters of the early forms of the various danzas. Their instrumentation consisted of woodwinds, brass, strings, the güiro and the traditional European tympani
Orquestra(Portuguese) orchestra
Orquestração(Portuguese) or instrumentação, orchestration
orquestral(Portuguese, Spanish) orchestral
Or rose(French m.) rose gold, pink gold, red gold, Russian gold (a gold and copper alloy widely used for specialized jewelry due to its reddish color. Because it was popular in Russia at the beginning of the nineteenth century it is also known as Russian gold)
ORTFabbreviation of Office de Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française (French)
orthisch(German) high, acute
Orthochronic notationa term used by Jacques Chailly, in Les notations musicales nouvelles (Paris, 1950), to describe a notation in which the various symbols directly represent durations relative to one another, a system that indeed led to the elimination of triple mensuration, as took place over a period from the middle of the fifteenth century to the beginning of the seventeenth century, leaving only duple mensuration, the system we have today where each successively shorter duration symbol is in the temporal ratio of (2:1) to its immediate predecessor
Orthodox Christianitya generalized reference to the Eastern traditions of Christianity, as opposed to the Western traditions (which descend through, or alongside of, the Roman Catholic Church) or the Eastern Rite Catholic churches. Orthodox Christianity claims to be the original Christian church founded by Christ and the Apostles, and traces its lineage back to the early church through the process of Apostolic Succession. Orthodox distinctives (shared with Eastern Rite Catholic churches) include the Divine Liturgy, Mysteries or Sacraments, and an emphasis on the preservation of Tradition, which it holds to be Apostolic in nature. Orthodox Churches are also distinctive in that they are organized into self-governing jurisdictions, which submit to the authority of the State government. It is estimated that there are approximately 350 million Orthodox Christians in the world. In general terms, there are three main branches of Orthodox Christianity: the Church of the East, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Oriental Orthodoxy
Orthoëpik(Greek, German) the art of correct verbal declamation, in singing
Orthoepista linguist who specializes in the area relating pronunciation to spelling
Orthoepyin linguistics, the study of pronunciation as it relates to spelling
Orthographythe linguistic term for a writing system that represents the sounds or words of a particular languages by making visible marks on some surface - also the study of such systems
the systematic practice or study of correct spelling according to established usage
Orthotonie(Greek, German) correct accentuation in singing
Orthrosin the Orthodox rite, the morning office, corresponding to lauds in the West
Ortsbezeichnung(German f.) description of location
Orututhe Luo version of the siiriria, a single-stringed fiddle played in western Kenya and Uganda, played with a sisal bow
a currently popular Kenyan style which includes the orutu
Oryantal dansi(Turkish, literally 'dance of the east') belly dance
OSabbreviation of Ouvrier spécialisé (French: unskilled or semi-skilled worker)
osabbreviation of opera seria (Italian)
osa(Finnish) movement (section of an extended work, for example, a symphony)
Osana(Ghana) small support drum played with sticks
Osanna(Italian) Hosanna
Oscillateur(French m.) oscillator
Oscillation(English, French f.) oscillation, vibration, beat
Oscillation triangulaire(French f.) triangle wave
Oscillatoran electronic sound source. In an analogue (U.S. analog) synthesizer, oscillators typically produce regularly repeating fluctuations in voltage; that is, they oscillate. In a digital synth, an oscillator more typically plays back a complex waveform by reading the numbers in a wavetable
Oscillatore(Italian m.) oscillator
Oscillatoryswinging back and forth in a regular way
Oscillazione(Italian f.) oscillation
Osciloscopio(Spanish m.) oscilloscope
Osibisabathe Fanti word for 'highlife'
Osiersee tapan
os lo agradezco mucho(Spanish) thank you very much
Osmoglasnik(Serbian) a collection of religion songs repeated over the course of eight weeks in a cyclical fashion, that form the basis for Serbian church music, and are dedicated to Jesus' resurrection
Osoide adaka(Ghana) box drum
o.s.p.abbreviation of obiit sine prole (Latin: he/she died without issue - used in genealogical works and family trees)
Ospedale della Pietàfrom its establishment in Venice in the early fifteenth century as a charitable institution, the Ospedale della Pietà became a convent, orphanage, and, by the late seventeenth century a renowned music school
Ospedalettothe Church of Santa Maria dei Derelitti, Venice, was built in 1575 on land belonging to a hospital founded during the terrible famine of 1528; it has since been called the Church of the Ospedaletto. Together with the Pietà, the Incurabili and the Mendicanti, the Ospedaletto was noted for its musical activities; these four Venetian ospedali came to represent the earliest type of conservatoire. Young orphaned girls, who lived like nuns in a separate section of the ospedale, received a musical education in order to embellish the liturgy with plainsong and a cappella polyphony. Known as putte or figlie di coro, their talents were also encouraged in order to impress benefactors and encourage patronage. While vocal instruction was begun in the second half of the sixteenth century, tuition in various instruments was introduced during the course of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. In 1776-7 a music room was built inside the Ospedaletto where chamber music was performed by the putte; this contains frescoes by Jacopo Guarana and a trompe l'oeil by Agostino Mengozzi Colonna. Some of the choirmasters (maestri di cappella) appointed as directors of the conservatory were highly distinguished musicians: Legrenzi was maestro both at St Mark's and at the Mendicanti, while Porpora was choirmaster at the Incurabili and at the Pietà and was acknowledged to be the greatest singing teacher in the Venice of his day. In the wake of Napoleonic reforms, the Ospedaletto was turned into an old people's home and the musical activity gradually came to an end; the last maestro, Domenico Cimarosa, directed the music until 1784, while girls continued to sing in the Ospedaletto up until 1807. The didactic methods tried in these early conservatori were to be adopted by the first European music academies in Berlin (1804) and London (1822)
ossabbreviation of opera semiseria (Italian)
Osservanza(Italian) attention, observation, observance, strictness in keeping time
osservare con i binocoli(Italian) to scan with binoculars, to observe with binoculars
osservare con insistenza(Italian) to gaze at
Osservato(Italian) carefully observed, practised according to the rules
Ossia(Italian) or, or else
(Italian, literally 'or') an alternative, not necessarily easier, to an original passage, the player being left to decide which he or she wishes to perform
an ossia passage is generally written as a passage of music written in a smaller type and placed above the normal-sized staff
Ossia più facile(Italian) or else in a more easy manner
Ossiclesthe three small bones located in the middle ear, including the hammer (malleus), anvil (incus), and stirrup (stapes)
Ostensivemanifestly demonstrative
Ostensive definitiona definition that conveys the meaning of a term by pointing out examples
Ostentación(Spanish f.) ostentation
ostentoso (m.), ostentosa (f.)(Spanish) ostentatious
Osteópata(Spanish m./f.) osteopath
Osteopathyan approach to healthcare that emphasizes the role of the musculoskeletal system in health and disease. It is practised in the United Kingdom, the rest of the European Union, Israel, Canada, and Australia. Osteopathy is not to be confused with the historically related but now distinct field, osteopathic medicine in the United States. In most countries, osteopathy is a form of complementary medicine, emphasizing a holistic approach and the skilled use of a range of manual and physical treatment interventions in the prevention and treatment of disease. In practice, this most commonly relates to musculoskeletal problems such as back and neck pain. Osteopathic principles teach that treatment of the musculoskeletal system (bones, muscles and joints) facilitates the recuperative powers of the body
Osteopatía(Spanish f.) osteopathy
osteopático (m.), osteopática (f.)(Spanish) osteopathic
Osteria(Italian f.) an inn, a tavern (in Italy)
Oster-OratoriumJ. S. Bach's Easter Oratorio (Kommt, eilet und laufet) BWV 249
Ostinato (s.), Ostinati (pl.)
(English, German m., Italian, literally 'persistent') a short, repeating pattern (melodic, harmonic, rhythmic, movement) which is intended to be performed together with a melody:
melodic ostinatoa short, repeated melody pattern which is intended to be performed together with another melody to produce harmony
basso ostinatoa short, repeated melody pattern in the bass
harmonic ostinatoa short, repeated chordal accompaniment pattern which is intended to be performed along with a melody
rhythmic ostinatofor example in 'isorhythm', where repeated rhythmic patterns (called the talea), usually occurring in the tenor line, are set against a pattern of notes or pitches (called the 'colour') - the talea and colour may be different in length
Ostrakon (s.), Ostraka (pl.)(Greek) a sherd of pottery engraved with an inscription
Oszillation(German f.) oscillation
Oszillator(German m.) oscillator
oszillieren(German) to oscillate
Oszilloskop(German n.) oscilloscope
Ota-ubah(Nigeria) a clay pot with a narrow neck and a hole cut in its side used, usually in sets of three, by the Igede people. It is beaten with two hands
Otava(Italy) or eight-line stanza, a common lyrical form in Sardinia, one which allows the perfomer a certain amount of improvisation and is not unlike the stornello of south-central mainland Italy
Oteaor 'ote'a, a traditional dance from Tahiti, where the dancers, standing in several rows, execute different figures
  • 'ote'a from which this information has been taken
Oteador (m.), Oteadora (f.)(Spanish) lookout
otear(Spanish) to scan, to search
otear el horizonte(Spanish) to scan the horizon
Otekisee ryuteki
Ôter(French) to take off
Ôter la sourdine(French) mute off
Ôtez(French) take off!
Ôtez les anches(French) remove or push in the reeds
Ôtez les sourdines(French) take off the mutes, without mutes
Ôter le voile(French) undamped
Othem(German) the breath
Other world, Thea motif in folklore and mythology in which an alternative world, typically occupied by mysterious or unknowable beings, exists in conjunction with the physical world
Otitisinfection and inflammation of the ear
Otium cum dignitate(Latin) dignified leisure, graceful idleness, honoureable retirement
Otoacoustic emissionsotoacoustic emissions (OAEs) are low level, inaudible sounds produced by the outer hair cells of the inner ear (cochlea). OAEs can either occur spontaneously or in response to clicks or tones. They only occur in a normal cochlea with normal hearing and provide a route for determining the status of the cochlea
the primary purpose of OAE tests is to determine cochlear status, specifically hair cell function. This information can be used to:
screen hearing (particularly in neonates)
partially estimate hearing sensitivity within a limited range
differentiate between the sensory and neural components of sensorineural hearing loss
test for functional (feigned) hearing loss
the information can be obtained from patients who are sleeping or even comatose because no behavioral response is required
Otro(Spanish) encore
otra vez(Spanish) again
otra vez será(Spanish) some other time
otro (m.), otra (f.)(Spanish) another, another
otro cosa(Spanish) something else
otro día(Spanish) another day
otrora(Spanish) formerly
otros tantos(Spanish) as many
otro tanto(Spanish) as much
otryckt(Swedish) unpublished
Otsuzumihigh-pitched Japanese drum used in the hayashi ensembles of no, kabuki, nagauta and folk performing arts
  • Otsuzumi from which this information has been taken
Ott.abbreviated form of ottava (Italian: an octave)
o.t.t.abbreviation of 'over the top' (exaggerated, excessive)
Ottamthullalalso known as 'poor man's kathakali', a type of performance from Kerala, Southern India, in which a single actor, wearing colourful costumes, recites thullal (dance songs) while acting and dancing
ottanta(Italian) eighty
Ottava(Italian f.) an eighth
(Italian f.) octave (English, French f.), octava (Spanish f.), Oktave (German f.)
for example, all' ottava, at the octave, or coll' ottava, play in octaves
Ottava alta(Italian f.) or ottava sopra, octave higher; when this mark appears in music it can mean either 'play an octave higher' or 'play an octave lower'. Strictly speaking the sign for 'play an octave lower' should be 8vb (ottava bassa). In keyboard music the sign applies only to the part so marked, that is either the right hand or left hand unless the mark appears in both parts.
Ottava bassa(Italian f.) or ottava sotto, octave lower; when this mark appears in music it means 'play an octave lower' although some publishers use the 8va mark (see above) to mean the same thing. As with 8va the sign when used in keyboard music should apply only to the part so marked, that is either the right hand or left hand unless the mark appears in both parts
Ottava rima(Italian f., from Tuscany, Lazio and Abruzzo) medieval sung poetry performed by the poeti contadini (peasant poets) who use the poems of Homer or Dante, as well as more modern lyrics which address political or social issues. It is often completely improvised, and sometimes competitive in nature
the eight hendecasyllabic lines rhyme: a b a b a b c c. An English stanza of eight five-stress lines rhymed in the same pattern
Ottava sopraottava alta
Ottava sottoottava bassa
Ottave di moto retto(Italian f. pl.) consecutive octaves
Ottavina(Italian f.) a small spinet that plays an octave higher than standard spinets, also called 'octave spinet' or 'spinettina'
Charles Burney (1726-1814) wrote in 1771 (in The Present State of Music in France and Italy), "Throughout Italy they have generally little octave spinets to accompany singing, in private houses, sometimes in a triangular form, but more in the shape of our old virginals; of which they keys are so noisy, and the tone so feeble, that more wood is heard than wire"
a register on a harpsichord that plays an octave above the standard register and can be engaged using a stop
a term used in the sense of 'superoctave'
Ottavino(Italian m.) a virginal or spinet at four-foot pitch, i.e. an octave higher than on a standard keyboard instrument. When a spinet, this instrument is also called an 'octave spinet' or 'spinettina'. Ottavini have been used as child instruments, private home accompaniment instruments for singing, or simply as toys. Charles Burney's comment on their sound was understandable as it was a very difficult instrument to voice correctly. However, Frescobaldi wrote three works specifically calling for the use of the ottavino
(Italian m.) octave flute, piccolo (English, French f.), flauto piccolo (Italian m.), Pikkolo (German n.), kleine Flöte (German f.), petite flûte (French f.), flautín (Spanish m.)
Ottavizzare il suono(Italian) overblowing
ottavo (m.), ottava (f.)(Italian) eighth
otte(Danish) eight
Ottemole(German) octuplet
ottende(Danish) eighth
quaver(Danish) a quaver, a note one eighth the time value of a whole note or semibreve
quaver rest(Danish) a quaver rest, an eight rest, a rest one eighth the time value of a whole rest or semibreve rest
ottenere con fatica(Italian) to carve out
Ottetto(Italian m.) octet
otto(Italian) eight
Ottoman classical musicTürk Sanat Müzigi developed and matured as the state itself grew in strength. It was influenced by the musical cultures of those nations, Byzantines, Greeks, Persians, Arabs, Jews, Armenians etc., absorbed into the empire although from the beginning of the nineteenth century, as the empire began to contract and then collapse, so the music lost the rich modes and styles that had characterised it in the past, and became increasingly derivative. The loss of interest in its past is best illustrated by the fact that only some 3,000 works have survived from the early fifteenth to late eighteenth century while 5,000 come from the nineteenth century alone. The European influence is well illustrated by works presented on a recording entitled Ottoman Court Music (VMS 112 (Austria) 12F040), pieces composed by Callisto Guatelli (1820-1899) [Ottoman March, March of the Ottoman Exhibition], Giuseppe Donizetti (1788-1856) [Sultan Abdulmecid March], Dikran Cuhaciyan (1837?-1898) [Sultan Abdul-Hamid March], Yesarizade Ahmed Necib (1813-1883) [Sultan Abdul-Hamid March], Rifat Bey (1820-1888) [Sultan Abdul-Hamid March], Italo Sevelli (?-1930?) [Sultan Memed V March], Henri Furlani (1870?-1940?) [Tambourin, Rigaudon], Sehzade Ahmed Nihad (1883-1954) [A Sapling in Flower], Mahmud Necmeddin (1878-1913) [Motherland (Polka), Long Live Liberty], Mehmed Burhaneddin (1885-1949) [Grand March], Hatice Sultan (1870-1928) [Waltz], Ayse Sultan (1887-1960) [March for Abdulmecid II], Fehime Sultan (1875-1927) [Constitution Galop], Sultan Aabdulaziz Han (1830-1876) [Invitation to the Waltz], Sultan Murad V Han (1840-1094) [Polka Mazurka, The Prayer, Dance for Castanets, 3 Mazurkas, 2 Polkas, Scottish Dance, Romance, Aydin Havasi]. Of these fifteen composers, eight were either Sultans of the Ottoman Empire, their sons or, in one case, daughter. Four others were associated with the state music school and three could be described as "miscellaneous". The Sultans hired their music teachers and court composers from France and Italy and the result was a plethora of marches, waltzes and other types of popular/salon music in the style of those countries. In the early twentieth century, a renewed interest in the mode, style, means and methods of vocalisation going back to the very earliest times has led to a period of renewal
Fasil is a series of works composed within the same melodic structure (makam), or mode, set out and played in a particular order. In its purest and most complete form, there will be works for voice and for saz where all are linked by a common melodic structure and ordered according to their shape or form. Generally, there will be two Beste (poetic forms) and five Semai, all accompanied by lyrics. The compositions are in the form of Murabba (a poem composed of quatrains) or Nakis (a form of song). Murabbas are composed for two rhyming couplets of a Gazel and may be with or without Terennüm which are words that complement the verses that make up the formal lyric of the song, and may either have a meaning or else be just a 'patter'. Lines 1, 2 and 4 of the poem are tied to the same melody, with line 3 having a different melody. This latter section is known as Miyan Hane within which the makam is either broadened or modified. Murabbas with terennüm repeat it at the end of each line. The terennüm of the miyan hane may be different, however. In the nakis, on the other hand, two verses are read together, followed by a lengthy terennüm. Semai with lyrics and the same structure as the murabba or nakis (but composed in the semai style) are known as Agir and Yürük Semai respectively. In the fasil, lyrical works such as the Kar or Sarki and instrumental pieces such as Taksim, Pesrev, Saz Semaisi and Oyun Havasi may be added
the structure of a complete Fasil is as follows
an introductory Taksim with saz
the first Beste or Kar
second Beste
Agir semai
Sarkis (in order from major rhythmic pattern and slow character, to minor and fast)
Yürük Semai
Saz Semai
the Kar gives considerable space to the terennüm component, and is a work with lyrics that requires considerable expertise being one of the most developed forms. The Sarki in Turkish literature is a form that emerged under the influence of the folk song. The sarki consists of lines of verse, its name depending on the number of verses involved. It is composed with a minor rhythmic pattern (usul) and take can take various forms. It was particularly popular after the nineteenth century, and left the other forms which included lyrics in the shade. It went from strength to strength in the twentieth century, going beyond the previously established frontiers and eventually turning into the Fantezi form as it grew more and more popular. Apart from a few outstanding examples, it played a major role in restricting the sphere of traditional classical music.
the following are the form of instrumental pieces employed in Ottoman music
Pesrevgenerally composed in major rhythmic patterns, such as Darb-i Fetih, Sakil, Muhammes and Devr-i Kebir or sometimes in minor ones, such as Düyek. It is a saz work that emerged from the sections called Hane and the Mulazime section that comes between and is repeated with little change
Saz Semaisialthough they have the same structure as the pesrev, the saz compositions falling into the semai (six-time), aksak semai (10-time) and yürük semai (six-time) categories are known as Saz Semaisi. These come at the end of the fasil, following the yürük semai
Taksimintended to introduce, prepare the way or warm up for the makam, these are played with a single instrument, within the makam, yet not linked to any rhythmic pattern, and are either free-form or improvised
Oyun Havasiinstrumental pieces composed for dancing
Usulup to 15-time these are known as Küçük Usul (minor pattern), and after 15-time as Büyük Usul (major pattern). When the two are employed together, this is known as Darbeyn. There are also strings that use one usul after another. One of these consists of five usul, either 60 or 120-time, depending on which view one adopts, and this is known as Zencir. Kücük usul in 5, 7, 9-time etc., or 10-time works such as the aksak semai, are known as Aksak Usul. The true times that bear the name aksak are usul in 2+2+2+3 form
Ottonario (s.), Ottonari (pl.)(Italian m.) in English, an octosyllabic, verse (or line) having eight syllables
[entry by Irene Silberstein]
Ottone (s.), Ottoni (pl.)(Italian m.) brass, for example, stromenti d'ottoni meaning 'brass instruments'
Ottosillabo(Italian m.) octosyllabe (French), octosílabo (Spanish), octosyllabic, verse (or line) having eight syllables
[entry prompted by Irene Silberstein]
ottosillabo(Italian) octosyllabique (French), octosilábico (Spanish), octosyllabic, having eight syllables
[entry prompted by Irene Silberstein]
Ottua south Indian drone instrument, very similar to the nadaswaram or the shehnai in construction. It is usually somewhat longer than the nadaswaram. It has a bell, usually of metal like the shehnai, anf four or five holes, which are not fingered but merely occluded with wax to bring the instrument to the correct pitch
'otuhaka(Tonga) a traditional Tongan group dance where the performers are seated and make gestures with their arms only, with some accentuation from head and body
  • 'otuhaka from which this extract has been taken
ou, où(French) or, or else
oublier de(French) to forget to
Oubliette(French f.) a secret dungeon reached only through a trap-door from above
Oublions le passé.(French) Let's let bygones be bygones.
Oudsee ud
Oudhavin Indian classical music, a scale or raga with five notes
oud Nummer(Dutch) back number
Ougdyea harp from Cameroon
Ouïe(French f.) hearing
(French f.) or trou d'F (French m.), F-hole, soundhole (on a string-instrument), F-Loch (German n.) or Schallloch (German n.), foro armonico (Italian m.), "f" (Italian f.), f or sound hole(s) of instruments of the violin family, etc.
Ouïe d'un instrument(French f.) the sound-hole of an instrument
Oui, je suis libre.(French) Yes, I'm free.
Ouistiti(French, literally 'marmoset') a pick-lock, a skeleton key
Ouombia harp from Gabon
OUPabbreviation of 'Oxford University Press'
ou pour mieux dire(French) to put it another way, in other words
Ouraborusemblematic serpent of ancient Egypt and ancient Greece, portrayed consuming its own tail, a symbol of continuous death and rebirth
Ouraniasee Urania
Où se trouve...?(French) Where is...?
Oussoulalso usul, the Turkish system of rhythm which comprise about fifty standard combinations of beats (up to 120 beats) are may be thought to correspond to Western meters. They form a strict rhythmic basis for a composition and will be repeated several times during the course of the piece. The oussoul rhythmic mode is counterpart to the makam melodic mode
Out chorusin jazz, also called 'out head', the 'out chorus' is the last chorus, often a reprise of the opening section, played in a piece of music
Outer earone of three conceptual anatomical divisions for the organ of hearing, including also the middle ear and the inner ear. The outer ear consists of the exterior ear or pinna, plus the tube-shaped ear canal. The outer ear terminates at the eardrum or tympanic membrane
Outer voicesvoices in a polyphonic composition that are the highest and lowest, as in a large mixed choir where usually the outer voices will be the bass and the soprano
Out headsee 'out chorus'
Oúti(from the Turkish oud) Middle Eastern unfretted lute
Outlawan individual determined by a council vote to be an outlaw at a thing or an althing was considered outside the normal bounds of kinship relations in Iceland
Outlaw countrya significant trend in country music during the late 1960s and the 1970s, said to be a reaction to the Nashville sound
Outline notationsee 'void notation'
Out of humourdispleased
l'outrage des ans(French) the ravages of time
Outré(French) exaggerated, eccentric, beyond the limits of convention
Outremer(French) overseas (with reference, particularly, to the French colonial possessions)
Outre-tombe(French) from beyond the tomb, unearthly
Outroa jocular term for coda or added ending section
Outsideassociated with free jazz and a style of playing in which the performer improvised freely, breaking away from strict adherence to the traditional approach that followed standard patterns of chordal progressions, these players were said to have stepped 'outside'
Outside partner stepin dance, a step taken with partner beside the moving foot. During this step feet tracks of both parners do not overlap
Outside speakerthe "speaker" of a poem or story presented in third-person point of view, i.e., the imaginary voice that speaks of other characters in the third person (as he / she / they) without ever revealing the speaker's own identity or relationship to the narrative
Outside turn
Ouvert(French) open (as, for example, when playing the French horn unstopped)
a term applied to troubadour and trouvère music, namely a cadence in which the last note sounds inconclusive and is on a pitch one note above the final
the inconclusive ouvert or aperto in the fourteenth- and fifteenth-century vocal forms corresponds to the prima volta or first time bar we use today. In turn, the more conclusive clos or chiuso corresponds to the seconda volta or second-time bar
Ouvert, Ouverte(French) in dance, these terms refer to positions (the second and fourth positions of the feet are positions ouvertes), limbs, directions, or certain exercises or steps
Ouverture(French f.) overture
Ouverture(French f.) aperture, opening
Ouvertüre(German f.) overture
Où veux-tu en venir?(French) What are you getting? What are you driving at?
Ouvido(Portuguese) ear
Ouvido absoluto(Portuguese) perfect pitch
ouvrage(French) work
Ouvreur (m.), Ouvreuse (f.)(French) usher (m.), usherette (f.)
originally the women who unlocked the boxes in French theatres who also showed the patrons to their seats
ouvrir(French) to open
ouvrir la bouche(French) to speak
Ouzo(Greek) a strong spirit, distilled from the lees of wine, somewhat like arak in flavour
ov(s).abbreviation of 'overture(s)'
Ovaabbreviated form of ottava
Ovación(Spanish f.) ovation, a round of applause, cheering
oval(Spanish, literally 'oval') note head
Ovcharska svirkaBulgarian shepherd's pipe, a smaller version of the kaval
Overabove, sopra (Italian), ober (German), sur (French)
overbinding(Dutch) tie, a curved line used to join two or more notes of the same pitch so that they are played without a break
överbindning(Swedish) tie, a curved line used to join two or more notes of the same pitch so that they are played without a break
Overblowsee 'over blowing'
Overblowingblowing or tonguing more strongly (generally while venting the thumbhole or opening a speaker key to the purpose) to produce the higher notes on certain wind-instruments, for example, on the recorder (which over-blows at the octave) or on the clarinet (which over-blows at the twelfth)
Overdottinga practice employed in some baroque music, where a rhythm written for example as a dotted crotchet followed by a quaver (dotted quarter note followed by an eighth note) is played as though there were two dots following the first note and so playing the rhythm as thought it was written as a double dotted crotchet followed by a semiquaver (a double dotted quarter note followed by a sixteenth note). The feature may be found particularly in the opening passage of a French ouverture
Overdrive (English, German m.) in rock music and related genres, overdrive is a term used to describe the sound of an amplifier running at high gain, usually deliberately, to the point where distortion (clipping) is clearly audible in the output signal. This distortion may range from a slight added "growl" or "edge" with some increase in sustain, up to a thick, distorted fuzzy sound
overdruk(je)(Dutch) offprint
Overdubbinga recording technique that facilitates the combination of separately recorded performances, for example, distinct individual lines, or solo improvisations over an earlier ensemble recording, or to replace an unsatisfactory speaking voice with another, a process which is carried out using a machine invented by Les Paul called a multi-track tape recorder
overgang(Dutch) transition
overgangsgedeelte(Dutch) bridge section
Overgeneralizationin linguistics, the introduction of a nonstandard or previously non-existent spelling or verb form when a speaker or writer makes an analogy to a regular spelling or a regular verb
overmatig(Dutch) augmented
overmatig drieklank(Dutch) augmented triad
overmatig interval(Dutch) augmented interval
Overprintthe printing, at a later date, of additional information or of an image that was never part of the original production
Oversthe quantity of unit production, for example, books and sheets, delivered to the customer above the net amount ordered, usually uncharged at a run-on rate; also allowance to cover wastage
oversaettelse(Danish) translation
oversettelse(Norwegian) translation
oversigt(Danish, Norwegian) summary
Oversizedin clothing, enlarged garments, in which the scales are played with to alter the natural silhouette of the wearer
Overspun stringa form of covered string in which a soft wire is wrapped round a core, usually forming an open spiral
the discovery that gut, wire, or silk could act as a core material, around which extremely fine wire could be spun, allowed for the final increase of elasticity that instrument makers needed to solve their range problems. What is probably the earliest documented reference to over-spun strings appears in a manuscript written in 1664
ref: The History of Stringmaking by William R. Cumpiano, from Frets Magazine, August 1979
överstigande intervall(Swedish) augmented interval
Over-strungalso overstrung or cross-strung, a corde incrocicchiate (Italian), kreuzsaitig (German), à cordes croissées (French), a cuerdas cruzadas (Spanish)
a term applied to pianos, i.e. overstrung pianos', on which the strings are set at two different levels in order to obtain a greater length and, as a result, a more sonorous tone
Over the topa prejorative expression used to describe dress, performance or behaviour that is beyond the usual social norm. The English musicologist and broadcaster George Pratt has observed that 'if nobody goes over the top, how will we know what lies on the other side?"
Overtonethe term 'overtone' has frequently been used interchangeably with harmonic, meaning a simple frequency component (or partial) of a complex tone which is an integer multiple of some given fundamental frequency. The fundamental frequency (or simply 'fundamental') is also called the first harmonic (or first partial), but is not called an overtone. The second harmonic (or second partial) is referred to as the first overtone, the third harmonic (or the third partial) is called the second overtone, and so on. However 'overtone' should really be thought of as synonymous with 'partial' which can be harmonic or inharmonic
overtone series
the overtones in brackets are approximate to their equal tempered equivalents
Overtone singingalso known as overtone chanting, harmonic singing, or harmonic chant, a type of singing in which the singer manipulates the harmonic resonances (or formants) created as air travels from the lungs, past the vocal chords, and out the lips
see 'throat-singing'
Overtura(Italian f.) overture
Overtura di ballo(Italian f.) overture composed on or introducing dance melodies
Overture(English, German) sinfonia (Italian), overtura (Italian), Overtüre (German), ouverture (French), a piece that acts as an introduction to an oratorio, opera, play or ballet
as part of an 'overture-suite', a concerted work similar to a suite (i.e. having a number of movements) that commences with an overture
Italian overturethree movements: quick - slow - quick
French overturethree movements or sections: slow - quick - slow, which, if sectional, might form the opening movement of a larger concerto
Overtüre(German) overture
Overture-suitesee 'form'
overzetting(Dutch) translation
OV languagea language that tends to place the grammatical object before the verb in a sentence. Japanese is an example of an OV language
Ovvero(Italian) or, or else
Owl Mountainsa mountain range in the Central Sudetes in south-west Poland
Oxford English Dictionaryalso known by its abbreviation OED, generally considered the most authoritative and scholarly dictionary of English available - with nearly 300,000 word entries in its most recent form
Ox gall(in gilding) employed to aid in the mixing of oil containing pigments and water when creating paints
Oxymoron (s.), Oxymora (pl.)also called paradox, using contradiction in a manner that oddly makes sense on a deeper level
Oyez!(from ancient French, literally listen!) a call for silence and attention made by a town-crier or court official
Oyo(Nigeria) a woven cane basket with gourd bottom filled with pebbles
OzAustralia (colloquial)
O zior ozi, Burmese drums used in religious ceremonies and festival performances
Ozonerdrive-in movie theatre (colloquial)