music dictionary : R - Rd

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Rafter the catalogue of music by Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741) prepared by Gian Francesco Malipiero (1882-1973) and published by Ricordi
after Bartholomäus Riedl, the cataloguer of music by Gottlieb Muffat (1690-1770)
after Peter Ryom, the cataloguer of music by Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741)
after John A. Rice, the cataloguer of the music of Adelbert Gyrowetz (1763-1850)
after Mario Rinaldi, the cataloguer of music by Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741)
or Ra, after Peter Raabe, the cataloguer of music by Franz Liszt (1811-1886)
after Sabina Teller Ratner, cataloguer of music by Camille Saint-Saëns (1835-1921)
after Gilbert Rowland (b.1946) who, in 1975, started a catalogue and series of recordings of harpsichord works by Antonio Soler (1729-1783)
Rabbreviation of (in signature) 'editorial revision'
abbreviation of 'photographic reprint' (edition of score or early printed source)
abbreviation of response
r abbreviation of recto (Latin)
®registered trademark, eingetragenes Warenzeichen (German n.), marque déposée (French f.), marca depositata (Italian f.), marca registrada (Spanish f.)
R.abbreviation used variously for 'right' (as in R.H., 'right hand'), clavier de récit, Rechte, ripieno, recitative, responsory or ritardando
abbreviation of no. of chanson in G. Raynaud, Bibliographie des chansonniers français des XIIIe et XIVe siècles (Paris, 1884)
Rathe lowered second degree of the major scale; in 'fixed do' solfeggio, ra is always the note 'D flat'
Raor R, after Peter Raabe the cataloguer of music by Franz Liszt (1811-1886)
RAAFabbreviation of 'Royal Australian Air Force'
Raagsee rag
R & Babbreviation of 'rhythm and blues'
Rabab(English, German f.) found in ninth and tenth century texts, rabab is the oldest known Arabic word for a bowed instrument. The terms rebab, rubob, rebeb, rbeb and rbab are different dialect forms of the classical term rabab and are evidence of the extent of oral transmission of information in African and Indonesian cultures. Today these terms are used to describe a large number of instruments. The rabab was probably brought from Andalusia to North African cities with large numbers of Spaniards (Constantine in Algeria, for example) and then spread to other places from there. The rabab is shown with the ud in late 19th-century French engravings, and its was also played in cafes in Algiers. Rababs are played from North Africa across Asia to Indonesia. They have a hollowed-out body of wood with a membrane stretched over the opening. Combinations of gut (or nylon) and metal strings pass over a bridge which rests on a taut membrane. The rabab is mentioned quite frequently in old texts; however this is usually the seni rabab which is a rather different instrument from what we think of today. It is common to refer to the modern rabab as the kabuli rabab to distinguish it from the seni rabab. There is evidence that this instrument may be the progenitor of a number of Indian instruments, the saringda, sarod and the sarangi. At first it may seem hard to make the connection between a plucked instrument and a bowed instrument, however, the waist in the middle of the rabab is an indication that the instrument was, at some time, played with a bow and that the rabab and the European medieval rebec probably share a common ancestor
Rababaalso known as rababah or rubab, an Afghan lute with 13 sympathetic strings, where the three main gut strings are stretched across a goat skin
another name for the rabab used in the Arabian Peninsula and Gulf nations
a string instrument, played with a horsehair bow, having a quadrilateral sound box covered with skin and a single string made from horsehair
Rababahsee rababa
Rabanaa frame drum used in Indonesian Muslim music
Rabania frame drum used in Indonesian Muslim music
Rabannaa frame drum used in Indonesian Muslim music
rabattre le caquet à ...(French) take ... down a peg or two
Rabbia(Italian f.) rage, fury, anger, madness
rabbiosa(Italian) furiously, angrily
Rabbit-skin gluethe binder used in traditional water-gilding
Rabeca(Portuguese) violin, also one used for folkloric and traditional performances in Portugal, i.e. fiddle
the instrument was brought, in the 17th-century, to Brazil by the Portuguese. It was sometimes played with only three strings, and its derivatives comes in a variety of shapes and sizes, where it performs a rhythmic rather than a melodic role in generally high-spirited performances
Rabeca chuleiraa violin often played by blind and mendicants in Portuguese cities
Rabela bowed folk rebec from Spain that is derived from the North African rabab
when the Spanish arrived in Mexico the 16th-century, they brought with them the rabel, a small three-string rebec, which the Indians took to. By 1555 it was considered a disruptive influence and was banned throughout New Spain. This naturally had the opposite effect intended, and in rural areas native versions continued to thrive and diversify into various regional forms
(Panama) the three-string rabel is used to play cumbias, puntos and pasillos in the central provinces of Coclé, Herrera, Los Santos and Veraguas
Rabillo(Spanish) flag (part of a note)
Raccolata(Italian f.) collection
Raccolata di canzoni(Italian f.) song collection, songbook
raccontando(Italian) narrating
Racea(Spanish, 'sweep') one of the many rasgueo or strumming techniques on the guitar
Race musicsee 'African American music'
Racer backsee 'muscle back'
Race recordinga term used for recordings (usually the blues) of the the 1920s and 1930s which were performed by African-Americans and which were advertised exclusively to blacks and were sold only in black stores
Rache(German f.) vengeance
Rachenhöhle(German f.) pharynx
Rachenitsasee 'Balkan folk dance'
Rachenlaut(German m.) gutteral sound, throat sound
Racial epithetused to refer to an abusive or defamatory phrase with racist connotations
Racket(English, French m.) rankett (Italian m.), rocchetta (Italian f.), Rankett (German n.), Stockfagott (German n.), Wurstfagott (German n.), cervelas (French m.)
a family of double-reed Renaissance wind instruments that come in six sizes and which, lacking the tonal strength of the shawm and dulcian, fell into disuse in the 18th-century. The bore is extremely long but folds repeatedly upon itself to fit into a cylindrical exterior. A later version, a racket-bassoon, with a telescoping folded bore and curved bocal was produced in the eighteenth century
Renaissance Racket
sizerange (low-high)
great bassDD-A
great bassCC-G
Baroque Racket-Bassoon
sizerange (low-high)
information provided by Philip Neuman
Racket-bassoonsee 'racket'
Rackett(German n.) racket, rocchetta (Italian f.), Rankett (German n.), Stockfagott (German n.), Wurstfagott (German n.), racket (French m.), cervelas (French m.)
Rackettenfagott(German n.) an early bassoon invented by Chris. Denner at the beginning of the early 18th-century
Rackettfagott(German n.) an early bassoon invented by Chris. Denner at the beginning of the early 18th-century
racler(French, from racleur, literally 'a scraper') to scrape (a description used of bad string playing)
Racoleur(French m.) a military recruiter
raconter ce qui s'est passé(French) to tell what happened
raconter des histoires(French) to tell tall tales
raconter n'importe quoi(French) to babble, to talk nonsense, to rubbish
raconter que(French) to tell that
raconter sa vie(French) to tell one's life story
raconter sa vie à ...(French) to go on and on about ..., to talk excessively about ...
Raconteur (m.), Raconteuse (f.)(French) someone skilled or gifted in the art of verbal story-telling
Radasee arará
Radau(German m.) din, racket
Raddlein weaving, a narrow, flat board with nails or pegs protruding at regular intervals, used to distribute the warp evenly across the loom while the warp is being wound
raddol.abbreviated form of raddolcendo (Italian: becoming gentler, calming down)
raddolcendo(Italian) or raddolcente (Italian), becoming gentler, calming down, becoming softer by degrees, sweetening, sanfter werden (German), en adoucissant (French)
raddolcente(Italian) or raddolcendo (Italian), becoming gentler, calming down, becoming softer by degrees, sweetening, sanfter werden (German), en adoucissant (French)
raddolciato(Italian) calmer
raddoppiamento(Italian) augmentation or doubling, for example, the bass part is doubled one octave down
raddoppiare(Italian) to augment or double, for example, to double the bass with the note an octave lower
raddoppiate note(Italian) repeated or reiterated note
raddoppiato(Italian) doubled, increased, augmented
Radial cutsee 'slab cut'
Radiating pedalsthe pedal-keyboard of an organ, in which the pedals are arranged somewhat after the shape of a fan
Radical bassa bass line that links the fundamentals of the chords in a progression, as described in Traité de l'harmonie (1722) by Jean-Philippe Rameau (1683-1764)
Radical cadenceany cadence where the chords are in root position, i.e. the roots of each chord are in the bass
Radical innocencethe Romantics valued innocence as something pure, wholesome, fulfilling, natural, and individualistic. They saw it as antithetical to the corrupting influence of civilized conformity and the heartless, mechanized, industrialized, materialistic society of the Enlightenment
Radîf(Persian, literally 'row' or 'ordering') the repertoire of Persian classical music, a logically-ordered collection of melodies, rhythms, compositions, songs, and interpretations handed down through the generations from master to student. The radîf is used as a teaching tool and a performance roadmap
Radio Batonconceived by Max Mathews, built by Robert Boie at Bell Telephone Laboratories in 1987, the 'Radio Baton' allows a musician to control a musical performance by moving two wands, each containing a different low-frequency radio transmitter, over a flat surface that contains receivers. Each wand produces information relating to height and position relative to the left/right or top/bottom of the surface
Radiodiffusion(French f.) broadcasting
Radiodiffusione(Italian f.) broadcasting
Radiodifusión(Spanish f.) broadcasting
Radiophonicof or relating to electronically produced sound, especially music
Radio wavesthe lowest energy (longest wavelength) photons in the electromagnetic spectrum
Radkappe (s.), Radkappen (pl.)(German f.) hub cap, hubcap
Radleier(German f.) hurdy-gurdy, ghironda (Italian), Drehleier (German), Leier (German), vielle à roue (French)
raekke(Danish) series
RAF abbreviation of 'Royal Air Force'
raffiniert(German) ingenious (thing)
rafforzando(Italian) or rinforzando (Italian), strengthening, verstärkend (German), en reforçant (French)
raffrenando(Italian) or frenando, checking (i.e. reducing) the speed, slowing, braking, bremsend
Rag(rag, Sanskrit, literally 'the act of colouring or dyeing', in the context of the mind, and 'any feeling or passion especially love, affection, sympathy, vehement desire, interest, joy or delight) in music, these descriptions apply to the impressions of melodic sounds on both the artist(s) and listener(s). A rag consists of required and optional rules governing the melodic movements of notes within a performance
groups of notes that organise melody, each raga having its own nature and personality, the use of which is governed by empirical rules which are adhered to with varying degrees of strictness:
a raga must be, at the least, pentatonic
the raga should be assigned to a determined scale called mela or thaat
madhyam and pancham (i.e. fourth and fifth note) cannot be omitted in the same raga
aroha and avarcha should be maintained in a set sequence
pakad (i.e. grip of a raga) should be maintained by the use of a minimal number of notes characteristic of the raga
Raga(English, German m.) see rag
Raga lakshananotes and other features which strongly characterise a raga
Raganella(Italian f.) rattle, ratchet, Ratsche, crécelle
Raga rocka term used in the 1960s to describe rock and roll records with Indian musical influences, especially those using the sitar, tabla, and other Eastern instrumentation
  • Raga rock from which this extract has been taken
Raga-socaa music style from Trinidad and Tobago, that derives from reggae, dancehall and calypso
Raga vistarthe elaboration of a raga
Rag dungTibetan ritual trumpets
rageur(French) ill-tempered
Raggaor 'Raggamuffin music', a subgenre of dancehall reggae in which the instrumentation primarily consists of electronic music; sampling often serves a prominent role in raggamuffin music as well
  • Ragga from which this extract has been taken
Raggacorea genre of music resembling a faster version of jungle, or breakcore with ragga or reggae style basslines and vocals
  • Raggacore from which this extract has been taken
Ragga junglethe name given to a substyle of jungle music that emerged circa 1993 and has heavy influences from ragga and dancehall
Raggamuffin musicsee ragga
Ragged papersee 'cotton paper'
Raggio (s.), Raggi (pl.)(Italian m.) ray (of light), radius (mathematics), spoke (of a wheel)
raggirare(Italian) to trick
Raggiro(Italian m.) trick
Raggi ultravioletti(Italian) UV, ultra-violet rays
raggiungere(Italian) to reach, to achieve
raggomitolarsi(Italian) to curl up
raggranellare(Italian) to scrape together
raggrinzare(Italian) to wrinkle
raggrinzarsi(Italian) to become wrinkled
raggruppare(Italian) to group (together)
ragguagliare(Italian) to compare, to inform
Ragguaglio(Italian m.) comparison; information
ragguardevole(Italian) considerable
Ragia(Italian f.) resin
Ragini(English, German f.) the concept of families of rags is an interesting aspect of Indian music. Over the centuries rags have been ascribed to certain demigods. A natural consequence of such anthropomorphism is that there be a familial relationship between them. Therefore, in the past few centuries there arose a complicated system of rags (male rags), raginis (female rags), putra rags (sons of rags), etc. This was the basis for a system of classification before the advent of modern musicology
Raglana garment (coat or sweater) that has raglan sleeves
a sleeve joined to the body of a garment by a long slanting seam starting at the neck and continuing around the armhole
Ragokea small Russian horn
Ragoût(French) a highly-seasoned stew of vegetables and small pieces of meat
Rag papera paper made from plant fibre that is easily broken down into pulp without the use of chemicals. The fibres of cotton and flax are often used to create high quality papers but they are too expensive for most commercial printing. Cotton rags and mill sweepings are a cheaper source for high quality cellulose but they too can be expensive. Esparto grass provides quality fibre for rag paper but it is not commonly used outside Europe. Rag papers often have archival properties and are very strong due to their interlocking fibres. While many rag papers are acid free, the rag content in itself is no guarantee of its pH level
Ragtime(English, German m.) a musical syle of 1890s America, a forerunner of jazz, featuring a march-time stride bass against a syncopated melody
Ragtime danceat the end of the 19th-century, the growing influence of a new kind of popular music substantially changed the nature of dance. Ragtime had become a popular American style of music, chiefly composed for the piano, that flourished between 1890 and World War I. The sparkling and intoxicating rhythms of ragtime, with music by composers such as Scott Joplin, ushered in an era of expressive ballroom dancing, with dances that did not need formal training but which encouraged individualism
Ragtime progressiona chord progression typical of ragtime music and parlour music genres though its use originated in classical music and spread to American folk music
Ragtime schottischealso called 'hot schottische', a combination of 'ragtime' with the schottische, popular at the beginning of the 20th-century in the Southern United States
Ragtime songthe vocal form of ragtime, most commonly considered "ragtime" in its day
Rahmen(German m.) frame
Rahmentrommel(German f.) frame drum, tambour militaire, tamburo militare
RAIabbreviation of Radio Audizioni Italiane (Italian)
Raïsee ra'i
Ra'i(Arabic, literally 'opinion') or raï, mixes western rhythms and technology with a traditional music line. It came originally from Algeria, where it was banned on the radio until 1985. Besides provoking the government, it angered Islamists with its lyrics. Most of its best-known performers now live in France
Railresembling the crane, any of 127 species of slender, somewhat chicken-shaped marsh birds, with short rounded wings
Railroad tracksanother name for caesura
Rainha da bateria(literally, 'queen of the percussion') a samba dancer that accompanies the percussion section, the bateria, of a samba school, usually a woman chosen for her physical beauty
Railsback curvethe Railsback curve, first measured by O.L. Railsback, expresses the difference between normal piano tuning and an equal-tempered scale (one in which the frequencies of successive notes are related by a constant ratio, equal to the twelfth root of two). For any given note on the piano, the deviation between the normal pitch of that note and its equal-tempered pitch is given in cents (hundredths of a semitone). As the Railsback curve shows, octaves are normally stretched on a well-tuned piano. That is, the high notes are higher, and the low notes lower, than they are in an equal-tempered scale. Not all octaves are equally stretched: the middle octaves are barely stretched at all, whereas the octaves on either end of the piano are stretched considerably. Railsback discovered that pianos were typically tuned in this manner not because of a lack of precision, but because of inharmonicity in the strings. Ideally, the overtone series of a note consists of frequencies that are integer multiples of the note's fundamental frequency. Inharmonicity causes the successive overtones to be higher than they "should" be
Railway hotela hotel owned by a railroad company near one of their stations. As railroads grew larger they began purchasing and building large hotels in order to offer more complete travel packages that would encourage tourism through their line. While some hotels provided rooms at important transfer points, many others became tourist destinations in themselves and an excuse for rail travel
Rainsticksee palo de lluvia
Raise The Windowone of the big circle figures danced by all couples in one large circle facing the centre which are traditionally associated with square dancing
Raison d'état(French) a justification originating with the safety of the state
Raison d'être(French) a reason for existing, a reason for being, a justification for the existence of something
raisonné(French) rational, logical, systematically arranged (as in catalogue raisonné)
Raisonneur(French m., 'reasoner') a character in a novel or play who draws conclusions from the behaviour of other characters and moralizes upon the action. The raisonneur's purpose is similar to that of a chorus in Greek drama, i.e., this choric figure remains at a distance from the main action and provides a reasoned commentary about what takes place. However, a raisonneur doesn't necessarily sing like the chorus, and the character appears in other genres of literature (short stories, novels, poems) rather than in dramatic works
Raj(Hind.) sovereignty, rule, authority, kingdom, regime
(died 1900)
Raychandbhai, Jain saint and philosopher, contemporary of Gandhiji, whom the latter acknowledged as his spiritual guru
Rajah(Hind.) an Indian prince or princeling sovereignty, a Hindu chieftan
Rajah zeetaran instrument made to look like a sitar but supplied with an electonic amplifier
Rajãoa mid-size Portuguese guitar from the island of Madeira, which is a little bigger than the braguinha. The Madeiran rajão is tuned D-G-C-E-A, in other words. the D and G strings are both re-entrant, i.e., tuned an octave higher than expected in the normal low-to high course of strings
Rake-and-scrape music(The Bahamas) a unique type of instrumental music made by bending a saw and scraping with a small object, most typically a screwdriver, that is used to accompany dances derived from European forms like polka and waltz
Raked stagea stage which slants upward away from the view of the audience, i.e. is higher at the back that it is at the front
Rake's Progress, Thean opera first performed in 1951 with libretto by W(ystan) H(ugh) Auden (1907-1973) and Chester Kallman (1921-1975), and music by Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971)
[information corrected by N. A. Cakir]
Raki(Turkish) a strong spirit made from grain or grapeskins
Rakingperforming broken chords on the lute
Raks sharkiraqs sharqi, danse du ventre, belly dance or Oriental dance, one of the world's oldest dance forms, that is common throughout the Middle East and North Africa, particularly in Egypt where raks sharki thrives
Rakugo(Japanese) a comic monologue performed by a kimono-clad rakugo-ka sitting on a cushion on stage holding a folding fan. The basic form is an amusing conversation between an experienced, knowledgeable, wise person and a rough, ignorant, foolish person; the rakugo-ka performs both parts, facing right to indicate the wise person and left to indicate the foolish person
  • Rakugo from which this extract has been taken
Râle(French) a medical term for an abnormal noise accompanying breathing in morbid conditions of the lungs
ralenti(French) slower, rallentato, verlangsamt
ralentir(French) to slow down, langsamer werden, rallentando
ralentissant(French) to slow down
rall.abbreviation of rallentando (Italian: slowing down, getting slower)
rallen.abbreviation of rallentando (Italian: slowing down, getting slower)
rallentamento(Italian) a slacking of the tempo (often with the sound becoming gradually softer)
rallentando(Italian) slowing down, getting slower, langsamer werdend, en ralentissant (often with the sound becoming gradually softer)
rallentare(Italian) to slow
rallentare improvisamente(Italian) to suddenly broaden
rallentato(Italian) slowed, slower, verlangsamt, ralenti (often with the sound becoming gradually softer)
rallentamento(Italian) slow
rallerdando(Finnish) rallentando
rallo.abbreviation of rallentando (Italian: slowing down, getting slower)
RAM abbreviation of 'Royal Academy of Music, London'
Ram, Ramahero of the epic, Ramayana, who is regarded as an ideal man and king, and worshipped as the 7th incarnation of God
Ramadan(Arabic) an annual thirty day period during which a Moslem will abstain completely from food and drink between sunrise and sunset and also from smoking
(1836-1886 AD)
Bengali saint who was the guru of Swami Vivekananda and who taught the oneness of the Godhead and the basic harmony of all religions
Ramanaalternative spelling of ram mana
Ramanamaliterally 'kingdom of Rama', an ideal system of government
ramasser une bûche(French) to come a cropper (meet with an accident)
Ramayanathe Hindu epic narrating the story of the abduction of Sita, wife of Rama; prince of Ayodhya, by Ravana, demon-king of Lanka (Ceylon), and her rescue after the conquest of Lanka by the armies led by Rama and the death of Ravana at the hands of Rama
Ramdhuna song made up of repetitions of God's name
Rameau, Pierre
the French dancing master to Elisabetta Farnese, and the author of two books that now provide us with valuable information about Baroque dance. Rameau's first book, ,Le Maître à Danser (1725, Paris), was a dance manual giving instruction on formal ballroom dancing in the French style. The first part covers posture, reverences, steps, and the ballroom minuet, while the second part is concerned entirely with the use of the arms. His second book, Abbregé de la Nouvelle Methode (c.1725, Paris), described a modified version of Beauchamp-Feuillet notation and included several choreographies by Pécour in the new notation. While Rameau's notation was not generally adopted, his information about the shortcomings of Beauchamp-Feuillet notation provide dance historians with clarifications about the execution of the steps
Ramekina small glass or earthenware dish, often white and circular, in which food is baked and served. The bottom should be rough (unglazed) to prevent suction from forming in a water bath
ramener ses fraisesto put one's two penn'orth (in the US, two cents) in
Ramistestoward the end of the 1770s, partially as a consequence of the controversy between the Ramistes and Gluckistes (the supporters of Rameau and Gluck respectively), the Académie Royale de Musique was in a state of crisis, which led to the appointment of a new director, Anne Pierre Jacques Devismes du Valgay. To mediate between the two parties, he not only scheduled pieces that would appeal to all tastes, but, to promote this program, also commissioned a new opera from André Ernest Modeste Grétry, a composer not directly involved in the controversy. The result was Les trois âges de l'opéra (libretto by Saint-Alphonse Devismes), a prologue opéra including extensive borrowings from Lully, Rameau and Gluck. In this opera, each of these composers is praised for his operatic contributions, Lully's "mastery of lyric declamation," Rameau's dances, and Gluck's recitative style and wide range of passions, and Grétry carefully underlines their strengths with appropriate quotations. The borrowed passages are basically unchanged; Grétry only changed the instrumentation in some places or interpolated a few extra bars (measures) to meet the requirements of the text. To correct the ahistorical view of the Ramistes and Gluckistes, Grétry related the borrowings to each other, showing the indebtedness of Rameau and Gluck to their predecessor, for example by quoting a "dramatically static chorus" from Gluck's Ifigénie, a chorus that according to some critics owed much to the French model. The libretto does much to give the impression that Gluck continued the Lully-Rameau lyric tradition
Ramji MandirRama's temple
Rammanaalternative form of ram mana
Ram mana(Thailand) the ram mana is drum with a single drum-head, about 26 cm in diameter, that is made of calfskin. The body is made of hardwood and is about 7 cm deep
rammentare(German f.) to remember
Rammentatore(Italian) prompter
Rampe(German f., French f.) footlights
Rampenlicht(German) limelights
Ramsona kind of garlic with broad leaves; the root was used for salads
Ranad-ek(Thailand) ranat-ek or ranart-ek, a large xylophone with 21 to 22 keys with keys made of special hardwoods such as mai ching chan. The instrument's stand is shaped like a boat and is made of teak
Ranad-kaeo(Thailand) ranat-kaeo or ranart-kaeo, a rare xylophone with bars made of glass
Ranad-thume(Thailand) ranat-thume or ranart-toom, a large xylophone with 17 to 18 keys with keys made of bamboo. The stand is shaped like a long wooden box and is made of teak
Ranart-eksee ranad-ek
Ranart-kaeosee ranad-kaeo
Ranart-toomsee ranad-thume
Ranat-eksee ranad-ek
Ranat-kaeosee ranad-kaeo
Ranat-toomsee ranad-thume
Rancheras(Spanish, literally 'ranch songs') usually accompanied by mariachi bands, which evolved in Jalisco in the post-revolutionary period, rancheras are also played today by norteño, banda, duranguense, and occasionally even rock bands, this Mexican style began as Mexican cowboy music but in the 20th-century, Mexican films popularized the genre, and it became a pop style. Traditional rancheras are about love, patriotism or nature. Rhythms can be in 3/4, 2/4 or 4/4, reflecting the tempo of, respectively, the waltz, the polka, and the bolero
  • Ranchera from which part of the information has been taken
Ranchero(Spanish m.) a herdsman or overseer employed on a ranch, a small farmer
Rand(German m.) rim or edge of a drum
bord (French m.), bordo (Italian m.), edge, margin of an area or surface, narrow surface of a thin object, meeting-line of surfaces
R and B(English, German m.) or 'R&B', abbreviation of 'rhythm and blues'
Randbemerkung(German f.) a marginal note
Randeinlage(German f.) purfling
Randel(German n.) Abkantung (German f.), Phase (German f.), chanfrein (French f.), smusso (Italian m.), chamfer, a bevelled surface at an edge or corner
Rändelmutter(German f.) knurled nut
Randvermerk(German m.) a marginal note
Randwick Experiment
founed by Mary Ann Greaves & James Pierrepont Greaves, a 'Social service' scheme to relieve distressed weavers set up by the 'sacred socialist' and his sister. Food and clothes were given in exchange for 'community work' around the village. Tools were supplied and an overseer and record keeper appointed. Roads were improved by unskilled men, and women taught to make clothes. A local currency was introduced whereby tokens were issued for work and were exchangeable for food, clothes, tools, furniture and books
Ranee(Hind.) or Rani, the wife of a Rajah
Rang(French m.) row, rank (hierarchy), course (of strings)
Rangecompass, from the lowest note to the highest note whether in a piece of music, possible on an instrument, achievable with the voice
see 'musical instrument ranges'
Rangguinthe jaw harp of the Negrito pygmies of central Malaysia, made from palm stalk
Rangée(French f.) row (as in a row of seats)
Rango audible(Spanish m.) audible range
Rank (of pipes)the group of pipes that constitute one stop. For example, all the pipes for a Spitzflute (one kind of flute sound) will be in the same row. A mixture stop will have more than one rank, determined by the number of pipes that sound when an individual key (or digital) is pressed down. Organs are often described by the number of ranks they have. A 60-rank instrument is a fairly large size instrument, while an 18-rank instrument is small. Practice organs can have anywhere from 3 to 9 ranks
Rankett (s.) Rankette (German pl.)(Italian m., English, German n.) rocchetta (Italian f.), racket, Stockfagott (German n.), Wurstfagott (German n.), racket (French m.), cervelas (French m.)
in the organ, a reed stop with short resonators
Rantold English dance of the 17th-century, related to the jig, in duple meter and binary form
Ranulaa cyst on the underside of the tongue caused by the obstruction of a duct of a salivary gland
Ranz-des-chèvres(French m.) like the Ranz-des-vaches but pertaining to goats
Ranz-des-vaches(French m.) a tune or melodic strain sung, or played on horns, by the Swiss herdsmen when driving their cattle, also a type of improvisatory tune played on the alphorn (or Alpenhorn) to call the cattle home at the end of the day
Rap(English, German m.) rhythmic chanting consisting of improvised rhymes performed to rhythmic accompaniment
rapatrier(French) to repatriate
Rapatriement(French m.) repatriation
Rapcorea music genre that fuses many elements of hip hop music with the instrumentation of hardcore punk and/or heavy metal. It is also used to refer to the substyles of rap-rock and rap-metal. Influences from funk music can also be heard in some rapcore tracks, especially in the rhythm
  • Rapcore from which this extract has been taken
Râpe(French f.) grater, rasp
râpé(French) threadbare
Râpe au fromage(French f.) cheese grater
râper(French) to scrape, to grate, to rasp (wood)
rapetisser(French) to make smaller, to get smaller
Râpeur(French m.) rasp, scraper
Râpeur en bambou(French m.) bamboo scraper
râpeux (m.), râpeuse (f.)(French) rough
Rapid, Rapidlyquick, quickly, at a fast rate, rapido (Italian), veloce (Italian), rasch (German), schnell (German), rapide (French)
rapidamente(Italian) rapidly, swiftly
Rapide(French m.) (train) express, rapids (water)
rapide(French) fast, swift
rapidement(French) fast, schnell
rapidità(Italian) rapidity, swiftness
Rapidité(French f.) speed
rapido(Italian) rapid, swift
Rapid, verysee 'very rapid, very rapidly'
Rapidly, verysee 'very rapid, very rapidly'
rapiécer(French) to patch
Rap metalsee 'rapcore'
Rap operaor 'hip-hopera', a series of rap songs in the form of an opera, inspired by the concept of 'rock opera'
  • Rap opera from which this extract has been taken
Rappa(Japan) a reed horn used by Japanese tofu (soybean cake) vendors. The copper horn has a free reed covered with a mouthpiece. The sound produced by inhalation is approximately a whole tone higher than that produced by exhalation
  • Rappa from which this extract has been taken
Rappeestrong snuff made from dark coarse tobacco
Rappel(French m.) curtain call, a drum-like instrument from the Middle-East, recall, reminder, booster (medicine), back pay (salary)
Rappel à l'ordre(French m.) a return to the matter at hand, to the question at issue, to basic principles, etc.
rappeler(French) to call back, to recall, to remind, to remember
Rapper sworda type of sword dance traditionally performed in the mining villages of the Northumberland and Durham coalfield in North East England
Rappingsee 'rap'
Rapport(French) an intuitive understanding between two or more people
Rapporteur(French m.) someone commissioned to make an investigation and report back (to a committee, etc.)
Rappresentazione(Italian f.) performance
(Italian f., literally 'representation') a precursor of opera, an acted oratorio. The most famous of these was the La Rappresentatione di Anima, et di Corpo (1600) composed in Rome by Emilio de Cavalieri (c.1550-1602) for the Jesuits, a lavish, fully staged entertainment with dancing (in the style of the intermedio), and a story following the traditions of the medieval mystery plays
rapproacher(French) to bring closer together
Rapprochement(French) a drawing together, a reconciliation, the coming to an understanding
Rap rocksee 'rapcore'
Rapsoa music style from Trinidad and Tobago, its name derived from 'rap' and 'calypso'
Rapsodia(Italian f., Spanish f.) rhapsody
Rapsodie(French f.) rhapsody
Rapsodi Kreshnike(Albanian, literally 'poems of heroes') epic poems that are sung, accompanied by a lahuta, a one-stringed fiddle, in the northern highlands of Albania
Rapsody(Old English) rhapsody
Raqs Sharqi(Arabic) belly dance
Raraoriginating in Haiti, rara music mixes percussion, saxophones, and bamboo trumpets, while weaving in funk and reggae bass lines. The songs are always performed in French Creole and typically celebrate Haiti's African ancestry and the use of Voodoo
  • Rara from which this extract has been taken
Rara avisLatin, literally 'a rare bird') a person or thing very rarely encountered, a person or thing that is remarkable
Raree showor rare show, peep show
Rariora(Latin pl.) the rarer items (for example, in a collection, etc.)
Raro artifacto(Spanish m.) contraption
Rasa'the taste', 'aesthetic content' or 'emotional appeal'. Natyasastra (c. 2nd-century A.D.), the oldest and most authoritative treatise on Indian dramaturgy, discusses a theory of emotion and facial expressions in extraordinary detail, and, in particular, the theory of rasa (denoting 'the taste'), an emotion theory first introduced by Bharata which remains an important concept in Indian aesthetics applicable to any art form. Miya Tansen, the landmark figure in Hindustani music (16th-century) when discussing pada stresses consistency between the rasa ('primary emotions') reflected in the emotional content of the poetic element and raga (or ragas) in which the music is to be composed. Thus the rasa of the poetry automatically defines the candidate raga (or ragas) chosen for the composition. The number of stanzas in the poetry - and hence melodic lines - define what is necessary for the rasa implicit in the raga to completely express itself
the eight rasa (basic emotions and associated aesthetic sentiment) are as follows:
basic emotionslovelaughtergriefangerenergyfearhatredastonishment
associated aesthetic sentimentseroticcomicpatheticfuriousheroicterribleodiousmarvellous
Rasa lilaa sublime dance from the Indian state of Manipur depicting Lord Krishna with his female devotees who are dressed in ornate and highly stylized costumes. The musical accompaniment is a bamboo flute, vocals and percussion. It is most commonly performed in the Spring
rasch(German) fast, quick
rascher(German) faster, quicker
raschiare(Italian) to scrape
Rasegesang(German) a wild song, a dithyrambic
Raselied(German) a wild song, a dithyrambic
Rasgadosee rasgueado
Rasgueado(Spanish, from rascar, meaning 'to scratch') multiple strumming, one of the many rasgueo or strumming techniques on the guitar
Rasgueo(Spanish) a style of guitar playing in which the strings are strummed with the back of the fingernails - the word rasgueo is used in flamenco and embraces all strumming techniques using one or more fingers
Rash boona motif in folklore and in Celtic and Arthurian literature in which an individual too hastily promises to fulfil another character's request without hearing exactly what that request is
Rasiermesser QuartetJoseph Haydn reached London in the opening days of 1791. He passed his first night at the house of John Bland, the music-publisher, at 45 High Holborn, London. Bland, it should have been mentioned before, had been sent over to Vienna by Johann Peter Salomon to coax Haydn into an engagement in 1787. When he was admitted on that occasion to Haydn's room, he found the composer in the act of shaving, complaining the while of the bluntness of his razor. "I would give my best quartet for a good razor," he exclaimed testily. The hint was enough for Bland, who immediately hurried off to his lodgings and fetched a more serviceable tool. Haydn was as good as his word: he presented Bland with his latest quartet, and the work, Op. 55 No. 2, is still familiarly known as the Rasiermesser (razor) Quartet. The incident was, no doubt, recalled when Haydn renewed his acquaintance with the music-publisher
Rasiyaa rich tradition of Indian folk-song that is found in the Braj area. Rasiya songs describe the love of the divine couple Radha and Shri Krishna. It is an inseparable part of the Holy celebrations and all other festive occasions at Braj. The rasiya is sung to the rhythm of huge drums, locally known as bumb
raskaasti(Finnish) grave
Raspa(Italian f.) rasp, scrapper
RaspaCentral American gourd scrapper
Raspa, LaMexican dance from Veracruz with a peculiar hopping step
Raspatura di gallina(Italian f.) scrawl, illegible writing
Raspel(German f.) rasp, scraper
Rassel(German f.) rattle
Rasselgeräusch(German n.) rattle noise, rattling, clapper noise
Rasseltrommel(German f.) rattle drum, clapper drum
Rast(German f.) back frame (for example, on a piano)
[entry provided by Michael Zapf]
Rastral(Latin) or rastrum, a tool for drawing music-lines or staves
Rastrographya term for the precise pattern of lines in a stave-ruling, derived from the Latin noun rastrum (literally, 'a rake')
Rastrologythe study of stave-rulings as a way of determining the age and origin of musical manuscripts
Rastrum(Latin, literally 'rake') a multi-nibbed pen, specially designed to rule staves
Rataplanan onomatopoeic word for the sound of a drum
Ratatakclacker made with gourd jingles
Ratafiaessence of bitter almonds
Ratamacuea side-drum technique consisting of a pair of short strokes and a triplet preceding the main note, played LLRLRL or RRLRLR
  • Ratamacue from which this extract has been taken
Ratchetcrécelle (French), Ratsche (German), reganella or matracca (Italian), carraca or matraca (Spanish)
a percussion instrument consisting of a cogwheel, frame, and wooden tongue that produces a very loud clicking sound by spinning the cogwheel around against the tongue
a pawl, click, or detent, for holding or propelling a ratchet wheel, or ratch, etc.
a mechanism composed of a ratchet wheel, or ratch, and pawl
Ratchet bracea boring brace, having a ratchet wheel and pawl for rotating the tool by back and forth movements of the brace handle
Ratchet drilla portable machine for working a drill by hand, consisting of a hand lever carrying at one end a drill holder which is revolved by means of a ratchet wheel and pawl, by swinging the lever back and forth
Ratchet wheela circular wheel having teeth, usually angular, with which a reciprocating pawl engages to turn the wheel forward, or a stationary pawl to hold it from turning backward
raté (m.), ratée (f.)(French) unsuccessful, unsatisfactory, abortive
(a person) who might have achieved great success in a profession or vocation other than the one he has chosen
a more colloquial version of manqué
Rathaus(German) a town hall (of a German town)
Rathera little, poco (Italian), etwas (German), un peu (French)
Räthselcanon(German) an enigmatic canon
Rathsmusikus(German) music teacher (usually in the context of teaching royal personages or their children)
Ratio(Latin) proportion, relation of one thing to another as regards, number, magnitude, frequency, etc. Intervals, particularly, are characterised by the ratio of the frequencies of two notes (for example, 2:1 is an octave, 3:2 is a perfect fifth, and so on)
Ratiocinationprocess of exact thinking, reasoning methodically and logically
Ratio decidendi (s.), Rationes decidendi (pl.)(Latin, literally 'the reason for the decision') (in law) the point in a case which determines the judgment
the legal rule derived from, and consistent with, those parts of legal reasoning within a judgement on which the outcome of the case depends
Rationale(Latin) a reasoned explanation of principles, the fundamental basis (of anything)
Rational intonationsynonymous with 'just intonation', any musical tuning in which the frequencies of notes are related by whole number ratios, that is, by positive rational numbers
Ratio scripta(Latin) a written judgment
Ratissage(French) a police hunt for fugitives, particular one that is systematic
Ratsche(German f.) rattle, ratchet, crécelle, raganella
Rätselkanon(German m.) puzzle canon
rättad(Swedish) corrected [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
rattenendo(Italian) holding back, slackening or restraining the tempo
rattenere(Italian) to hold back, slacken or restrain the tempo
rattenuto(Italian) held back, restrained tempo
Rattezza(Italian f.) swiftness, quickness, rapidity
Rattleamong many other forms, a ratchet-toothed percussion instrument
rau(German) raucous
Raub(German m.) robbery, abduction(of a person), loot, booty
rauben(German) to steal, to abduct (person)
Räuber(German m.) robber
Raubmord(German m.) robbery with murder
Räuberroman(German m., literally 'robber story') picaresque novel
Raubüberfall(German m.) robbery
Raubvogel(German m.) bird of prey
rauco(Italian) hoarse
rauh(German) rough, coarse
Raumatmosphäre(German f.) the sound associated with playing in a room, as opposed to that when playing in a large hall
Raumklang(German m.) stereophony, stereo
Raum mit differenzierten Wohnebenen(German m.) split-level room
Raumort(German m.) spacial location
Raumtemperatur(German f.) room temperature
Raumton(German m.) stereophonic sound
rauque(French) hoarse
Rauschabstand(German m.) signal-to-noise ratio
Rauch Alarm(German m.) smoke alarm
Rauschen(German n.) noise, bubble, murmur, plash, random noise
rauschen(German) to bubble, to murmur, to roar (water), to rustle (leaves)
rauschend(German) rustling, murmuring, plash
Rauscher(German) or Schwärmer, a tremolo, a passage in which each note or every two notes alternately are several times repeated
Rauscher figuresapplied to aspects of music from the period of C. P. E. Bach, the broken-chord figures and fast reiteration of a given note characteristic of the adaptation of so-called Rauscher figures from orchestral violin writing to the practicalities of keyboard performance
(German f., literally 'rustling flute') or Rauschpfeife or Rauschwerk, a mixture of two ranks of pipes sounding the twelfth and fifteenth, being 2 2/3 ft. and 2 ft. pitch
Rauschpfeife(German f. literally 'rustling pipe') a capped double-reed instrument with a bore like a shawm
see Rauschflöte
see Rauschquinte
Rauschquintea mixture stop, in German organs, combining the 12th and 15th on one slide
Rauschunterdrückung(German f.) noise reduction
Rauschwerksee Rauschflöte
Raute(German f.) lozenge, rhombus, rue (herb)
rautenförmig(German) diamond-shaped (for example, note head)
Rautenzeichen(German n.) hash (i.e. #)
Ravalement(French) a term referring to the extension of the original range of a harpsichord or an organ
á petit ravalementfour octaves range
á ravalementbetween four and five octaves range
á grand ravalementfive octaves range
Ravanathe demon-king of Lanka, whose abduction of Sita, led to his destruction at Rama's hands, in the Ramayana
Ravanne(Mauritius) a drum whose goatskin head must be heated before each use. Used in conjunction with the maravanne for the tipik sega
Rave(English, German n.) sometimes referred to as a rave party, an all-night dance event where DJs and other performers play electronic dance music and rave music
  • Rave from which this extract has been taken
Rave musicthe term is applied to forms of electronic music for dancing that are associated with the rave scene
Ravioli(Italian) small portions of seasoned meat, or something similarly savoury, wrapped up in pasta and boiled
ravivé(French) revived, ravvivato
Ravne pjesme(literally, 'flat song') a Bosnian vocal style of limited scale
ravvivandemente(Italian) quickly
ravvivando(Italian) quickening, reanimating, reviving
ravvivando il tempo(Italian) picking up the tempo, quickening the tempo, accelerating the tempo
ravvivare(Italian) to brighten up, to reanimate, to revive (the tempo)
ravvivato(Italian) quickened, reanimated
Rawapsee rewap
Rawealia fiddle of white wood, with two horsehair and two metal strings that is used in magic rituals by the Huichol Indians of west central Mexico. Legend has it that it came to them direct from Santo Cristo (the Divine Christ), who won a fiddle contest using the instrument
Rayan alternative to re in tonic sol-fa
Raya(Spanish f.) hyphen, dash (-)
Raya corta(Spanish f.) en dash ()
Raya larga(Spanish f.) em dash ()
rayer la mention inutile(French) to delete as appropriate
Rayessee rwais
Rayonnantthe development of French Gothic which produced multiple light windows with geometric tracery
Rayonnement(French m.) presence
Razósexplanations attached to manuscripts (for example, poems of the troubadours) discussing events or feelings that allegedly inspired their writing
Rbab soussiMoroccan one-stringed fiddle
RCA Mark IIthe RCA Mark II Electronic Music Synthesizer, designed and built by Harry Olson and Hebert Belar at RCA's Sarnoff Laboratories in Princeton, New Jersey, in 1957, was basically a vacuum-tube based synthesizer controlled by a punched paper tape
RCAabbreviation of 'Radio Corporation of America'
RCMabbreviation of 'Royal College of Music, London'
Rda.abbreviation of ronda (Spanish f.: ring road)
rdcabbreviation of rez-de-chaussée (French: first floor (US), ground floor (UK))