music dictionary : Pp - Pz 

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PP., pp.(Italian) abbreviation of pianissimo, pianissimo piano
pp.abbreviation of 'pages' (as in pp. 23-25 which means 'pages 23 to 25')
PPP., ppp.(Italian) abbreviation of pianississimo
originally meaning as soft as possible, changes in the dynamic range of modern sound systems have relegated this mark to only the third in the range of piano markings
PPPP., pppp.(Italian) abbreviation of pianissississimo
PPPPP., ppppp.(Italian) abbreviation of pianississississimo
P.P.Sabbreviation of post post scriptum (Latin: a second addition to a letter or document placed after an earlier one which would be denoted P.S.)
P.P.Vabbreviation of 'pay-per-view' (a form of pay TV in which the viewer pays only for the programmes he or she wishes to watch)
PRabbreviation of 'public relations'
pr.abbreviation of 'printed'
p.r.abbreviation of 'public relations'
Prabandhaa term from Hindustani classical music, a perfectly composed piece of music
prächtig(German) grand, magnificent, splendid, in a pompous and majestic manner
prachtvoll(German) grandly, pompously
präcis(German) exact, precise, rhythmically precise
Práctica(Spanish f.) practice
Practical editionsee 'Performance edition'
Practicerepeatedly perform a series of exercises, or habitually carry out relevant tasks, in order to improve a particular skill or range of skills
Practice chantera reeded wind-instrument used to practice tunes usually played on the Scottish Highland pipes
Practice clavierreplica of the regular carillion clavier but with tuned metal bars to produce the notes
Practice muteon string instruments, this heavier mute fixes onto the bridge of the instrument and reduce its loudness. It is not used in any serious context, but can be useful to reduce the volume of the instrument when practicing
Practice violina violin with a small sound box which can only produce a small sound
práctico(Spanish) practical
Praeambulum(Latin) introduction, preamble, prelude
Praecentio(Latin) introduction, preamble, prelude
Praecentorsee precentor
Praefectus(Latin) the president, the prefect
Praefectus chori(Latin) master of the choristers
Praeludium(Latin) prelude
Praemium Imperialea prize for artists that has been awarded since 1989 at the suggestion of the Emperor of Japan. It is intended to be a "Nobel Prize in art" and an expansion on the Nobel Prize in Literature to other fields of fine art. The artists awarded are distinguished "for their achievements, for their influence which they exert internationally in their art, and for enriching the world community". The Japan Art Association assigns this annually for an artist's life work in each of five categories: painting, sculpture, architecture, music and film/theatre
Praenomen (s.), Praenomina (pl.)(Latin) the only name in which parents had some choice, roughly equivalent to the given name of today. It was a personal appellation given to a male infant on his day of lustration. In the earliest period, praenomina had female versions, which often end in -a (thus, Larthia for Larth). By the time of the historically attested Republic, women no longer normally had praenomina. Exceptions were women in the imperial family, who were often given the name Julia (especially wives of the emperor, but occasionally sisters and mothers as well)
Praesente cadavere(Latin) (a requiem mass celebrated) in the presence of the corpse
Praesidium(Latin) the executive committee of the Supreme Soviet of the U.S.S.R.
praeteritus(Latin) back
pragmático(Spanish) pragmatic
Pragmaticsthe social use of language, especially the effect of social and linguistic context on language
Pragmatisma philosophy the evaluates assertions solely by their practical consequences and bearing on human interests
Prahladson of Hiranyakashipu, a mythological demon-king; Prahlad's worship of Vishnu led to persecution by his father who was ultimately slain by Narasimha, the 'Man-Lion' avatar of Vishnu
Prahu(Malay) or proa, a boat used in the Malay Archipelago propelled by sails or by oars and having an outrigger at one side
Praiserpublicist (colloquial)
Praiserypublic relations firm (colloquial)
praktisch(German) practical
praktisch veranlagt(German) practically minded
Praline(French) a sweetmeat made by coating nuts or other small delicacies with boiling sugar
praliné(French) browned in boiling sugar, (a confection) incorporating chopped or ground burnt almonds
Prall(German, Dutch, from Prallen, literally 'to rebound') or Pralltriller, an upper or inverted mordent, a melodic embellishment consisting of the quick alternation of a principal tone with an auxiliary tone above it, usually the next of the scale
before the nineteenth century, the pralltriller was an ornament that occurred only after a descending second (i.e. the note that is ornamented with the trill must be preceded by the note one diatonic step higher). The pralltriller is played like an extremely rapid trill and contains only four notes, the first of which is tied to the preceding note. Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (1714-1788) says, "the pralltriller ... is distinguished from the others by its speed and brevity." He also says, "Unlike other embellishments, it cannot be demonstrated slowly to students. It must literally crackle. It must be snapped on its final appearance ... with such exceeding speed that the individual tones are heard with difficulty. Because of this, its acuteness stands beyond comparison with other trills."
Pralltriller(German m.) see Prall
Präludien(German pl.) preludes
präludieren(German) to prelude, to play a prelude
präludiren(German, archaic spelling) to prelude, to play a prelude, to improvise
Präludium(German n.) prelude, introduction
pranzare(Italian) to dine, to lunch
Pranzo(Italian m.) dinner, lunch
Pranzo nuziale(Italian m.) wedding breakfast
präpariert(German) prepared
präpariertes Klavier(German n.) prepared piano
Prassi esecutiva(Italian f.) performing practice
[corrected by Priscilla Worsley]
Prästanten(German) pipes belonging to the Presant, or open diapason, that are placed in front of the organ case
Praterchatterer, an obnoxious and foolish and loquacious talker
Prateria(Italian f.) grassland
Pratica(Italian f.) practice, training, paper (document)
praticabile(Italian) practicable
Praticante(Italian m./f.) apprentice, (regular) church goer
praticare(Italian) to practise, to associate with, to make
pratico(Italian) practical, skilful, experienced
Pratique(French f.) permission allowing the crew of a ship to land in a port on conclusion of quarantine, or on showing a clean bill of health
pratique(French) practical, skilful, experienced
Pratique de l'exécution(French f.) performing practice
Pratique d'exécution(French f.) performance practice
Prato(Italian m.) meadow, lawn (in a garden)
Pratos(Portuguese) cymbals
Prattica di musica (1591)written by Lodovico Zacconi (1555-1627), and reprinted in 1596, an invaluable guide to study of performance practice of vocal music of the very late Renaissance. Parts of his work were incorporated by Michael Praetorius into his Syntagma musicum (1618), and by Pietro Cerone into his Melopeo y maestro (1613)
Pravo horasee 'Balkan folk dance'
Praxisvortrag(German m.) hands-on lecture, practical lecture
Prayera request or thanksgiving to God or an object of worship, preghiera (Italian), Gebet (German), prière (French), supplication (French)
Prayer-booka book of set prayers
Prayer-mata small carpet on which Muslims kneel to pray
Prayer-wheela revolving cylindrical box inscribed with or containing sacred prayers
Preamblepreliminary statement, introduction
Preambolo(Italian m.) preamble
Préambule(French m.) introduction, preamble, prelude
Preámbulo(Spanish m.) preamble
Preamblumin the sixteenth century, synonymous with anabole, toccata, fantasia, ricercar, prelude and prooemium
Pre-ampsee 'preamplifier'
Preamplifieror 'pre-amp', an amplifier which precedes another amplifier to prepare an electrical signal for further amplification or processing
preavvisare(Italian) to forewarn
Preavviso(Italian m.) warning
Prebenda cathedral or collegiate church benefice; normally consisting of the revenue from one manor of the cathedral estates which furnished a living for one cathedral canon, or prebendary
Prebendarya cathedral or collegiate church canon supported by a prebend, normally the income from one manor of the cathedral estates
precario(Italian) precarious
Precauzione(Italian f.) precaution, care
précédemment(French) previously
Precedence effectsee 'Haas effect'
précèdent(French) previous, preceding
Precedente(Italian m.) precedent
precedente(Italian) previous, preceding
Precedenza(Italian f.) precedence, right of way (path, etc.)
precedere(Italian) to precede
Precentor(Latin, literally 'first singer') or praecentor, dating back to at least the fourth century, the person who, in church, leads or directs the choir or the singing, the equivalent of the cantor in a synagogue
Preceptorymonastic house of the order of Templars
Preces privatae(Latin) private prayers, as distinct from liturgical prayers recited in public
Precetto(Italian m.) precept
Precettore(Italian m.) tutor
Precettore di musica(Italian m.) a teacher of music
Préchantre(French m.) the leader or director of a choir
précieux (m.), précieuse (f.)(French) absurdly affected, ridiculously over-refined (often anglicized as 'precious')
Precio(Spanish m.) price
Preciseaccurately expressed, definite, exact, accurately expressed, preciso (Italian), Präcis (German), précis (French)
Préciosité(French) absurd affectation, ridiculous over-refinement
Preciselyin a precise manner, exactly, quite so (as a reply), as you say (as a reply)
Precio de suscripcion(Spanish m.) subscription
Precios al alcance de su bolsillo(Spanish prices to suit your pocket
precipitamente(Italian) hurry, haste
precipitando(Italian) precipitately, hurrying
precipitato(Italian) precipitate, hurried
Precipitazione(Italian) precipitation, haste, hurry
précipité(French) impetuously, hurriedly, acceleratedly
precipitosamente(Italian) impetuously, hurriedly
precipitoso(Italian) impetuous, hurried
Précis(French m.) an abridgement, a summary
précis (m.), précise (f.)(French) precise
precisione(Italian) (rhythmically) precise, (rhythmically) exact
preciso(Italian) (rhythmically) precise, precisely, (rhythmically) exact, exactly
Pre-classical musicmusic predating the Classical period
Precompositional decisionsin music, precompositional decisions are those decisions which a composer decides upon before or while beginning to create a composition
Predella(Italian) a painted or carved panel at the back of an altar, which forms the basis of the alter-piece above it
the term has come to be used more generally for any decorative panel at the foot of any picture
Predica(Italian f.) sermon, lecture
predicare(Italian) to preach
Predispositionhaving susceptibility to a condition or trait
Prefatory stavesused when transcribing or transposing early music, to show the original clef, time signature and first note
Préface(French f.) preface
Préfacier(French m.) a professional writer of prefaces that may be appended to the works of other writers
Prefacio(Spanish m.) preface, introduction
Prefazione(Italian f.) preface
Preferencia(Spanish f.) preference
preferente(Spanish) preferential
préférer ne pas (avoir à) se prononcer sur(French) to prefer not to comment on
préférer ne pas s'engager à(French) to prefer not to commit oneself to
preferible(Spanish) preferable
preferido(Spanish) favourite
preferir(Spanish) to prefer
Preferred readinga term used in the theatre, as well as in music, to distinguish that interpretation of the script or score that most closely follows that indicated by the author whether in the text or by some other means
in should be stressed that a 'preferred reading' is not necessarily the best or most effective interpretation, only that it is that for which the author or composer has indicated a preference
prefigurar(Spanish) to foreshadow
prefijar(Spanish) to fix beforehand, to prefix
Prefijo(Spanish m.) prefix, dialling code (telephone)
Prefisso(Italian m.) prefix
Prefixa morpheme added to the beginning of a word - for instance, the prefix re- can be added to the word play to create the word replay
in music, also called a 'preparation', that part of a trill that precedes the shake
pregando(Italian) praying
Preghiera(Italian f.) prayer, request, supplication
(Italian f.) an aria or chorus in which the characters pray for divine assistance, it was a highly popular ingredient of early nineteenth-century Italian opera
Pregón(Spanish m.) announcement
pregonar(Spanish) to announce
Pregones(Spanish m. pl.) street-vendor or market trader chants or calls
see córo-pregón
Pregunta(Spanish f.) question
preguntar(Spanish) to ask
preguntarse(Spanish) to wonder
Preguntas frecuentes(Spanish f. pl.) frequently asked questions, FAQ
Prehistoric musicin the history of music, prehistoric music (previously called primitive music) is all music produced in preliterate cultures (prehistory), beginning somewhere in very late geological history. Prehistoric music is followed by ancient music in most of Europe (1500 BCE) and later musics in subsequent European-influenced areas, but still exists in isolated areas. Prehistoric music thus technically includes much of the world's music before European expansion and domination, for example, traditional Native American music of preliterate tribes and Australian Aboriginal music. However, it is more common to call the "prehistoric" music of non-European continents, especially that which still survives, as folk, indigenous or traditional music
prehistórico(Spanish) prehistoric
Preise drücken(German) to force down prices
preistorico(Italian) prehistoric
Prejudicean opinion or attitude that can be positive or negative but is often negative and aimed at people who are not cultural 'insiders'
Prejuicio(Spanish m.) prejudice
prejuzgar(Spanish) to prejudge
Prelado(Spanish m.) prelate
Preliminar(Spanish m.) preliminary
preliminar(Spanish) preliminary
Prellmechanik(German f.) the term Viennese or Prellmechanik refers to the type of fortepiano action used, and possibly invented, by Johann Andreas Stein (1728-1792) in Augsburg, Germany around the year 1770. The success of Stein's pianos was due to excellent craftsmanship and to new and improved parts in the action. Stein used the Viennese hopper, or Prellmechanik (escapement) action, which was similar to Silbermann's. However, a distinctive feature of Stein's instruments was the innovation (whether or not he invented it is uncertain) of replacing the stationary rail with individual spring-loaded excapement levers, one for each key
Preludepreludio (Italian), Vorspiel (German), entrée (French)
(from the Latin praeludium, literally 'a piece played before another') a piece that is played before another piece or group of pieces, serving as an introduction, in the case of J.S. Bach (1685-1750), for example in the Well-Tempered Clavier, to a fugue in the same key
in the sixteenth century, the prelude became more improvisatory, more like a toccata, fantasia, anabole, ricercar, preambulum and prooemium
Frédéric Chopin (1810-1849) wrote a number of preludes for piano solo, most famously his 24 Preludes, Op. 28
Prélude(French m.) prelude, introductory movement
Prélude non mesuré(French m.) particularly associated with Louis Couperin (1626-1661), harpsichord versions of the improvisational meanderings with which the great French lutenists, Charles Mouton (1617-1699), François Dufaut (c.1604-c.1672) and Ennemond Gauthier (1575-1651), might begin their performances. The music's 'lute' origins are found in the broken chords, the profusion of embellishments, the spacing of the voices, even the emphasis on dance music. Couperin scored his preludes without any explicit indications of rhythmic values, aside from the pitches, all else was left up to the performer
préluder(French) to tune up, to perform preludes
Prelude to the afternoon of the faunsee Prélude à l'après-midi d'un faune
Preludio(Italian m., Spanish m.) prelude, introductory movement, prélude (French)
Preludium(Latin) prelude, introductory movement
prematuro(Spanish) premature
premendo(Italian, literally 'trampling') or calcando (Italian), accelerando (Italian), pressing forward, hurrying the time, compressing the time, betonend (German), drängend (German), en comprimant (French)
premiar(Spanish) to give a prize to, to reward
premiare(Italian) to give a prize to, to reward
Premiazione(Italian f.) prize giving
Premierthe largest drum used in tumba francesa, a dance style originating in the Oriente (eastern) province of Cuba, amongst the Africans who left Haiti after the Haitian Revolution of 1791
premier (m.), première (f.)(French) first
Premier cru(French m.) (wine made from) the first and best growth of a vine
Premier danseur (m.), Première danseuse (f.)(French) the leading dancer in a ballet company
Premier danseur étoile (m.), Première danseuse étoile (f.)(French) the title of the highest rank in the Ballet de l'Opéra de Paris
Premier de l'an(French m.) New Year's Day
Premier dessus(French m.) first treble, first soprano
Premiere(German f.) première
Première(French f.) first night (of a play, opera, etc.), opening night
the term is now used more specifically for the 'first night' of a film
premièrepertaining to the voice, see taille
Première chanteuse(French f.) prima donna
Première édition(French f.) first edition
Première exécution mondiale(French f.) world première
Première fois(French f.) first time
Première partie(French f.) first part
Premier farceur(French m.) the leading comedian in a dramatic company
Premier plan(French m.) foreground, (as opposed to dernier plan, 'background')
Première représentation(French f.) first performance
premier renversement(French) first inversion (of a chord)
premiers temps, les(French) at first, in the beginning
Premier temps d'une mesure(French m.) down beat
Premier violon(French m.) first violin
Premier violon (solo)(French m.) (orchestral) leader, concertmaster
Premio(Italian m., Spanish m.) prize, reward
Premio gordo(Spanish) first prize
Pre-moderna term usually used to describe a period of time prior to what might be called 'modern'. However in her contribution to the PMJS mailing list (archived at the reference below) Rein Raud complains that ""pre-modern" indicates that "modernity" is inevitable and that "pre-modern" is a kind of a preparatory stage for it" which may not be the connotation that those using the term intend
Premonición(Spanish f.) premonition
Premonstratensianorder of canons derived from the Augustinians, founded in 1121
premuorsamente(Italian) anxiously
Premura(Spanish f.) urgency, lack
premuroso(Italian) thoughtful
preñado(Spanish) pregnant, full (figurative)
Prenda(Spanish f.) pledge, article of clothing, garment, linen
Prendas(Spanish f. pl.) talents (qualities), forfeits
prendar(Spanish) to captivate
prendarse(Spanish) to be captivated, to fall in love
prendarse de(Spanish) to be captivated by, to fall in love with
prendendo la lettera(Italian) taking the letter
prender(Spanish) to capture, to fasten, to catch, to take root
prendere(Italian) take up!
prendere a destra(Italian) to turn right
prendere a sinistra(Italian) to turn left
prendere il flauto(Italian) to take up the flute (an instruction given, for example, to a player who has just played a passage on the piccolo or alto flute to switch back to the concert flute)
prendere informazioni(Italian) to make inquiries
prendere la palla al balzo(Italian) to seize an opportunity
prendere un abbaglio(Italian) to make a mistake
prendere una boccata d'aria(Italian) to get a breath of fresh air
prenderse(Spanish) to catch fire
prendersi un'arrabbiatura(Italian) to get angry
prendre(French) take up!
prendre à droit(French) to turn right
prendre à gauche(French) to turn left
prendre ... au collet(French) to collar ... (grab someone, get their attention)
prendre au dépourvu(French) to catch unawares
prendre au pied de la lettre(French) to take literally
prendre au sérieux(French) to take seriously
prendre bien la chose(French) to take something well
prendre congé de(French) to take one's leave of
prendre conscience de(French) to become aware of
prendre des risques(French) to take chances
prendre du bon temps(French) to enjoy oneself, to have a good time
prendre du champs(French) to step back, to stand back
prendre du galon(French) to be promoted, to gain a stripe (also figurative)
prendre du poids(French) to gain weight
prendre du ventre(French) to develop a paunch
prendre en auto-stop(French) to give a lift to (a hitch-hiker)
prendre en charge(French) to take charge of, to give a ride to (transport)
prendre en considération(French) to take into consideration
prendre feu(French) to catch fire
prendre fin(French) to come to an end
prendre froid(French) to catch a cold
prendre garde(French) to be careful, to watch out
prendre garde de (ne pas)(French) to be careful not to
prendre goût à ...(French) to take a liking to ...
prendre la chose bien(French) to take it well
prendre la chose mal(French) to take it badly
prendre la clé des champs(French) to run away
prendre l'air(French) to get a breath of fresh air
prendre la langue avec ...(French) to make contact with ...
prendre l'eau(French) to take in water
prendre le contre-pied(French) to take the opposite view
prendre le dessus(French) to get the upper hand
prendre le frais(French) to get a breath of fresh air
prendre le meilleur sur ...(French) to get the better of ...
prendre le parti de(French) to decide to
prendre les devants(French) to take the initiative
prendre le temps de faire(French)to find time to do, to make time to do
prendre mal la chose(French)to take something poorly
prendre (une) meilleure tournure(French)to take a turn for the better
prendre modèle sur ...(French)to model oneself on ...
prendre pour argent comptant(French) to take at face value
prendre rendez-vous avec(French) to make an appointment with
prendre sa retraite(French) to retire (from work)
prendre ses jambes à son cou(French) to run off
prendre son courage à deux mains(French) to get up one's courage
prendre son essor(French) to expand
prendre tout son temps(French) to take one's time
prendre un bain de foule(French) to mingle with the crowd
prendre une claque à ...(French) to get a slap in the face from ... (figurative)
prendre une décision(French) to make a decision
prendre un rhume(French) to catch a cold
prendre un verre(French) to have a drink
Prends-ça du bon côté.(French) Look on the bright side.
prenez!(French) take!
Prenez votre temps(French) Take your time
Prensa(Spanish f.) press
Prensa(Spanish f.) press
Prensa amarilla(Spanish f.) yellow press, gutter press (pejorative), tabloid press
Prensa amarillista(Spanish f.) sensationalist press, yellow press
Prensa musical(Spanish f.) music press (journalism), pressa musicale (Italian f.), Musikpresse (German f.), presse musicale (French f.)
prensar(Spanish) to press
Prenumeration(Swedish) subscription
Prepto prepare
preparar el terreno(Spanish) to prepare the ground
préparaté(French) prepared
Preparationpreparazione (Italian), Vorbereitung (German), préparation (French)
a harmonic device in which a note which causes a chord to be discordant is used in the previous chord within which it is concordant
also called a 'prefix', that part of a trill that precedes the shake
what is done to a piano, before a performance, in order to 'prepare' it - see 'prepared piano'
in ballet, the special movements with which a dancer prepares to dance
Préparation(French f.) preparation
preparato(Italian) prepared
préparatoire(French) preparatory
Preparazione(Italian f.) preparation
Prepared guitara guitar which has had its timbre altered by placing various objects on or between the instrument's strings
Prepared pianoa term coined by John Cage (1912-1992), describing a piano into which items have been inserted between the strings to change the sound during performance
preparen ... apunten ... ¡fuego!(Spanish) ready ... take aim ... fire!
prep pfabbreviation of 'prepared piano'
Pre-prandialbefore the meal
Pre-productionstage at which a motion picture or TV project is prepared to go into production
Prequela novel, play, film, or other narrative usually written after the popular success of an earlier work but set before the events in that successful earlier work, and incorporating characters, settings, and situations with which the audience is already familiar
Préramiste(French) a term referring to the generation of French composers active mainly between the death of Jean-Baptiste Lully (1687) and the premiere of Jean-Phillipe Rameau's first opera, Hippolyte et Aricie (1733)
Pre-RaphaelitePre-Raphaelitism, or the Pre-Raphaelite movement, began in 1848 as a protest against conventional art and literature. A band of young London artists, poets, and intellectuals formed a "brotherhood" dedicated to re-creating the type of medieval art existing before the Renaissance. Hence, they took their name from Raphael (1483-1520), the earliest major Renaissance artist in Italy. Like the Romantic poets, Pre-Raphaelites wished to regain the spirit of simple devotion and adherence to nature. Hence, they rejected modernity, mass production, and urbanization. Typical Pre-Raphaelite writings involve an interest in chivalry, courtly love, ballads, archaic diction, pictorial qualities and visual imagery
près(French) near, close to
(Italian f.) a sign § , employed to show where in a canon other parts should enter, also called guida
Pre-salesterritorial sales of planned motion pictures to distributors worldwide, usually conducted to raise funding for lower budget, independent pictures
Presbyterythe part of the church lying east of the choir, where the high altar is placed
Prescriptivista grammatical treatise or a lexicon is said to be prescriptivist if it has the goal of fashioning guidelines or "rules" for grammar, spelling, and word use, as opposed to being descriptivist where it describes unjudgmentally how a group of people tend to use language
près de la table(French) near the soundboard
près de la touche(French) on a stringed instrument, an instruction to play near the fingerboard
près du chevalet(French) on a stringed instrument, an instruction to play close to the bridge
près du bord(French) near the edge, near the rim (of a drum)
Presenceperson's appearance or bearing particularly when that is imposing
Presencia(Spanish f.) presence
presentar al cobro(Spanish) to use cash
resentarse a un examen(Spanish) to sit an exam
Présentation(French f.) presentation, introduction
Presenza(Italian f.) presence
Préservation(French f.) protection, preservation
Preset(English, German m.) or default, which, in computer science, refers to a setting or value automatically assigned to a software application, computer program or device, outside of user intervention. Such settings are called presets, especially for electronic devices
Presión atmosférica(Spanish f.) atmospheric pressure
presque(French) almost, nearly
presque personne(French) hardly anyone, hardly anybody, almost nobody, scarcely anyone, scarcely anybody
presque rien(French) almost nothing, barely audible, quasi niente (Italian), fast nichts (German)
Presson an accordion, pressing the bellows together to force air out through the reeds whose valves are open
Pressa meccanica(Italian f.) power press, punch press (engineering equipment)
Pressa musicale(Italian f.) music press (journalism), Musikpresse (German f.), presse musicale (French f.), prensa musical (Spanish f.)
pressando(Italian) accelerando, hurrying, pressing, urgen
pressant (m.), pressante (f.)(French) pressing, urgent, hurrying on
pressant, en(French) accelerando, hurrying, pressing, urgent
pressante(Italian) accelerando, hurrying, pressing, urgent, hurrying on
Press boardsee 'card stock'
Presse(German f., French f.) press (journalism)
pressé(French) hurried, hurriedly
Presse musicale(French f.) music press (journalism), pressa musicale (Italian f.), Musikpresse (German f.), prensa musical (Spanish f.)
presser(French) to press, to push, to squeeze (fruit), to speed up, to hasten, to hurry (someone), to speed (something) up
(French) to be urgent
pressez(French) pressing, pressando (Italian), accelerando (Italian), bedrängend (German), acelerando (Spanish)
pressieren(German) to perform an accelerando (Italian)
Pressing on with the speedaffrettando (Italian), stretto (Italian), stringendo (Italian), drängend (German), en pressant (French), pressez (French)
pressiren(German, archaic spelling) to perform an accelerando (Italian)
Pressmena term traditionally applied to workers in a guild who operated hand presses. As presses were adapted to steam power pressmen continued to work them; but when cylinder presses emerged and became larger and more complex, a manager class of press operators emerged. They were paid more and formed a separate guild that often put them at odds with pressmen. As technology created more advanced presses, a general rise in skills was required for all workers involved in printing. In the 1890s different types of workers in the print trades joined together in single trade unions
presso(Italian) near, nahe (German), près de (French), cerca de (Spanish)
presso la tavola(Italian) near the soundboard, nahe am Korpus anzupfen (German), près de la table (French), cerca de tabla de armonía (Spanish)
Press runthe totality of output from a press in one continuous printing. Because of the time involved in setting a press up for printing, and the time needed to clean up afterwards, a printer usually needs to print a minimum (usually 500 sheets) in order to make a profit
Pressusa compound neume consisting of a virga, an oriscus and a punctum. The pressus can be found either in isolation or in combination
Press variantunlike a deliberately revised edition printed at a later date, a press variant is a minor and usually unintentional variation among books printed in the same edition or print run
presta atención a esto(Spanish) pay attention to this
prestamente(Italian) rapidly, hurriedly, hastily
Prestant (s.), Prästanten (pl.)(German) in the organ, the open diapason stop, of either 32 ft., 16 ft., 8 ft. or 4 ft. scale
(French) in a French organ the Prestant is a 4 ft. stop. The name is also synonymous with the English 'Diapason' and the German Principal, which are both 8 ft. stops
prestar atención(Spanish) to pay attention
prestarle asistencia a ...(Spanish) to give ... assistance
Prestation(French f.) performance
Presta valvea valve commonly found in high pressure road style and many mountain bicycle inner tubes
Prestezza(Italian) quickness, rapidily
Prestige(French) reputation and influence resulting from past achievements and hence contributing to (a person's) social standing
prestissimamente(Italian) very quickly, with the utmost rapidity, as fast as possible
prestissimo(Italian) as quick as possible (the quickest movement)
prestmoabbreviation of prestissimo (Italian: as fast as possible)
presto(Italian) quick, faster than allegro, quickly, rapidly
presto alla tedescaPresto alla tedesca is a very misleading direction. Although presto generally means 'very fast' and alla tedesca means 'in the German style' (i.e. 'like a German Waltz'), a German Waltz is actually not fast; in fact, the best known dance of this kind is the villager's Waltz in Der Freischutz by Carl Maria von Weber (1786-1826). As a marking Allegro non troppo would be a more appropriate
presto assai(Italian) very quick, prestissimo
presto parlante(Italian) an instruction used in recitative meaning to 'speak rapidly'
prêter(French) to attribute
Prêt-à-porter(French) (clothes) ready to wear, 'off the peg'
Prétendant(French m.) a claimant to the throne of France
Pretiasmall high tone drum from Ghana
Pretium(Latin) price
Pretzel(German) a salty biscuit baked in the form of a knot
preux(French) valiant, gallant
Preux chevalier(French m.) a valiant knight, a gallant knight (particularly one who displays gallantry and protectiveness towards a woman)
previa recomendación de(Spanish) on the recommendation of
Previouscoming before in time or order, precedente (Italian), vorhergehend (German), antérieur (French), précédent (French)
Prezzo(Italian m.) price
Prezzo unitario(Italian m.) one price only
Prickor 'pricked', formerly used to mean 'written' or 'dotted down'
Prickedsee 'prick'
Prick songin the 15th- and 16th-centuries, in contradistinction to an exemporaneous performance, a discant (counterpoint) or division (variation) that has been written down
Prie-dieu(French m.) a type of prayer desk primarily intended for private use, but often found in churches of the European continent. It is a small ornamental wooden desk furnished with a sloping shelf for books, and a cushioned kneeling piece. It appears not to have received its present name until the early part of the seventeenth century. At that period in France a small room or oratory was sometimes known by the same name. A similar form of chair, in domestic furniture is called prie-dieu by analogy
  • Prie-dieu from which this extract has been taken
prier de(French) to beg to
Prière(French f.) prayer, supplication
Priesta minister of the church empowered to administer the sacraments, most particularly that of the Eucharist or Holy Communion, as well as those of confession and extreme unction
Priestmanafter Brian Priestman, the cataloguer of music by Jean-Baptiste Loeillet (1680-1730) and John Loeillet [of London] (1680-1730)
Prima small Croatian tamburitza also called prima or bisernica which, as the treble member of the tamburitza orchestra, normally carries the melody. It either doubles or harmonizes at a higher pitch the melody normally carried by the lead brac. Its place is roughly equivalent to that of the piccolo in the Western orchestra
(German) unison
Prima(Italian f.) unison (interval), the tonic or keynote of any scale
(Italian f.) first, chief, principal
(Italian f. literally 'first') first night, opening night
(Italian f., Spanish f.) the top string on a string instrument, chanterelle (French)
see primo
Prima ballerina (s.), Prime ballerine (pl.)(Italian f.) the danceuse who performs the chief classical rôles in a ballet company
Prima ballerina assoluta(Italian f.) a title of exceptional honour given to a danceuse
Prima buffa(Italian f.) leading female role in a comic opera
Prima donna (s.), Prime donne (pl.)(Italian f., literally 'first lady') the female singer with the most important part in opera, particularly grand opera
legendarily, these prime donne (in English 'prima donnas') were often regarded as egotistical, unreasonable and irritable, with a rather high opinion of themselves not shared by others. Thus, although whether they are truly vainer or more hot-tempered than other singers (or than any other people in the opera houses) is highly debatable, nowadays the term often signifies a vain and temperamental person who, although irritating, cannot be done without
Prima donna assoluta(Italian f.) the title given to the reigning diva in an opera company (of which there will be no more than one!)
Prima edizione(Italian f.) first edition
Prima esecuzione(Italian f.) first performance
Prima esecuzione mondiale(Italian f.) world première
Prima facie(Latin, 'at first sight', 'on the face of it') in law, a case that requires no further evidential justification (although this does not preclude further investigation - indeed, it might justify it)
Prima incisione(Italian f.) first performance (i.e. in a certain country, although not necessarily in the world)
Prima incisione assoluta(Italian f.) first world performance (i.e. the very first public performance)
Prima parta(Italian f.) first part
Prima pratica(Italian f.) or prima prattica, a term used in early seventeenth-century Italy to distinguish Renaissance polyphony, prima prattica, with flowing strict counterpoint, prepared dissonance, and equality of voices, from the newer Baroque style, seconda prattica, using much freer counterpoint with an increasing heirarchy of voices, emphasising soprano and bass
see seconda pratica, seconda prattica
Prima prattica(Italian f.) see prima pratica
Primarus(German m.) leader
Primary accentthe downbeat, thesis, the first beat following a barline
Primary beamthe beam that is furthest from the noteheads, and remains unbroken, and connects a group of notes is called a primary beam. Any beam other than than the primary beam is a secondary beam and may be broken, often dividing the grouping into smaller units for easier reading
Primary chordsthe most important chords in a key, namely I, IV and V
Primary colourssets of colours that can be combined to make a useful range of colours. For human applications, three are often used; for additive combination of colours, as in overlapping projected lights or in CRT displays, the primary colours normally used are red, green and blue. For subtractive combination of colours, as in mixing of pigments or dyes, such as in printing, the primary colours normally used are magenta, cyan and yellow. However, any choice of primary colours is essentially arbitrary
Primary pentatonic scalealternative name for the 'major pentatonic scale'
Primary sourcespieces of evidence, the origin of which is contemporary with the period, place, event, person or people being researched. Primary Sources can take the form of first hand accounts (diaries, letters, memoirs, speeches, newspaper reports, interviews, photographs etc.); official records (government documents, census data, company records etc.); creative works (poetry, prose, music, painting, film etc.); and artifacts (clothing, tools, buildings, toys, vehicles etc.)
Primary triad
primary triada major triad built on the tonic (I), subdominant (IV) and dominant (V) degrees of a major scale
secondary triada minor triad built on other degrees of a major scale
note:the triad on the seventh degree (VII) of the major scale when in root position is a discord. Its first inversion is, however, not. For this reason the VII triad is considered neither primary nor secondary
Primatethe chief bishop of a single state or people
Prima vista(Italian f.) at first sight
Prima vista singingsight singing
Prima volta(Italian f.) or Ima volta, first ending, first time (bar)
Prima volta senza accompagnamento(Italian f.) the first time without accompaniment
Prime(German f., English) unison (interval), as well as the singly or doubly augmented and singly and doubly diminished varieties of the perfect unison
the first note of a scale
the fundamental, or generator, of an harmonic series
the lower note of an interval, as in 'prime note'
the lowest note, or root, of a chord
original form of a row in twelve-tone music
the third service of the Divine Office, usually performed at 6:00 a.m., consisting of several responsories and psalms which are sung
Prime note(in a bell) the fundamental note (or tone) of a tuned bell
the lower note of an interval
Primeran elementary textbook for teaching children to read, a book that covers the basic elements of a subject
Primera(Spanish f.) first (degree of the scale), prime, unison (interval)
Primera inversión(Spanish f.) first inversion (referring to the arrangement of the notes of a chord)
Primera nota(Spanish f.) first note
primero (m.), primera (f.)(Spanish m.) first
when placed before a noun of masculine gender primero is contracted to primer, for example, primer movimiento (Spanish: first movement)
Primeros auxilios(Spanish first aid
Primer violín(Spanish m.) the leader of the orchestra, the first violin, the principal violinist
Prime tonesynonymous with 'prime note'
primeur(French) anything new or early (for example, fruit or vegetables that become availabe before their normal season)
Primgeige(German f.) the leader of the orchestra, the first violin, the principal violinist
Primipara(Latin) (a woman or animal) giving birth for the first time
Primitive Baptists singingsee 'Old School Baptists singing'
Primitive bellterm used today to describe the earliest cast bronze bells of the Christian church, which superseded earlier bells made of iron plates hammered and riveted. With convex sides, the 'primitve bell' resembled an inverted bowl and has been called the 'beehive' bell. Its wall was of uniform thickness; in time, a ring of metal was added to the rim as a reinforcement
Primitive chorda chord where the lowest note has the same note name as the key-note of the harmony
Primitivismtwentieth-century compositions that imitate rhythms, melodies, modes, and techniques of music of indigenous people, or music created or produced naturally in a particular region (typically non-Western) with its complex rhythms, harmonies, melodies and forms
primo (m.), prima (f.)(Italian) first, firstly
the upper part in a duet
Primo amoroso(Italian m.) male lead in an opera company
Primo buffo(Italian m.) male lead in a comic opera
Primogeniturethe late medieval custom of allowing the first born legitimate male child to inherit all of his father's properties, estates, wealth, and titles upon the father's death. Primogeniture dictated that the younger sons had to leave home and seek their own employment
Primo leggio(Italian m.) principal (for example 'principal flute')
Primo musico(Italian m.) principal male singer
Primo soprano(German m.) first soprano
Primo tempo(Italian m.) the first or original time (tempo)
Primo uomo(Italian m., literally 'leading man') principal male singer, usually the tenor
Primo violino(Italian m.) principal of first violinist (in an orchestra)
prim.temp.abbreviation of primo tempo (Italian: first time)
Prim-töne(German) fundamental tones or notes
Primum mobile(Latin) a primary source of motion, the original cause of activity
primus(Latin) first
Primus inter pares(Latin, literally 'first among equals') having precedence but no greater authority
Prin.abbreviation of 'principal'
Princess Anne's LutebookPrincess Anne was the daughter of George III of England and wife of William IV of Orange. The so-called Lutebook is actually a collection of pieces for 5 course guitar written in French tablature
Princesse(French) a style of close-fitting woman's dress in which the bodice and skirt are not divided by a seam but are formed by continuous strips of cloth
Princesse lointaine(French) a remote and unattainable mistress, a woman humbly adored from afar
Princess linefitted dress where the skirt and bodice are seamed longwise in panels
Principalthe leader of the section of an orchestra, for example, principal cellist who leads the cello section
a leading dancer in a ballet company
in England, a principal is one family of organ pipes, a flue pipe that is rather narrow for its length and produces a bright, clear sound. There are many kinds of 'principal' but generally the 'Principal' (in this particular case sometimes called Octave or Oktave) is an 8 ft. stop on the pedals and a 4 ft. stop on the manual, that is, in each case, one octave above the diapasons
the definition above contrasts with that when the word in used in German where it refers to the diapasons themselves rather than pipes at the octave
in Germany, the foundation stops of an organ, generally called the 'open diapasons' in England
the definition above contrasts with the English use of the term, which refers to pipes that are pitched one octave above the 'diapasons'
in an ornament such as a trill or a mordent, the note over which the sign is written is called the 'principal'. The other note in a trill or mordent is called the 'repercussion'
Principal bassan organ stop of the open diapason species on the pedals
Principal chordsthe basic chords of a key, i.e. the primary triads, with the dominant seventh chord
Principal Chorus
in the organ, principal stops at 8 ft., 4 ft. and 2 ft., sometimes 16 ft. and 2 2/3 ft. with mixture(s)
Principale(Italian m.) the principal part
(Italian m.) the lowest register of the natural trumpet as opposed to the highest, or clarino register, characterised by less melodic interest because, using only the lower partials (3rd to 9th), the player has fewer notes available. Later, these lower trumpet parts were associated with tympani parts
(Italian m.) the foundation stops of an organ, generally called the 'open diapasons' in England
this definition contrasts with the English use of the term, which refers to pipes that are pitched one octave above the 'diapasons'
(Italian m.) in Handel's music, and also into early church music, the term is applied to a third trumpet, written in the C clef
principale(Italian) main
principalmente(Italian) principally, chiefly
Principal octavean organ stop which in English is also called 'Principal'
Principal subject, Principal themethe chief theme in a movement, tema prinzipale (Italian), Hauptsatz (German), thème principal (French)
Principato(Italian m.) principality
Principe(Italian m.) prince
Principe azzurro(Italian m.) Prince Charming (a character in pantomime)
Principe ereditario(Italian m.) crown prince
principesco(Italian) princely, chiefly
Principessa(Italian f.) princess
Principiis obsta(Latin) make a stand against the onset (of a disease or of some other misfortune or evil)
Principio(Italian m., Spanish m.) beginning, first time, principle, cause
Principiante(Italian m./f.) a beginner
principiare(Italian) to begin, to start
Printaniergarnish of spring vegetables (for example, sprinkled on top of a soup)
Printed music, history ofthough the history of the printed word is relatively commonly known, the history of printed music is less known. Of course, there are parallels that are shared by both printed text and music, there are also additional complexities that accompany the publication of music that make for a challenge in the printing industry that text printing does not present. Consider this; to print text (only), the producer must be prepared to have "type" set for 26 letters of the alphabet (with caps), numbers, italics and numerous punctuators. At best somewhere around 100 - 200 characters to be used. Of course, that excludes various type faces which are optional. The printing of music uses more complex symbols and many more of them. In the nineteenth century, the printer V.J. Figgins of London had already catalogued 460 separate symbols and elements, most of which are variable. The variability comes with, for example the length of a "hairpin" a trill or other performance and technique symbols. Just like text, different type faces and sizes can create an incredibly complex inventory of symbols to be used
Printemps(French m.) spring
Printing pressa mechanical device for making copies of identical text on multiple sheets of paper. Movable type, which allowed individual characters to be arranged to form words, was invented in China by Bi Sheng between 1041 to 1048. The use of movable type to mass produce printed works was popularized by a German goldsmith and eventual printer, Johannes Gutenberg (John of Gutenberg), in the 1440s. While there are several local claims for the invention of the printing press in other parts of Europe, including Laurens Janszoon Coster in the Netherlands and Panfilo Castaldi in Italy, Gutenberg is credited by most scholars with its initial invention
the printing press was a revolution comparable to the modern internet revolution. It made books for the first time cheap enough for mass production and mass purchasing, ensuring a rise in literacy, blurring dialectal vocabularies, spreading geographic and cultural knowledge, and fueling the flames of religious reformation
Prinzipal(German m., literally 'principal') in the organ, originally, a name given to all the 'stops' connected to the Blockwerk. Later, Prinzipal came to mean a particular stop with a strong sound, suitable for a solo line
Prinzipal (m.), Prinzipalin (f.)(German) principal, the head of a section (in an orchestra), the most important (person, thing, etc.)
Prior (m.), Prioress (f.) the deputy of an abbot in a major Benedictine institution; or the head of a lesser Benedictine house; or the head of any house in some orders
Prior (m.), Priorin (f.)(German) prior (m.), prioress (f.)
priore(Italian) prior
priorisieren(German) to prioritise
Priorisierung(German f.) prioritisation
Priorità(Italian f.) priority
Priorität(German f.) priority
Prioritätsaktie(German f.) preferential share
Priority(state of) being more important, or of taking preference with respect to one's attention, effort, etc.
Prior provincialthe head of a province in the Dominican order
Priorya monastery; in the Benedictine orders a house dependent upon an abbey; in certain orders such as the Augustinians or the mendicant orders, any religious house
Prissee prys
prise (d'un enregistrement)(French) take
Prisma(Italian f.) prism
Prisme de pluie(French m.) a percussion instruments that imitates the sound of rain
Prison chanson stylesee 'Russian criminal music'
PritamGujarati poet of the 16th century AD, who composed numerous devotional songs
privare(Italian) to deprive
privarsi(Italian) to deprive oneself
Privatdozent(German) or Privatdocent, a lecturer recognized by a university but not a member of the salaried staff
Private Livescomposed between 1977 and 1983 by Robert Ashley (b. 1930), Private Lives (1983) is the first major video opera, combining recitation, keyboard performances, and multiple video images
Private symbolin contrast with an archetype (universal symbol), a private symbol is one that an individual artist arbitrarily assigns a personal meaning to. Nearly all members of an ethnic, religious, or linguistic group might share a cultural symbol and agree upon its meaning with little discussion, but private symbols may only be discernable in the context of one specific story or poem
Privativa(Italian f.) a monopoly
Privatleben(German n.) private life
Privatleher (m.), Privatleherin (f.)(German m.) private tutor (m.), governess (f.)
Privato (m.), Privata (f.)(Italian) a private citizen
privato(Italian) private
Privazione(Italian f.) deprivation
Privileged patternin music a privileged pattern is a motive, figure, or chord which is repeated and transposed so that the transpositions form a recognizable pattern. The pattern of transposition may be either by a repeated interval, an interval cycle, or a stepwise line of whole and semitones. The pattern is said to be privileged because it requires no context and is a precompositional technique
Privileged tonessee 'false tones'
Privilegio(Italian m.) privilege
privo di(Italian) devoid of (meaning, etc.), lacking in
Prix d'ami(French m.) a special price or rate for a friend
Prix de Rome, Grand(French m.) prize awarded annually by the French government, through competitive examination, to students of the fine arts. It entitles them to four years' study at the Académie de France à Rome. The prize is open to all French painters, sculptors, architects, engravers, and musicians between the ages of 15 and 30 who have completed required work at the École des Beaux-Arts or elsewhere. It was instituted by Louis XIV in 1666 for the purpose of enabling talented artists to complete their education by study of classical art in Rome
Prix fixe(French m.) (a meal, etc.) offered at an inclusive and set price
PROabbreviation of 'Public Record Office, London'
pro(Latin) for, in favour of
pro and con (s.), pros and cons (pl.)(mixed Latin and English) (argument or arguments) for and against (a proposition)
Proasee prahu
probar(Spanish) to prove (theory, innocence), to taste (wine, soup), to try (for the first time), to try out (equipment), to try on (dress, etc.), to test, to test out (equipment)
probar a hacer ...(Spanish) to try doing ...
probarse(Spanish) to try on (dress, shoes)
Probe(German f.) rehearsal, proof, trial
proben(German) to rehearse
Probezeit(German f.) probationary period
probieren(German) to try, to taste, to rehearse
Probità(Italian f.) integrity
Problema(Italian f.) problem
problematico(Italian) problematic
problematisch(German) problematic
Pro bono (publico)(Latin) for (the public) good (usually a (public) service performed without charge)
procace(Italian) impudent
Procatalepsis(Greek, 'anticipation') a rhetorical strategy in which the writer raises an objection and then immediately answers it
procedendo(Italian) to proceed
procedere(Italian) to proceed, to start
Procedura(Italian f.) procedure
Procella(Italian) a storm, tempest-music
Procès(French) a lawsuit, a trial (in a French court)
Procès-verbal(French) a written statement of evidence in support of a criminal charge (in a French court)
Process cameraa camera with a special lens designed to photograph 2-dimensional objects and render them in high contrast. They come in vertical and horizontal models depending on the type of work to be done. They are most often employed in the production of halftones for printing plates. Before photographing an image a halftone filter is place in front of the camera's lens. Different types of filters can reproduce an image in dots of varying sizes or same size dots in different densities of area. If the image is to be printed in colour a series of photographs are taken with colour filters to create four negatives for each CYMK color. Digital scanners have now replaced much of the work done by process cameras
Processionala book containing prayers, hymns and litany for use during processions around a church of feast days
Processional crossthe long staff surmounted by a cross carried by archbishops on ceremonial occasions
Processional musica hymn sung in church during the entrance of the choir and clergy
Processional vestmentsceremonial clothing worn by the clergy for special occasions, excluding the celebration of the mass
Processione(Italian f.) procession
Procession générale(French f.) it provided an impressive display of sound, colour and texture. Trumpets pealed; horses' hoofs clattered over the cobblestones; a throng of dignitaries tramped by, some in boots, some in sandels, some under plumes and some in sackcloth. Different shades of red and blue stood out against the lace and fur trim of the magistrates and contrasted with the dull blacks and browns of the monks. Great sweeps of satin, silk, damask filled the streets - a vast stream of robes and uniforms bobbing up here and there and the flames of the candles dancing along its course
[part of the Fête Dieu and Voeux du Roi festivals - this solemn procession was described in Montpelier in 1768]
Process musicprocess music, or systems music, is music which arises from a process, and more specifically, music which makes that process audible. The term pre-dates and is often used synonymously with minimalism
Process notationsynonymous for 'action notation'
Process printoriginally a description of a print that had no supplemental retouching or additions made to it (for example, hand colouring), the term was applied later to those photomechanical prints that could give the illusion of natural colours without retouching work added, and created using only three printed colours
Process printingor 'process colour', a printing process that produces the illusion of a full colour image through the use of only three printing plates inked with primary colours. This process was originally used with RGB colours according to additive colour theory. As colour theory evolved in the 20th century the method switched over to the subtractive primaries. Four plates are made to hold the three primary subtractive colours, cyan, magenta, yellow, plus black (CMYK)
Procès-verbaux(French m.) minutes of proceedings, official records of meetings
Prochaine fois(French f.) next time
Proclama(Italian f.) proclamation
proclamare(Italian) to proclaim
Proclamazione(Italian f.) proclamation
Procliticsee 'clitic'
procrastinare(Italian) to postpone, to put off
Procrastinazione(Italian f.) procrastination
Procter, Adelaide Ann (1825-1864)daughter of Anne Benson Procter [née Skepper] (1799-1888), writer who married the British poet, Bryan W. Procter (1787-1874) ('Barry Cornwall'), Adelaide was a poet who contributed verses to the periodicals of Charles Dickens (1812-1870) under the name of Mary Berwick. Her poems were collected into a number of volumes published between 1858 and 1866. The Lost Chord, set to music by Arthur Sullivan (1842-1900), is well known, and many of her hymns are in common use. She took a particular interest in the social issues affecting women, and was appointed to a committee to consider fresh ways of providing employment for women
Procura(Italian f.) power of attorney
Procuratore(Italian m.) attorney
prode(Italian) brave
prodere(Latin) publish
Prodezza(Italian f.) bravery
prodigare(Italian) to lavish
prodigarsi(Italian) to do one's best
Prodigio(Spanish m., Italian m.) prodigy
prodigioso(Italian) prodigious
prodigo(Italian) prodigal
prodire(Latin) come out (as with an issue of a magazine)
Prodotto(Italian m.) a product
Prodotto derivato(Italian m.) by-product
Produceran individual tasked with bringing together all the elements of a play, opera or ballet to make a coherent whole of the eventual performance, a concept described by Wagner as Gesamtkunstwerk, and a role that was not seen on concert programmes before the First World War. The operatic producer, sometimes called a 'director', essentially a twentieth-century phenomenon, is in charge of the stage movement. In the seventeenth century, this task would have fallen to the ballet master, and in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries these matters were under the control of the composers
Producing housea theatre which produces its own shows in-house. Theatres which do not produce their own material are known as receiving houses
Productin the film and theatre industry, the process that involves building sets, designing costumes, measuring and fitting actors for costumes, and rehearsals
Production audio-visuelle(French f.) AV-Production
Production du son(French f.) sound production
Production musicsee 'stock music'
Productos alimenticios(Spanish foodstuffs, food products
Productos alimentarios(Spanish foodstuffs, food products
Productos alimentos(Spanish foodstuffs, food products
Productos artesanales(Spanish handicrafts, craftwork
Productos de alta calidad(Spanish high-quality products
Produktionsabteilung(German f.) production department
produrre(Italian) to produce
prodursi(Italian) to play, to happen
produttivo(Italian) productive
Produttore (m.), Produttrice (f.)(Italian) a producer
Produzione(Italian f.) production
Produzione del suono(Italian f.) sound production
Proemiopreface, prelude, instruction
profan(German) profane
Profane(English, French) irreverent, blasphemous, obscene
(English, French) not sacred, not biblical
Profanity Act of 1606a law passed under King James I required that any profanity in a publicly performed play or in published material would result in a ten-pound fine for the performer or printer, a substantial sum
profano(Italian) profane, secular
proferire(Italian) to utter
Profesor(Spanish m./f.) teacher
Profesor adjunto (m.), Profesor adjunta (f.)(Spanish) associate professor (US), senior lecturer
Profesor agregado (m.), Profesor agregada (f.)(Spanish) secondary school teacher
professare(Italian) to profess, to practise (a profession)
Professeur(French m./f.) teacher
Professeur de musique(French m./f.) music teacher, professor of music
professionale(Italian) professional
Professione(Italian f.) profession
Professionista(Italian m./f.) a professional man or woman
Professorthe highest ranking academic teaching position, although the term is also applied more generally (for example, in the U.S.) to other grades of university or college teacher (for example, assistant professor) and to those who teach in music conservatories
Professor (m.), Professorin (f.)(German) professor
Professore (m.), Professoressa (f.)(Italian) (school) teacher, (university) lecturer, professor
Professore di musica(Italian m.) music teacher, professor of music
Professore d'orchestra(Italian m.) male member of a professional orchestra
Professore d'orchestra(Italian m.) male member of a professional orchestra
Professoressa di musica(Italian f.) female music teacher, female professor of music
Professoressa d'orchestra(Italian f.) female member of a professional orchestra
Profeta(Italian m.) prophet
profetico(Italian) prophetic
Profetizzare(Italian) to prophesy
Profezia(Italian f.) prophecy
proficuo(Italian) profitable
Profil(German n.) character, half face, profile, section, sideface, tread (of a tyre)
im Profil zeichnen (German: to profile)
mit Profil versehen (German: to profile)
profilare(Italian) to profile, to border, to streamline (a vehicle)
profilarsi(Italian) to stand out
Profilo(Italian m.) profile, outline
Profil perdu(French) in art, a portrait-pose in which the head of the sitter is turned nearly away from the viewer so that only the contour of the cheek is visible
Profit-à-prendre(French) the right to the produce of soil belonging to another person including minerals, etc that might lie beneath the soil. Grazing rights are perhaps the most common type of profit-à-prendre
profiter à(French) to benefit, be profitable to
profiter de(French) to make the most of
Profiterole (s.), Profiteroles (pl.)small, round choux paste case, typically filled with cream and covered with chocolate
profittare di(Italian) to profit by, to take advantage of
Profitto(Italian m.) profit, advantage
profondere(Italian) to lavish (praise), to squander (money)
Profondeur(French f.) depth
Profondeur de champs(French f.) depth of field (photography)
Profondità(Italian f.) depth
profondo(Italian) low, deep, profound (figurative)
pro forma(Latin) as a matter of form, as a 'gesture', as a formality in accordance with some legal requirement
in law, pro forma procedure is performed subject to and following an agreed manner
Progsee 'progressive rock'
Profugo (m.), Profuga (f.)(Italian) refugee (a person escaping persecution in their own country)
profumare(Italian) to perfume
profumarsi(Italian) to put on scent
Profumeria(Italian f.) perfumery
Profumo(Italian m.) perfume, scent
Profusione(Italian f.) profusion
profuso(Italian) profuse (in abundance)
Progenie(Italian f.) progeny (offspring)
progettare(Italian) to plan, to scheme, to design
Progettista(Italian m.) planner, schemer
Progetto(Italian m.) project, plan, scheme, lay-out (typesetting)
Progetto di legge(Italian m.) bill (parliamentary)
Progetto parallelo(Italian m.) side project
Prognosis (s.), Prognoses (pl.)(Greek) a forecast of the probable course and duration of a disease, although the term is used more generally now to mean any kind of forecast
Programsee 'square dance program'
Programa(Spanish m.) programme
Programa musical(Spanish m.) musical programme
Program Changein MIDI, synonymous with patch
Programm(German n.) programme
Programma(Italian m.) programme, syllabus, platform (political)
Programma della corse(Italian m.) race-card
Programma di attualità(Italian m.) current events programme
programmare(Italian) to programme
Programma scolastico(Italian m.) syllabus
Programmatic chansonsa genre for which Clément Janequin (c.1485-1558), in particular, was famous, programmatic chansons were long, sectional pieces, that usually cleverly imitated natural or man-made sounds. Le chant des oiseaux imitates bird-calls; La chasse the sounds of a hunt; and La bataille, probably the most famous, and almost certainly written to celebrate the French victory over the Habsburgs at the Battle of Marignano in 1515, imitates battle noises, including trumpet calls, cannon fire and the cries of the wounded. Onomatopoeic effects such as these became a commonplace in later sixteenth-century music, and carried over into the Baroque era; indeed "battle music" was to become a cliché, but it first came into prominence with Janequin
Programmatore (m.), Programmatrice (f.)(Italian) a computer programmer
Programme(English, French m.) a list of events, performers, etc. at a public function etc.
Programme musicdescriptive music, music that interprets an object of contemplation or an emotional experience

Marin Marais - Le Jeu du Volant ('shuttlecock' or 'badminton game')

Programme symphonya symphonic work that follows an underlying narrative, for example Symphonie Fantastique by Hector Berlioz (1803-1869)
Programmmusik(German f.) programme music
Program music(U.S.) programme music, descriptive music
Programmsinfonie(German f.) programme symphony
progredire(Italian) to make progress
Progrès(French m.) progress
Progresión (s.), Progresiones (pl.)(Spanish f.) progression
Progresión armónica(Spanish f.) harmonic progression
Progresion de acordes(Spanish f.) progression of chords
Progresión melódica(Spanish f.) melodic progression
Progreso(Spanish m.) progress
Progressão(Portuguese) progression
Progressio harmonica(Italian f.) a mixture stop in German organs, commencing with two ranks at the bottom, and increasing to 3, 4, or 5 ranks, in the upper part of the manual
Progression(English, French f., German f.) the movement of one line in a melody (melodic progression) against others, or the movement of harmony as a sequence of chords (harmonic progression)
melodic progressionmovement from note to note in a single part
harmonic progrssionmovement from chord to chord, of two or more parts moving together
Progressione(Italian) progression
Progressisme(French) an optimistic belief that humanity is making and will continue to make progress towards (even) greater prosperity and happiness
Progressiste(French m./f.) a person who is progressive, in his or her ideas, actions, etc.
progressivamente(Italian) progressively
Progressive bluegrassalso known as 'newgrass', one of two major subgenres of bluegrass music
Progressive breakssee 'progressive electronic music'
Progressive compositiona song that is 'through-composed', where each strophe is set to different music, the more to reflect the changing mood of the text
Progressive countrysee 'alternative country'
Progressive Double Twoa type of country and western dance popularized in the Dallas/Fort Worth area of the USA
Progressive electronic musicprogressive in the context of modern dance music (occasionally progressive electronic dance music or prog) is a term that includes a collection of electronic dance music genres which draw upon the use of progressive performing techniques and includes the styles of progressive trance, progressive house, progressive techno and progressive breaks
progressivement(French) progressively
Progressive metala genre that emerged in the 1980s with thrash bands who brought complicated guitar compositions, time changes, and longer songs to heavy metal
Progressive musicthe name given to a certain approach to musical composition that has been applied to several different music genres. One way the term has been applied is to subgenres that have evolved from their root genre by innovating, either through incorporating instruments from other genres or using new techniques within the framework provided by the instrumentation of the root genre to make a new or crossover style. Another is in reference to a gradual build-up of energy within progressive music track or throughout an album
progressiver Jazz(German m.) progressive Jazz
Progressive rockshortened to 'prog', or 'prog rock' when differentiating from other "progressive" genres, an ambitious, eclectic, and often grandiose style of rock music which arose in the late 1960s, reached the peak of its popularity in the early 1970s, and continues as a musical form to this day
Progressive tonalitya sequence that moves a piece of music from one key to another
Progressive trancea popular sub-genre in trance music and contains elements of house, techno and ambient music
progressiver Jazz(German) progressive Jazz
progressivo(Italian) progressive
Progresso(Italian m.) progress
Prog rocksee 'progressive rock'
pro hac vice(Latin) for this occasion (only), as an exception
Proibidão(Portuguese, literally 'highly prohibited') a sub-genre of Baile Funk, which funk fans say glorifies local drug dealers and favela drug lords, and is seen, in the eyes of the Brazilian government, as an especially volatile form of music
proibire(Italian) to forbid
Proibitivo(Italian) prohibitive
proibito(Italian) forbidden
Proibizione(Italian f.) prohibition
proiettare(Italian) to project
Proiettile(Italian m.) bullet
Proiettore(Italian m.) projector
Proiezione(Italian f.) projection
Projected setin music a projected set is a technique where a collection of pitches or pitch classes is extended in a texture through the emphasized simultaneous statement of the a set followed or preceded by a successive emphasized statement of each of its members
Projecteur(French m.) spotlight
Project Gutenbergabbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. Founded in 1971 by Michael S. Hart, it is the oldest digital library.[1] Most of the items in its collection are the full texts of public domain books. The project tries to make these as free as possible, in long-lasting, open formats that can be used on almost any computer. As of December 2007, Project Gutenberg claimed over 24,000 items in its collection. Project Gutenberg is affiliated with many projects that are independent organizations which share the same ideals, and have been given permission to use the Project Gutenberg trademark. Wherever possible, the releases are available in plain text, but other formats are included, such as HTML. The majority of releases are in English language, but many non-English works are also available. There are multiple affiliated projects that are providing additional content, including regional-based or language-specific works. Project Gutenberg is also closely affiliated with Distributed Proofreaders, an internet-based community for proof-reading scanned texts
Projektabschluß(German m.) completion of the project
prol(s)abbreviation of 'prologue(s)'
PolabianWest Slavic language, extinct in eighteenth century
Prolatio(Latin) adding a dot to increase or lengthen the duration of a note
(Latin) a medieval method of determining of the proportionate duration of semibreves and minims
Prolatio majorthe ternary division of semibreves into minims (i.e. a ratio of 3)
Prolatio minorthe binary division of semibreves into minims (i.e. a ratio of 2)
Prolationa term used in the theory of medieval music to describe its rhythmic structure on a small scale. The term is derived from the Latin prolatio, first used by Philippe de Vitry in describing Ars Nova, a musical style that came about in fourteenth-century France. Prolation, together with tempus, corresponds roughly to the concept of time signature in modern music. Prolation describes whether a semibreve is equal in length to two minims (minor prolation or imperfect prolation) or three minims (major prolation or perfect prolation)
  • Prolation from which this extract has been taken
Prolation canona type of musical canon, sometimes also called a mensuration canon. In a prolation canon, each voice not only sings or plays the same music, but at different speeds (or prolations, a metrical term which dates to the medieval and Renaissance eras). Voices may either enter successively or simultaneously. Prolation canons are among the most difficult to write, and are relatively rare in the repertory, though they are most common in the early Renaissance and from the twentieth century to the present
Prole(Italian f.) offspring
Prolegomenon (s.), Prolegomena (pl.)(Greek) a preliminary treatise, a prefatory discourse
more often used in the plural with the meaning 'introductory remarks'
Prolepsis (s.), Prolepses (pl.)(Greek) an anticipation, the assignment of an event to too early a date, an anachronism, the anticipation of objections by an opponent in an argument
in linguistics, the use of an adjective describing a condition which has not yet come into existence
Proletario(Italian m.) proletarian
proletario(Italian) proletarian
proliferare(Italian) to proliferate
prolifico(Italian) prolific
prolisso(Italian) verbose
Prolog(German m.) prologue
Prologo(Italian m.) prologue
Prólogo(Spanish m.) prologue
PrologueIn original Greek tragedy, the prologue was either the action or a set of introductory speeches before the first entry (parados) of the chorus. Here, a single actor's monologue or a dialogue between two actors would establish the play's background events
an introduction or preface to a dramatic or prose work that was used to set the background to a story about to be presented, most common in the Renaissance and Baroque eras, although some are still to be found today
an introduction or preface before the first stanza of a poetic work
Prolongación(Spanish f.) prolongation, continuation (in the sense of extension)
prolongar(Spanish) to prolong, to lengthen
Prolongation(English, French f.) extension in time or space
Prolunga(Italian f.) (electrical) extension
Prolungamento(Italian f.) prolongation
prolungando(Italian) prolonging, verlängernd
prolungare(Italian) to prolong, to lengthen
prolungarsi(Italian) to continue
prolungarsi su(Italian) to dwell upon
Prolusione(Italian f.) opening lecture
Promemoria(Italian f.) memorandum
Promenade(French) a leisurely walk, a constitutional, a public place designed for leisurely walking, for example, along the sea-front
passeio (Portuguese), in contradance and ballet, a basic figure where as a couple, with the lady on the right, the couple walks where the caller directs. There are several different handholds. In one method, the gent holds hands with the lady, left hands (his arm across his body by) low, and his right arm across her back with right hands above the lady's right shoulder. In another method right hands are joined, and left hands are joined, and both are kept in front of the dancer's body, with the right hands on top. The gent may choose to spin the lady under his arm at the end as a flourish. Promenades are frequently used to bring dancers back to place (often useful when dancers get lost mid-dance)
  • Promenade from which this information has been taken
in the theatre, a performance of a play in which the actors and audience occupy the same space, with no distinction between acting area and audience area. The audience is given the freedom to explore the space together with the performance, and there is generally an element of audience interaction in the play
Promenade en attitude (s.), Promenades en attitude (pl.)(French) in ballet, a slow turn on one foot with the other leg extended backwards, one arm raised and the other horizontal
Promenadenkonzert(German n.) promenade concert
Promenade the Outside Roundone of the figures unique to, or traditionally associated with, square dancing
Promenade, tour de(French, literally 'turn in a walk') in dance, a term of the French School used to indicate that the dancer turns slowly in place on one foot by a series of slight movements of the heel to the required side while maintaining a definite pose such as an arabesque or attitude. The turn may be performed either en dedans or en dehors. In a pas de deux, the ballerina on point holds her pose and is slowly turned by her partner who walks around her holding her hand
Promessa(Italian f.) promise
Promesse(German f.) promissory note
Prometeo(Italian m.) Prometheus
Prometheus scale (five note)prometheus scale
there is also a six-note Prometheus scale and a related six-note Prometheus Neapolitan scale
promettre à(French) to promise
promettre de(French) to promise to
promettente(Italian) promising
promettere(Italian) to promise
prominente(Italian) prominent
Prominentlyconspicuously, pronunziato (Italian), hervorragend (German), en dehors (French)
Prominenza(Italian f.) prominence
promiscuo(Italian) promiscuous
Promiscuità(Italian f.) promiscuity
Promise ringa ring given to express friendship, romantic commitment, etc.
Promosales promotion (colloquial)
Promotera person who promotes, for example, a theatrical production, a concert, etc.
Promoteur(French m.) a promoter
Promotiona campaign whose aim is to promote something, an event that is promoted
a move to a more senior post (with the expectation of greater responsibility, more money, and so on)
Promotore(Italian m.) a promoter
Promozione(Italian f.) a promotion
Promptto tell an actor his next line when he as forgotten it
the person whose job it is to do this (also called the 'prompter')
the term used to mean the side of the stage where the prompter sat, the other side of the stage being called 'Opposite Prompt' or OP
prompt(French, German) promptly, pronto
Promptbooka manuscript of a play adapted for performance by a theatrical company - usually with extra stage directions, notes on special effects or props, and last minute revisions or corrections. In some promptbooks, the characters' names and speech prefixes are scribbled out and replaced with the names of the actors playing those roles
promptement(French) readily, quickly, promptly
Prompterthe person tasked with giving the words of a phrase or a line of text to a stage performer; in opera houses, the conductor's beat may also be relayed to the singer via the prompter
Prompter's boxwhere the prompter sits during the performance
promulgare(Italian) to promulgate
Promulgateto make known to the public, to disseminate, to promote, to proclaim (a decree, news, etc.).
promuovere(Italian) to promote
Promythiuma summary of the moral of a fable appearing before the main narrative. If the summary is found at the beginning of the narrative, it is called an epimythium
Pronationrotation of the hands and forearms so that the palms face downward
Pronipote(Italian m./f.) great-grandson, great-granddaughter, great-nephew, great-niece
Pronombre(Spanish m.) pronoun
Pronome(Italian m.) prnoun
Pronomen(German n.) pronoun
prononcé(French) emphatic, conspicuous, strongly marked, exaggerated
Prononciation(French f.) pronunciation
pronosticare(Italian) to predict
prontamente(Italian) promptly, quickly
Prontezza(Italian f.) readiness, quickness, aptitude, promptness (readiness), preparedness (immediacy), facility (aptitude)
Prontezza di comprensione(Italian f.) perspicacity (eagerness)
Prontezza di riflessi(Italian f.) quick reflexes (pl.)
Prontezza meccanica(Italian f.) mechanical aptitude
pronto(Italian) prompt, quick, ready
pronto per la stampa(Italian) ready for printing
Prontuario(Italian m.) handbook
Pronuncia(Italian f.) pronunciation
Pronuncia blesa(Italian f.) lisp
Pronunciación(Spanish f.) pronounciation
Pronunciamento(Spanish) a proclamation, a published manifesto
Pronunciation spellinga new spelling of an old word that more accurately reflects the current pronunciation than the original spelling does
Pronunzia(Italian f.) pronunciation
pronunziare(Italian) to pronounce, to enunciate, to utter
pronunziato(Italian) pronounced, clear, distinct, well-marked, prominent
prony(French m.) named for the French mathematician Gaspard Clair François Marie Riche de Prony (1755-1839), the prony is a unit defined as the 12th root of the ratio of two frequencies. The interval of an octave would then be equal to 12 pronys. The cent is one hundreth of a prony.
Prooemium(Latin, from Greek) preface, introduction, the prefatory part of a speech
in the sixteenth century, synonymous with anabole, fantasia, ricercar, prelude and preambulum
Proofa version of a document or colour illustration produced specifically for the purpose of review prior to reproduction
Proof before lettersan impression taken before title, publisher's line, etc. have been added
pro organo(Italian) a term that is used to indicate that a musical composition is intended to by played 'on the organ'. The phrase pro organo pleno inscribed under the title of a musical work by J. S. Bach indicates that the work was intended to be played on "full organ"
Prop (s.), Props (pl.)(from the Middle English proppe, 'a support') or '(stage) property', handheld objects, furniture and similar items used on the stage. The term does not include the scenery itself or the costumes
Propaganda(English, Italian f. from the Latin) any organized movement or systematic scheme for the propagation of a specific doctrine or theory
propagare(Italian) to propagate
propagarsi(Italian) to spread
Propagationthe movement of a sound wave through a medium, for example, air, water, etc.
Propagazione(Italian f.) propagation
Proparalepsis (s.), Proparalepses (pl.)a type of neologism that occurs by adding an extra syllable or letters to the end of a word
propendere per(Italian) to be in favour of
Propensione(Italian f.) inclination
Propera liturgical genre with text that changes from day to day
in the Mass, the musical items of the Proper are introit, gradual, alleluia, offertory and communion
Properties of soundthose aspects of a sound, such as pitch, timbre, volume and duration, that give it a recognizable and definable tonal character
Prophylaxis(Latin, from Greek) the prevention of disease by medical intervention
propinare(Italian) to administer
propizio(Italian) favourable
Proponimento(Italian m.) a resolution
Proporcion(Spanish f.) proportion
Proporciones armónicas(Spanish f. pl.) harmonic proportions (for example, those described by Pythagoras)
proporre(Italian) to propose, to suggest
proporre un quesito(Italian) to put a question
proporsi di(Italian) to intend to
Proportio(Latin) the relation of intervals
the relation of time values to the metrical pulse (tactus) in the rhythmical theory of mensurable music
Proportion(English, French f.) comparative part, share or ratio
a pleasing relation of parts of something to the whole
Proportion(Latin proportio, literally 'evenness') in painting, sculpture and architecture, the ratio between the respective parts and the whole work
the following types of proportion are important:
the Canon of Proportiona mathematical formula establishing ideal proportions of the various parts of the human body. The unit of measurement is usually the relationship of the head to the torso ((1:7) or (1:10))
the golden sectiona line C divided into a small section A and a larger section B, so that (A:B) are in the same relationship as (B:C)
the quadraturewhich uses the square as a unit of measurement
triangulationwhich uses an equilateral triangle in order to determine important points in the construction
harmonic proportionsan analogy with the way sounds are produced on stringed instruments, for example an octave = (2:1) (the difference in pitch between two strings, one half the length of the other), a fifth = (3:2), a fourth = (4:3)
Proportionin music, the relationship of one note's duration to one another
in music theory, the ratio of the frequencies of two notes, an important element in Pythagorean music theory
Proportion(French f.) ratio
Proportional notationsee 'mensural notation'
also called 'time-space notation, a system of notation developed by the American composer Earle Brown (1926-2002) in which the duration of notes is shown relative only to one another and independent of any strict metric system
Proportzsee Nachtanz
[entry suggested by Jogn Comber]
Proporzione(Italian f.) proportion
proposer de(French) to suggest
Propositionstatement, assertion, proposal
Propositionalitythe extent to which a word conveys information
Proposito(Italian m.) purpose
Proposizione(Italian f.) clause, sentence
Proposta(Italian f.) a proposal
(Italian f.) the subject of a fugue, the antecedent of a canon
propre(French) neat, appropriate
"Is also said about something that is appropriate: "You must try on this suit to see if it is propre." ... It also said about something that is neat, appropriate, decorated: "This apartment is very propre [neat], the furniture is very propre [appropriate], the clothes are very propre [appropriately ornamented]." - Furetière (1702)
proprement(French) appropriately, decorously, cleanly, properly
"The performance of French singing with the appropriate ornaments, which are called the agréments du chant. ... Singing or playing proprement means executing a French melody with the appropriate ornaments. This melody does not in the least depend upon the sheer strength of the sound; and, having no character of its own, it only assumes one through the expressive turns one gives it during performance. These turns [agréments du chant] are taught by singing masters." - Rousseau (1768)
"Employed in several totally different ways. It sometimes means the same thing as "precisely." ... When one says that a man speaks proprement, that he expresses himself proprement, it means that he speaks with exactness and precision, that the words he uses express exactly what he means. ... When one says that a person dances, sings, plays an instrument or works proprement, it simply means that he does not do it perfectly, but accurately, de bonne grâce, and in an agréable and appropriate way." - Trévoux (1771)
Proprietà(Italian f.) property, ownership, propriety
Proprieta letteraria(Italian f.) copyright
Proprietario (m.), Proprietaria (f.)(Italian) owner
Proprietary nameregistered name of a product usually, but not always, registered as a trade mark
Proprieté(French f.) appropriateness, ornament
"A great number of trills, balancements, ports de voix, slurs, martellements, passage-work and other propretés [ornaments] should only be used in airs, and even then with moderation. They render the goût [effect] effeminate, prevent accurate intonation, distort the mesure, throw the harmony off, and always leave the pupil confused." - Montéclair (1709)
Propriété littéraire(French f.) copyright
proprio(Italian) one's (own), typical, proper, just, really, not ... at all
Proprioceptionsensory information from movements of parts of the body
Propssee 'prop'
Propstickthe stick that holds up the lid of a harpsichord
Propylaeum (s.), Propylaea(Latin, from Greek) in architecture, a gateway or entrance into a sacred enclosure
Pro rata(Latin, 'in proportion', 'proportionally') a term applied to charges made by the hour, day, etc.
dividends distributed on a pro rata basis would be according to the amount of investment
Pro re nata(Latin, 'for a thing born') for some unexpected contingency not previously accounted for
Prosa(Latin) typically, text added to the sequence of a Mass, originally those that were written in prose rather than poetic meter
(Latin) the medieval term used for the text of a 'sequence' although sometimes applied to the combination of melody and text
see prosula
Prosa(Italian f., German f.) prose
Prosae sequentiae(Latin pl.) hymns sung at Easter and and the feast of Pentecost
Proscenio(Italian m.) stage front
Prosceniumor 'proscenium arch', the boundary between the stage and the audience in a conventional theatre, that from the audience's point of view appears to form or really does form an arch over the stage
that portion of the stage that lies between the footlights and the curtain
Prosciutto(Italian) a cured Parma ham
Prose(English, French f.) any material that is not written in a regular meter like poetry, prosa (Italian f., German f.)
Prosecuzione(Italian f.) continuation
Prose rythmée(French f.) rhythmical prose, free verse
Prosimianof or belonging to the Prosimii, a sub-order of primates that includes the lemurs, lorises and tarsiers
Prosit!(Latin, 'may it prosper') 'your health!', a toast used in parts of Germany
Proske, Karl
a German Catholic cleric, also known as Carolus Proske and Carl Proske, Proske devoted all his energies and spent his entire private income on the restoration of what he called vere musica ecclesiae, the "true music of the Church". This he considered to be the ancient Gregorian chant and especially the polyphonic works of the Renaissance masters (such as Palestrina, Nanini, Marenzio, Lassus, etc.). He searched all throughout Germany and Italy, making many trips to Rome, in order to collect ancient manuscripts for his library, which grew to contain thousands of samples (Karl Weinmann, a late 1800s music researcher, claimed there were over 30,000 pages of manuscripts before Proske died). Proske was a pioneer in the field, and the fact that his editions reflected only the German, Flemish, and Italian repertoires - excluding Spaniards for the most part, though he did include Victoria - does not diminish his amazing contributions to Sacred music
Proskeniona raised stage constructed before the skene in classical Greek drama. The proskenion sharply divided the actors from the chorus, and the elevated height made the actors more visible to the audience
Proslambanomenos(Greek) the 'acquired tone', the lowest note in the ancient Greek system. When translated into the system based on the Guidonian hand, and in order to accommodate the sequence of hexachords as understood by the mind of the medieval musical theorist, an additional string had to be added one tone below the Proslambanomenos. The new lowest note was called Gamma, G Gamut or Γ. In this way, and under this system, we see that the Proslambanomenos is the note A
Prosodia(Latin, Italian) prosody, correct accentuation in setting words to music which distinguishes short or long syllables
Prosodic signalpitch, stress, or rhythm as grammatical signals
Prosodie(German, French) prosody, correct accentuation in setting words to music which distinguishes short or long syllables
the term prosody may refer to one of the following:
in linguisticsthe rhythm, stress or intonation of speech, thought to be regulated by areas in the right hemisphere. Prosody may reflect various features of the speaker or the utterance: the emotional state of a speaker; whether an utterance is a statement, a question, or a command; whether the speaker is being ironic or sarcastic; emphasis, contrast, and focus; or other elements of language that may not be encoded by grammar or choice of vocabulary
in poetryor versification, its sounds, rhythms, scansion and meter, stanzaic form, alliteration, assonance, euphony, onomatopoeia, and rhyme
related to poetry, prosody or versification can also mean the writing of verse
in musicrefers to the way the composer sets the text of a vocal composition in the assignment of syllables to notes in the melody to which the text is sung; this is particularly a function of rhythm and pitch, and is not to be confused with musical form
Prosomoiariona codex, or part of an heirmologion, which contains the prosomoia stichera (troparia (sing. troparion) modelled on already existing melodies) arranged by mode
Prosopopoeia(from Greek prosopon, 'face') a form of personification in which an inanimate object gains the ability to speak
Prospectusa pamphlet issued by an opera house detailing the forthcoming season of works and artists
Prospekt(German m.) brochure, prospectus
(German m.) the main visual display of the organ. The wooden sections of the Prospekt are crafted with great skill, and on the more ornate instruments, valuable materials such as brass, pewter (pure tin) and ivory can be used for the pipes section
Prospettiva(Italian f.) perspective
Prossima volta(Italian f.) next time
prossimo(Italian) near, next, close
prostare(Latin) be on sale
Prosthesisadding an extra syllable or letters to the beginning of a word for poetic effect
Prosula(Latin, diminutive of prosa) also called prosa, a text created to fit an existing melisma of Gregorian chant
additional words to a pre-existing composition
Proszenium(German n.) proscenium (arch)
Protagonistin a drama, the main character, the hero or heroine
Protagonista(Italian m./f.) protagonist
Pro tanto(Latin) so much, to such an extent
Protectoryan institution providing for the welfare of homeless, destitute, or delinquent children
Protégé (m.), Protégée (f.)(French) one who is under the protection of another, one who receives benefits from a person of superior status
Proteinone of the three main group of nutrients in food (the other two are fats and carbohydrates). Foods that provide protein include meat, poultry, fish, cheese, milk, dairy products, eggs, and dried beans. Proteins are used in the body to build and repair cells and to create insulin and other hormones
pro. tem.abbreviation of pro tempore (Latin: for the time being, temporarily)
Pro tempore(Latin) for the time being, temporarily
Protesta(Italian, literally 'declaration') a declaration printed in Italian opera libretti stating that the 'pagan' references that might appear in the text should not be taken to mean that author was not a faithful adherent of the Roman Catholic faith, necessary in order to receive the Church's Imprimatur
Protestantismone of three main groups currently within Christianity. The term "Protestant" represents a diverse range of perspectives, denominations, individuals, and related organizations. While no particular belief or practice can be said to define this branch of Christianity (indeed, its most commonly given definition is merely "any Christian denomination which is not Roman Catholic or Orthodox Christian"), those denominations considered to be well within the realm of Protestantism all have firm roots in the Protestant Reformation in Europe during the sixteenth century
Protestant Reformationa movement in which a large number of Christians broke from the Catholic church and founded their own denominations. While they remained Christians, they tried to right what they saw as wrong with the Catholic Church. In the case of Martin Luther, he found 95 elements which needed fixing or correcting in the Roman Catholic Church and posted those on a cathedral door. The Lutheran movement was the most famous and probably the largest of the Reformation Churches to form, although it was not the first. Jan Hus, founder of the Unitas Fratrum, or Moravian Church, actually broke from the Roman Catholic Church almost 100 years before Luther, but he was killed and his followers persecuted, so they remained a secret sect until the larger Reformation came to pass
Protestnote(German f.) a note of protest
Protest song(English, Protestsong (German m.)) a song intended to protest perceived problems in society such as injustice, racial discrimination, war, globalization, inflation, social inequalities. Protest songs are generally associated with folk music, but in recent times they have come from all genres of music. Such songs become popular during times of social disruption and among social groups
Prothalamion(pseudo-Greek) a song or poem celebrating as coming marriage (a word invented by Edmund Spenser (c.1552-1599) at the title of a poem published in 1597)
protocolaire(French) (a person) much addicted to insisting on the niceties of diplomatic etiquette
Protocole de transfert de fichier(French m.) file transfer protocol, FTP
Proto-Indo-Europeanthe reconstructed ancestor of all Indo-European languages. Many scholars use this term interchangeably with Indo-European
Protokoll(German n.) record, minutes
Prototipo(Italian m.) prototype
Prototyp(German m.) prototype
Protozeugmasee zeugma
Protracteddrawn out or lengthened (for example, in time)
Protractiondrawing out or lengthening, extension or protrusion
Protusthe system of dividing the chant repertory into eight modes had its origins in the eight echoi of the Byzantine chant of the Eastern Church. Various terminologies have been used associated with this 'eight-mode system'. While the most widely used is that employed in the modern official chant books of the Catholic Church, in which the modes are simply numbered 1-8 in Roman numerals, other nomenclature, based upon different mediæval theorists, is also encountered. One of these, familiar to Hucbald (c. 840-930), to the ninth-century authors of the treatises Musica Enchiriadis and Scolica Enchiriadis, and to the author of the ninth- or tenth-century Commemoratio Brevis de Tonis et Psalmis Modulandis, is first found in a late eighth- early ninth-century tonary from S. Riquier (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, lat. 13159)
the late eighth- early ninth-century tonary from S. Riquier (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, lat. 13159) lists four modes: protus, deuterus, tritus and tetrardus, respectively, the Greek words for first (D is the finalis), second (E is the finalis), third (F is the finalis) and fourth (G is the finalis), and subdivides each of the four into two, the first of each pair being designated authentus (authentic) and the second plagis (plagal):
numberGreek nameBoethian nameas in Alia musicathe notes of the mode
reciting tone in red
finalis in blue
1.protus authentusphrygiandorianD E F G a b c d
2.protus plagishypodorianhypodorianA B C D E F G a
3.deuterus authentusdorianphrygianE F G a b c d e
4.deuterus plagismixolydianhypophrygianB C D E F G a b
5.tritus authentushypolydianlydianF G a b c d e f
6.tritus plagislydianhypolydianC D E F G a b c
7.tetrardus authentushypophyrigianmixolydianG a b c d e f g
8.tetrardus plagis hypomixolydianD E F G a b c d
hypermixolydianthe compass of a plagal mode is generally a fourth lower than the corresponding authentic mode. Today we identify the hypomixolydian as the eighth mode, whose finalis is D, a fourth lower than that of the mixolydian. However, originally the eighth mode was the hypermixolydian, whose pitch duplicates that of the hypodorian but in a higher octave, as specified by Ramis de Pareja (1482) and other commentators of the period
Prov(Swedish) sample
Prov.abbreviation of provincia (Spanish f.: province)
Prova(Italian f., literally 'trial') a rehearsal, a trial, a proof
Prova all'Italian(Italian f.) the term used to describe the first complete rehearsal of an opera production in which the soloists and chorus join the orchestra
Prova generale(Italian f., literally 'public trial') final rehearsal, often a rehearsal to which the public is admitted
Proveto allow yeast dough to rest in a warm place so that it can rise and expand
Proveeksemplar(Danish, Norwegian) sample, sample copy
Provenancethe origins of an art work, musical instrument, etc. including the history of a work's ownership since its creation. The study of a work's provenance is important in establishing authenticity
Provençalea dance from Provence
provenzialische Trommel(German f.) tabor
Proverbio(Italian m.) proverb
Providencethe theological doctrine stating God's sovereignty - especially his omniscience - allows complete divine control over the universe in the past, present, and future
Provinceunit of ecclesiastical administration comprising a group of territorially contiguous dioceses
in relation to later developments of monastic orders, geographic units of administration within the order
special area of responsibility or knowledge (colloquial)
Provino(Italian m.) screen-test
Provisions de bouche(Frech pl.) provisions (food)
provisional(English, Spanish) temporary
Proviso(Latin) a clause inserted into a formal document making some stipulation or limitation
provisoire(French) provisional
provisorisch(German) provisional
provvisorio(Italian) provisional
Proximas publicaciones(Spanish f.) forthcoming publication
Proxime accessit (s.), Proxime accesserunt (pl.)(Latin) he/she came close (often a term applied to the candidate who just misses the highest mark or a prize)
prox.abbreviation of proximo (Latin: of the next month, in the next month)
proximo(Latin) of the next month, in the next month
Próximo tiempo(Spanish m.) next time
Proxy weddingor proxy wedding, a wedding where the bride or groom (or both) is not physically present, usually being represented instead by another person. One or both (double proxy) of the partners may be absent. Where one person is absent it may be called a 'one glove wedding'. It was common for European monarchs and nobility to marry by proxy. A famous example of this is the marriage of Napoleon I of France to Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma. Catherine of Aragon wed Prince Arthur by proxy. A famous 17th-century painting by Peter Paul Rubens depicts the proxy marriage of Marie de Medici
Proyecto paralelo(Spanish m.) side project
Prozession(German f.) procession
Prozeugmasee zeugma
PRSabbreviation for the 'Performing Right Society', the collecting society for UK songwriters, composers and music publishers. Its role is to act as an agent for its members in order to collect performing royalties whenever their musical works are performed in public, broadcast or transmitted. They formed an alliance with their sister company the MCPS, who collect mechanical royalties, to form the 'MCPS-PRS Alliance'
Prueba (s.), Pruebas (pl.)(Spanish f.) test (examination), proof, trial, event (competition), piece of evidence (in a court case)
Prueba de acceso(Spanish f.) entrance examination
Prueba de admisión(Spanish) entrance examination, entrance test
Prueba de alcoholemia(Spanish f.) breath test (for alcohol level)
Prueba de fuego(Spanish f.) acid test
Prueba del embarazo(Spanish f.) pregnancy test
Pruebas convincentes(Spanish conclusive evidence
Prüfer(German m.) examiner
Prüfung(German f.) examination, test
sich einer Prüfung unterziehen (German: to take a test)
Prüfungsabteilung(German f.) quality assurance department, QA department
Prunellaa worsted stuff, formerly used for clergymen's gowns and for the uppers of ladies' boots, named for its plum colour - i.e. prune (French: plum)
Pruritus(Latin) an itch, especially the itching of the skin without visible eruption
Prymera book of hours in the English language, used for learning to read
Prys(French, 'worthiness') a cognate with the English word 'price'. Prys was rich in connotations, appearing frequently in French chansons de geste and medieval romances. It embodies knightly worthiness on a number of levels. A knight who has prys is loyal, brave, polite, courtly, proud, refined in taste, and perhaps a bit foolhardy and arrogant, quick to take anger at an insult and fast to accept a challenge or dual
Ps(s), ps(s)abbreviation of 'Psalm(s)', 'psalm(s)'
Ps.abbreviation of Posaune, 'Psalm'
P.S.abbreviation of post scriptum (Latin: after what has been written)
Psallette(French f.) singing place, choir
Psallo(Greek) to play on, or sing to, a stringed instrument
Psalm(English, German m., from the Greek, psalmos) salmo (Italian), psaume (French), a general term for a hymn or sacred song
originally, one of 150 songs attributed to King David in the Book of Psalms
Psalmbuch(German) psalm-book, psalter
Psalmbuchgsang(German) psalmody
Psalmellusthe counterpart in the Milanese rite of the Gradual in the standard Roman rite
Psalmista person who composes religious songs, a writer or composer of psalms
Psalmiste(French m./f.) a psalmist, salmista (Spanish)
Psalmlied(German) psalm, hymn
Psalmmelodiconan earlier form, invented by Weinrich, of an instrument that later would be called the Apollo-lyre
Psalm notesin Gregorian chant, repeated musical notes (reciting tones) around which the other notes of the chant gravitate are used in a number of contexts, including the chanting of psalm tones. Each mode has its own associated psalm tone, whose primary pitch is variously called the 'dominant', 'tenor', or 'tuba'. Medieval monastic commentators assigned each note (Latin, tonus) with a particular Latin name, characterizing their very different moods, appropriate to different genres, styles and subjects contained within the Psalter itself
tonus (note)Latin namemood
the first notegravisgrave, sublime or majestic
the second notetristismournful, sorrowful or serious
the third notemysticusmystical, exulting, also described as rather aggressive and passionate
the fourth noteharmonicusharmonious, at first seeming to be rather harsh and severe but actually applicable to a wide variety of moods
the fifth notelaetus, delectabilis, or jubilansgladdening, delightful or jubilant
the sixth notedevotusdevout, tender and quiet, as well as penitential
the seventh noteangelicusangelical, primarily due to its high pitch, fit for tenors
the eighth noteperfectusperfect, because it accommodates itself to almost all moods or subjects
the wandering notetonus peregrinus (Latin, literally 'wanderer')an "irregular" psalm tone. a psalm in which the tenor changes in pitch
psalm tone formula:
3mediatio (semicadence in the middle of the verse)
4termination (final cadence)
5final verse that is followed by the Lesser Doxology ('Gloria Patri...')
this can be illustrated by outlining the Office psalmody:
1antiphonincipit sung by the cantor, followed by choir
2psalminitium sung by the cantor, after which the choir follows, then the semicadence (mediatio), after which the cantor begins second half of verse, then the choir joins, and finally the termination
3each psalm versesung through in a similar fashion. At its conclusion, and in order that there is a smooth transition back to the antiphon, each psalm note (psalm tone) is provided with several cadences or differentiae
4antiphonrepeated as at beginning
Psalmodie(German f., French f.) psalmody, the study of and arrangement for voices of psalms
psalmodier(French) to study, to compose psalms, to arrange psalms, to chant
Psalmodythe practice of singing psalms, particularly, in Protestant churches in England and in the United States of America between the 17th- and early 19th-centuries, although more generally within the Jewish and Christian liturgical traditions, and whether or not for worship
Psalm paraphrasea hymn based on a psalm or part of a psalm (different degrees of paraphrase), as, for example, Joy to the World, the Lord Is Come (Psalm 98, Isaac Watts), Our God, Our Help in Ages Past (Psalm 90, Isaac Watts) or Praise, My Soul, the King of Heaven (Psalm 103, Henry F. Lyte)
Psalmsänger(German) psalmodist, psalm-singer
Psalms chordpsalms chord
in music, "the famous opening chord," of Igor Stravinsky's Symphony of Psalms
  • Psalms chord from which this information and image have been taken
Psalmsingen(German) psalmody
Psalmton(German m.) psalm tone, psalm note
Psalm tonesynonymous with 'psalm note'
Psalter(English, German) a vernacular translation of the Book of Psalms, the Greek version of which contains 151 psalms, most of which have been ascribed to King David. The great popularity and copious illustration of the psalter make it the most important illuminated book from the 11th to the 14th centuries. Thereafter the Book of Hours became the most important channel for illuminations
Psalterion(Greek) similar to the trigonon, a general name for harps commonly used later in Byzantium
(Greek) psalter
Psaltérion(French m.) psalterion, psaltery, salterio (Spanish, Italian), Psalterium (German)
Psalterium(Latin) psalterion, psaltery, Psalterium (German), psaltérion (French), salterio (Spanish, Italian)
Psalterium(German n.) psaltery, psalterion, psaltérion (French), salterio (Spanish, Italian)
Psalterspiel(German) playing on the psaltery
Psalterypsalterion, Psalterium (German), psaltérion (French), salterio (Spanish, Italian)
or psaltry, a stringed instrument played with a plectrum; other names include saltere, sauterie, psalterium, psalter and salterio
scholars have tried to distinguish between psaltery and dulcimer, proposing that a 'psaltery' is plucked while a 'dulcimer' is hit, and that both belong to a generic 'zither' family (distinct from specific instruments called 'zither' by their players); but this usage is an abstraction and has no basis in the traditional use of these names: there are plenty of illustrations where psalteries are hit and traditions where dulcimers are plucked
Psaltes(Greek) a player on, or singer to, a stringed instrument
Psaltriae(Latin) female singers, and players on the psalterium, who entertained ancient Romans at their banquets
Psaltrysee 'psaltery'
Psaume(French m.) psalm
le livre des Psaumes (French: the Book of Psalms)
Psautier(French m.) psalter
Pseudepigrapha(Greek) spurious writings, books bearing false titles or ascribed to the wrong authors
pseudo-(Greek) (as the first element of a compound word, meaning) spurious, counterfeit, bogus
Pseudomonologuein the theatre, when only one half of a dialogue is portrayed, especially either just the questions or the answers, wherein the performer is not directly addressing the audience
Pseudonimo(Italian m.) pseudonym, pen-name
Pseudonym(English, German m.) or pen-name, nom de plume, nom de guerre (French m.), a fictitious name, especially of an author
Pseudonyme(French m.) fictitious name, assumed name, pen-name, pseudonym, nom de plume, nom de guerre (French m.), alias
(French m.) stage name (the name by which an actor, comedian, dancer, etc. is known in their professional capacity but which differs from their legal or non-professional name or the name they were known by before they appeared on the stage, concert-hall, etc.)
Pseudonyme de guerre(French m.) nom de guerre (French m.)
Pseudo-octavean interval whose frequency ratio is not (2:1), the definition of an octave, but is treated in some way or ways equivalent to this ratio. One example being the stretched octave (2.01:1), which sounds out of tune played with harmonic overtones, but in tune when played with tones whose overtones are stretched equivalently, while the (2:1) octave then sounds out of tune. Stretched octaves are most commonly encountered in piano tuning, where the inharmonicity caused by string thickness and tension makes it necessary to widen every interval very slightly. The octaves of Balinese gamelans are never tuned (2:1), but instead are stretched or compressed in a consistent manner throughout the range of each individual gamelan. Another example is the tritave of the Bohlen-Pierce scale. Other common names for the pseudo-octave are the Interval of Equivalence (IoE), the Repeat Ratio, and the nonoctave
Pseudo-partition(French f.) a score without vertical coincidence of voices, i.e. pseudo-score
Pseudo-Partitur(German f.) a score without vertical coincidence of voices, i.e. pseudo-score
Pseudopartitura(Italian f., Spanish f.) a score without vertical coincidence of voices, i.e. pseudo-score
Pseudo-polyphonythe phenomenon of creating two or more concurrent lines of sound (or streams) using a sequence of single-sounding tones. Pseudo-polyphony is produced by rapid alternations of pitches separated by comparatively large musical intervals. The best known example of pseudo-polyphony is yodelling where a single voice is able to give the impression of multiple concurrent parts. Pseudo-polyphonic textures are also commonly found in Baroque music, such as in the solo violin partitas by J.S. Bach
Pseudosciencea belief or process which masquerades as science in an attempt to claim a legitimacy which it would not otherwise be able to achieve on its own terms; it is often known as fringe- or alternative science. The most important of its defects is usually the lack of the carefully controlled and thoughtfully interpreted experiments which provide the foundation of the natural sciences and which contribute to their advancement
Pseudo-scorea score without vertical coincidence of voices
psicoacústico (m.), psicoacústica (f.)(Spanish) psychoacoustic
pst(German) shush!
Psybientalso known as 'ambient psy', 'ambient Goa' and more commonly within the Goa/psytrance scene as 'chill psy', 'psybient' a genre of electronic music that combines elements of psychedelic trance, ambient, world music, new age and even ethereal wave
  • Psybient from which this extract has been taken
Psyche(Latin, from Greek) the spirit, the mind
Psychedeliaa term describing a category of music, visual art, fashion, and culture that is associated originally with the high 1960s, hippies, and the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood of San Francisco, California. It generally began in 1966, but truly took off in 1967 with the Summer of Love. Its beginnings are associated with San Francisco but the style soon spread across the U.S.A., and worldwide
Psychedelic folkor 'psych folk', a music genre which began through the blending of folk music and psychedelic music in the 1960s. It is generally acoustic or mixes acoustic instrumentation with other influences. Chanting, early music and world music influences are sometimes apparent
Psychedelic musica musical genre inspired by or attempting to replicate the mind-altering experience of drugs such as cannabis, psilocybin, mescaline, and especially LSD. It is not rigorously defined, and is sometimes interpreted to include everything from 'acid rock' and 'flower power' music to 'hard rock'
Psychedelic soula blending of psychedelic rock and soul music in the late-1960s that paved the way for the mainstream emergence of funk music a few years later
Psychoacousticsthe study of subjective human perception of sounds. Alternatively it can be described as the study of psychology of acoustical perception
Psychobillya genre of music generally described as a mix between the British punk rock of the 1970s and the American rockabilly of the 1950s
Psychogeniccaused by psychological factors, particularly psychological stress, trauma, or and anxiety
Psychological realismthe sense that characters in fictional narratives have realistic "interiority" or complex emotional and intellectual depth, including perhaps subconscious urges and fears they are not aware of
Psychopompos(Greek, 'soul carrier') a spirit-guide who leads or escorts a soul into the realm of the dead
Psychosis (s.), Psychoses (pl.)(Latin, from Greek) any mental afflication or derangement which cannot be ascribed to an organic lesion
Psytrancealso called 'psychedelic trance' and 'Goa trance', a blend of psychedelic and trance music, essentially electronic in nature with a thumping beat and highly repetitive style
Pta.abbreviation of puerta (Spanish f.: door)
pt(s)abbreviation of 'part(s)'
ptbk(s)abbreviation of 'partbook(s)'
Ptilosisloss of the eyelashes, falling out of the eyelashes
the feather coat, total feather covering, of birds
Ptl.abbreviation of portal (Spanish m.: main entrance)
Ptolemaic commaan alternative name for the 'syntonic comma' or 'comma of Didymus', an interval with a frequency ratio of (81:80)
Ptolemysee Harmonics
PTTabbreviation of Poste, Télécommunications et Télédiffusion (French: post office and telephone service)
Pua Tahitian conch-shell
Púa(Spanish f.) plectrum, plectre (French)
pubblicare(Italian) to publish
pubblicazione(Italian f.) publication
Pubblicista(Italian m./f.) correspondent (journalist)
Pubblicita(Italian f.) publicity, advertising
pubblicitario(Italian) advertising
Pubblico(Italian m.) audience
pubblico(Italian) public (as opposed to private)
Pubcastergovernment-owned broadcaster (US) (colloquial)
Publicación(Spanish f.) publication
Public address systemthe venue auditorium sound system, usually shortened to 'PA'. Most theatres will have a separate sound system for emergency announcements in all public areas of the theatre. This system may also be used for Front of House calls. The Rear of House calls system often also acts as a 'show relay', conveying the sound of the performance to remote parts of the theatre building
publicar(Spanish) publish, announce
Public domaina range of abstract materials - commonly referred to as intellectual property - which are not owned or controlled by anyone. The term indicates that these materials are therefore "public property", and available for anyone to use for any purpose. The laws of various countries define the scope of the public domain differently, making it necessary to specify which jurisdiction's public domain is being discussed. Furthermore, the public domain can be defined in contrast to several forms of intellectual property; the public domain in contrast to copyrighted works is different from the public domain in contrast to trademarks or patented works
this information should not be relied on in law, although we believe it to be accurate
Public domain worka public domain work is a creative work that is not protected by copyright and which may be freely used by everyone
in the U.S. the reasons that the work is not protected include:
the term of copyright for the work has expired (see see here for further information)
the author failed to satisfy statutory formalities to perfect the copyright
in the United States, the work is a work of the U.S. Government
this information should not be relied on in law, although we believe it to be accurate
Publicidad(Spanish f.) publicity, advertising
publicitario(Spanish) advertising
Público(Spanish m.) public, audience (for example, in a theatre)
público(Spanish) public
Public Organan interactive networked sound installation, composed in 1995 by Carla Scaletti, that takes its title from Lewis Thomas' Lives of a Cell: "The human brain is the most public organ on the face of the earth, open to everything ..."
Public Works Art Projector PWAP, a program designed to employ artists under the New Deal program. It was the first of such programs (1933-34), headed by Edward Bruce under the U.S. Treasury Department and paid for by the CWA Civil Works Administration
Publiek(Dutch) audience
Publikum(German n.) audience
publique(French) public (as opposed to private)
Publishing papersee 'book paper'
publiziert(German) published
Pub rock
Pudeur(French) (excessive) sexual modesty
Pueblerino(Spanish m.) villager, countrified person, bumpkin
pueblerino (m.), pueblarina (f.)(Spanish) village, countrified, provincial
Pueblo(Spanish m.) people, village, (small) town
Pueblo de español, el(Spanish m.) Spanish people, the
Pueblo musica genre that includes the music of the Hopi, Zuni, Taos Pueblo, San Ildefonso, Santo Domingo, and many other Puebloan peoples, and according to Bruno Nettl features one of the most complex Native American musical styles on the continent
puede alargarle la vida(Spanish) it could prolong her life
¿puedes ayudarme a mover la mesa?(Spanish) can you help me to move the table?
¿puedo ayudar en algo?(Spanish) can I do anything to help? can I do something to help?
Puente(Spanish m.) bridge (of a violin, etc.), bridge or bridgework (dentistry), bridge (structure), chevalet (French)
Puentecillo(Spanish f.) also cejuela or puente de clavijero, a second bridge found in some traditional instruments
Puente de clavijerosee puentecillo
Pueri choriales(Latin pl.) choristers, child-singers, cantorcicos, petits chanteurs
Puerta(Spanish f.) door (house, etc.), gate (garden)
Puerta corredera(Spanish f.) sliding door
Puerta de embarque(Spanish f.) boarding gate (airport)
Puerta de la calle(Spanish f.) front door, main door or entrance
Puerta del colegio(Spanish f.) entrance to the school
Puerta del teatro(Spanish f.) theatre entrance
Puerta principal (de edificio)(Spanish f.) front door, main door or entrance
Puerta trasera(Spanish f.) back door
Puesta(Spanish f.) setting
Puesta en escena(Spanish f.) staging
Puffballa popular style of skirt in the 1980s, the 'puffball' is a double layered skirt that stands out from the body and has a padded look to it
pugno, consee 'col pugno'
Puhdas intervalli(Finnish) perfect interval
Puhdas viritys(Finnish) just intonation
Puisee Puy
Pu'ilidouble bamboo sticks, 35-60 cms long (18-26 inches), from Hawaii, USA
Puirt-a-beul(Gaelic, literally 'mouth music') Scottish rhythmic form of unaccompanied singing that can be danced to
Puissance(French f.) power, strength (in a horse)
Puitas(Sao Tome and Principe) a friction drum, played by rubbing a stick attached to the head; used in matcumbi
PukKlezmer bass drum
Pukarfrom Hindustani classical music, a musical tuning using the higher notes
Pukka(from the Hindi) substantial, permanent, certain, reliable, real, genuine
Pulangoilalternative name for the kuzhal
Pulcinellain Pulcinella (1922, rev. 1947; suite based on music of the 1919 ballet), Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971) draws on material composed by a number of composers including Giovanni Battista Pergolesi (1710-1736). The Pulcinella source materials are housed at the Paul Sacher Stiftung in Basel, Switzerland. Elements once falsely attributed to Pergolesi are movements from ten trio sonatas by Domenico Gallo (c.1700-c.1750), an air and a gavotte for keyboard by Carlo Monza (c.1735-1801), and a concerto attributed to Count Unico Wilhelm von Wassenaer (1692-1766). Verifiable Pergolesi sources are a movement from a cello sonata, eleven pieces from his operas Il flaminio and Lo Frate 'nnamorato, and one from his cantata Luce degli occhi miei. An intermediary score of Pulcinella lies in the Stefan Zweig Collection of the British Library together with the fair copy piano score
Pulgar(Spanish m.) thumb, pouce (French)
(Spanish) a technique for playing the guitar using the thumb, most often a feature of flamenco
Pulimento(Spanish m.) polishing, polish (material used to polish)
pulir(Spanish) to polish
Pull down pedala pedal operated on an organ or pedal clavichord using the feet to bring into play particular stops or effects. A detailed picture of the mechancis on the pedal board of an organ by the Italian organ-builder Serassi in Buenos Aires (year of construction 1868) shows a number of pull downs stops each used to engage Tremolo, Campanelli Soprano, Tromba Soprano, Corno Inglese Soprano, Ottavino 2' Soprano, Fagotti Bassi 8', Espressione, Timpano, Banda Militare, Tiratutto Preparabile and Ripieno (see link below)
Pull off(English, Pull-Off (German m.)) slurs on the guitar are known as 'hammer on' and 'pull off'. Another type of slur is known as the 'slide'
Pull-push rulea flexible steel rule which coils into a case when not in use
Pulmón(Spanish m.) lung
Pulmonic egressivein phonetics, the airstream mechanism is the method by which airflow is created in the vocal tract. Along with phonation, it is one of two mandatory aspects of sound production; without these, there can be no speech. Pulmonic egressive is the airstream mechanism where the air is pushed out of the lungs by the ribs and diaphragm. All human languages employ such sounds (such as vowels), and many, such as English, use them exclusively
Punch out toya paper toy punched out of a sheet of stout card that has been printed and then die cut to produce perforated edges. These were often dolls or images of animals
Pulpcellulose fibre suspended in water from which paper is made. The cellulose can come from wood, bamboo, cotton, esparto, hemp, flax, straw and various other organic materials that is extracted by beating, mechanical grinding or through the application of chemicals
Pulp fictionmass market novels printed cheaply and intended for a general audience
Pulpita stone or wooden stand from which sermons or readings were given
Pulpituma stone screen separating the choir from the nave of a major church
Pulquea thick fermented alcoholic beverage made in Mexico from various species of agave
Puls(German m.) pulse
Pulsa(Spanish m.) button
Pulsação ritmica(Portuguese) time feel, the way the beat is felt which may be different from the way it is notated
Pulsación(Spanish f.) beat, pulse, pulsation
pulsar(Spanish f.) to play (music)
Pulsatilestriking, pertaining to percussion
Pulsatile instrumentspercussion instruments
Pulsationthe act of pulsating, a single beat (throb or vibration)
(French f.) beat, pulse
Pulsation rythmique(French f.) time feel, the way the beat is felt which may be different from the way it is notated
Pulsation stable(French f.) steady beat, steady pulse, steady time
Pulsebeat, accent
in music, a pulse is an unbroken series of distinct yet identical periodically occurring short stimuli perceived as points in time
although 'beat' and 'pulse' are generally used as though they are synonymous, some writers make a distinction between them. For example, in 9/8 time, compound triple time, there are 9 'pulses' but only 3 'beats'
Pulsesdried vegetables that grow in a pod (beans, peas, lentils, etc.)
Pulso(Spanish m.) pulse, wrist, steady hand
Pult(German) orchestral music stand for two players, also called a 'desk'
Pulte (s.), Pulte (pl.)(German n.) desk (as in the orchestra)
Pumicea volcanic rock that is a solidified foam composed of highly microvesicular glass pyroclastic with very thin, translucent bubble walls of extrusive igneous rock
pumice is widely used to make lightweight concrete or insulative low-density 'breeze-block' type bricks. When used as an additive for cement, a fine-grained version of pumice called pozzolan is mixed with lime to form a light-weight, smooth, plaster-like concrete. This form of concrete was used as far back as Roman times. It is also used as an abrasive, especially in polishes, cosmetics exfoliants, and for stone-washed jeans. "Pumice stones" are often used in salons during the pedicure process to remove dry and excess skin from the bottom of the foot as well as calluses. Finely ground pumice is added to some toothpastes and heavy-duty hand cleaners as a mild abrasive. Perhaps the most famous product advertised to contain pumice is Lava soap. It is a heavy-duty hand soap, sold in both bar and liquid form, for mechanics and others who get very dirty hands
  • Pumice from which both entries has been taken
Pumpin' housea subgenre of House music. Developed in the late 90's and related to French house, it also often samples disco, rock, jazz, and/or funk loops (sometimes creating dense layered textures) and usually makes extensive use of filters, but gains its appellation from its heavy use of audio level compression, which makes tracks surge and pulse - important to create physicality in dance music. It is characterized by intense, up-front drum programming, heavy funk influence, and very emphasized basslines, often sampled from live players
Pump organsee 'reed organ'
Pumpventil(German n.) piston (valve), rotary values (on French horns), pistone (Italian m., Spanish m.), Ventil (German n.), cylindre (French m.), piston (French m.), pistón (Spanish m.)
Punalso called paranomasia, a play on two words similar in sound but different in meaning
a pun known as the equivoque involves a single phrase or word with differing meanings
a pun where one speaker uses a word one way, but a second speaker responds using the word in a different sense, is termed an asteismus
a pun in which the wordplay involves altering one or more letters in a word is termed a paragram
Punaise(French f.) drawing-pin, thumbtack
Punctasections three to seven in the estampie dance form, each section being repeated immediately with first and second endings
Punctis Augmentionisused in music of the Renaissance, this dot is identical in function to the modern dot, making a binary note value into a trinary note value, ie, increasing a note's duration by half of it's normal value. It should be noted that the Punctis Augmentionis occurs exclusively in imperfect mensurations, and the Punctis Divisionis occurs exclusively in perfect mensurations
Punctis Divisionisused in music of the Renaissance and also called punctus alterationis, punctis perfectionis, punctionis imperfectionis, a dot of separation used to prevent or ensure imperfection or alteration. It should be noted that the Punctis Augmentionis occurs exclusively in imperfect mensurations, while the Punctis Divisionis occurs exclusively in perfect mensurations
Punctuering(Dutch) punctuation
Punctum (s.), Punctus (s.), Puncta (pl.)see 'neumatic notation'
Punctum caecum(Latin) in medicine, the 'blind spot', that point in the retina from which the optic nerves radiate
the term is used used more generally for an obstinate refusal to see something obvious
Punctum contra punctum(Latin, literally 'point against point) counterpoint
Punctum delens(Latin) a dot written under a leter in a mediaeval manuscript to indicate deletion
Punctusa note, as in counterpoint
a dot after a note that adds one half the original duration to the note, specificially dots found in Medieval mensural notation, although the dot serves the same function in modern notation
Pundit(Hindi) a Hindu learned in Sanskrit, religion and jurisprudence
a person deemed capable of speaking authoritatively on a wide range of subjects
PungIndian barrel drum
Pung cholakan Indian dance from the state of Manipur in which the dancers execute sequences of slow and quick movements of the body while playing intricate rhythms on the pung (classical barrel drum)
Pungialso called bin and makuti, an Indian reed instrument used by snake charmers in India
P'ungmul(Korean) the music of the farmer's band in Pungmullori
Pungmulbuk(Korean) a barrel drums which is used in nong-ak, percussion performances given by farmers in Pungmullori
Punica fides(Latin, literally 'the good faith of the Carthaginians') treachery
Punkah(Hindi) a large swinging fan worked by a cord, any mechanical ventilating device or system
Punk bluesa Post-punk interpretation of Blues and Swamp rock
Punkcorean anarchistic hardcore mixed with punk rock samples
Punk modsee 'mod revival'
Punk rock(English, Punkrock (German m.)) a sub-genre of rock music, although the term 'punk music' can only rarely be applied without any controversy. Perhaps the only bands always considered 'punk' are the first wave of punk bands, such as the Clash, The Sex Pistols and the Ramones
Punkt(German m., Swedish, Danish) augmentation dot, dot
Punkterad not(Swedish) dotted note
Punkteret node(Danish) dotted note
punktieren(German) to dot
punktiert(German) dotted
punktierte Note (s.), punktierte Noten (pl.)(German f.) dotted note
punktierter Schleifer(German m.) dotted slide, a musical ornament described by C. P. E. Bach. Written as a pair of grace notes slurred to a principal note, the duration of each of the grace notes being shown in the ratio (3:1), in performance, the first grace note is held for most of the duration of the principal, the duration of the second grace note and what time remains for the principal being equal and short
Punktierungen(German) dotting
punktiren(German, archaic spelling) to dot
punktirt(German, archaic spelling) dotted
punktirte Note (s.), punktirte Noten (pl.)(German f., archaic spelling) dotted note
Punktlinie(German f.) dotted line
punktuelle Musik(German f.) originally invented by Eimert (1952) it means a serial composition where the notes should be regarded as being isolated phenomena, for example, works by Anton Webern
Punt(Dutch, Catalan) dot (after a note)
Punta(Spanish f.) also ponta, the toe of the foot or of a shoe. It also refers to striking the floor behind or in front of the standing leg with the tip of the toe, immediately rebounding to approximately the ankle of the standing leg, so that the point of the toe makes an audible sound on the floor
(Italian f.) punte (Italian pl.), Ecke (German f. s.), Ecken (German f. pl.), coin (French s.), corner(s) - on a stringed instrument (for example, a violin), the place where blocks (called corner blocks) are glued (above and below the bouts) on better quality instruments for strength
abbreviation of punta del dedo (Spanish f.: fingertip)
or 'punta rock', a type of music found primarily in Honduras, El Salvador, and Belize which, according to certain scholars, is the contemporary electronic offshoot of an ancestral rhythm and dance of the Garifuna people of Central America, performed during celebrations or festive occasions, with links to West Africa and an ancient rhythm called bunda, or "buttocks" in the Mandé language
  • Punta from which the last entry has been taken
Punta(Italian f.) point, tip, end, top peak, headland, promontory, nib (pen), sharp pain (figurative), stab, stitch (in the side), small amount, slight tinnge or trace, touch, flying visit
Punta (d'arco)(Italian f.) tip of the bow, Spitze (German f.), pointe (French f.)
punta d'arco, a(Italian f.) with tip of the bow
Punta del dedo(Spanish f.) fingertip
Puntaires(Spain) Catalan Easter songs
Puntale(Italian m.) metal point, Stachel (German m.), pique (French f.), pied (French m.), spike (on a cello), endpin (on a cello)
Italian m.) ferrule
puntare(Italian) to point, to level (gun), to fix, to direct (eyes, gaze), to lay, to put, to bet, to wager, to prick (chark), to push , to press
(Italian) to place dots above or after a note, i.e. to dot a note
Punta rocksee 'punta'
Puntata(Italian f.) a thrust, a part, an instalment (of a serial work), a stake, a bet
Puntato(Italian m.) an indication that notes are to be played staccato (i.e. pointed, detached, marked), signified by dots above or below the note heads
dotted notes
Puntatore(Italian m.) punter, gambler, a person who lays guns
Punteado(Spanish m.) dotting
(Spanish m., literally 'plucking') a style of guitar playing in which the individual strings are plucked, as distinct from rasgueado or strumming, pincé (French)
puntear(Spanish) to mark
(Spanish) to pluck (a guitar, etc.), pincer (French)
Punteggiamento(Italian m.) dotting
punteggiare(Italian) to dot, to punctuate
Punteggiatura(Italian f.) dotting, punctuation
Punteiro(Spanish) the chanter or melody pipe on a bagpipe, chalumeau (French)
puntellare(Italian) to prop, to buttress, to shore up, to support
Puntello(Italian m.) a prop, a support
Punteo(Spanish m.) plucking (a guitar, etc.)
Puntera(Spanish f.) toe
(Spanish f.) steel cap
hence, zapatos con punteras (Spanish: steel-capped shoes)
Puntero(Spanish m.) pointer
puntero (m.), puntera (f.)(Spanish) outstanding
Punterolo(Italian m.) a punch (for making holes), an awl, a bodkin, a weevil (insect)
puntiagudo (m.), puntiaguda (f.)(Spanish) pointed, sharp
Puntiglio(Italian m.) obstinacy
Puntilla(Spanish f.) lace (embroidery on a costume)
Puntillas, desee de puntillas
Puntillismo(Spanish m.) pointillism (in art)
puntillista(Spanish) pointillist
Puntillo(Spanish m.) dot placed immediately after a note, (in English, called also an 'augmentation dot' or 'dot of prolongation'), a dot that indicates that a note should be extended by half as much again as its principal time value. A second dot placed to the right of the first indicates that the note should be extended a further quarter of the duration of the principal note. Thus a minim (half-note) plus one dot indicates a note with a duration totalling 3 crotchets (three quarter-notes) while a minim (half-note) plus two dots indicates a note with a duration totalling 7 quavers (seven eighth-notes)
puntilloso (m.), puntillosa (f.)(Spanish) punctilious, touchy
Puntina(Italian f.) needle (on a record player), a drawing pin
Puntino(Italian m.) a dot
Puntiscrito(Italian m.) a laundry mark
Punto(Italian m., Spanish m.) point, spot, mark, moment, detail
(Italian m., Spanish m.) dot (punctuation), full stop .
Punto coronato(Italian m.) fermata, calderón (Spanish), corona (Italian), point d'orgue (French), point d'arrêt (French), Fermate (German)
fermata(Italian f.) a musical symbol placed over a note or rest to be extended beyond its normal duration, and occasionally printed above rests or barlines, indicating a pause of indefinite duration
Punto cubano(Spanish m.) or punto guajiro, this campesino rhythm is the oldest traditional Cuban music of Spanish origin, and is the country music of the Western and Central provinces of Cuba. The punto is based on the lyric, always in decima form, and not on the music, unlike the son and other styles from the Eastern Provinces of Cuba. Originally used mostly in social gatherings, like rumba (in Havana and Matanzas) and changui (in the East), it also has become a genre. The singers of punto guajiro are known as poets rather than singers and often improvise the lyrics. It began to become popular around the end of the eighteenth century. Instrumentation varies, but guitar and lute are always present
Punto culminante(Spanish m.) climax
Punto de admiración(Spanish m.) exclamation point
Punto de alargamiento(Spanish m.) augmentation dot
Punto de apoyo(Spanish m.) backup
Punto de arranque(Spanish m.) starting point
Punto débil(Spanish m.) weak point
Punto de congelación(Spanish m.) freezing point
Punto de contacto(Spanish m.) point of contact
Punto de ebullición(Spanish m.) boiling point
Punto de interrogación(Spanish m.) question mark
Punto de intersección(Spanish m.) point of intersection
Punto de encuentro(Spanish f.) meeting point
Punto de observación(Spanish f.) lookout
Punto de partida(Spanish m.) starting point
Punto de referencia(Spanish m.) reference point
Punto de reunión(Spanish f.) meeting point
Punto de vista(Spanish m.) viewpoint, opinion
Punto di congelamento(Italian m.) freezing point
Punto di ebollizione(Italian m.) boiling point
Punto di valore(Italian m.) augmentation dot (increasing the formal length of a note by one-half of its undotted length - i.e. 150%)
Punto di valore doppio(Italian m.) double augmentation dot (increasing the formal length of a single dotted note by a further one-quarter of its undotted length - i.e. 175%)
Punto di valore triplo(Italian m.) triple augmentation dot (increasing the formal length of a double dotted note by a further one-eighth of its undotted length - i.e. 187.5%)
Punto d'organo(Italian m.) fermata sign
Punto esclamativo(Italian m.) exclamation mark (!)
Punto e virgola(Italian m.) semicolon (;)
Punto fermo(Italian m.) full stop (.)
Punto final(Spanish m.) full stop (in the US, a period) (.)
Punto guajiro(Spanish m.) see punto cubano
Punto Guanacasteco(Spanish m.) a couples dance from Costa Rica which has been made the official national dance
Punto in croce(Italian m.) cross-stitch
Punto interrogativo(Italian m.) question mark (?)
Puntolino(Italian m.) dot
Punto medio(Spanish m.) middle dot ·
Punto muerto(Spanish m.) deadlock (figurative), neutral (gear in a vehicle)
Puntone(Italian m.) rafter, strut
Puntos del orden del día(Spanish f. pl.) points on the agenda (for a discussion, meeting, etc.)
Puntos suspensivos(Spanish m. pl.) dots, suspension points (US)
Punto y aparte(Spanish m.) full stop, new paragraph (in the US: period, new paragraph)
Punto y coma(Spanish m.) semicolon (;)
Punto y seguido(Spanish m.) full stop (.)
puntuable(Spanish) valid
Puntuación(Spanish m.) punctuation
puntuale(Italian) punctual
Puntualità(Italian f.) punctuality
Puntuazione(Italian f.) punctuation
Puntura(Italian f.) puncture, sting, (insect) bite, prick, hypodermic injection, shooting pain
Punze(German f.) counter (print), punch (tools), drift (tools), hallmark (stamp)
punzecchiare(Italian) to prick (lightly and repeatedly), to sting, to bite, to goad, to tease (figurative)
punzonare(Italian) to punch, to punch out
Punzone(Italian m.) a punch, a die-stamp, a tool for stamping ornament on the back or cover of leather-bound books
(Italian m.) punch (with the fist)
può darsi(Italian) maybe
minim(Finnish) a minim (half note), a note half the value of a semibreve (whole note)
Puolisävel(Finnish) a semitone, a half note, the interval of a minor second
Puolisävelaskeleen sadasosa tasavireisessä viritysjärjestelmässä(Finnish) cent (musical interval)
minim rest(Finnish) a minim rest (half rest), a rest half the value of a semibreve rest (whole rest)
Pupari(Sicilian/Italian) Sicilian puppeteers
Pupattola(Italian f.) or pupazzola (Italian f.), doll, tiny child
Pupazzetto(Italian m.) a caricature
Pupazzo(Italian m.) puppet
Pupazzolasee pupattola
Pupilla(Italian f.) pupil (of the eye)
Pupitre(French m.) orchestral stand for two players, music desk, music stand, Notenständer (German m.)
Pupitre à musique(French f.) music stand
Pupitre d'espace(French m.) a device utilizing induction coils, built by Jacques Poullin in 1951 at Pierre Schaeffer's suggestion
Pupitre portatif(French m.) music lyre, a stand used by marching woodwind and brass players to hold their band parts
Puppengesicht(German n.) doll's face
Puppenhaus(German n.) doll's house
Puppenoper(German f.) puppet opera
Puppenspiel(German n.) puppet show
Puppenspieler(German m.) puppeteer
Puppentheater(German n.) puppet theatre
Puppenwagen(German m.) doll's pram
Puppet operathe performance of opera by puppets (Haydn wrote a number of these) or involving puppets, for example, El Retablo de Maese Pedro by Falla
Puputa Minangkabau wind instrument
Purab angcharacteristics of a style of music prevalent in the eastern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh
Purana(Sanskrit) one of a group of Sanskrit religious poems containing the mythology of the Hindus
Purdah(Hindi) the seclusion of Indian women of superior rank
Pure Dataor Pd, a graphical programming language developed by Miller Puckette in the 1990s for the creation of interactive computer music and multimedia works. Though Puckette is the primary author of the software, Pd is an open source project and has a large developer base working on new extensions to the program. It is released under a license similar to the BSD license
  • Pure Data from which this extract has been taken
Purée(French) in cooking, anything reduced to the consistency of thick cream by passing it through a sieve
Pure harmonymusic performed using an untempered intonation
Pureihua(Maori) a bull roarer, a traditional Maori instrument associated with funerals
Pure minornatural minor
Pure minor scalenatural minor scale
Pure musicsee 'absolute music'
PurflingEinlage (German f.), filets (French pl.), filetti (Italian pl.), an inlay of wood placed along or just inside the border of the belly and back of instruments of the violin family, both to protect the edges of the instrument and to decorate it
Purgationanother term for catharsis
Purgatorya place or state where those who have died in the grace of God must spend time expiating their venial faults and forgiven mortal sins before being admitted to the Beatific Vision, or presence of God
Purista(Spanish m./f.) purist
Purist grammaralso called 'grammatical purism', the belief in an absolute or unchanging standard of correct grammar
Puritana Protestant sect particularly active during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, many of whose members emigrated to the North American continent on the Mayflower. In its negative sense, the word Puritan often evokes the idea of dour, grim, religious conformity, since Puritans stereotypically wore only black and white; they frowned upon drinking, dancing, and displays of sexuality; burned aging misfits as witches; censored literature, and closed Shakespeare's playhouses in England because of acting's "immorality"
Puritan interregnumthe term refers to both the Puritan government established under Oliver Cromwell after the civil war against the British monarch and those years in which that government lasted (1649-1658). This interregnum marks the end of the English Renaissance
Purleigh Colony
a Tolstoyan Anarchist colony that grew out of the Croydon Brotherhood Church. Some members had lived in, or visited Russia and were personally acquainted with Tolstoy. Initially based on a 10-acre plot, as the group grew the colony rented local cottages with land attached. They worked the poor land using intensive methods which impressed visitors: "Various buildings have been put up - a tool shed, a 100-foot green house (thirty feet fitted with heating apparatus), a workshop with carpenter's bench, a stable to accommodate a horse and pony, some fowl houses, a cow shed large enough to hold six cows, a coal shed and a six-roomed brick cottage. The cottage is occupied by the family and one of the single men, and most of the colonists come in to dinner every day.". The colony ran a printing press, publishing translations of Tolstoy and for a while The New Order magazine. For a time the colony sheltered some of the Russian Doukhobors, members of the sect forced to leave Russia to avoid political persecution. Some of the colonists went with the Doukhobors to Canada, and a small group went to form the colony at Whiteway after a disagreement with others over membership policy. This exodus seems to have resulted in the closure of the colony
puro(Italian) pure
puro(Spanish, literally 'pure' or 'unadulterated') when applied to a song, dance or guitar-playing, it means that the performance must be genuine and come from within, lacking any conscious effort to make an impression, signifying a complete and total committment to the 'art'
Purple patcha section of purple prose or writing that is too ornate or florid for the surrounding plain material, which in turn looks too tranquil or dull by the incongruity of the startling purple patch
Purple prosewriting that seems overdone or which makes excessive use of imagery, figures of speech, poetic diction, and polysyllabication. These artifices become so overblown that they accidentally become silly or pompous
Purpureus pannus(Latin, literally 'purple patch') a passage in a work of literature consciously designed to display splendour of style
Pur sang(French) thoroughbred
Purslanea plant with a pinkish fleshy stem and small, round leaves; the leaves were used as a potherb or in salads
pur troppo(Italian) unfortunately, only too well
puse toda mi alma en ello(Spanish) I put all my heart into it, I put my whole heart into it
Pussy bowin dress design, a large bow detail that is more commonly tied around the neck, can also be added as a detail to the waist and wrist
Pustuadrum from Mozambique
Putney, Thesee 'VCS-3'
Putonghuaalso called guoyu (national language), the official spoken language of China, used in its various forms by more than 70 percent of the population. The People's Republic government started promoting putonghua in 1956 for use in schools, the cultural arena, and daily life as a means of bringing about the standardization of the language used by the Han nationality. Putonghua is based on the northern dialect, and uses Beijing pronunciations as its standard
Put pilota TV deal to produce a pilot that includes substantial penalties if the pilot is not aired, thus, a virtual guarantee that a pilot will be picked up
Putsch(Swiss German) a violent elimination of political opponents
Putti(Italian m. pl.) boys, choir boys
Putto (s.), Putti (pl.)(Italian m.) in art, a naked infant (usually chubby) used as a decorative element in baroque art
PututuSouth-American shell trumpet
Puupuhaltimet(Finnish) woodwind
Puxador(Portuguese) the vocalist who leads the singing of a Brazilian samba school when taking part in the Carnaval parade
Puyaside from their performances in courts, troubadours might perform for important public meetings or at fairs. In Northern France, pui (song contests) were held starting about the thirteenth century. Some of the manuscripts note that a song had been 'crowned' the winner in one of these contests. A puy combined both sacred and secular themes and eventually grew to include wordplay. Eventually, plays and poetry eclipsed the music and the puy became a kind of guild
(French) in geography, a small volcanic cone, especially one of these found in Auvergne
Puzon(Polish) trombone
Puzzle canonenigmatical canon, enigmatic canon, riddle canon
P.-V.abbreviation of procès-verbal (French: meeting minutes)
PWMacronym for Polskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne (a leading Polish publishing house)
Pyeonjongsee p'yon'gyong, pyonjong
Pygmy musicthe Pygmies are a broad group of people who live in Central Africa, especially in Congo, Central African Republic and Cameroon. Music is an important part of Pygmy life, and casual performances take place during many of the day's events. Music comes in many forms, including the spiritual likanos stories, vocable singing and music played from a variety of instruments. The African Pygmies are particularly known for their usually vocal music, usually characterised by dense contrapuntal communal improvisation. Simha Arom (2003) says that the level of polyphonic complexity of Pygmy music was reached in Europe in the fourteenth century, yet Pygmy culture is unwritten and ancient, some Pygmy groups being the first known cultures in some areas of Africa. Music permeates daily life and there are songs for entertainment as well as specific events and activities
Pylonthe wide entrance gateway of an Egyptian temple, characterized by its sloping walls
Pyongjo-dansoa Korean flute played vertically, a large form of danso tuned to the pyongjo or major mode
P'yon'gyong(Korean) or pyonjong, a fixed pitch percussion instrument formed of sixteen brass bells which are suspended on a wooden frame
Pyonjongsee p'yon'gyong
Pyonkyung(Korean) formed of two layers of resonant stones, called kyong-sok set on a frame, it is played by striking the stones with a beater called a kakt'oe
Pyramidsee 'bell effect'
Pyramidial flutean organ stop, of 8 ft. scale, and made of wood
Pyramidon(Greek) an organ stop of 16 ft. or 32 ft. scale, on the pedals, invented by Rev. Sir F.A.G. Ouseley, the pipes being of an unusual shape, in that they are four times larger at the top than at the mouth, abd, for the size, have a tone of remarkable gravity, similar to the tone of a stopped pipe
Pyrographythe art of burning designs or pictures into wood or leather. Pyrography is more commonly referred to as woodburning or pokerwork
Pyrophonein 1875 Georges Fredric Eugene Kastner published, Les Flammes Chantantes, a description of his pyrophone, or "fire organ", a musical instrument in which the notes are produced by the burning of hydrogen gas within glass tubes of varying lengths and sizes
Pyrrhica metrical foot consisting of two short syllables, the opposite of a spondee
pytagoreiskt Komma(Swedish) Pythagorean comma
pytagorinen Komma(Finnish) Pythagorean comma
pythagoræisk Komma(Danish) Pythagorean comma
Pythagoräisches Komma(German n.) Pythagorean comma
Pythagorasreputedly, the father of music theory who is said to have discovered the link between numbers and music by analyzing the vibrations of strings of various lengths. According to legend he discovered the mathematical rationale of musical consonance from the weights of hammers used by smiths. He found that the interval of an octave is rooted in the ratio (2:1), that of the fifth in (3:2), that of the fourth in (4:3), and that of the whole tone in (9:8). The Pythagoreans applied these ratios to lengths of a string on an instrument called a canon, or monochord, and thereby were able to determine mathematically the intonation of an entire musical system
Weisheit und Wissenschaft: Studien zu Pythagoras, Philolaus und Platon (1962) by Walter Burkert
Pythagorean chromatic semitoneor apotome, an interval having the frequency ratio (2187:2048)
Pythagorean commaor ditonic comma, the difference between twelve justly tuned perfect fifths and seven octaves. Pythagorean comma (3^12/2^19 = 531441/524288) arises through the incommensurabilty of the "2-limit" (i.e. octaves) and the "3-limit" (i.e. Pythagorean series). It is equal to 23.46 cents (about 1/8 of a tone). It is also the difference between a Pythagorean chromatic semitone and a Pythagorean diatonic semitone
Pythagorean diatonic semitonean interval having the frequency ratio (256:243)
Pythagorean intervalsthe standard intervals of Pythagorean tuning except the pure unison (1:1) and octave (2:1) are derived primarily from superimposed fifths (3:2), thus having ratios which are powers of (3:2), or secondarily from the differences between these primary intervals and the octave. The table below shows the 13 usual intervals of medieval music from unison to octave as listed by Anonymous I c.1290, and by Jacobus of Liege c.1325
unison(1:1)unison (1:1)0.00
minor second(256:243)octave - major 7th90.22
major second(9:8)(3:2)2 / 2203.91
minor third(32:27)octave - major 6th294.13
major third(81:64)(3:2)4 / 4407.82
fourth(4:3)octave - 5th498.04
augmented fourth(729:512)(3:2)6 /8611.73
minor sixth(128:81)octave - major 3rd792.18
major sixth(27:16)(3:2)3 / 2905.87
minor seventh(16:9)octave - major 2nd996.09
major seventh(243:128)(3:2)5 / 41109.78
octave(2:1)octave (2:1)1200.00
Pythagorean major thirda wide third formed by taking four pure fifths and subtracting two octaves, the resulting interval (81:64) is about 408 cents, about 22 cents larger than a harmonic major third (5:4). The difference between the Pythagorean major third and the pure third is called the syntonic comma
Pythagorean minor thirdthe difference between three ascending perfect fourths and an octave (2:1), the Pythagorean minor third thus formed (32:27) is about 294 cents, 22 cents flatter than a harmonic minor third (6:5)
Pythagorean scale
Pythagorean tuningthe tuning also called by Ptolemy Diatonic ditoniaion. where the tetrachord or modular fourth is composed of two tones and a semitone in the ratios (9:8), (9:8), (256:243). The fifth and fourth, favoured by this tuning, were the most prominent consonances in written polyphony from the 9th- through the 13th-centuries, particularly at points of rhythmic or structural emphasis. The major 2nds and 3rds are larger, and the minor 2nds and 3rds smaller, than those of other tunings. As a result, the thirds and sixths, which were not recognized as consonances by Greek or orthodox medieval theory, were harsh-sounding in the Pythagorean tuning
pythagoreisch(German) pythagorean
Pythagoreische Skala(German f.) Pythagorean scale
Pythagoreische Stimmung(German f.) Pythagorean tuning
Pythagoreische Terz(German f.) Pythagorean third also known as Ditonus or Ditonos, an interval with the frequency ratio 64:81