music dictionary : Re - Rf

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Wiederholungszeichen (German n.) the symbol made up of a pair of vertical lines (one thin, the other thicker) across a stave, preceded by or followed by a pair of dots in the second and third space (see Repeat end sign, Repeat start sign above, Volta brackets)
Re(Latin) about, concerning, in the matter of (as the first word in a heading)
note D
(Italian m., Spanish m.) or 'ray' (English), in 'fixed do' solfeggio the note D, the second note (or supertonic) in the musical scale of C major
note D
(French m., Portuguese m.) in 'fixed do' solfeggio the note D, the second note (or supertonic) in the musical scale of C major
re(s)abbreviation of 'response(s)' (type of piece)
Reach-me-downready-made garment, a hand-me-down (usually, items of clothing that are passed from person to person as they are needed)
Reactionreacting, response
Réaction(French f.) feedback
Reactionarytending to oppose (usually, political) change or reform
Readto reproduce mentally or (often followed by aloud, out, off, etc.) vocally the written or printed words of (a book, author, etc.)
to convert or be able to convert into the intended words or meaning (written or other symbols or the things expressed in this way) (for example, can't read music)
Readera university lecturer of the highest grade below professor
in publishing, a person employed to determine the suitability of submitted material
(as in 'proof-reader'), a printer's proof-corrector (someone who checks type-set material for accuracy)
the third rank of minor orders of the ministry; they had a range of functions at different times and in different regions, which included conducting readings during services; also known as lector
Readershipcollectively, the readers of a newspaper, journal, etc.
Readingentertainment at which a play, poems, etc. are read
interpretation or view taken (for example, of a particular piece of evidence, of a piece of music, etc.)
Reading rotaSumer Is Icumen In is a traditional English round, and possibly the oldest such example of counterpoint in existence. The title might be translated as "Spring Has Come In". It is sometimes known as the Reading rota because the manuscript comes from Reading Abbey though it may not have been written there. It is the oldest piece of six-part polyphonic music. Its composer is anonymous, possibly W. de Wycombe, and it is estimated to date from around 1260. The manuscript is now at the British Library. The language is Middle English, more exactly Wessex dialect
Read up (on)make a special study of a subject
Ready-made(clothes) made in a standard size, i.e. not to measure
Reaggetonsee reggaeton
Real Academia Española de la Lengua(Spanish) the Royal Academy of the Spanish Language
Real answera responding phrase, which exactly reproduces an earlier entry, set an interval away, for example, as in a fugue which in this circumstance would be termed a 'real fugue'
Real Book(English, Realbook (German n.)) The "Real Book" is the title of a series of "fake books," colections of lead sheets, , that is simplified scores showing chords, melodies, etc., so musicians can "fake" tunes they have not rehearsed or do not remember well. Originally a collection of Jazz charts not in the public domain and published without paying royalties, and thus illegal, a number of legal fake books have recently been published
[we than Anders Griffen for this entry]
Realidad(Spanish f.) reality
Realien(German pl.) material objects forming the basis of scientific study, material objects used as teaching aids to stimulate the imagination
Realisation(English, German f.) or 'realization', the addition, by the keyboard player, of chords and passing notes to a figured bass
the addition, by a soloist, of ornamentation to a musical line
Realiseor 'realize', to make a realisation or realization
realisieren(German) to realise
Realisierung(German f.) realisation
Realismin the visual arts and literature, realism is the depiction of subjects as they appear in everyday life, without embellishment or interpretation. The term is also used to describe works of art which, in revealing a truth, may emphasize the ugly or sordid. Realism also refers to a mid-19th century cultural movement with its roots in France, where it was a very popular art form around the mid to late 1800s. It came about with the introduction of photography - a new visual source that created a desire for people to produce things that look "objectively real". Realism was heavily against romanticism, a genre dominating French literature and artwork in the mid 19th century. Undistorted by personal bias, Realism believed in the ideology of objective reality and revolted against exaggerated emotionalism. Truth and accuracy became the goals of many Realists
"realism" is not a term strictly applicable to music. There are verismo (realistic) operas like Umberto Giordano's Andrea Chénier created in the last decade of the 19th century in Italy, but it is their plots rather than their music which can be said to participate in the movement toward realism. Since "pure" untexted music is not usually representational (with the controversial exception of "programme" music), it cannot be said to be more or less realistic
the earlier literary movement known as naturalism is often used as a precursor and antonym for realism, even though both literary movements share many similarities. It is sometimes difficult to distinguish between naturalism and realism. Some writers are classified as part of both movements. Personally, I [Dr. L. Kip Wheeler] distinguish between them by noting how naturalism goes out of its way to obsessively and grimly point out the limitations of human potential. Realism shares this concern, but seems less obsessed with this point. My distinction, however, is one not generally accepted by literary critics
Realismo(Spanish m.) realism, verismo
Realismus(German m.) realism
Realisticbased on facts (evidence) rather than ideals (beliefs)
realistisch(German) realistic, realistically
Realität(German f.) reality
Réalité(French f.) reality
Realitywhat is real or existent or underlies appearances
Realizationsee 'realisation'
Realizesee 'realise'
Real-lifeactual, not fictional
Realpolitik(German f.) a realistic policy which eschews idealism
Realschule(German f.) secondary modern school
Real sequencesee 'sequence'
Realtà(Italian f.) reality
in MIDI, there are two types of recording procedure:
real-timeresembling traditional recording - as with a tape recorder
step-timesequential recording, note-by-note, chord-by-chord
Real-time systemsas applied to music, such systems include electronic instruments, synthesizers, gestural controllers, and performance interfaces
Reamtwenty quires of paper
Reamsa large quantity of writing
Reaper, grimdeath personified
Rearmostfurthest back
Rearstagethe section of the stage farthest away from the viewing audience, the back of the visible stage as opposed to "backstage" and out of sight
Reazione(Italian f.) feed back
Rebab(English, German f, from Arabic) a plucked instrument, see rabab
(Arabic) a two- or three-stringed fiddle, an instrument found in many Muslim countries
Rebabasee rabab
Rebaixado(Portuguese) lowered
Rebajadorthe middle drum part in the conga style, comprising conga, rebajador, salidor
Rebato(in use 1580-1635) of Spanish origin, a collar or ruff wired to stand up around a low-necked bodice
Rebe(German f.) vine
Rebec(English, German n.) or rebeck or rebek, derived from the Arabic rabab, a family of bowed stringed-instruments
Rebecksee 'rebec'
Rebeksee 'rebec'
Rebell(German m.) rebel
rebellisch(German) rebellious
Re bemol
note D flat
(Spanish m.) the note 'D flat', the flattened second degree of the scale of C major, which in 'fixed do' solfeggio is called ra
Ré bémol
note D flat
(French m.) the note 'D flat', the flattened second degree of the scale of C major, which in 'fixed do' solfeggio is called ra
Re bemoll
note D flat
(Catalan m.) the note 'D flat', the flattened second degree of the scale of C major, which in 'fixed do' solfeggio is called ra
Re bemolle
note D flat
(Italian m.) the note 'D flat', the flattened second degree of the scale of C major, which in 'fixed do' solfeggio is called ra
Re bemolle maggiore
key of D flat major(Italian) the key of 'D flat major'
the scale of D flat major
the scale of 'D flat major'
Re bemoll major
key of D flat major(Catalan m.) the key of 'D flat major'
the scale of D flat major
the scale of 'D flat major'
Ré bémol majeur
key of D flat major(French) the key of 'D flat major'
the scale of D flat major
the scale of 'D flat major'
Re bemol mayor
key of D flat major(Spanish) the key of 'D flat major'
the scale of D flat major
the scale of 'D flat major'
Rebétiko (s.), Rebétika (pl.)rembétika have been around in some form since the turn of the century. In 1923, after the Greek-Turkish war, over 1.5 million Greek refugees from Asia Minor had to be resettled. As a result, shanty towns grew up around Athens, Pireas and other cities. These refugees brought their music with them which had a pronounced effect on the urban music of Greece. Since the emergence of the modern Greek state, the upper and middle classes leaned towards the classical style of European music while at the other end of the social spectrum Greek and Byzantine traditions prevailed. This poor class of workers had a constant contact with the refugees and their culture. The musicians of these two cultures were constantly exchanging musical ideas. Rembétika have always been the music of the poor and the dispossessed, combined different styles of the region and with lyrics describing the joy, the sorrow, the difficulties of everyday life. The best definition of rembétika is given by Gail Holst in her book The Road to Rembetika: "What was special about the rembétika song was the combination between traditional musical forms of the Eastern Mediterranean and the words of the songs, which dealt with the life of the urban underworld and the less reputable elements of the society"
Rebindbind (especially a book) again or differently
Rebirthspiritual enlightenment, revival, new incarnation
Rebond(French m.) bounce
Rebopalternative name for 'bebop'
Rebstock(German m.) vine
Rebube(French) Jew's harp
Rebusa visual pun in which a written sign stands for a different meaning than its normal one, usually because the two words sound alike. The rebus is a common feature in Egyptian hieroglyphic writings and Babylonian cuneiform
Rebutrefute (an argument) or disprove (a charge)
Rebute(French) Jew's harp
RECreferring to the catalogue prepared by Beatrijs Escher of music by Rudolf Escher (1912-1980)
recabbreviation of 'recorder'
rec.abbreviation of 'recorded' (in discographic context)
Recapitulationa part of a work in sonata form where material introduced in the first section, and then developed in the second section, now returns
also used generally to describe the return of any opening thematic material
Recapture(a past emotion) re-experience
recato in ordine(Italian) arranged
Recedego or shrink back or further off, decline in force or value
Receipt(for payment) written acknowledgement of payment received
Received pronunciationor RP, the form of educated spoken English used in Southern England
Receiving houseaa theatre which does not produce its own repertoire but instead receives touring theatre companies, usually for a brief period such as three nights or a full week. The incoming company may receive a share of the box office takings or a minimum guaranteed payment
recensere(Latin) to edit
Recensiona part of the process known as textual criticism, in which scholars examine available manuscripts to determine which version is the best or most trustworthy, and then prepare a revised version based on a critical or methodical analysis
Reception(an event) social occasion for receiving guests, especially after a wedding
Receptiveable or quick to receive impressions or ideas
Recercarda(Spanish) ricercare
recercaresee ricercare
Recercata(Spanish) ricercare
this title appears in music by Diego Ortiz and Francesco Care, and also on two works for harpsichord from Variaciones del Fandango Español a recording by Andreas Staier: Teldec/Das Alte Werke catalog #3984-21468-2
[information provided by Jerry Neuman]
Recessionalcomposition to be performed at the end of a church service as the choir and clergy leave the church (for exmaple, recessional hymn)
réchauffé(French, literally, 'reheated') a concoction of stale material, particularly a rehash of stale literary or musical material
often mis-spelt réchauffée, rechauffé or rechauffée
Recheatthe call played on the horn, by hunstmen, to recall the hounds from a false scent
Rechenaufgabe(German f.) arithmetical problem, sum
Rechenfehler(German m.) arithmetical error
Rechenmaschine(German f.) calculator
Recherche(French f.) search, research, investigation
recherché(French) extremely choice, carefully sought out, rare or exquisite, exotic, far-fetched, uncommon, overrefined, pretentious, overblown, overdone (presentation)
(French) ricercare
often mis-spelt récherché
recherchieren(German) to investigate, to research
Rechnen(German n.) arithmetic
rechnen(German) to do arithmetic, to reckon, to count, to expect, to calculate, to work out, to do
Rechner(German m.) computer, calculator
Rechnung(German f.) bill, invoice, calculation
Rechnungsjahr(German n.) financial year
Rechnungsprüfer(German m.) auditor
Recht(German n.) law, right, real
recht, rechte(German) right
Rechte(German f.) right side, right hand
Rechteck(German n.) rectangle, oblong
rechteckig(German) rectangular, oblong
Rechteckwelle(German f.) a square wave (in electronics)
rechte Hand(German f.) the right hand
Rechterhand(Dutch) right hand
rechtes Pedal(German n.) right pedal
rechte Thon(German f.) the pitch used by Praetorius Syntagma musicum, ii, 1618) as his reference pitch. In that period the Cammerton standard was about a'=465Hz (about a semitone higher than modern pitch a'=440Hz), and it would have been the common pitch for most of the instruments of his time
rechtfertigen(German) to justify
Rechtfertigung(German f.) justification
rechthaberisch(German) opinionated
rechtlich(German) legal, legally
rechtmäßig(German) legitimate, legitimately
rechts(Dutch) on the right
Rechtsabteilung(German f.) legal department
rechtshändig(German) dexterous, dextrous, righthanded
Recipe(Latin) (in medicine) take (the following ingredients), a means of attaining some end, a list of ingredients and the instructions for how to employ them
Reciprocating sawsee 'sabre saw'
recit(s)abbreviation of 'recitative(s)'
Récit(French m.) the swell manual on an organ
account, story
(French) a vocal or instrumental solo
(French) the principal part in a concerted piece
a organ piece in which a single voice emerges soloistically above all others by means of special registration. The latter is usually indicated in the title, i.e. in a Récit de Cromorne the solo voice would be played using the cromorne stop. Cromorne, cornet, tierce, nasard, trompette and voix humaine are the most commonly encountered solo stops. The titles of such compositions frequently omit the word récit and simply indicate the registration (Cromorne, Cornet, etc.) and/or the position of the solo voice
recit.abbreviation of 'recitative', recitativo (Italian: recitative)
récit.abbreviation of récitatif (French: recitative)
Recita(Italian f.) performance
Recital(English, German n.) a musical performance usually involving a small number of performers (for example, one, i.e. solo recital, or two, i.e. duo recital)
Récital(French m.) recital
Récital conjoint(French m.) joint recital
recitando(Italian) more speech than song, a declamatory style, like a recitative
récitant(French) more speech than song, a declamatory style, like a recitative
Récitant (m.), Récitante (f.)(French) he or she who sings or plays a solo part
recitante(Italian) more speech than song
Recitar cantando(Italian f.) sung recitation (associated with Claudio Monteverdi)
Recitatief(Dutch) recital
Récitatif(French) recitative
récitatif (m.), récitative (f.)(French) pertaining to 'recitative'
Récitatif accompagné(French) recitativo accompagnato
Récitatif obligé(French) synonymous with récitatif accompagné
Recitationthe act of reciting or the thing recited (i.e. that is repeated aloud or declaimed)
Recitationala chant that is syllabic and has a melody that repeats a single pitch, with melodic inflections (up down or a combination of the two, to provide punctuation
Recitation tonesee 'reciting tone'
Recitativ(German) recitative
Recitativerecitativo (Italian), Recitativ (German), récitatif (French)
(from the Italian) invented in Italy at the end of the 16th-century, a half-spoken, half-sung delivery, often used to link songlike numbers in an opera, oratorio or cantata
recitative can be:
recitativo secco or
recativo parlante
literally 'dry' (seco) or 'spoken' (parlantewith only a very simple chordal accompanimentthis is a rapid dialogue which carries forward the plot, particularly in comic operas
recitativo accompagnato
recitativo stromentato
literally 'accompanied'with the active involvement of the orchestraused to accompany more emphatic phrases such as the declamatory introduction to an aria
Recitative, accompaniedsee recitativo accompagnato
Recitativo (s.), Recitativi (It. pl.)(Italian m., Spanish m.) recitative, recitatif (French)
Recitativo accompagnato(Italian m.) a recitative with full orchestral accompaniment rather than by continuo only
Recitativo a tempo(Italian m.) unlike most recitativo where the singer is free to choose his or her own tempo which may vary during as the mood dictates, in recitativo a tempo the tempo remains generally fixed throughout
Recitativo obbligato(Italian m.) synonymous with recitativo accompagnato
Recitativo parlando(Italian m.) a mode of singing that is most nearly speech
Recitativo parlante(Italian m.) synonymous with recitativo secco
Recitativo secco(Italian m.) a quick-moving recitative over simple punctuated chords, often with only a harpsichord and cello or viola da gamba as accompaniment, in which the singer follows the natural rhythm of speech
Recitativo stromentato(Italian m.) synonymous with recitativo accompagnato
réciter(French) to play or sing singly, to perform a solo part
Reciting note
or 'reciting tone', in chanting, the first note of a chant and the first note after each double bar, the note on which most of the words of the verse are sung, which in Gregorian chant is the dominant:
typically used with more syllabic settings
used in the recitation of prayers, where the readings border between speech and song
the reciting note is called the tenor
movement to and from the upper neighbouring tone and the lower neighbouring tone is used to accent the text
the initium is the 2-3 note introductory formula preceding the recitation note
Reciting tonese 'reciting note'
Réclamation(French f.) complaint
Réclame(French f.) the deliberate seeking of notoriety through self-advertisement
réclamer(French) to call for, to demand, to claim, to complain
RecognitionEnglish translation of anagnorisis (Aristotle, Poetics)
recognoscere(Latin) edit
Recomendación(Spanish f.) advice, reference (for a job), recommendation
recommencer à(French) to begin ... again
recommencez(French) a dal segno, a return to the sign
Reconstructionrebuilding, re-enactment
the term given to an era in the history of the Southern United States, the period after the American Civil War when the economy and social structures were rebuilt. Musical historians turn to collection of field recordings (for example, those collected by John and Alan Lomax during their travels through the American South in the 1930s) to find hints of the sounds that may have been heard on the tenant farms and in the black churches of that era
in linguistics, a hypothetical earlier form of a word that probably existed, but for which no direct evidence is available. Linguists normally mark reconstructions by placing an asterisk in front of them. This marks them as a hypothetical word
Reconstruction Erasee 'reconstruction '
Reconstruction, memorialsee 'memorial reconstruction'
Reconstruction, scenicsee 'scenic reconstruction'
Recordto register something reproducible on a disk, like a phonograph record, or on magnetic tape. Traditional recording captures the amplitude (height) and frequency (number) of wave forms
MIDI-computing does not really "record." It encodes messages, digitally - by means of numbers. Because of established usage, however, the words "record" and "recording" often appear in MIDI-computing, along with "play," "rewind," "fast forward," etc. In MIDI-computing, these words are really metaphors. A typical sequencer will "record" all of the MIDI events received, along with the time they were received
Recorded Sound
Recorderfipple flute, flauto a becco (Italian m.), Blockflöte (German f.), flûte à bec (French f.), flauta dulce (Spanish f.)
some argue that the name recorder is a modern anachronism originating with Arnold Dolmetsch. As an alternative the name blockflute has been proposed. Those seeking historical evidence for the earlier name we would direct to the play Hamlet, Act 3. Scene II; Hamlet: Ah, ha! come, some music! come, the recorders! William Shakespeare (1564-1616). Blockflute is actually the modern anachronism being no more than a literal English form of the old German name for the recorder, Blockflöte
fipple or duct flute with eight holes (although the bottom two can be in the form of a pair of smaller holes) popular in the 16th-, 17th- and early 18th-centuries, and now more commonly associated with the classroom as an aid to learning music. Not all recorders are pitched in C or F, the note the instrument plays when all the toneholes are covered. Some recorders are pitched in D (the soprano or descant in D is called a sixth flute, while the tenor in D is called the voice flute); others are pitched in G, E flat, A, E and B flat, the last also called a fourth flute
standard convention for naming & notating recorder music
recorder namekeyclefbottom note (written)bottom note (sounding)
sopraninoFtrebleF above middle Coctave higher than written
descant/sopranoCtreblemiddle Coctave higher than written
treble/altoFtreble(usual) F above middle C
(occasional) F below middle C
(usual) at written pitch
(occasional) octave higher than written
tenorCtreblemiddle Cat written pitch
bassFbassF one octave and a fifth below middle Coctave higher than written
great bassCbassC two octaves below middle Coctave higher than written
contra bassFbassF one octave and a fifth below middle Cat written pitch
sub contra bass/contra great bassCbassC two octaves below middle Cat written pitch
sub sub contra bass/contra contra bassFbassF two octaves and a fifth below middle Coctave below written pitch
Recorder, baroquesee 'baroque recorder'
Recordingthe process by which audio or video signals are recorded for later reproduction, or the material or programme recorded
Recording engineeralso called 'audio engineer' or 'sound engineer', a person with experience and training in the production and manipulation of sound through mechanical means. An informal name might be a 'sound guy' or an 'audio guy'. A person with one of these titles is commonly listed in the credits of many commercial music recordings (also in other productions that include sound, such as movies)
Recording studioa facility for sound recording
Recordista person who records sound
Record-playeran apparatus for reproducing sound from gramophone records
Record producerin the music industry, a record producer (or music producer) has many roles, among them controlling the recording sessions, coaching and guiding the performers, and supervising the recording, mixing and mastering processes. This has been a major function of producers since the inception of sound recording, but in the latter half of the 20th century producers also took on a wider entrepreneurial role
Reco-reco(Italian m., French m.) or 'rasp', the common name for all of Latin-American scrapers including the güiro
a long hollow scraper popular in Angolan music - also known as dikanza puita
a Brazilian scraper of bamboo or metal, sometimes with springs
Recoupea dance of the French Renaissance usually danced after the basse dance
(English, French m.) a four-sided figure in which all the included angles are right angles, adjacent sides are of different length, but opposing sides are of the same length
recte(Latin) in a straight line, rightly, forward
recte et retro(Latin) forward then backward (i.e. the melody, or subject, reversed, note to note)
Recto(Latin, on the right) the right hand side of a double page, or the front of a folio (in a book - the back is verso), abbreviated as r
the term is an abbreviation for recto folio (Latin: on a straight leaf) as opposed to verso folio (Latin: a turned leaf)
Rector(in the Church of England) incumbent of a parish where all tithes formerly passed to the incumbent, (in the Roman Catholic Church) priest in charge of a church or religious institution, head of some universities or university colleges
Rectorya rector's house
Rectus(Latin) similar, as in motus rectus, similar motion
Recueil(French m.) collection
Recueil de chansons(French m.) songbook
Recueil de thèmes musicaux(French m.) fakebook
recueilli(French) meditative
Recuroccur again, be repeated
red(s).abbreviation of 'reduction(s)', 'reduced for'
Redacción(Spanish f.) editing, editorial office
Rédacteur(Dutch, French m.) editor (of a book or magazine)
Redactie(Dutch) editing, editorial office
Redactio(Latin) editorial office
Redaction(French f.) editing, editorial staff
Redactor(Latin, Spanish m.) editor, writer
Redaksjon(Norwegian) editing, editorial office
redaksjonskomite(Norwegian) editorial board
Redakteur(German m.) editor
Redaktion(German f., Danish, Swedish) editing, editorial staff
Redaktionsschluß(German m.) deadline
Redaktör(Swedish) editor [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
Redaktør(Norwegian, Danish) editor [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
Redattore (m.), Redattrice (f.)(Italian) editor
Redazione(Italian f.) editing, editorial office
Red brassa brass with a very high copper content, approximately 90% copper and 10% zinc, used in brass instrument manufacture
Red carpetprivileged treatment of an eminent visitor
Reddenmake more red, blush
reddere(Latin) to translate
Red Dirtbased in and around Stillwater, Oklahoma, a rising genre of music that can best be likened to the Indie genre of Rock 'n' Roll; there is no definitive sound that can be attributed to all the bands in the movement. It can be described as a mix of Southern Rock, Outlaw country, and Texas Honky Tonk, with even a few Mexican influences
Redditasee redita
Rede(Dutch) speech
redend(German) speaking
Red House, Thebuilt in the 1860s, an innovative early Arts & Crafts House designed by Phillip Webb for William Morris. Morris planned to establish a working community of artists at the house going as far as having Webb draw up designs for extending the house to a quadrangle so Burne Jones and his family could join. The house was sold when Morris moved to London
Ré dièse
note D sharp
(French m.) the note 'D sharp', the sharpened second degree of the scale of C major, which in 'fixed do' solfeggio is called ri
Ré dièse mineur
key of D sharp minor(French) the key of 'D sharp minor'
Re diesis
note D sharp
(Italian m.) the note 'D sharp', the sharpened second degree of the scale of C major, which in 'fixed do' solfeggio is called ri
Re diesis minore
key of D sharp minor(Italian) the key of 'D sharp minor'
Rediffusionrelaying of broadcast programmes, especially by cable from a central receiver
rédigé(French) edited, compiled
redigerad(Swedish) edited
redigere(Latin) to edit
redigeret(Danish) edited
redigert(Norwegian) edited
redigiert(German) edited
Redingote(French, literally 'riding-coat') a woman's double-breasted coat with long plain skirts
Redita(Italian f.) or reddita, a return, a repeat
Red leadred form of lead oxide used as a pigment
Red-letter dayday that is particularly pleasant, noteworthy or memorable (originally a festival marked red on the calendar)
Red noise see 'brown noise'
Red notesin medieval music, notes that were coloured red on the page in order to distinguish differences in rhythm or octave transposition for specific notes
used to show differences in a cantus firmus from the original
Redoblante(Spanish) snare drum, caisse sourde (French), caisse roulante (French)
redoblar(Spanish) to redouble, to intensify, to bend back, to clinch, to roll (on the drums)
Redoblea series of four or five beats compressed into one or two beats. Redobles are usually used in flamenco dance to provide dynamic accents
Redoble (de los tambores)(Spanish m.) the roll of drums, roulement (French)
Redolent ofstrongly reminiscent, suggestive or smelling (of)
Redondaflamenco voice
semibreve(Spanish f.) a semibreve, whole note
redondear(Spanish) to round off (arithmetic), to round up (arithmetic), to make up to a round number, to level off (demand, etc.), to round, to make round
redondearse(Spanish) to become round, to become wealthy (figurative)
Redondel(Spanish m.) circle (familiar), ring (familiar), bullring, arena (for a bullfight)
Redondez(Spanish f.) roundness
Redondoan Afro-Venezuelan drum set formed by long cylindrical drums. It is layed on the ground and the musician sits on top of the drum, striking the head with his hands and a stick
redondo (m.), redonda (f.)(Spanish) round, categorical, perfect, round (number), topside (beef)
Re doppio bemolle
note D double flat
(Italian m.) the note 'D double flat', the doubly flattened second degree of the scale of C major
Re doppio diesis
note D double sharp
(Italian m.) the note 'D double sharp', the doubly sharpened second degree of the scale of C major
Red Orchestraa Soviet espionage ring in Nazi-occupied Europe during the first years of World War II. The name reputedly came from Germans; they were able to determine that Moscow NKVD centre dubbed their radio transmitters as "music boxes" and agents as "musicians" and begun to call the network Rote Kapelle (Red Orchestra)
Redouazkasee redowa
redoublé (m.), redoublée (f.)(French) compound
Ré double bémol
note D double flat
(French m.) the note 'D double flat', the doubly flattened second degree of the scale of C major
Ré double dièse
note D double sharp
(French m.) the note 'D double sharp', the doubly sharpened second degree of the scale of C major
redoublement(French) doubling
redoubler(French) to double
Redoute(French) ridotto
Redowaor redowak, redouazka or redowazka, a fast, triple-time dance from Bohemia resembling the mazurka
a turning, leaping waltz step that was most popular in Victorian era European ballrooms
Redowaksee redowa
Redowa Valsein 3/4 time, the Redowa Valse was introduced in Paris in 1884. Its origins lie in Redowak (Redowa) from Bohemia
Redowazkasee redowa
Redraftdraft (a text) again, usually differently
Redrojo(Spanish m.) small bunch of late grapges, puny child, runt (from a litter)
Red tapeexcessive bureaucracy or formality (especially in public business)
Reducción(Spanish f.) reduction
reducción al absurdo(Spanish) reductio ad absurdum (Latin)
Reduceon the organ, a direction to decrease the volume by moving to quieter stops
in cooking, to concentrate a liquid by simmering, that is, by boiling off excess liquid
reducido (m.), reducida (f.)(Spanish) reduced, decreased, limited, small
reducieren(German) to make a simplified arrangement of a composition, for example, a piano version of a symphony
reducir(Spanish) to reduce, to cut down, to break down, to decrease, to shorten, to subdue, to convert (mathematics), to set (round off (arithmetic), to round up (arithmetic), to set (a fracture)
reduciren(German, archaic spelling) to make a simplified arrangement of a composition, for example, a piano version of a symphony
reducirse(Spanish) to make economies, to be reduced, to diminish
reductible(Spanish) reducible
Reductio(Latin) reducing, or bringing back augmented intervals to their original value
Reductio ad absurdum(Latin, 'reduction to the absurd') proving the truth of a proposition by proving the falsity of all its alternatives, pshing anything to an absurd extreme
in Spanish, also reducción al absurdo
Reductionalso called a 'piano reduction', an arrangement for piano of a composition originally written for an emsemble, for example, a piano version of a symphony, which maintains as much of the original material as is possible. Piano reductions are also used to provide an accompaniment for singers, solo instrumentalists, dancers, choruses, etc. to which they can more easily rehearse where an orchestra is unavailable
Réduction(French f.) reduction
reductor (m.), reductora (f.)(Spanish) reducing
réduire(French) to arrange
Reduktion(German f.) reduction
Redundantsee 'redundant entry'
Redundant entryan extra voice in the initial entries or the exposition in a fugue
Redundant intervalaugmented interval
Reduplicate(of a word) repeat exactly or with a slight change (for example, hurly-burly, see-saw)
reduzieren(German) to arrange
Reduzionearchaic spelling of riduzione
Redwooda very large Californian conifer yielding red wood
Re-echoecho repeatedly, resound
Reed(on a wind instrument) ancia (Italian f.), Rohrblatt (German n.), anche (French f.), éiglotte (French f.), caña (Spanish), lengüeta (Spanish f.)
a piece of cane, usually the species arundo donax (Giant Reed) is used for making modern orchestral single and double reeds, metal (for example in the reeds of the harmonica), plastic (as for many modern reproductions of medieval wind-cap instruments) or some other similar material, which, when air is blown across it, vibrates freely to produce a sound
reeds can be used in the following way:
free single reedvibrates within an aperture without striking the edges, as in the harmonium
striking or beating single reedthe reed strikes on the edges, as in the reed-pipes of an organ
double reedtwo beating reeds striking against each other, as in the oboe and bassoon
Reed fiftha stopped Quint register, in an organ, the stopper of which has a hole, or an open tube in it
Reed instrumentsinstruments that have a reed, for example, oboe and bassoon (which have a pair of reeds), clarinet and saxophone (which have a single reed), harmonica and harmonium which have a reed for each note
Reed nasata stopped Quint register, in an organ, the stopper of which has a hole, or an open tube in it
Reed organcalled 'parlour organ', 'pump organ', 'cabinet organ', 'cottage organ', an organ where wind acts on a set of free reeds, for example, in the harmonium, melodeon, concertina, etc. Reed organs are operated either with pressure or with suction bellows. Pressure bellows permit a wider range to modify the volume, depending on if the pedalling of the bellows is faster or slower. In North America, a reed organ with pressure bellows is referred to as a harmonium, whereas in Europe, any reed organ is called a harmonium unregarded if it has pressure or suction bellows. As reed organs with pressure bellows were more difficult to produce and therefore more expensive, North American reed organs and melodions almost generally use suction bellows and operate on vacuum.
Reed pipeor 'reedwork', an organ pipe that sounds rather like a single reed orchestral instrument. The wind flowing through the pipe vibrates a metal tongue, a strip of flat metal, against an open-faced tube, called a shallot. This is not visible from the outside because these parts are contained in the boot, the bottom part of the pipe which rests on the wind chest. The sound is amplified by the resonator, the top, flared part of the pipe. Pitch is determined by the length of the tongue. Reed pipes have a strong, penetrating tone
Reed-platethe term applied in a free reed instrument, for a grouping of several free-reeds in a single housing (usually brass, but occasionally steel and aluminium have been used, as well as plastics)
Reed stopcannello (Italian), Rohrwerk (German), jeu d'anche (French), a set of organ pipes furnished with reeds
Reedworksee 'reed pipe'
Reedy(of a voice) like a reed instrument in tone
Reefera thick double-breasted jacket
reeks(Dutch) series
Reel(English, German m.) a lively Scottish, Irish or Scandinavian dance usually in 4/4 although occasionally in 6/4, danced by two couples
Reel à boucheCajun mouth music, a form of a cappella singing probably originating in the late 18th-century from Scotland
Re-emphasizeplace renewed emphasis on
Re-enactact out (a past event)
Réenregistrement(French m.) playback
Re-entrant tuningunlike the standard tuning on stringed instrument where the pitch of the strings increases or descreases in pitch progressively, re-entrant tuning (usually on plucked stringed instruments) places higher pitched strings between lower pitched strings. This arrangement is most commonly associated with the ukelele
Reestreno(Spanish m.) revivial (of a play)
Reexposición(Spanish) recapitulation
Refectorydining-room, especially in a monastery or college
Referencein general, a reference is something that refers to or designates something else, or acts as a connection or a link between two things. The objects it links may be concrete, such as books or locations, or abstract, such as data, thoughts, or memories. The object which is named by a reference, or to which the reference points, is the referent
  • Reference from which this extract has been taken
Reference booka book intended to be consulted for occasional information rather than to be ready continuously
Referendum(Latin, 'something to be referred') a means of putting questions to the popular vote (a process that was inaugurated in Switzerland)
Referenzzeichnung(German f.) reference drawing
Referred painpain felt in a part of the body other than its actual source
Refinemake or become more polished, elegant or cultured, to free from impurities or defects
Refinedpolished, elegant, cultured
Refinementfineness of feeling or taste, polish or elegance in behaviour or manner, subtle reasoning, fine distinction
réfléchir à(French) to consider, to reflect upon
réfléchir sur(French) to think about, to reflect upon
Reflection(thought) idea arising in the mind
Reflectoscopea type of magic lantern specifically designed for the projection of images on printed card. Rather than projecting an image through a transparency, an opaque flat image could be captured by a mirror and then its reflection projected onto a screen. Various models existed that could be powered by alcohol, electric, or gas. the name Reflectoscope was used later as a brand name for a slide projector
Reflector(Spanish m.) spotlight
Reflector mutebrass instrument mutes don't always have to be used to change sound timbre. Reflector mutes look like miniature drum heads that have three clamps attached to them. The majority of the sound passes through a cut out in the centre of the mute, but enough sound is reflected back to the player so that he can hear him or herself. This provides a remedy for the tendency most players have to over blow when playing outdoors
Reflex(of an action) independent of the will, as an automatic response to the stimulation of a nerve
Reflexive(grammar) a word or form referring back to the subject of a sentence (for example, myself, themselves), of a verb having a reflexive pronoun as its object (for example, to harm oneself)
Reflexive constructiona verb combined with a reflexive pronoun functioning as the direct object. For instance, in Spanish, Yo me llavo ("I wash myself"). In English, this often creates a redundant phrase, such as "I repent me of my promise"
Reformation, the(historical) series of processes occurring between the 14th and 17th centuries for the reform of the Roman Catholic Church that ended in the establishment of the Reformed or Protestant Churches
Reform operaGluck's Orfeo ed Euridice first produced in Vienna in 1762 was the first of his 'reform operas' one of whose purposes was, as he put it, to "divest [opera] entirely of all those abuses, introduced into it either by the mistaken vanity of singers or by the too great complaisance of composers, which have so long disfigured Italian opera and made of the most splendid and beautiful of spectacles the most ridiculous and wearisome". Out went da capo arias, the strict alternation of recitative and aria, secco recitative accompanied only by continuo. Instead, the opera was written out with fully orchestrated recitatives and strategically placed arias that were essential parts of the drama. Gone too were the customary exit arias in which singers halted the action while they gave gratuitous demonstrations of their virtuosity
Refrain(English, German m., from the Old French refraindre, to repeat, possibly from Vulgar Latin refringere) a part of a song that recurs at the end of each of a number of verses
associated particularly with 12th- to 14th-century French song, for example, the romance, carole and the formes fixe: rondeau, virelai and ballade
in the medieval carol, the refrain is called a 'burden'
in rondo form, the principal theme
see motet enté
(French m.) chorus, air
refrains are elements which repeat not just within a particular piece, but also from work to work. This includes repeating between different genres, and sometimes appearing in different contexts. The persistent question that has long perplexed scholars is how exact a repetition of a refrain needs to be before it can be considered a refrain. Varying meters, rhythms, and melodies sometimes obscure an appearance of a refrain in a specific work, as in Adam de la Halle's Rondeau 72. In this work as in many others, in order to consider a specific passage a repetition of a specific refrain, precise similarities of both verbal and musical patterns must be present
Refrain centothe combination of frequently unrelated texts in succession in all the voices of a 13th-century motet, acted as a structural and unifying device through lexical repetitions and phonetic patterns, even when no apparent narrative logic exists
Refrão(Portuguese) refrain, chorus
refrapper(German) to strike again
Refrein(Dutch) chorus, refrain, burden (of a song)
Refresher coursecourse reviewing or updating previous studies
Refretor 'fret job', the replacement of the frets on a fretted string instrument, for example, a guitar, viola da gamba, etc.
Refugio antinuclear(Spanish m.) fall-out shelter
Refulgentshining, gloriously bright
refundido(Spanish) revised
Refurbishto brighten up, to restore and redecorate
RefusenikSoviet Jew who has been refused permission to emigrate to Israel
refuser de(French) to refuse to
Refuteprove the flasity or error of a statement (or of the person making it), rebut by argument
Regaal(Dutch) regal (organ)
Regal(English, German n.) kleine Orgel (German f.), régale (French), originally a small portative reed-organ but later fitted with flue pipes
in the organ, a reed stop with short resonators
see regaal
Regale(Italian) regal (organ)
(English) a great feast, a choice food, a delicacy, refreshment
(English) to entertain lavishly with feasting
Régale(French) regal (organ)
Regale with(English) entertain with talk, etc.
Regalia(Latin pl.) the emblems of royalty (crown, sceptre, orb, etc.)
Regard(French m.) look
Regarde-moi dans le blanc des yeux!(French) Look me in the eye!
regarder(French) to look at, to consider
regarder dans (la boîte)(French) to look in (the box)
regarder vers (le sud)(French) to face/look (south)
Regard plein de langueur(French m.) languid look, languishing look
Regatta (s.), Regatte (pl.)(Italian, Venetian dialect) a boat-race held on the Grand Canal at Venice
the term is now applied to any organised series of aquatic contests
Regel(German f.) rule
Regel der Octave(German f.) the rule of the octave
regelmaßig(German) regular
Régence(French) (the furniture and interior decoration characteristic of) the period (1715-23) of the regency of Philippe d'Orléans during the minority of Louis XV of France
Regência(Portuguese) conducting
Regency dancethe term for historical dances from the period ranging roughly from 1790 to 1825. The term is popular but is actually a misnomer, as the actual English Regency (the future George IV ruling on behalf of mad King George III) lasted from 1810 until 1820. Nevertheless, there are consistencies of style over this period which make having a single term useful
Regenmaschine(German f.) a percussion instruments that imitates the sound of rain
Regens chori(Latin) conductor of a church choir, particularly in a German church
Regente(Portuguese) conductor
Reggae(English, German m.) a slow tempo rhythmic style that originated in Jamaica, it derived from ska and rocksteady. Its roots were Jamaican folk, American soul and rock. Many reggae performers adopted the spiritual philosophy of Rastafarianism
Reggae de Puerto Ricosee reggaeton
Reggaetonalso reggaetón or, in Spanish, reguetón. Although reggaeton, which blends Jamaican music influences of reggae and 'dancehall' with those of Latin America, such as bomba and plena, as well as that of 'hip hop', originated in Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic has had a long history of reggaeton music. Dominican reggaeton is a mixture of American 'hip hop' music with reggae, along with elements of Dominican bachata, merengue and the bomba rhythm
at various times other names have been associated with reggaeton including melaza, musica underground, reggae de Puerto Rico and Dem Bow, this last a reference to a particular beat and rhythm
  • Reggaeton from which this information has been taken
Reggi-cordiera(Italian m.) Anhängesaite (German f.), Hängelsaite (German f.), attache cordier (French f.), tailgut
Regia(Italian f.) (stage) direction
Regidor (m.), Regidora (f.)(Spanish) town councillor, stage manager (theatre)
Regiduría de vestuario(Spanish) costume department
Regie(German f.) direction, production
Régie(French f.) stage direction
Regieanweisung (s.), Regieanweisungen (pl.)(German f.) stage direction
Regieopersee Regietheater
Regietheater(German - in English, 'director's opera' or, more commonly, 'producer's opera') also termed Regieoper, a term that refers to the modern (essentially post-WWII) practice of allowing a 'director' or 'producer' such freedom in devising the way a given opera is staged that not only may the composer's specific stage directions (where supplied) be completely disregarded, but also major elements of geographical location, chronological situation, casting and plot
Régime(French) a system of government, a particular mode of living prescribed for reasons of health or punishment
Regimen(Latin) a particular mode of living prescribed for reasons of health, for example, a special diet
Regina(Latin) the Queen
Regina coeli laetare(Latin, literally 'Queen of Heaven, rejoice') one of the four Marian Antiphons, sung between Easter and Pentecost
Regional dialectanother term for geographic dialect
Regional literatureliterature that accurately seeks to portray or is associated with a particular geographic region or people
Régisseur(French m.) opera director or producer, the stage-manager who is responsible for rehearsing the ballets in the répertoire of a company
Regisseur (m.), Regisseurin (f.)(German) opera director or producer
Regista(Italian m./f.) director, producer (theatre or opera)
Register(English, German n.) another name for a stop, a set of organ pipes associated with a particular stop
(German n., Danish, Dutch, Norwegian, Swedish) index, table of contents
a set of harpsichord strings associated with a particular stop. German harpsichord making appears to been strongly influenced by the organ. Indeed, from the 16th-century, harpsichord makers increased the number of registers, that is they built several rows of jacks which pluck the same string at various places, sometimes obtaining a very fluty sound, sometimes a nasal sound. This preoccupation with variety further lead them to enrich the traditional string layout (8' 8' 4 ') by additional choirs of strings at 16' or 2'. Problems of constructions that such construction pose were brilliantly solved by makers like the Hass family of Hamburg. They built the largest harpsichords in history: 3 keyboards with 16' 8' 8' 4' 2 ', with nasal play and lute, or 2 keyboards with 8' 8' 8' 4' 4 '
(English, German n.) a part of the range of an instrument with a characteristic sound, for example the chalumeau register of the clarinet
in the voice, a series of notes that are produced by similar mechanical gestures of vocal fold vibration , glottal and pharyngeal shape, and related air pressure, with resulting similar tone qualities, whether in the head, medium or chest register
see 'voice registers'
part of the mechanism of an organ, a board through which pass and which steadies long trackers
in publishing, the printing of two or more plates in juxtaposition so that they complete a design if printing on the same side of the sheet or back up accurately if printed on opposite sides of the sheet
Register dialecta dialectal variation used only for a particular circumstance or for a specific purpose. For instance, the ceremonial language of sermons, weddings, and funerals
Registered trademarkeingetragenes Warenzeichen (German n.), marque déposée (French f.), marca depositata (Italian f.), device or name secured by law as representing a company, product, etc.
Registeringthe proper management of the stops in an organ
Registerwechsel(German m.) change of register
Registerzug (s.), Registerzüge (pl.)(German m.) draw-stop, that part of the mechanism of an organ that acts upon the sliders
registraron la casa de arriba abajo(Spanish) they searched the house from top to bottom
Registratie(Dutch) registration
Registration(English, French f.) in music, the art in the choice of stops and tonal colours available to the performer of the organ, harpsichord, etc.
in printing, the perfect alignment of paper, especially over multiple printing surfaces, so they will print in the proper location and create a single image. The greater the number of colours used in the printing the greater the chance of non-alignment and waste
Registratore(Italian m.) tape-recorder
Registratori a cassetta(Italian m. pl.) cassette tape-recorder
Registrazione(Italian f.) registration
(Italian f.) recording
Registrazione a più piste(Italian f.) multitrack recording
Registrazione dal vero(Italian f.) live recording
Registrazione di dimostrazione(Italian f.) demo tape
Registrazione radiofonica(Italian f.) radio recording
Registrazione televisiva(Italian f.) television recording
Registre(French m.) or jeu d'orgue, register
(French m.) range
(French m.) the handle or knob of the organ stops
Registres de voix(French m. pl.) voice registers
see 'voice registers'
Registri della voce(Italian m. pl.) voice registers
see 'voice registers'
registrieren(German) to register
Registrierung(German f.) registration
registriren(German, former spelling) registrieren
Registrirung(German, former spelling) Registrierung
Registro (s.), Registri (pl.)(Italian m.) register, an organ-stop, registre (French), jeu d'orgue (French)
the term is more properly applied to mean stops rather than registers
Registro (s.), Registros (pl.)(Spanish m.) register an organ-stop, registre (French), jeu d'orgue (French)
the term is more properly applied to mean stops rather than registers
Registro basso(Italian m.) bass register
Registro de silbido(Spanish m.) whistle register, flageolet register (the register of the human voice employed for the very highest notes of a coloratura soprano, as, for example, in the aria sung by The Queen of the Night in Mozart's opera The Magic Flute)
Registro musical(Spanish m.) tessitura
Registro partido(Spanish m.) a term applied to organs where a single register is divded over the range of the keyboard, each half operated by a separate drawstop. This is usually arranged so that the lower half stops at C1, while the upper half starts from C#1. The player can either use one half or, by drawing both stops use the rank over the full compass
Registros extremos(Spanish m.) the extreme upper ranges of instruments or singers
Registros vocal(Spanish m. pl.) voice registers
see 'voice registers'
Regius(Latin, literally 'apointed by the Crown') applied to certain professors in the older British Universities, particularly chairs founded by Henry VIII
Regla(Spanish f.) rule
Regla de Ocha(Spanish, regla, 'rule') real name of the Afro-Cuban religion, also called Santeria, of West African Yoruba origin (Lucumi), signifying the most important of the Afro-Cuban-Catholic rites, in which the African divinities are integrated with the Catholic god and saints
see Santeria
Règle(French f.) rule, or precept, for composition or performance
Règle de l'octave(French f., literally 'rule of the octave') a mnemonic formula for the realisation of chords from an unfigured bass line
Régleur de tonalité(French f.) tone control
régner sur(French) to reign over
Regola(Italian f.) rule, or precept, for composition or performance
regolare(Italian) regular
Regola rubertina (1542)written by Silvestro Ganassi (c.1492-1550), published in Venice, a manual for playing the viola da gamba
Regolatore del suono(Italian m.) tone control
Regressive countrysee 'alternative country'
regretter de(French) to regret ...
Regulae(Latin) the registers, or stops, in an organ
Regularliving according to a rule; can refer to living in a monastic community or a community of regular canons
Regular accentor 'natural accent', a stress placed on the first beat of the bar, or, in compound meters, on other beats, when it is called a secondary accent
Regular canonpriest living in a community in accordance with a rule; term applied to the Augustinian canons
Regular clergy (Latin regula, 'rule') individuals who isolated themselves from material concerns by residing in a monastery. These monks would take a series of vows and agree to live according to the rues of the order
Regular fugueone in which the laws of fugal writing are followed strictly, as opposed to a free fugue
Regular meantoneany temperament which emphasizes the quality of major thirds and in which all the usable major thirds are the same size
Regular motionsimilar motion
Regular temperamentwhere all fifths are tempered the same way
Tom Dent, in a contribution to the clavichord yahoo group, writes, "Every equal temperament (including those with 19, 31, etc. notes per octave) is regular, but not every regular temperament is equal. A regular temperament is equal if and only if it has a *closed* cycle of fifths - i.e. you get back to the starting pitch after a fixed number of steps."
see 'temperament'
Regular tuningwhere all fifths are tuned the same pure interval as for example in Pythagorean tuning
[entry suggested by Tom Dent]
régulier (m.), régulière (f.)(French) steady, regular
régulièrement(French) steady
Reharmonizationin music, reharmonization refers to the technique of taking an existing melodic line and altering the harmony which accompanies it. Typically, a melody is reharmonized to to provide musical interest or variety. As well, reharmonization is often used to introduce a new section in the music, such as a coda or bridge
Rehearsalprova (Italian), Probe (German), répétition (French), practice of a play, of a piece of music, of a ballet, etc.
Rehearsal letterstarting in the 19th-century (probably invented by the composer Louis Spohr), but used more consistently in the 20th-century, letters placed at significant places through the score of a large scale work, for example, at the beginning of sections. By this means, a conductor can rehearse a work from one of these points, say a section beginning with the letter C, by asking the orchestra or chorus to 'go from letter C'. In smaller scale works, the conductor or leader would rely on bar numbers, which are usually marked every 5 or, more commonly, 10 bars
Reibbrett(German n.) friction board
reiben(German) to rub
Reibtrommel(German f.) friction drum
Reich(German) a state, an empire
its use in Germany, particularly The Third Reich originates with the work of Arthur Moeller van der Bruck (1876-1925), a German cultural historian and writer, best known for his controversial book Das Dritte Reich (1923), which takes as its source the doctrine of the Millennium, in which a period of rule by the Holy Ghost was to be followed by periods of rule by the Father and by the Son
reiche Stil(German m.) ornate style
Reifchen(German n.) Futterleiste (German f.), contre-éclisse (French f.), controfascia (Italian f.), lining, softwood strip(s) used in string instrument making to strengthen the join between the ribs and the back and belly
Reigen(German m.) also Reigenlied or Reihen, a medieval round dance form or 'roundelay', associated with the arrival of summer, in triple meter and characterized by repeated notes and phrases
a term found in the names of particular dances, for example Gnomenreigen, Elfenreigen, Kuhreigen, etc.
see 'pilgrim songs (German)'
Reigenlied(German n.) see Reigen
Reihe(German f.) row, tone row, note row
(German f.) series (of publications)
Reihensee Reigen
Reihenfolge(German f.) order
Reihenklapper(German f.) bin-sarara
Reihentanz(German) circular dance
Reilly Greensproduced in 1946, the Reilly Plan was an alternative report on post war reconstruction based on Sir Charles Reilly's post-war plan for Birkenhead. Reilly had been Professor of Architecture at the University of Liverpool (a post created by Lord Leverhulme of Port Sunlight fame). The plan included Reilly Greens, small village greens which most houses adjoined. With groups of 3 to 5 greens around a community centre containing a restaurant, bar, sports and hobbies areas, library and hall. Family houses around the greens would not have kitchens, as the community centre's restaurant was to provide a low cost catering service to be managed by residents. Houses would be provided with small electric cookers for emergencies. This would leave women free to undertake paid work. Only Bilston and Dudley councils showed any interest in implementing the plan. Dudley beginning an estate on modified 'Reilly Green' lines in 1950
Reim(German m.) rhyme
Reimpresion(Spanish f.) reprint
Réimpression(French f.) reprint
Reimschema(German n.) rhyme scheme
rein(German) pure, clear, perfect (for example, interval)
(German) correct as regards intonation
reine Duodezime(German f.) perfect twelfth
Reine große Terz(German f.) 5-limit major third, sesquiquartan or pure major third, an interval with the ratio 5/4
Reine Intervalle(German n. pl.) perfect intervals
Reine kleine Terz(German f.) 5-limit minor third, sesquiquintan or pure minor third, an interval with the ratio 6/5
reine Oktave(German f.) perfect octave
reine Prime(German f.) perfect unison, perfect prime
reine Quarte(German f.) perfect fourth, an interval with the ratio 4/3
reine Quinte(German f.) perfect fifth, an interval with the ratio 3/2
reines Intervall(German n.) perfect interval
reines Moll(German n.) authentic minor scale, natural minor scale
reine Stemming(Dutch) just intonation
reine Stimme(German) clear voice
reine Stimmung(German f.) just intonation
reine Undezime(German f.) perfect eleventh
Reinforcing the tonerinforzando (Italian), rinforzato (Italian), Ton gesteigert (German), plus fort (French)
rein interval(Dutch) perfect interval
Reinlendarsee Rheinländler
rein singen(German) to sing in tune
Reinterpretationin music, especially Schenkerian analysis, an elision, overlap, or rather reinterpretation (Umdeutung), is the perception, after the fact, of a metrically weak final chord (of a chord progression) as being in a strong position as the initial chord of the next progression
Reissuealso, in the case of films, 're-release', a film, TV series, recording, etc. released again by a studio, recording company, etc. after its initial release
rejeter une faute sur ...(French) to place the blame on ...
Réjouissance(French f., literally 'festivity') a spirited movement found in suites of the baroque period
Rekilaulu(from the German, Reigenlied) a form of rhyming sleigh song that became popular in the 17th-century. Despite opposition from most of the churches in Finland, rekilaulu remained popular and is today a common element in pop songs
Rekke(Norwegian) sub-series
Reklamationsabteilung(German f.) claims department (insurance company, etc.)
Rekuhkara(from Sakhalin Ainu rekuh 'throat') is a variant of throat singing that was practised by the Ainu until 1976 when the last practitioner died. The Ainu method involved two women facing each other, with one forming a tube with her hands and chanting into the oral cavity of her partner. The technique is essentially one where the "giver" provides the voice and the "receiver", holding her glottis closed, uses her vocal tract to modulate the sound stream
  • Rekuhkara from which this extract has been taken
relâché(French) loosened (as with the snare of a drum)
Relajación(Spanish) release, relaxation
(Spanish) release (the end of a sounding note)
Relanzamiento(Spanish m.) relaunch
relanzar(Spanish) to relaunch
relatar(Spanish) to relate, to narrate, to report to tell
Related keys
musical keys that because of their similarity are easy to move between
of a major keyIV major, V major, II minor, III minor, VI minor
of a minor keyIV minor, V minor, III major, VI major, VII major
(the descending form of the the melodic minor is used when making this calculation)
relatif (m.), relative (f.)(French) relative
Relatio(Latin) report, account
Relatio non harmonica(Latin) false relation, Querstand
Relationshipthe degree of affinity between keys, chords and notes
Relative keytono relativo (Italian), parallel Tonart (German), mode relatif (French)
one of a pair of keys that share a common key signature, for example, C major and a minor, also called 'Aeolian twins'
key signaturemajor keyrelative minor key
no sharps or flatsC majora minor
1 sharpG majore minor
2 sharpsD majorb minor
3 sharpsA majorf sharp minor
4 sharpsE majorc sharp minor
5 sharpsB majorg sharp minor
6 sharpsF sharp majord sharp minor
7 sharpsC sharp majora sharp minor
1 flatF majord minor
2 flatsB flat majorg minor
3 flatsE flat majorc minor
4 flatsA flat majorf minor
5 flatsD flat majorb flat minor
6 flatsG flat majore flat minor
7 flatsC flat majora flat minor
some older text books suggest that keys whose signatures differs by one sharp or flat may also be considered relative
Relativa(Spanish f.) relative key
relativasee relativo
Relativa mayor(Spanish f.) relative major (key)
Relativa menor(Spanish f.) relative minor (key)
Relative key modulationsee 'relative modulation'
Relative majormajor key with same key signature as a particular minor key; for example, G major is the relative major of e minor, because both have one sharp in their key signature
Relative minorminor key with same key signature as a particular major key; for example, c minor is the relative minor of E-flat major because both have three flats in their key signature
Relative modesall the modes formed of a common set of notes but with different tonics. For example, D Dorian, E Phrygian, F Lydian, G Mixolydian, and so on
Relative modulationmodulation from one key to a relative key (e.g. C major to a minor, or e minor to G major)
Relative pitchan ability to identify an unknown pitch with reference to another given pitch
relatives Gehör(German n.) relative pitch
Relativo(Spanish m.) relative
relativo (m.), relativa (f.)(Spanish) relative
Relato(Spanish m.) a tale, a story, a report, an account
Relatum (s.), Relata (pl.)(Latin) one of a group of related things
Relé(Spanish m.) relay (electrical)
Releasein the AABA structure, common to certain sonata and symphonic forms, B is called the 'release', 'channel' or 'bridge'. If B section is eight bars long, the 'release' is called a 'middle eight'
the end of a musical note, the antonym of 'attack'
Release techniquemore accurately be described as an anti-technique, its fundamental principle is to use the body's natural channels of moving and functioning to access dance movement - as opposed to other formal dance techniques that encourage some degree, at least, of distortion of the body's natural alignments or 'normal' mechanics
releer(Spanish) to reread
relegar(Spanish) to relegate
Relente(Spanish m.) dew
Relevancia(Spanish f.) relevance, importance
relevante(Spanish) relevant, important
relevar(Spanish) to relieve, to take over from, to dismiss, to remove from office, to exempt from
relevé(French, literally 'raised') in dance, a raising of the body on the points or demi-pointes, point or demi-pointe. There are two ways to relevé. In the French School, relevé is done with a smooth, continuous rise while the Cecchetti method and the Russian School use a little spring. Relevé may be done in the first, second, fourth or fifth position, en attitude, en arabesque, devant, derrière, en tournant, passé en avant, passé en arrière and so on
  • Relevé from which this information has been taken
Relicthe mortal remains, or any components thereof, of a saint, believed to embody the miraculous powers of the saint
Relicario(Spanish m.) reliquary, locker, box
Reliefon a guitar, the upward arching bow in an instrument's neck that allows the strings to move without touching the frets. A bowed or warped neck may have to be heated and pressed to restore the neck in order to correct 'relief'
Relief printinga printing process using plates (blocks) that have a raised printing surface. Ink is dabbed or rolled onto the printing surface, then transferred to paper either by hand rubbing or using a press that pushes the plate into the paper. The recessed areas do not print. Traditionally a woodcut technique, relief printing developed into letterpress for the printing of text and wood engraving to provide accompanying illustrations. It is one of the oldest printing techniques known
Relief stampingsee 'diestamping'
Relieve(Spanish m.) relief (in sculpture)
Religieuse(French f.) a woman bound by religious vows, a nun
religieusement(French) in a religious or devout style
religieux (m.), religieuse (f.)(French) religious
religieuze Muziek(Dutch) sacred music
Religión(Spanish f.) religion
religiös(German) in a religious or devout style
religiosamente(Italian, Spanish) religiously, devoutly, solemnly
Religiosidad(Spanish f.) religiosity, religiousness
Religioso (m.), Religiosa (f.)(Italian, Spanish) monk, nun
religioso (m.), religiosa (f.)(Italian, Spanish) religious, devout, solemn, in a religious or devout style
Religiouslyreligioso (Italian), Religiös (German), religieusement (French)
Religious musicmusic which is associated with religious practice and observance (ritual) or belief, for example, 'reverent music'
in Malnak v. Yogi (3d. Cir. 1979), Judge Adams applied these three criteria before answering the question 'what is a religion':
1. a religion deals with issues of ultimate concern; with what makes life worth living; with basic attitudes toward fundamental problems of human existence
2. a religion presents a comprehensive set of ideas--usually as "truth," not just theory
3. a religion generally has surface signs (such as clergy, observed holidays, and ritual) that can be analogized to well-recognized religions
the interpretation of the so-called 'religious clauses' and the case Engel v Vitale (1962), in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that New York's practice of beginning school days with a prayer drafted by school officials violated the Establishment Clause, has caused problems with the use of 'religous music' in state-funded educational establishments. This has included a New Jersey school district's policy that banned all religious music in the district's public schools. The School District's ban was specifically focused on preventing the playing of Christmas music, including simple instrumentals, during the 2004 year-end celebrations in its public schools
Religious song
there are many types of song, used for religious purposes:
songin a general sense, any utterance with a musical modulation whether by the human voice or those of birds or other animals
anthema composition set with words that are taken from the Bible, prayer book, or other sacred writing (other than a psalm)
odea musical setting of a poem of noble sentiment and dignity of style, especially one commemorating or honoring a particular subject, such as a person of special occasion
preludean introductory portion of a piece of music
chantrecited in a musical tone, mostly on one pitch (or a few), sometimes without evident rhythmic form
hymna song of thanksgiving to, praise to, or love of God
psalma song based on a text from the Book of Psalms in the Old Testament of the Bible. Psalms may be paraphrased on rewritten in a metrical fashion. The Biblical psalms were originally Hebrew songs
spiritual songa song with sacred content, usually not a psalm or hymn, as in the Biblical phrase "psalms, hymns, and spiritual songs."
set piecea piece of music set with particular words and designed to be used with those words only (most psalms and hymns can be interchangeable with different music of a given meter to suit)
fuguing tunehaving at least one section in which the parts fall in one after the other, with the same or similar rhythm and with related melodic lines, at different pitches. At the end of the section, the parts come together
relinchar(Spanish) to neigh, to whinny (horse, etc.)
Relincho(Spanish m.) a neigh, a whinny (horse, etc.)
Reliquarya container for the relics of a saint; many were expensively gilded and jewelled
Reliquia(Spanish f.) relic
Reliquiae(Latin pl.) remains, particularly the fossil remains of animals or plants
an ornament from the English Renaissance and Baroque eras, that exists in two forms:
single relisha trill with a turned ending or simply a turn
double relisha compound ornament, defined differently by different writers, but usually including a trill or an appoggiatura
Reliure(French f.) binding (of a book)
Ré maior
key of D major(Portuguese) the key of 'D major'
the scale of D major
the scale of 'D major'
Ré majeur
key of D major(French) the key of 'D major'
the scale of D major
the scale of 'D major'
Re major
key of D major(Catalan m.) the key of 'D major'
the scale of D major
the scale of 'D major'
Remanieur(French m.) a writer who adapts or recasts the work of another
remarcable(French) remarkable
Remate(Spanish m.) a term is applied to the action of 'finishing off' a movement or combination of movements, designed particularly to give emphasis to the final line of the verse
[corrected by Peter Griffith]
Re mayor
key of D major(Spanish) the key of 'D major'
the scale of D major
the scale of 'D major'
Rembetikaaccompanied song style built on long Byzantine, Turkish, Greek tradition, emerging in urban Greece of the 1920s.
Re menor(Spanish) the key of 'D minor'
remercier(French) to thank
remercier de(French) to thank (for doing ...)
remercier ... de tout coeur(French) to thank ... from the bottom of one's heart
remercier pour (le livre...)(French) to thank for (the book...)
Remerciez-le de ma part.(French) Thank him for me.
Remets-toi vite.(French) Get well soon.
remettre(French) to put back, to go back to an original choice of registration
Reminder accidentalsynonymous with 'cautionary accidental' and 'courtesy accidental'
Ré mineur(French) the key of 'D minor'
Reminiscence motifsynonymous with 'reminiscence motive'
Reminiscence motivea theme identified with a character, location, object or idea in an opera which returns throughout an opera but varies very little unlike the leitmotiv which serves a similar function but is modified as the drama unfolds
Reminiscentialin psychology, the ability to perform a task better when tested some time after the task has been learnt than when tested immediately after learning it
in the philosophy of Plato, the doctrine that perception and recognition of particulars is possible because the mind has seen the universal forms of all things in a previous disembodied existence
Reminiszenz(German f.) reminiscence
reminiszenz-Motiv(German n.) reminiscence motive
Re-mixsee 'mix'
Remonstrantsthe name given to those Dutch Protestants who, after the death of Arminius, maintained the views associated with his name, and in 1610 presented to the states of Holland and Friesland a remonstrance in five articles formulating their points of departure from stricter Calvinism
Remoraan electro-acoustic harp-guitar invented by American composer-pianist Sean MacLean
Remote Control Productionsa film music company run by veteran composer Hans Zimmer, originally known as Media Ventures
Remote keysthe relationship between keys that have relatively few notes in common, for example, the key of C and the key of F sharp
Remplaçant (m.), Remplaçante (f.)(French) stand in, understudy
Remplissage(French m.) in music, the filling up, usually in the sense that inner parts are unnecessary or poorly constructed, i.e. padding
Remplissage improvisé(French m.) fill, filler, fill-in
Renaissance(English, German f., French f.) a French label given to an Italian cultural movement and to its repercussions elsewhere; also, on the assumption that chronological slices of human mass experience can usefully be described in terms of a dominant intellectual and creative manner, a historical period (post-Medieval, pre-Baroque). For Italy the period is popularly accepted as running from the second generation of the 14th-century to the second or third generation of the 16th-century. Though there is something inherently ridiculous about describing a period of 250 years as one of rebirth, there is some justification for seeing a unity within it, if only in terms of the chronological self-awareness of contemporaries. Vasari's Lives became a textbook of European repute. It was his contention that he was describing what followed from the rinascita or 'rebirth' of the arts that launched the word on its increasingly inclusive career. For long, however, it was a 'renaissance' of this or that, of arts, of scholarship, of letters. Not until the publication in 1855 of the volume in Jules Michelet's Histoire de France entitled La Renaissance was the label attached to a period and all that happened in it; not until the appearance of Jacob Burckhardt's still seminal Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy in 1860 was it ineluctably identified in particular with Italy and more generally with a phase of human development thought to be markedly different in kind from what went before and what came after
a term that had become so liable to subjective interpretation was challenged during this century chiefly on the following points:
there is no such thing as a self-sufficient historical period. Much that was characteristic of the Middle Ages flowed into and through the Renaissance. Much that was characteristic of the Renaissance flowed on until the age of experimental science, of industrialization, mobilized nationalism, and mass media
Renaissance art and literature did not develop so consistently that they can be seen in one broad Vasarian sweep. There was an early, a 'high' and a late stage (all variously dated) in terms of artistic and literary aims and style
there is not a true, let alone a uniform, congruence between, 'culture' and 'history' during the period; 'Renaissance' culture came late to Venice, later still to Genoa, both thriving centres of political and commercial activity
to define a period in terms of a cultural élite is to divert attention unacceptably from the fortunes of the population as a whole
in a looser sense, a renaissance (usually with an uncapitalized r) is any period in which a people or nation experiences a period of vitality and explosive growth in its art, poetry, education, economy, linguistic development, or scientific knowledge. The term is positive in connotation
Renaissance dancethe Renaissance period of dance covers at least two centuries and, for dancers, falls into two distinct parts. The early Renaissance covers the later 15th- and early 16th-centuries, while the late Renaissance covers the rest of the 16th- and the beginning of the 17th-centuries. This division is made on the basis of available documentary sources and the changing styles of dance that they record. In France there was one published source, Thoinot Arbeau's Orchésographie (Langres, 1589), while Italy was foremost with six, ranging in date from Lutio Compasso's Ballo della gagliarda (Florence, 1560) to Livio Lupi's Libro di gagliarda, tordiglione, passo è mezzo, canario, è passeggi (Palermo, 1607) and including works by Fabritio Caroso (two), Prospero Lutij, and Cesare Negri; there are also three manuscript sources. No German sources from this period have yet come to light, and it was not until around the mid-seventeenth century that published volumes of dance instruction appeared in England and Spain: John Playford, The English Dancing Master (London, 1651 - the first of several editions) and Juan de Esquivel Navarro's Discursos sobre el arte del dançado (Seville, 1642) respectively. Despite the chronological limits given above, the early Renaissance period of dance is commonly referred to by dancers as '15th-century' and the late Renaissance period of dance as '16th-century'
Renaissance-G tuningalso called vieil Ton, the tuning (G-c-f-a-d'-g') employed on the lute for most music written before c.1620 in which, from the lowest string or course of strings to the highest, the open string intervals are: perfect 4th-perfect 4th-major 3rd-perfect 4th-perfect 4th. Tunings that vary from this are often called transitional tunings
Renaissance guitarthe guitar as it was known in the Renaissance was a four-course treble instrument. The strings were made of gut. The highest string was single, the rest were doubled, rather like a lute. One explanation for this setup was that it was hard to get two high strings with matching intonation. Sometimes the lowest course was an octave pair. The bass string of the pair was called Spanish bordón or French bourdon. (Octave doubling in the bass was also common on the lute in the 16th-century since the bass strings didn't sound out very well. However, around 1600 or so, improving string quality allowed doubled bass strings.) Various tunings for the guitar are found, for example, Ff cc ee ae
Renaissance humanism
Renaissance, idea of
Renaissance music
Renaissance music history
Renaissancemusik(German f.) renaissance music
Renacimiento(Spanish m.) Renaissance
Renascimento(Italian m.) Renaissance
Renat ekThai xylophone
Rencontre(French f.) a casual or accidental meeting
Rendez-vous(French m.) a place of meeting, a place and time appointed for a meeting
Rendez-vous avec la mort(French m.) a date with death
Rendez-vous compte!(French) Just imagine!
Rendez-vous d'affaires(French m.) business meeting, business appointment
rendir homenaje(Spanish) to pay tribute to
Renditiona performance
rendre des comptes(French) to give an explanation
rendre effrayé(French) to make scared
rendre fâché(French) to make mad
rendre gloire à(French) to glorify
rendre gorge(French) to repay unfairly gotten gains
rendre grâces à(French) to give thanks to
rendre heureux(French) to make happy
rendre hommage à(French) to pay homage to
rendre honneur à(French) to pay tribute to
rendre l'âme(French) to breathe one's last
rendre le mal pour le bien(French) to repay good with evil
rendre le soupir(French) to breathe one's last
rendre raison de ... à(French) to give a reason for ...
rendre service(French) to be a great help, to be handy
rendre service à ...(French) to do ... a service
rendre un culte à(French) to worship
rendre visite à ...(French) to visit ...
renforcé(French) strengthened, sforzando (Italian), rinforzato (Italian), rinforzando, verstärkt (German)
renforcer(French, literally 'to reinforce') to increase, to make louder
renforcez!(French) increase!
RengaJapanese linked verse - a poetic dialogue formed by a succession of waka in which poets take turns composing the poem as a party-game. The rules for the games were supposedly laid down in 1186 AD by Fujiwara Sadaie (1162-1241) and Fujiwara Sadatake (c.1139-1202). The first three lines have a set pattern of 5/7/5 syllables. One poet writes these three lines, then passes his poem to another person. That person then writes two lines of 7/7 syllables. The next three lines of 5/7/5 are written by a third person, and so on, until a lengthy poem of a hundred lines or so results. Of these long composite poems, the first three - called the hokku, are always the most important. The renga eventually develops into the renku, and the hokku of these two poetic forms ultimately evolves into the haiku in the 19th century
Renkualso called haikai renga, an earthier, humourous variant on the courtly renga introduced by Iio Sogi, Yamazzaki Sokan, and Nishiyama Soin. While the form of the renku are identical to the renga, the subject-matter, tone, and vocabulary are quite different. Ultimately, the hokku section of the renku or haikai renga develop into the modern haiku after Matsuo Bashó took the poetic form and elevated it to a meaningful zen reaction to nature
ren Mol(Danish) ancient minor scale, natural minor scale
ren Mollskala(Swedish) ancient minor scale, natural minor scale
rennend(German) running
Renneta substance prepared from the inner membrane of a calf's (pig's, hare's or fowl's) stomach, used to coagulating milk, for example, when making cheese
renonçant(French) (a native) who renounces his own culture and strives towards a foreign one (particularly that of the French)
Renoncement(French m.) renounciation
renoncer à(French) to give up, to renounce
renoncer à faire(French) to give up (all thought of) doing
Renonciation(French f.) renounciation
Reno stylea 5-string banjo playing style that like the Keith style emphasizes scales. However, in the 'Reno style' scales are played out of closed-chord positions, where the entire scale may be played without moving the fretting hand up or down the neck, by moving from the lowest to highest string in a linear fashion. The index finger and thumb generally alternate while picking, and often pick the same string two or more times in succession
renouer(French) to tie up, to renew
renouer avec(French) to start again with
Renouveau(French m.) revival, a period of renewal or refreshment (especially in literature or art)
renouveler(French) to renew, to repeat
Renouvellement(French m.) renewal
Rénovation(French f.) renovation, reform
rénover(French) to renovated (a building, etc.), to reform (an institution)
Renseignement(s)(French m.) information
bureau des reseignements (French: information desk)
renseigner(French) to inform, to give information to
ren Stämning(Swedish) just intonation
ren Stemning(Danish) just intonation
rentable(French) profitable
Rentabilité(French f.) profitability
Rentalsin the film industry, that portion of film grosses that goes to film distributors - also refers to videocassette rentals
Rente(French f.) (private) income, pension, annuity
Rentenga set of tuned metal kettle gongs (goongs) in a wooden frame which gives its name to a genre of Sundanese gamelan called goong Renteng
see goong Renteng
Rentier (m.), Rentière (f.)(French) a person of private means, one who lives without working, one whose income is founded on investments or property (the term is usually contemptuous)
rent Intervall(Swedish, Danish) perfect interval
Rent partyalso called a 'boogie', 'skiffle', 'house party' or 'house-rent party', where tenants hire a musician or band to play for a party and pass the hat to raise money to pay their rent. The rent party played a major role in the development of jazz and blues music
Rentrée(French f.) return, re-entry (for example, the re-entry of a part after a period of silence), the start of a new academic year
rentrer(French) to go home, to come back home, to return home, to go in, to come in, to go back in, to come back in, to go back (to school)
rentrer à la maison(French) to go home
rentrer dans(French) to smash into, to bring in, to draw in, to tuck in
rentrer dans l'ordre(French) to be back to normal
rentrer dans ses frais(French) to break even (financially)
renversé (m.), renversée (f.)(French) inverted, reversed
renverse à la(French) backwards
Renversement(French m.) overthrow (a king, a government, etc.), a reversal (of fortune), a complete transformation (of circumstances) (in all cases the implication is that things have changed for the worse)
(French m.) inclinazione del manico (angolazione della tastiera) (Italian), Halswinkel (die Griffbrettlage), angle of fingerboard or 'neck projection'
Renversement (d'accord)(French m.) inversion (of a chord)
renverser(French) to invert, to turn upside down, to knock down, to knock over, to upset, to spill, to overturn (a government), to reverse
Renvoi(French m.) return, dismissal, expulsion, postponement, reference, to belch
in music, the repeat sign, usually the sign segno, to which dal segno and al segno refer
renvoyé(French) postponed
renvoyer(French) to send back, to return, to dismiss (an employee), to expel (a pupil), to postpone, to refer, to reflect
Reol(Danish) a Danish peasant dance, very similar to a 'reel'
Reongfound in some gamelan orchestras, a set of twelve bossed bronze 'pots', smaller than the ketuk
reorchdabbreviation of 'reorchestrated (by)'
réorganiser(French) to reorganise
Réouverture(French f.) reopening
Repabbreviation of 'repertory', 'representative'
re págabbreviation of retroceso de página (Spanish: previous page)
Repaire(French m.) den
répandre(French) to spill (liquid), to spread (to diffuse), to shed (light, blood), to give off (a scent, etc.)
répandu(French) widespread
Réparateur(French m.) repairer
Réparation(French f.) repair, compensation
réparer(French) to repair, to mend, to make amends for, to put right
Repartie(French f.) retort
repartir(French) to start again, to start up again, to set off again, to go back
repartir de zéro(French) to start from scratch
répartir(French) to distribute, to share out, to spread
Répartition(French f.) distribution
Repas(French m.) meal
Repas du soir(French m.) evening meal
Repassage(French m.) ironing
repasser(French) to come back, to go back, to iron, to go over (a lesson), to retake (an exam), to show again (a film)
Repeatreplica (Italian), ripressa (Italian), Wiederholung (German), reprise (French)
replica (Italian), Wiederholungszeichen (German), bâton de reprise (French), the 'repetition' signs indicates that a section of a piece of music is to be played a second time - where this is the first section of the piece the left hand sign may be absent - however, where the repeat is of a later section, the left and right hand signs mark the extent of the section
where a movement consists of three sections, for example, a minuet, trio and a repeated minuet, or a first gavotte, a second gavotte and a repeat of the first gavotte, repeats marked in the minuet or the first gavotte would be ignored when each is reprised in the third section
repeated bars
Repeated notesreiteration of a tone at the same pitch level
Repeated notes, notation ofrepeated notes
alternating chord and note
repeated patterns
repeated groups
repeated bars
Repeat end sign
repeat end signalso called 'close repeat sign' or 'end-repeat sign', marking the end of a passage to be repeated, often used in conjunction with a 'repeat start sign'
Repeat ratiosee 'pseudo-octave'
Repeat sign
Repeat start sign
repeat start signalso called 'open repeat sign' or 'begin-repeat sign', marking the beginning of a passage to be repeated
Repêchage(French) a supplementary heat in a rowing or sculling contest, where the runners-up in the first heats compete together for a place in the final
repêcher(French) to fish out, to allow to pass (a candidate in an exam, etc.)
repente(Italian) suddenly
Repentir(French m.) repentance
Repentismofrom northeastern Brazil, a distinctive form of literature called literatura de cordel, provides the lyrics for ballads that make up repentismo, an improvised lyrical contest on themes suggested by the audience
Repentista(Portuguese, literally 'improptu singer') a folklore poet-singer from north-eastern Brazil
Repercussa (s.), Repercussae (pl.)the tenor, dominant or recitation tone of a mode
Repercussieteken(Dutch) breath mark
Repercussio(Latin) repercussion, for example, the reappearance of the subject of a fugue after the exposition
Repercussio gutturis(Latin) the rapid repetition of a single pitch, which when called for in liturgical chant is indicated with neumes such as the bistropha and tristropha. In the 13th-century this effect was also termed reverberatio
Repercussionthe frequent repetition of the same note or chord
the re-entrance, following other material, of the subject and answer in a fugue
in an ornament such as a trill or a mordent, the 'repercussion' is the note that is not the 'principal'. The note written in the score, over or under which the sign is written, is called the 'principal'. Depending on the period when the music was written, the 'repercussion' will be the note either immediately above or immediately below the principal
Répercussion(French f.) repercussion
répercuter(French) to echo
Repère(French m.) mark, marker, landmark (figurative)
repérer(French) to locate, to spot
Reperkussionston(German) tonus currens (Latin) (the note that is rapidly repeated when called for in liturgical chant)
Repertoire(English, German n.) répertoire
Répertoire(French m.) index, compositions that an individual or ensemble has prepared for performance, the extent of a person's proficiency in an art
Repertoire (theatre)in theatre, a repertoire system can operate when a theatre has many plays (or musicals, ballets, operas, etc.) in performance at any time. It differs from a repertory system in that each play will have a different cast, and possibly stage crew, from the others. In other words, each will be a separate production. It also differs from a receiving house in that most, if not all, of the productions in the repertoire will be produced internally and alternate with each other, rather than a succession of individual productions by external companies simply using the theatre as a performance space
répertorier(French) to index
Repertorio(Spanish m., Italian m.) repertoire, index, répertoire (French)
Repertorio coral(Spanish m.) choral repertoire
Repertorio orquestal(Spanish m.) orchestral repertoire
Repertorio orquestal estándar(Spanish m.) standard orchestral repertoire
Repertorium(Latin) a storehouse, a systematic collection
Repertoryor 'rep', a term from Western theatre. It is traditionally applied to the practice of a single company putting on a variety of plays successively for short runs, typically from a week to a fortnight. In the form repertory company or rep company it may also apply to a theatre company which takes this approach. These are to be distinguished from a company performing a single play for a long run; and from a number of different companies (and hence different actors) putting on short-lived plays in the same theatre one after the other. Different again is a repertoire system, which features two or more plays alternating in the same theatre but with different casts. The repertory system of theatre flourished in Britain in the twentieth century
  • Repertory from which this extract has been taken
repetatur(Latin) let it be repeated
répéter(French) to repeat, to rehearse (in the theatre)
Repetição(Portuguese) repeat, repetition
Repetición(Spanish f.) repeat, reprise, répétition (French)
repetidamente(Spanish) repeatedly
Repetidor (m.), Repetidora (f.)(Spanish) rehearsal director
repetir(Portuguese, Spanish) to repeat
Repetiteur(English from the French) ensaiador (Portuguese), choir-master in an opera house, an assistant teacher, a coach
Répétiteur(French m.) ensaiador (Portuguese), choir-master in an opera house, an assistant teacher, a coach, a person responsible for conducting the rehearsals of a dramatic or musical performance
Repetitie(Dutch) rehearsal
Repetitionrepetizione (Italian), Weiderholung (German), répétition (French), reprise (French), the occurence of an event that has occurred before
Répétition(French f. literally 'repetition') rehearsal, repetition, repetición (Spanish)
Répétition générale(French f.) often abbreviated to générale, a full dress-rehearsal of a dramatic or musical performance. In continental opera houses, this is often given in front of an invited audience including the press
Repetitionsmechanik(German f.) on a pianoforte, a double-escapement action
Repetitive strain injuryalso known as repetitive stress injury, repetitive motion injuries, repetitive motion disorder (RMD), cumulative trauma disorder (CTD), occupational overuse syndrome, overuse syndrome, regional musculoskeletal disorder, an injury of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems that may be caused by repetitive tasks, forceful exertions, vibrations, mechanical compression (pressing against hard surfaces), or sustained or awkward positions
Repetitor(German m.) choir-master in an opera house, an assistant teacher, a coach
Repetitore(Italian m.) choir-master in an opera house, an assistant teacher, a coach
Répétitrice(French f.) choir-master in an opera house, an assistant teacher, a coach
Repetizione(Italian f.) rehearsal, repeat
Rephaimdead 'shades' or 'ghosts', inhabitants of the underworld. The Bible (Isaiah 14:9) describes the Rephaim of the underworld as those "who were leaders of the earth" and those "who were kings of the nations"
Repiano, Ripianomisspelling of ripieno, a term used in music to make a distinction between passages to be played by the full body, concertante, and others to be played by a group of soloists. The term and the misspelling are still used in English Brass Bands, where it refers to players who are not in the front desk, i.e. those that play in the tutti but not in the solo sections
repicar(Spanish) to ring (bells)
Repiccoin the 17th-century, Baroque guitarists had developed an arsenal of rasgueo or strumming, techniques, which they called Battente Style; the technique itself was called repicco
Repinique(Brazil) a small samba drum with a metallic sound. It is played with one stick and the bare hand in samba but with two sticks in axe. It starts and stops the percussion ensemble (bateria) that accompanies the escola de samba
RepiqueAfro-Uruguayan candombe drum
a Northern Brazil name for the repinique
(Spanish m.) peal (of bells)
(Spanish m.) in drumming, synonymous with 'ricochet', rolling 'rim shot' or drum-roll
Repique de mão(Portuguese, literally 'repique of the hand') a drum played with two bare hands and is used in a form of Brazilian samba music called pagode
repiquer(French) to plant out
Répit(French m.) rest, respite
replacer(French) to replace
Repli(French m.) fold, withdrawal
Replica(Italian f.) repeat, repetition
(Italian f.) repeat performance
(Italian f.) a duplicate copy of a work of art, properly one made by the original artist, an exact copy of a work of art, a facsimile
(English) a term applied to a musical instrument that is a copy of a particular original (reproduction has the same meaning)
Réplica(Spanish) answer, replica
replicato(Italian) repeated, doubled
Replicazione(Italian f.) repetition
replier(French) to fold, to fold inform, to give information to
Répliquereplica (copy)
(French f.) cue notes
(French f.) octave
(French f.) answer, retort, reply, objection
(French f.) line or lines of dialogue in a play
(French f.) the interval resulting from an inversion
(French f.) repeat performance
répliquer(French) to reply, to retort, to answer back
Replythe answer in a fugue
répondant (m.), répondante (f.)(French) guarantor, financial backer
avoir du répondant (French: to have money behind one)
Répondeur(French m.) answering machine
répondez, s'il vous plaît(French, literally 'please reply') often abbreviated to R.S.V.P., written or printed in the corner of an invitation card, an indication that a reply is expected
répondre(French) to reply with, to answer, to reply, to answer back (to be insolent), to respond
répondre à(French) to answer
répondre de(French) to answer for
reprendre le dessus(French) to get over it
répondre que(French) to answer that, to reply that
reponer(Spanish) to revive (a play, opera, etc.)
Réponse(French f.) answer, response, reply
in music, the answer in a fugue
Repos(French m.) pause, repose, break, rest
Reposta(Portuguese) answer, response
Reportthe answer of the subject in a fugue, canon or other imitative form
(French m.) transfer, postponement
Reportage(French m.) report, commentary, (written) article (usually about political events)
Reporter(English, French m.) a person who gives (usually) an eye-witness account of an event, etc.
reporter(French) to take back, to put off, to transfer
Repos(French m.) repose, peace, peace and quiet, peace of mind, a pause
reposant (m.), reposante (f.)(French) restful
reposer(French) to put down again, to rest
reposer sur(French) to rest on
repoussant (m.), repoussante (f.)(French) repulsive
repoussé(French) in art, relief produced in ductile material by hammering the reverse side, (a detail) raised in relief by this method
repousser(French) to put back, to push back, to push away, to repel, to reject, to adjourn, to grow again
Repoussoire(French) an object or figure placed in the foreground to set off the rest of the picture, a foil to the beauty of something else
répréhensible(French) blameworthy
reprendre(French) to take up again, to resume, to take back, regain, recapture, repeat, alter (modify), reprimand, pick up (business)
reprendre le mouvement(French) to resume the original speed (for example, after a temporary change in tempo)
reprendre ses esprits(French) to come to
reprenez(French) take up again!, resume!
Represesee ripresa
Representto resubmit (cheque for payment), to put on (performance of play, opera, etc.) (again), to stand for, to correspond to, to be a specimen of, to embody, to symbolize, to place a likeness of something (or someone) before the mind or senses, to describe, to depict as, to declare, to allege, to be elected as a member of a legislature (etc.)
Representación(Spanish f.) performance (of a play, etc.)
Representante(Spanish) actor, actress
representar(Spanish) to perform (a play)
Representation (s.), Representations (pl.)thing that represents another
(plural form) statement made of allegations or opinions
see 'mimesis'
Représentation(French f.) performance (of a play, etc.)
Representationalin art, depicting a subject as it appears to the eye
Representative charactera flat character who embodies all of the other members of a group (such as teachers, students, cowboys, detectives, and so on). Representative characters are often stereotypes
representer(French) to perform (a play)
Reprintto print again
reprinting of a book, etc
the book etc. that is reprinted
the quantity of books, etc. reprinted
Repris(Swedish) repeat, reprise
Reprise(German f., Portuguese f., French f., literally 'repeat') repeat, recapitulation, revival, break
(French f.) the burden of a song
that section of a piece of music that is repeated, that which follows the development section and is called the recapitulation in sonata form
a shortened version of a major composition in a stage production used to reward the audience with a repeat of a popular melody, often used as a finale to a scene or an act
Reprise(French f.) or réplique, repeat performance, revival
Reprise d'opéra(French f.) the revival of an opera
Reproabbreviation of 'reproduction', reproduction or copy (colloquial)
Reprodução(Portuguese) reproduction
Reprodução do som(Portuguese, literally 'sound reproduction') playback
Reproduction(English, French f.) a term applied to the playing back of a recording, where the quality or 'fidelity' of the sound determines how successful the means of reproduction is
an instrument that purports to a copy, with some degree of faithfulness, another, usually a much older, original. The term 'reproduction' and 'copy' are generally used synonymously. Where a reproduction is passed-off as being 'an original', it is usually called a 'fake'
a term applied to the process of making copies of printed material using a photocopier
Reproduktion(German f.) reproduction
République des lettres(French f.) the whole body of men of letters all over the world
Reqq(French) riqq
Requesee riqq
Requebra(Brazil) requebra means 'to shake'. The requebra is a song that explains to the audience how to shake their body. It combines traditional African rhythms with intense, sensual samba melodies
requebrar(Spanish) to court, to flatter, to pay compliments to
requemado (m.), requemada (f.)(Spanish) scorched, burnt
requemar(Spanish) to scorch, to burn
requemarse(Spanish) to scorch, to burn with anger
Reque Requea South American scraper found in Bolivia and other Andean nations
Requerimiento(Spanish m.) a request, an injunction, a summons
requerir(Spanish) to require, to demand, to call for, to request, to summon, to persuade
requerir de amores(Spanish) to court, to woo
Requesón(Spanish m.) cottage cheese
requete-(Spanish prefix) really (familar), very (familar), incredibly (familar)
Requeté(Spanish m.) a recruit, for example, those members of Carlist regiments who fought with Franco during the Spanish Civil War
requetemoderno(Spanish) ultramodern
Requiebro(Spanish m.) a madrigal
(Spanish m.) a flirtatious remark, a pass (as in making a pass)
Requiem(English, German n, French m., from the Latin, taken from Requiem aeternam dona eis, Domine meaning 'Grant them eternal rest, Lord') a musical composition honoring the dead; more specially (1) the Roman Catholic Mass for the dead; or (2) other commemorative pieces of analogous intent
the musical divisions of the requiem are:
the introit Requiem aeternam
the Kyrie
the tract Absolve
the sequence Dies irae
the offertorium Domine Jesu Christie
the Sanctus
the Benedictus
the Agnus Dei
the communion Lux aeterna
Réquiem(Spanish m.) requiem
Requiescat in pace (s.), Requiescant in pace (pl.)(Latin) or R.I.P., may he/she (s.) [or they (pl.)] rest in peace
Requintowhen applied to musical instruments, the term requinto is used in both Spanish and Portuguese to mean a smaller, higher-pitched version of another instrument
(Spain) a wooden flute-like instrument from Galicia that is played sideways
(Spain) a small plucked instrument related to the cavaquinho, The most common tuning is: D-A-C#-E (from lowest to highest)
the lead drum in the Afro-Puerto Rican bomba style
Requinto guitara guitar having a deeper body but, otherwise, a slightly smaller scale than the standard guitar. Standard tuning: A-D-G-c-e-a
Requinto jarochofrom the Jarocho region, a small 4-string Mexican guitar, also known as guitarra de son and javalina, that is used in son jarocho
Requisa(Spanish f.) inspection
requisar(Spanish) to swipe (familar), to grab (familar), to requisition (appropriate)
Requisit(German n.) prop
Requisito(Spanish m.) requirement, requisite
Requisito previo(Spanish m.) prerequisite
Requisitoria(Spanish f.) requisition, demand
Reredorterthe toilet block of a monastery
Reredosa wall or screen of wood or stone rising behind an altar
Re-releasesee 'reissue'
resabido (m.), resabida (f.)(Spanish) pretentious, pedantic
Resabio(Spanish m.) unpleasant after-taste, bad after-taste, bad habit
Resaca(Spanish f.) hangover, undertow, undercurrent, eau de vie (Latin-America)
resalado (m.), resalada (f.)(Spanish) lively (familar), charming (familar), attractive (familar)
resaltar(Spanish) to jut out, to project, to stand out (figurative)
resbalar(Spanish) to slip, to slide, glisser
Rescue operaBefreiungsoper (German f.), a style of opera that became popular in France after the fall of the monarchy, where the main hero or heroine is rescued from certain death at the last moments, for example, Fidelio by Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827)
Research in Music, Web Resources
Reserva de localidad(Spanish f.) (advanced) booking
reservado el derecho de admisión(Spanish) the management reserves the right to refuse admission
réserver le meilleur pour la fin(French) to save the best for last
Reservoiron an organ, this is a storage container for the wind. The top part of the container is expandable, like a fan or accordion. Weights or springs are used on the expandable part to keep the air under pressure. If the wind going to the pipes is not under the same, constant pressure, the sound will waver and the note will warble
Resettlement Administrationor RA, an agency which, during the period 1935-42, helped relocate urban and rural families that were struggling into federally planned communities. One of the communities is Greenhills, Ohio just outside of Cininnati, Ohio. This administration funded a photography project documenting rural poverty
Res facta(Latin) a written, in contradistinction to an improvised composition
Residualton(German m.) missing fundamental, suppressed fundamental or phantom fundamental
Residuum (s.), Residua (pl.)(Latin) the remainder, what is left (for example, after combustion or evaporation)
Resiliencethe physical property of a material that can return to its original shape or position after deformation that does not exceed its elastic limit
Resinhard transparent resins, such as the copals, dammars, mastic and sandarach, are principally used for varnishes and cement, while the softer odouriferous oleo-resins (frankincense, elemi, turpentine, copaiba) and gum resins containing essential oils (ammoniacum, asafoetida, gamboge, myrrh, and scammony) are more largely used for therapeutic purposes and incense
see 'rosin'
  • Resins from which this extract has been taken
res ipsa loquitur(Latin, literally 'the thing speaks for itself') an event that has occurred which, if the subject of litigation, would not require an onus of proof by the plaintiff because of the obvious negligence of the defendant
Resistencia(Spanish f.) stamina
résister à(French) to resist
res judicata(Latin, literally 'a thing ajudged') once a case has been finally decided upon by a Court the same parties cannot attempt to raise the issue by or during further proceedings
Res nihili(Latin) a thing of no importance, something insignificant
Res nullius(Latin) a thing of no importance, something insignificant
résolu(French) resolute, resolutely
Resolución(Spanish f.) resolution
résolument(French) resolutely
resolut(German) resolute
Resolutedetermined, decided, firm of purpose, risoluto (Italian), Resolut (German), résolu (French)
Resolutio(Latin) resolution, the resolving of a discord into a concord
the explicit wrting out of all the voices of a canon [entry provided by Alain Naigeon]
harmonic progression from discord to concord
direct resolutionimmediate progression from dissonance to the consonance
indirect, delayed, deferred, ornamental or retarded resolutiona resolution that passes through one or more intermediate dissonances before finally reaching a consonance
in a play, story, etc., the dénouement
Résolution(French f.) resolution
resoluto(Italian) resolute, boldly
Resoluzione(Italian f.) resolution, decision, firmness, steady rhythm
Resolvein music, to convert or be converted into concord
Resonancesound, reverberation, sympathetic vibration, echo
as an example of resonance, if the notes of a chord, say the triad on C on the second space on the bass clef are silently pressed down on a piano with the left hand, and so held, while the corresponding notes an octave above are sharply struck with the right hand, the lower triad is distinctly heard
the acoustic disposition of physical bodies and enclosures to promote energy at one or more frequencies or bands of frequencies. The resonance characteristics of bodies (for example violins or oboes) are important features by which listeners are able to identify these instruments
Resonance boxsoundbox
Resonanssnaren(Dutch) sympathetic strings
Resonant(of sound) echoing, resounding, continuing to sound; reinforced or prolonged by reflection or vibration
(of a body, room, etc.) tending to reinforce or prolong sounds, especially by vibration
(often followed by 'with') (of a place) resounding
Resonant frequenciesa resonant object, whether mechanical, acoustic, or electrical, will probably have more than one resonant frequency (especially harmonics of the strongest resonance). It will be easy to vibrate at those frequencies, and more difficult to vibrate at other frequencies. It will "pick out" its resonant frequency from a complex excitation, such as an impulse or a wideband noise excitation. In effect, it is filtering out all frequencies other than its resonance
Resonantie(Dutch) resonance
Resonanz(German f.) resonance
Resonanzboden(German m.) soundboard, sounding-board
Resonanzdecke(German f.) soundboard
Resonanzkörper(German m.) resonator, sound box, resonant body, cassa armonica (Italian), cassa di risonanza (Italian), Resonanzboden (German), caisee de résonance (French)
Resonanzsaite(German f.) sympathetic string (a string, which is neither bowed, struck nor plucked, but which vibrates in sympathy with a string that is), corda simpatico (Italian f.), corde sympathetique (French f.)
Résonateur(French m.) resonator
Resonateto produce or show resonance, to resound
Resonator(English, German m.) most musical instruments include resonators for assist in producing an audible sound from an instrument. In string instruments, the resonator is the body of the instrument. In many keyboard percussion instruments, a cavity resonator lies below the centre of each note. The length of the tube varies according to the pitch of the note, higher notes having shorter resonators, and because the tube is open at the top end and closed at the bottom end, it is the column of air in each tube that resonates, adding depth and volume to the note produced when any of the keys of the instrument are struck
Resonator banjoone of the two most common modern day acoustic banjos, the 'resonator banjo' has a detachable chamber, or resonator, on the back of the rim
Resonator-bowa type of 'mouth bow' which has attached to it a calabash resonator. In Rwanda this instrument is known as munahi. In other regions of Africa the resonator-bow is known by other names. In Dahomey it is called tiepore and in Madagascar it is known as jejolava
Resonator mandolinesee 'mandolin, mandoline'
Resonator violinsee 'Stroh-violin'
résonner(French) to echo
(French) to clash
Resophonic guitara term synonymous with 'resonator guitar'
Re sostenido menor(Spanish) the key of 'D sharp minor', which is enharmonically equivalent to the key of 'E flat minor' (Spanish: mi bemol menor)
Resound(often followed by 'with') (of a place) to ring or to echo, (of a voice, instrument, sound, etc.) to produce echoes, to go on sounding, to fill a place with sound
(of a reputation etc.) be much talked of, (followed by 'through') produce a sensation
(of a place) re-echo (a sound)
Resoundingringing, echoing
notable, emphatic (as in 'a resounding success')
resp(s)abbreviation of 'respond(s)'
Respiración(Spanish f.) taking breath, breathing
respirar(Spanish) to breathe
respirare(Italion) to breathe
Respiration(French f.) breath mark, breathing
(English) breathing, a single breath in or out
Respirazione(Italian f.) respiration, taking breath
respirer(French) to breathe
(French) see inspirer
(French) see expirer
Respiro(Italian m., Spanish m.) breath, breath mark
semiquaver rest(Italian) a sixteenth rest, a rest one sixteenth the time value of a whole note rest or semibreve rest
respiro(Italian) breathing, taking a breath
Respondto reply, to answer
(from the Latin responsorium) also 'responsorial' or 'responsory', a type of Western liturgical chant in which the respond is the refrain, which is sung by one section, the verse is the answer sung by another section, and which includes those of the Roman Mass. The Graduals and Responsories are certainly among the most ancient parts of the liturgy of the Roman Catholic Church
'respond' and 'verse' are often abbreviated R. and V., each slashed with a diagonal line
see 'call and response'
Responseon a wind-instrument, a combination of the amount of air resistance, efficiency of sound production, and other aspects of playability and player comfort
answer, for example, to a fugue subject
the second part of a sentence, often from a Psalm, sung after a versicle by the second part of the choir
Responsione(Italian) response or answer of the choir, the answer in a fugue
responsivo(Italian) responsive
Responso(Italian) response or answer of the choir, the answer in a fugue
Responsoria brevisor responsoriola, which in the Roman Office is found only in the Little Hours
Responsorialsee 'respond'
Responsorial chanta type of Gregorian chant in which soloists sing in alternation with the choir
Responsoriale(French) Responsorial
Responsorial psalma psalm, one verse of which is used as an introduction and refrain, with other verses interspersed (usually sung by a cantor), as, for example, Latin plain chant (responsorial chant) or contemporary Catholic/ecumenical liturgy. This method of chant was known as the cantus responsorius, and is mentioned in the writings of Tertullian, St. Augustine, and St. Isidore
Responsorial psalmodya form of spalm singing in which a soloist, singing the verses in an ornate manner) alternates with responses in the form of a simple refrain. It is used for the great responsories of the Latin night Office (Matins) and the Gradual, Tract and Alleluia of the Mass. From the 10th century, the soloists' portions were composed as polyphonic settings, and several centuries later similar settings were composed for the choir
see 'antiphonal psalmody'
Responsoria prolixathe great responsories of Matins
Responsorien(German) response or answer of the choir, the answer in a fugue
Responsorio (s.), Responsorios (pl.)(Spanish m.) responsorial chant, responsoriale (French)
Responsoriolasee responsoria brevis
Responsorium(English, German n, from Latin) response
Responsorium graduale(Latin) one of the responsorial parts of the Mass, called the Gradual, so named from the position of the soloist, at the steps of the pulpit or ambo
Responsorysee 'respond'
Responsum(Latin) response or answer of the choir, the answer in a fugue
Resposta(Portuguese) in a fugue, the second answering theme
Respuesta(Spanish f.) in a fugue, the second answering theme
ressembler à(French) to resemble
ressentir(French) to feel
Resserre(French f.) shed
Resserrement(French) stretto
resserrer(French) to tighten, to contract
resservir(French) to come in useful (again)
Ressort(French m.) spring (an object), energy (figurative)
ressortir(French) to (make a melody) stand out, to go back out, to come back out
ressortir de(French) to result from, to emerge from
Ressortissant (m.), Ressortissante (f.)(French) national
Ressource(French f.) resource
ressusciter(French) to come back to life
Restin music, a period of silence, pausa (Italian), silenzio (Italian), Pause (German), pause (French), silence (French)
music rests
a musical symbol indicating a period of silence
Reston a stringed instrument, a device or pad, placed for example between a violin/viola and the violinist/violist's shoulder, called a chin-rest
Restant(French m.) remainder
restant (m.), restante (f.)(French) remaining
restare con un palmo di naso(Italian) to feel disappointed
Restatementsee 'recapitulation'
Restauración(Spanish f.) restoration
Restaurant(French) a place where refreshments or meals are served
Restaurateur (m.), Restauratrice (f.)(French m.) restaurant owner
restaurer(French) to restore
rester bouche bée(French) to be open-mouthed, to be lost in wonder, to be astonished
rester en jachère(French) to lie fallow (ground)
rester planté(French) to stand still, to remain standing
rester sur la défensive(French) to stay on the defensive
rester sur son quant-à-soi(French) to stand aloof
restez(French) in music for stringed instruments, a direction to remain on a note, on a string or in a particular position
Restlessunsettled, disturbed, agitated, constantly in motion, fidgeting, inquieto (Italian), ruhelos (German), agité (French)
Restorationthe act of restoring or of being restored (for example, a piece of furniture, a work of art)
(preceded by 'the') the re-establishment of the British monarchy in 1660
literary period following the Restoration of the British monarchy in 1660 (hence, Restoration comedy), when the Stuart monarch Charles II was re-established as ruler of England, to about 1700
Restoreto bring back to the original state by rebuilding, repairing, etc,
Restraint(as in 'to show retraint') moderation, self-control, reserve of manner
Restrictio(Latin) the stretto, in a fugue
restringendo(Italian) becoming faster
Resultant basssee 'acoustic bass'
Resultant noteor 'resultant tone', a note produced under certain circumstances when two notes are played simultaneously, one of two types, either difference or differential tones (a note whose frequency is the difference between the frequencies of the two generating tones) or summation or summational tones (a note whose frequency is the sum of the frequencies of the two generating tones)
Resultant tonesee 'resultant note'
Résumé(French m.) an outline, a summary, an abstract, an epitome
Resumen(Spanish m.) outline, summary, resumé
Resume the speed, Resume the temporeturn to the original speed, return to the original tempo, a tempo (Italian), Erste Bewegung (German), reprendre le mouvement (French)
Resurrectionthe resurrection of Christ from the dead on the third day after his death; commemorated on Easter Sunday
Resurrection Hostelfounded in about 1908, an elegant Gothic hostel built by the Community of the Resurrection at Mirfield, Yorkshire to house members who were taking art degrees at the university. The hostel was designed by the architect Temple Moor. The Community's links with the university contributed to several generations of radical theological scholars including Trevor Huddleston and David Jenkins
Resurgam(Latin) I shall rise again
resvegliatosynonymous with risvegliato
Retambicosee retambo
Retambo(Cuba) or retambico, an Afro-Cuban dance
Retard(French m.) retardation, delay
retardado (m.), retardada (f.)(Spanish) delayed, retarded
retardando(Spanish, Italian) ritardando
retardar(Spanish) to slow down, to delay
retardarse(Spanish) to be delay
Retardationa suspension resolving upward, that is, a nonharmonic note that is repeated or held from a harmonic note and then resolves up by step to a harmonic note
a slackening, retarding or slowing down of the tempo
retardé(French) delayed, ritardato
Retarded progressiona suspension resolving upward
Retarded pronunciationan old-fashioned way of pronunciation that lingers in one dialect even after a newer pronunciation has been accepted by other dialects in the same language
Retarded resolutionsee 'resolution'
retarder(French) to delay
Retarding the speed, Retarding the tempoholding back the speed, holding back the tempo, delaying (the beat), ritardando (Italian), verweilend (German), en retenant (French)
Retardo(Spanish m.) delay, retard (French)
Retazo(Spanish m.) a remnant, a scrap, a fragment, a piece, a snippet
retemblar(Spanish) to tremble, to shake
Retén(Spanish m.) reinforcements, reserves, stock, store (of provisions)
retenant(French) ritenuto, to hold back immediately (not gradually as with rallentando)
Retención(Spanish f.) retention, withholding
Retención de haberes(Spanish f.) stoppages
Retención de tráfico(Spanish f.) a traffic jam, a hold-up
retener(Spanish) to retain, to keep back, to hold back, to deuct, to withhold, to detain, to arrest
retenerse(Spanish) to restrain oneself, to hold back
retenir(French) to hold back, to hold (one's breath, someone's attention, a prisoner), to retain (water, heat), to hold back (tears), to keep (guard), to detain, to book (i.e. reserve), to remember, to deduct, to accept
Rétention(French f.) retention
retentir(French) to ring out
retentir de(French) to ring out with
retentissant (m.), retentissante (f.)(French) resounding
Retentissement(French m.) an effect (a repercussion)
Retentiva(Spanish f.) retentiveness, memory
retenu(French) held back, ritenuto, to hold back immediately (not gradually as with rallentando)
Retenue(French f.) restraint, self-possession, self-control, reserve, detention (school), deduction (from a sum)
Reticencia(Spanish f.) reticence, reserve, innuendo, insinuation
reticente(Spanish) reticent, reserved, insinuating
Retina (s.), Retinae (pl.)(Latin) a thin layer of neural cells that lines the back of the eyeball of vertebrates and some cephalopods. It is comparable to the film in a camera. In vertebrate embryonic development, the retina and the optic nerve originate as outgrowths of the developing brain. Hence, the retina is part of the central nervous system (CNS). It is the only part of the CNS that can be imaged directly
  • Retina from which this extract has been taken
Retintín(Spanish m.) tinkle (of a bell), ringing, tinkling, innuendo, sarcastic tone
Retirada(Italian, 'withdrawal') in 17th-century ballets and suites, a closing movement
(Uruguay) or despedida, the exit song in a murga theatre performance
retiré(French, literally 'withdrawn') in dance, a position in which the thigh is raised to the second position en l'air with the knee bent so that the pointed toe rests in front of, behind or to the side of the supporting knee
retirer(French) (in organ playing) to remove stop from use
Retorted time
retorted time a tempo indication, from the 16th-century, meaning 'brisk'
Retoque(Spanish m.) finishing touch
Retórica(Spanish f.) rhetoric, grandiloquence
Retoucher(French m.) an artist or tradesman who alters a photographically produced image in the production phase of its creation. Retouching was sometimes, but not only, used to remove mechanically created flaws or unwanted objects. The retoucher was responsible for separating the colours on printing plates before photographic separation techniques were available. They were also responsible for adding clouds and other atmospheric effects that were not recorded in the original photographs. While retouchers followed the instructions of their managers they were often left to use a considerable degree of discretion in their work
Retractiona writing in prose or verse in which the author "takes back" an earlier statement or piece of writing, often with an accompanying apology or explanation concerning his/her earlier errors. When this retraction appears in a conventionalized form of verse, it is often called a palinode
Retraite(French f., literally 'retreat') tattoo, in military music
Retransitionin sonata-allegro form, the last part of the development that leads to the tonic of the main key and is intended to emphasize it
retratar(Spanish) to photograph, to paint a portrait of
Retratista(Spanish m./f.) portrait painter
Retrato(Spanish m.) portrait, description
Retratto(Italian m.) portrait
retro(Latin, Italian) back, backwards, a melody reversed note by note
short for 'retrospective', a modern term used to describe things from a bygone era. It is often used in a positive sense, referring to quirky or attractive products that are no longer available. For example, "Retro fashion" or "Retro Chic" may consist of outdated styles, such as tie-dyed shirts from the 1970s, or poodle skirts from the 1950s. A love of retro objects (things from the past) is called retrophilia
  • Retro from which this extract has been taken
Retroactive continuitythe act of rewriting a previous history to fall in line with the facts of a later revelation in the story
retroceso de página(Spanish) or re pág, previous page
Retrochoirthe area behind the high altar in a major church
Retroflexin linguistics, any sound produced with the tongue - tip bent or curled backward - such as the sound of the liquid /r/
Retrogradación(Spanish) retrogression
Retrogradealso cancrizans (Latin), Krebsgang (German), read backwards. Note, however, that when employing serial techniques, a melody played backwards may not reverse the melodic contour as octave-displacement is allowed
Retrograde canona canon where the comes or consequent voice is the principal theme played backwards, i.e. cancrizans
Retrograde motiona theme played backwards, i.e. cancrizans
Retrograde inversion (motion)a theme played backwards and upside down
retrogrado(Italian) retrograde, going backwards
retrogradus(Latin) retrograde
Retrogressiona relatively weak harmonic movement
Retroscena(Italian m.) backstage
Retroussage(French) in art, the process of smearing an etching in the course of printing so as to produce richer tones
retroussé(French) turned up (applied to noses)
retrouver sa langue(French) to find one's tongue
retrouvez(French) re-attain
Retsina(Greek) or retzina, a resinous wine drunk in Greece and the Levant
Rettangolo(Italian m.) rectangle
rettede(Danish) corrected
Rettelse(Danish, Norwegian) correction
Rettery, Rettingretting is the fermentation of rags used in paper-making to make the paper uniform, binding and soft, and to give it weight. The special space where the controlled fermentation takes place is called the rettery
retto(Italian) right, straight, as in moto retto, direct, or similar, motion
Retusa(Latin) an archaic term for stopped organ pipes
Retzinasee retsina
Reunión(Spanish f.) meeting, gathering, reunion, collecting (of data, information)
Reunión de alto nivel(Spanish f.) high-level meeting
Reunión de antiguos alumnos(Spanish f.) reunion of former students
réunis(French) coupled
where a section has played divisi, an instruction that the section should return to playing a single line
see les gôuts réunis
Reupto renew an employment contract (colloquial)
réussir à l'examen(French) to pass the test
réussir un beau coup(French) to pull it off (bring to a successful conclusion)
rev/Revabbreviation of revidiert von (German: revised by - révisé par (French))
rev.abbreviation of 'revised'
Révail(French m.) or reveille, the military signal announcing the start of the day, 'wake-up' call
Reválida(Spanish f.) final exam
Revanche(French) a return match, an opportunity for retaliation
Revanchisme(French) a policy directed by a desire for vengeance on an enemy
Reveal(in a window, door, etc.) the jamb, the side of an opening for a window, doorway, or the like, between the door frame or window frame and the outer surface of the wall, or, where the opening is not filled with a door, etc., the whole thickness of the wall
Reveille(English, German f.) see révail
réveillé(French) or en réveillant (French), risvegliato (Italian), risvegliando (Italian), re-awakening, re-animated, lively, awakened, with increased animation, wieder erweckend (German)
Réveillon(French m.) a meal taken in the middle of the night, especially taken early on Christmas morning after Midnight Mass
Revelthe culmination of many English masques during which the performers moved into and danced with the audience
Revelationsthe last book of the Bible, predicting the events leading up to the end of the world
Revenant(French m.) one who returns from the dead, a ghost
revenez(French) gradually faster
Revenge playalso called a revenge tragedy, a Renaissance genre of drama in which the plot revolves around the hero's attempt to avenge a previous wrong by killing the perpetrator of the deed, commonly with a great deal of bloodshed and incidental violence
Revenge tragedyanother term for a revenge play
revenir(French) to return, to come from behind (for example, in a race), to hark back, to double back, to yield (to a decision)
revenir à(French) to hark back to, to bog down, to come to, to boil down to, to accrue to
revenir dans le tempo originel(French) to return to the original pace, a tempo, im Tempo
revenir en arrière(French) to turn back the clock, to flashback
revenir sur ses pas(French) to turn back, to backtrack
revenir sur son idée(French) to think better of something, to change one's mind
revenir sur un sujet(French) to go back over a topic
rêver à(French) to dream of
Reverb(English, German m.) - in English, abbreviation of 'reverberation' - an effect that may be added to sound effects during recording or to a voice during performance. For example, the prolonging of a sound caused by its complex reflections between the walls, floor and ceiling of a room or hall. The effect can be created electronically and applied to music to improve its tone colour
see 'reverse echo'
Reverberação(Portuguese) reverb, reverberation
Reverberación(Spanish f.) reflection (of light), reverberation (of sound)
reverberar(Spanish) be reflected, reverberate
Reverberatiosee repercussio gutturi
Reverberationwhen a sound is produced in a room, and then stops, the ear does not normally perceive a sudden silence. There may be a gradual decline in sound, or there might be one or more echoes, all caused by reflections of sound from the inner surfaces of the room. When sound gradually decays, the effect is called 'reverberation' and the length of time (T) it takes a sound to die way to 1 millionth of its original strength or amplitude (i.e. by 60 dB(SPL)) is called the 'reverberation time' or 'Rt60'.' Reverberation times of 1 second or more are necessary in churches. Echoes, that is, quiet periods followed by recurrences of the former sound, destroy speech intelligibility. Long reverberation times degrade speech perception of hearing-impaired persons far more than normal-hearing persons. The initial rate of decay of reverberant sound appears to be more important than the total reverberation time. A rapid initial decay is interpreted by the human ear as meaning that the reverberation time is short
reverberation can be modified using devices that create artificial reverberation (called "room simulation"). Initially based on electromechanical devices such as reverb springs or reverb plates, these are now usually digital devices. Several distinct phases are observed in the evolution of a reverberative sound. These include pre-delay, early reflections, high and low frequency damping, decay, etc.
reverberation times
  • Reverberation Time from which the chart above and part of the first comment have been taken
Révérbération(French f.) reverberation
Reverberation timesee 'reverberation
rêver de(French) to dream of
Reverence(English) bow (by a man, Verbeugung (German f.), inchino (Italian m.)), curtsy (by a woman, Knicks (German n.), inchino (Italian m.))
in dance, a curtsy or bow performed at the end of a performance of historical dance, a ballet performance, etc.
Révérence(French f.) reverence, bow, curtsy
Reverencia(Spanish f.) reverence, bow, curtsy
Reverent musica confusing term that causes much discussion particularly within the Christian community. The old term, 'liturgical music', covered all music used as part of any religious service (Christian and non-Christian), in other words 'sacred music'. In a new document released on Dec. 4, 2003, Pope John Paul II emphasized that liturgical music should convey a sense of reverence and appreciation for the sacred. It was released on the centenary of Tra le Sollectitudini, the document on 'sacred music' by St. Pius X. The Pope's new document is dated November 22, the feast of St. Cecilia, the patron saint of music. For some modernists, however, the word 'liturgical' is associated with music that is old-fashioned and out of keeping with current ideas of worship being inclusive. The word 'reverent' itself causes problems because traditionalists find it hard, if not impossible, to accept 'pop', 'rock' or 'country' music styles as 'reverent' music and so for different people 'reverent music' will mean different things. The two articles referenced below are particularly illuminating on these differing views
Rêverie(French f.) a day-dream, a fit of abstracted musing
in music, a composition suggesting a day-dream or fit of musing
sometimes met in the older French spelling resverie or, more commonly now, reverie
Reversalsee peripeteia
a type of humour, which is simply reversing the normal, taking what is normal and expected and doing or saying the opposite
Revers de manche(French m.) a turn-up (on trousers, etc.)
Reverse cookie-bite hearing lossPeople with reverse cookie-bite losses hear low and high frequency sounds poorly, but have little or no loss in the mid-frequencies
Reversed(in the sense of 'inverted') riverso (Italian), umgekehrt (German), rénversé (French)
Reverse echoor reverb, a slightly unusual sound effect created as the result of recording an echo or delayed signal of an audio recording whilst being played backwards. The original recording is then played forwards accompanied by the recording of the echo or delayed signal which is now in reverse
Reverse keyboarda keyboard on which the naturals are black and the sharps white, the reverse of the usual piano keyboard. On harpsichords, the black naturals may be ebony, grenadilla, dyed pear or any other black wood. The sharps are usually African blackwood or other black wood topped with thin slips of white cowbone or plastic, rarely ivory
Reverse motionor 'reverse movement', imitation in contrary motion, that is, the ascending intervals are changed to descending intervals and the descending intervals changed to ascending
Reverse movementsee 'reverse motion'
Reverse negativea negative where the image it contains has been reversed from the original so when transfered to and printed from a plate it will read correctly. Printing from one emulsion to another was not a problem when making photographs, as the single transfer from negative to paper was the final product. But when printing from a plate the final image would mirror the plate's image. A second negative in a reversed orientation (mirror image) was needed before exposing it to the plate. This was known as a double transfer
reverse Schrägstrich(German m.) backslash (\)
Reverse-slope hearing lossA form of hearing loss characterised by hearing that is better in the high frequencies than in the low frequencies. This kind of hearing loss is very rare
Reverse tape effectsspecial effects created by recording sound onto magnetic tape and then physically reversing the tape so that when the tape is played back, the sounds recorded on it are literally heard in reverse
Reverse turn
Reversiblesfound on organs, these are a convenience item and each one has only one function. Pressing the stud reverses what the current status of the stud was. If it was off, it is now on and vice versa. An example is a 32' Bourdon. This turns that stop on or off. Other examples are Full Organ which turns on all stops of the organ without the knobs or tabs physically moving, and Great to Pedal which is a foot control of the coupler
Reversionretrograde imitation
Revetmenta facing, as of masonry, used to support an embankment
a barricade against explosives
rêveur(French) dreamy
revid.(German) abbreviation of revidiert (revised)
revideret(Danish) revised
revidert(Norwegian) revised
revidiert(German) revised
Reviewan evaluation of a publication, such as a movie, video game, musical composition, book, a performance, whether theatrical or musical, or a piece of hardware like a car, appliance, or computer. In addition to a critical statement, the review's author may assign the work a rating to indicate its relative merit
"My purpose in reading has ever secretly been not to come and judge but to come and steal." John Updike (1932-2009), American author and reviewer
  • Review from which some of this information has been taken
Reviewerperson who writes or broadcasts a review
Revision(English, German f.) revised edition or form
Revisión(Spanish f.) revision
Révision(French f.) revision
Revisione(Italian f.) revision
Revisionismas used by communists, this term refers to political, economic, and socio-cultural tendencies that stray to the right of orthodox Marxism-Leninism. The Chinese communists long insisted that these tendencies were counter-revolutionary and that internal and external enemies (such as the Soviet Union) were infected by this negative phenomenon
Revisionsa type of normal disfluency in which the speaker begins to say something and then changes the sentence
Revisionsbericht(German m.) critical commentary
see Kritischer Bericht
Revista(Spanish f.) review, periodical, revue
Revista de variedades(Spanish f.) music hall (form of entertainment)
Revistero(Spanish m.) critic, magazine rack
Revivalistsmusicians, storytellers, and other artists who perform the folk music, tales, crafts, and folk arts of other people and times, often learned from books, recordings, or workshops
Revolving lutehurdy-gurdy
Révolté(French m.) an 'angry young man', one who rebels against contemporary conventions
Revolutionary operaa term applied to many works through music history, although the most famous is probably La Muette de Portici (The mute girl of Portici) originally entitled Masaniello, ou La muette de Portici, n opera in five acts by Daniel Auber, with a libretto by Germain Delavigne, revised by Eugène Scribe. The work has an important place in musical history, as it is generally regarded as the earliest French grand opera. Its 'revolutionary credentials stem from the fact that at a performance of this opera at the Théâtre de la Monnaie, Brussels on the 25 August 1830, a riot broke out that became the signal for the 'Belgian Revolution' which led to Belgian independence
Revolutionsoper(German f.) revolutionary opera
revu, revue(French) revised
Revue(English, French f., German f.) originating in mid 19th-century France, an theatrical entertainment consisting mainly of songs and sketches, usually with a satirical slant, which then flourish in England, becoming associated with more intimate settings, for example, supper clubs, but which later became more lavish and theatrical and including dance
(French f.) magazine
Revue d'esprit(French f.) a revue in which the predominating element is wit rather than humour or farce
Revue d'intime(French f.) an intimate revue designed for a small selected audience
Revy(Swedish) review
Rewapalso rewab or rawap, a three-string long necked lute of the Uighur Turks in China. The resonator is usually round, covered with python skin or other elements and sometimes there are elaborate wood, bone and horn inlays
  • Rawap from which this extract has been taken
Reward cardsa marketing strategy developed in the 1880s where cards carrying appealing images and subject matter were included free with packaged goods as a reward for the purchase. In Great Britain another type of reward card appeared between the 1880s and the 1920s. These cards were issued by schools on a quarterly basis to act as a reward for good attendance by students. They were initially produced in a standard postcard size, and without advertising on their backs they could be mailed. A wide variety of subjects such as animals, plants, ships, scenery, and fairy tales appeared on them, which were mostly rendered by drawn illustration.
Rex(Latin) King
Rey de habas(Spanish m.) see Bohnenkönig
Reyne(Old French f.) Queen
Reyonga set of tuned metal kettle gongs held in a wooden frame usually played by three or four virtuosic players in an interlocking rhythmic manner
Rezensent(German m.) reviewer
rezensieren(German) to review
Rezension(German f.) review
Rezept(German n.) a doctor's note
Rezital(German n.) recital
Rezitationsee sprechgesang
Rezitativ(German n.) recitative
rezitieren(German) to recite
Rez-nagorathe Uzbecki double-sided national drum
Rezo(Spanish m.) praying, prayer
RFabbreviation of la République française (French: the French Republic)
rf.abbreviation of rinforzato (Italian: accenting, accented)
rfz.abbreviation of rinforzando (Italian: accenting, accented)