music dictionary : Rg - Rz

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Rgya-glinga Tibetan oboe that, together with rkang-gling, is used to accompany Buddhist dance dramas. A chain runs from the top of the wooden pipe to the brass bell
RH, R. H.abbreviation of 'right hand', rechte Hand (German: right hand)
Rhaitasee ghaita
Rhapsodein classical Greece, in the fifth and fourth centuries BC and perhaps earlier, a rhapsode was a professional performer of poetry, especially of epic poetry (notably the epics attributed to Homer) but also the wisdom and catalogue poetry of Hesiod and the satires of Archilochus and others. Plato's dialogue Ion, in which Socrates confronts a star rhapsode, remains our richest source of information on these artists. Often, rhapsodes are depicted in Greek art, wearing their signature cloak and carrying a staff. This equipment is also characteristic of travellers in general, implying that rhapsodes were itinerant performers, moving from town to town
  • Rhapsode from which this extract has been taken
Rhapsodie(French f., German f.) rhapsody
rhapsodisch vortragen(German) to rhapsodise
Rhapsodoi(Greek) wandering poet-singers in the Homeric age of Greece - the equivalent of a bard in the Celtic tradition. These rhapsodoi usually sang or chanted while accompanying themselves on the lyre
Rhapsody(from the Greek rhapsodia) rapsodia (Italian), Rhapsodie (German), rhapsodie (French)
a term, similar to 'fantasia', applied to pieces from the 19th-century inspired by romantic notions
Rhapsody in Blue (1924)commissioned by Paul Whiteman (1890-1967) and composed by George Gershwin (1898-1937) the work was actually orchestrated by Whiteman's arranger, Ferde Grofé (1892-1972). Two of the principal motives in Rhapsody in Blue are direct borrowings from two compositions by 'The Father of the Blues', W. C. Handy (1873-1958), namely Beale Street Blues and St. Louis Blues. Gershwin also employs the syncopated 'three-against-four accent cycle' that is a prominent feature of Handy's style. The persistent rumour that the E major main theme of Rhapsody in Blue was inspired by Gershwin's hearing of the Chimes of Erie at St. Peter's Cathedral in Erie, Pennsylvania, can be discounted as the chimes were not installed at St. Peter's until four years after the work's publication
Rhayan Anglo-Saxon dance
Rheinländer(German) a dance derived from the early 19th-century dance 'Scottish', schottische (German) or Ecossaise (French), which was itself derived from the far older German folk dance, the Hopser. From about 1842, in German cities, the 'Scottish' gave way to the quicker 'polka' but in the country it survived into the early 20th-century where it was known as the Rheinländer. In Norway, the schottische goes by the name of reinlendar
Rhetoricthe art of persuasive argument through writing or speech - the art of eloquence and charismatic language
Rhetoric and musicAristotle was the first to distinguish rhetoric from dialectic in terms of their respective goals. Whereas dialectic seeks to demonstrate a truth about the essence of a subject or thing, rhetoric seeks to provoke a definite subjective reaction in its audience. In the Medieval and Renaissance eras, many writers tried to draw parallels between the orator (and oration) and the musician (and music) and it was this old idea, which originated in classical times, that would later lead to the Baroque idea of the 'Doctrine of the Affections'
Around 1680, the rhetorician and theologian François Fénelon wrote of Greek and Latin rhetoric, "it is true that, when one has undergone thorough study, one can derive great benefits from it... But in the end, one may dispense with it." The nonchalance with which Fénelon dismissed revered classical texts exemplifies the growing disenchantment among rhetoricians with figures, tropes, the dispositio, and other aging rhetorical precepts. Seventeenth-century rhetoricians - among them Fénelon, Bernard Lamy, René Bary, and René Rapin - enacted a radical reinvention of French rhetoric, splintering the discipline into three often conflicting strands: the first continued to reference French versions of classical rhetorical figures; the second melded with these ancient precepts a Cartesian taxonomy of the Passions; and the third sought to abandon artificial precepts altogether in the quest for transparent, or "Natural," representation. Even while adopting opposing methods, representatives of all three approaches were unanimous in regarding rhetoric and music as "sister" disciplines. Furthermore, French musicians and rhetoricians alike rejected the prevailing idea that the relationship between these disciplines was hierarchical, with rhetoric the dominant sibling. This shift helps to explain why the notion that music "imitated" the structures and conventions of rhetoric, while popular in other regions, is to be found in no French source after c.1640
[quoted from Une espèce d'éloquence dans la musique : Embracing a Dis-Figured Rhetoric in France by Jonathan Gibson]
Rhetorical figuresfigures of speech such as schemes and tropes
Rhetorical questiona question that often implies an answer, but usually does not provide one explicitly
Rhétorique(French) in the 14th century, Guillaume de Machaut (c.1300-1377), popularized the new lyric genres such as the rondeau, ballade, lai, and virelai and is considered to have been the leader of the new rhétorique, or poetic art. This tradition was continued by Eustache Deschamps (1346-1406), Christine de Pizan (1363-c.1434), Charles d'Orléans (1394-1464/5), and François Villon (1431-after 1463), as well as by Jean Froissart (c.1337-c.1405), the great chronicler
Rhodes piano(English, Rhodes-Piano (German n.)) a musical keyboard instrument, a brand of electric piano. Its distinctive sound has appeared particularly in jazz and rock songs of the last fifty years. Its principles are derived from both the 'celesta' and the 'electric guitar'. The action is similar to that of a conventional piano, but whereas in a conventional piano each key causes felt-covered hammers to strike sets of strings, in a Rhodes piano rubber-tipped hammers strike tuning fork-like constructions to sound the note.
Rhotacism(from Greek, rho or 'r') a shift linguistically from [z] to an [r]
Rhombe(French m.) or planchette ronflante, thunder stick, bull roarer
Rhotacismrhotacism refers to several phenomena related to the usage of the consonant r (whether as an alveolar tap, alveolar trill, or the rarer uvular trill): namely, the excessive or idiosyncratic use of the r; conversely, the inability or difficulty in pronouncing r; and the conversion of another consonant, e.g., s, into r. The term comes from the Greek letter rho, denoting "r"
  • Rhotacism from which this extract has been taken
Rhozoka Russian wind instrument, also known as the Vladimir horn, made out of wood, with a trumpet-like mouthpiece
Rhumbaan alternative spelling of rumba
Rhumba boxa large mbira, in Puerto Rico and Cuba known as a marimbula, that is box-shaped and can be sat on while being played. The 'rhumba box' carries the bass part of some form of Caribbean music, particularly mento
RhVreferring to the catalogue prepared by Hans-Josef Irmen of the music of Josef Rheinberger (1839-1901)
(from Old French, rime, 'series', in turn adopted from Latin rithmus and Greek rhythmos) the similarity of sound between two words. When the sounds of their accented syllables and all succeeding sounds are identical, words rhyme
approximate rhymealso slant rhyme, inexact rhyme, imperfect rhyme, pararhyme, near rhyme, half rhyme, off rhyme, analyzed rhyme, or suspended rhyme, occurs when the correspondence between the two words or syllables is only approximate and not exact.
assonancerepeating identical or similar vowels (especially in stressed syllables) in nearby words. Assonance in final vowels of lines can often lead to half rhyme. (shake/hate)
cliché rhymea rhyme that is considered trite or predictable. (love/dove, moon/June, trees/breeze)
consonancea special type of alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels - i.e., the final consonants of the stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. (linger/longer/languor, rider/reader/ruder, rabies/robbers)
crossed rhymeor interlaced rhyme, in long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line
dactylic rhyme rhyme in which the stress is on the antepenultimate (third from last) syllable. (cacophonies/Aristophanes)
double rhymea rhyme that involves two syllables rather than one. For instance, rhyming lend/send is a single rhyme, in which each word consists of a single syllable. However, the words lending/sending constitute a double rhyme because two rhyming syllables are used. In English, most double rhymes create a feminine ending
end rhymethe most common form of rhyme, where the rhyme comes at the end of a line
exact rhymetrue rhyme or perfect rhyme, rhyming two words in which both the consonant sounds and vowel sounds match to create a rhyme. The term 'exact' is sometimes used more specifically to refer to two homophones that are spelled dissimilarly but pronounced identically at the end of lines. (pain/pane, time/thyme, rein/reign, bough/bow, bear/bare)
eye rhymeor sight rhyme, rhyming words that seem to rhyme when written down as text because parts of them are spelled identically, but which are pronounced differently from each other in modern English. (forth/worth, come/home, bury/fury, stove/shove, ear/bear, cough/bough, love/move, sea/grey)
feminine rhymea rhyme where the last syllable is unaccented. (picky/tricky)
half rhymeor sprung rhyme, a type of approximate rhyme, where the final consonants match. (bent/ant)
head rhymeanother term for alliteration - especially alliteration of consonants at the beginning of words, rather than alliteration of internal consonants within the bodies of words. The name is something of a misnomer, since "head rhymes" usually involve no rhyme at all (short/ship)
holorhyme(holorime, French) a rhyme in which two lines sound identical. (For I scream/For ice cream)
identical rhymean exact rhyme in which the match is particularly close. (line/mine, dig/pig, gun/begun)
imperfect rhymea rhyme between a stressed and an unstressed syllable. (wing/caring)
internal rhymea poetic device in which a word in the middle of a line rhymes with a word at the end of the same metrical line. Leonine verse uses internal rhyme
masculine rhymeor rising rhythm, a rhyme where the last syllable is accented. (rhyme/sublime)
semirhymea rhyme with an extra syllable on one word. (bend, ending)
slant rhymeor oblique rhyme, a type of approximate rhyme, a rhyme with an imperfect match in sound. (green/fiend, one/thumb)
syllabic rhymea rhyme in which the last syllable of each word sounds the same but does not necessarily contain vowels. (cleaver/silver or pitter/patter)
tail rhyme(French rime couée, Latin rhythmus caudatus) or caudate rhyme, a unit of verse in which a short line, followed by a longer line or section of longer lines, rhymes with a preceding short line
see 'rhyme scheme'
Rhyme, end-stoppedsee 'end-stopped rhyme'
Rhyme scheme
the particular arrangement of the lines that rhyme in a piece of poetry, for example:
rime royal
rhyme royal
a seven-line stanzaic form invented by Chaucer in the fourteenth century and later modified by Spenser and other Renaissance poets. In rhyme royal, the stanzas are writen in iambic pentameter in a fixed rhyme scheme, ABABBCC
Spenserian stanzaa fixed verse form invented by Edmund Spenser for his epic poem The Faerie Queene. Each stanza contains nine lines in total: eight lines in iambic pentameter followed by a single 'Alexandrine' line in iambic hexameter. The rhyme scheme of these lines is ABABBCBCC
heroic coupletcommon in English, the rhyme scheme is AA, BB, CC, DD, EE, FF, etc.
quatraincommon in English, the rhyme scheme is ABAB, CDCD, etc.
a highly structured poem consisting of six six-line stanzas followed by a tercet (called its envoy or tornada), for a total of thirty-nine lines
terza rima(Italian, 'third rhyme') used, by the Italian poet Dante, as the basic poetic unit of his trilogy, The Divine Comedy, terza rima is a three-line stanza form with interlocking rhymes that move from one stanza to the next. The typical pattern is ABA, BCB, CDC, DED
monorhymea rhyme scheme, common in Latin, Italian, Arabic, Welsh, and Slav poetry, a poem or section of a poem where all the lines have the same end rhyme. The rhyming pattern would thus look like this: AAAA AAAA, AAA AAA, or AA AA AA AA, etc.
chant royalfive stanzas of ABABCCDDEDe followed by either DDEDe or CCDDEDe (the lower case e indicates a line repeated verbatim)
enclosed rhymeor enclosing rhyme, the rhyme scheme ABBA
limericka five-line poem with a strict form AABBA
ottava rimaan eight-line poem with the rhyme scheme ABABABCC
Burns stanza
standard Habbie
Scottish stanza
six-line stave
the stanza is six lines in length and rhymes AAABAB, with tetrameter A lines and dimeter B lines. The second B line may or may not be repeated. A variation on the Burns stanza employs the rhyme scheme AABCCCB, with foreshortened third and seventh lines
a brief French form of poetry, consisting of one stanza, made up of seven lines. It contains a refrain, a strict rhyme scheme and a distinct meter pattern, aBaABBa (the lower case a indicates a line repeated verbatim)
villanellehas only two rhyme sounds - the first and third lines of the first stanza are rhyming refrains that alternate as the third line in each successive stanza and form a couplet at the close. A villanelle is nineteen lines long, consisting of five tercets and one concluding quatrain
chain rhymethe linking together of stanzas by carrying a rhyme over from one stanza to the next. A number of verse forms use chain rhyme as an integral part of their structures. One example is terza rima, which is written in tercets with a rhyming pattern ABA, BCB, CDC. Another is the virelai ancien, which rhymes AABAAB, BBCBBC, CCDCCD
  • Rhyme scheme from which some of this information has been taken
Rhythmritmo (Italian m., Spanish m.), Rhythmus (German m.), rythme (French m.)
any aspect of music having to do with time, which, since music must exist in time, means that all music is rhythmic. At its simplest, rhythm may be thought of as the disposition of strong (or accented) and weak (or unaccented) beats in a piece of music. This has led some analysts to see 'metrical organization' and 'rhythm' as being identical. If periodic stress defines musical groups, then a primary definition of 'meter' includes the opposition of weak and strong. This opposition is shown most clearly in the contrast of arsis and thesis across the barline, a model which can be expanded, as it was by Kirnberger, Hauptmann, and Weber in the 18th- and 19th-centuries, to include musical form as a hierarchical extension of the metrical impulse
for contemporary analysts, musical rhythm and form receive a more sophisticated treatment. Most recent literature ties higher-level rhythm and meter to pitch structure, using methods founded on the historical association between certain harmonic and melodic progressions and their corresponding metric positions or stress. Musical rhythm is seen as a product of goal-directed melodic and harmonic activity. Schenkerian notions of prolongation and interruption inform their analyses, and are used to locate tonic accents and "structural downbeats" at important junctures in pitch structure. These voice-leading events assume formal significance when they are correlated with surface activity to direct the rhythmic flow of a work
the varying speed, loudness, pitch, elevation, intensity, and expressiveness of speech, especially poetry. In verse the rhythm is normally regular; in prose it may or may not be regular
Rhythm, accentualsee 'sprung rhythm'
Rhythm and blues(English, German m.) or, 'Rhythm 'n' blues', American pop music style from the black popular music tradition, popular between the 1940s and 1960s, that is played by an ensemble, generally with a lead vocalist or instrumentalist, a rhythm section, and an ensemble of voices, wind instruments, or guitar. The music is mainly vocal, in quadruple time, and in a major key, but characterized by the use 'blue notes'
Rhythm & Lead Guitarthe position of a musician in a musical group who performs rhythm guitar a majority of the time, but also performs solos occasionally. This is usually in the context of two guitarists, one of which performs lead guitar more of the time, and the other of which performs rhythm guitar more of the time
Rhythm changesthe chord progression I-»VI-»IV-»V, or tonic-submediant-subdominant-dominant. In C major, for example, these chords would be C-»Am-»F-»G, used widely in popular song
Rhythm clefsee 'indefinite pitch clef'
Rhythm guitara kind of guitar playing that provides accompaniment for a singer or other instruments. Its purpose is to provide pulse or rhythm for the song, and to provide harmony that supports the other instruments (or voice). The rhythm guitar is the compliment to the lead guitar, which plays melody; for example, during solos, or "lead breaks", or during short "fills". Many skilled rhythm guitarists slip in and out of the role of playing rhythm and playing lead, if the song calls for it. So, there is not a hard line between being a rhythm guitarist and a lead guitarist
Rhythmic accentsee 'accent'
Rhythmical drumsdrums like the side drum, snare drum and bass drum that do not vary in pitch
Rhythmic augmentationthe lengthening of the time values of the notes of a melody
Rhythmic counterpointpolyrhythm
Rhythmic diminutionthe shortening of the time values of the notes of a melody
Rhythmic gesturea durational pattern which, in contrast to a rhythmic unit, does not occupy a period of time equivalent to a pulse or pulses on an underlying metric level
Rhythmic modesles modes rythmiques (French)
the most famous music theorist of the 13th-century, Johannes de Garlandia, was the editor of the De mensurabili musica (1240), the treatise which defined and most completely elucidated the rhythmic modes. In this system all rhythms are compound. Transcribing them into modern notation always means a time-signature of 3/8, 6/8 or 9/8. Indeed, it used to be thought that simple rhythms weren't available as an option for composers until the invention of a different type of notation in the 14th-century. In a way, compound rhythms express the number three, and this of course was a form of 'divine perfection'. One compound beat is in fact called a 'perfection' for music at this time
lengths are given in unit lengths 3 (long), 2 (medium) and 1 (short) with | indicating how the beats are grouped
rhythmic mode 1trochaic (2 1)
trocaico (Spanish m.)
trocheo (Italian m.)
trochaïque (French)
2 1 | 2 1 | 2 1 | and so on
rhythmic mode 2iambic (1 2)
iámbico (Spanish m.)
giambo (Italian m.)
iambique (French)
1 2 | 1 2 | 1 2 | and so on
rhythmic mode 3dactylic (3 | 1 2)
dáctilo (Spanish m.)
dattilo (Italian m.)
dactylique (French)
3 | 1 2 | 3 | 1 2 | and so on
rhythmic mode 4anapestic (1 2 | 3)
anapesto (Spanish m., Italian m.)
anapeste (French m.)
1 2 | 3 | 1 2 | 3 | and so on
rhythmic mode 5spondaic (3 | 3)
espóndeo (Spanish m.)
spondeo (Italian m.)
spondaïque (French)
3 | 3 | 3 | and so on
rhythmic mode 6tribrachic (1 1 1)
tribaico (Spanish m.)
anfibraco (Italian m.)
1 1 1 | 1 1 1 | 1 1 1 | and so on
the English theorist Walter Odington (born ca. 1278) appears to describe a different situation in England - one in which simple (binary) as well as compound (ternary) rhythms were available. Roger Wibberley has suggested that the English had a way of notating this - a form of the third rhythmic mode. He proposes that in ligature notation, notes can be slanted backwards or forwards - and that depending on the way the notes slant, this indicates:
continental (or "normal") mode threedotted crotchet, quaver, crotchet
English mode threedotted crotchet, crotchet, quaver
binary mode threecrotchet, quaver, quaver
Rhythmic notationsee 'rhythm notation'
Rhythmiconalso known as the Polyrhythmophone, the world's first electronic drum machine (or "rhythm machine," the original term for devices of the type)
Rhythmic unit
a durational pattern which occupies a period of time equivalent to a pulse or pulses on an underlying metric level, as opposed to a rhythmic gesture. Rhythmic units may be classified as:
metriceven-note patterns, such as steady quavers (eighth notes) or quaver pulses
intrametricconfirming patterns, such as dotted quaver-semiquaver note (eighth-sixteenth note) and swing patterns
contrametricnon-confirming, or syncopated patterns
extrametricirregular patterns, such as tuplets
Rhythmik(German f.) rhythm, the study of rhythm
rhythmisch(German) rhythmic, rhythmical, ritmato (Italian), ritmico (Italian), rythmique (French), rythmé (French)
rhythmische Erziehung(German f.) eurhythmics, rhythmic gymnastics, rhythmics (an approach to the education of music that was devised by Emile Jaques-Dalcroze (1865-1950), a Swiss musician and music educator
Rhythm 'n' bluessee 'Rhythm and blues'
Rhythm notationa system of reading and writing music which shows rhythm. The chords are written above the staff and the rhythm is indicated in the traditional manner, though pitch is unspecified through the use of slashes placed on the centre line instead of noteheads
Rhythmsection(German f.) rhythm section
Rhythm section(English) the musicians whose primary job in a jazz or popular music band or ensemble is to establish the rhythm of a song or musical piece, often via repeated 'riffs' or ostinati. The term may also refer to the instruments used for this purpose
as applied to a jazz band, the rhythm section usually includes piano, double bass (or electric bass), guitar and drum kit
Rhythm, sprungsee 'sprung rhythm'
Rhythm syllablesthe vocalisation of rhythmic patterns using mnemonics, syllables that put together mimic any specific pattern
see 'Chevé rhythm syllables'
Rhythmus(Greek, Latin, German m.) rhythm, ritmo (Italian m., Spanish m.), rythme (French m.)
Rhythmus caudatus(Latin) see rime couée
Rhythmusgerät(German n.) drum machine
Rhythmusinstrument(German n.) rhythm instrument
Rhythmusmaschine(German f.) rhythm unit, rhythm machine
R.I.abbreviation of Repubblica Italiana (Italian: Republic of Italy)
Rithe raised second degree of a major scale; in 'fixed do' solfeggio, ri is always the note 'D sharp'
Ria(Spanish) a long narrow inlet of the sea, usually branching at the inner end
RIAARecording Industry Association of America
rianimando(Italian) reanimating
riant (m.), riante (f.)(French) smiling, gay, cheerful (landscape, etc.)
RIASabbreviation of Radio im Amerikanischen Sektor (German)
Rib(of a violin, etc.) Zarge (German f.), éclisse (French f.), fascia (Italian), the sides that are bent to shape and then attached to the belly and back of the instrument
Ribalta(Italian) footlights
Ribattuta(Italian f.) a beat
(Italian f.) passing note
(Italian f.) a trill in dotted rhythm
(Italian f., English, French f.) a form of trill originating from the time of Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643) and Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643) that begins slowly and accelerates toward its conclusion. Those who might have read the example in Der vollkommene Capellmeister, (Hamburg, 1739), by Johann Mattheson (1681-1764), will see according to the notation the speed of the trill doubles on the beat. Actually the limitations of mensural notation means that discrete changes seen on the page should be interpreted as a smooth acceleration in the speed. Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (1714-1788), who in his Versuch über die wahre Art das Clavier zu spielen (Berlin, 1753) gives an example of this ornament in the chapter on embellishment, mentions in the text that there is a gradual acceleration
Ribattuta di gorgia(Italian) or gorgia, a volcal trill that begins slowly and then accelerates towards its conclusion
Ribbinga knitting technique where small rows are finley knitted together to form a texture, popular in polo neck jumpers and skinny-ribbed jumpers
Ribbon microphonea microphone whose electric output results from the motion of a thin metal ribbon mounted between the poles of a permanent magnet and driven directly by sound waves - it is velocity-actuated if open to sound waves on both sides, and pressure-actuated if open to sound waves on only one side.
Ribbon tweeter (loudspeaker)a tweeter loudspeaker that uses a very thin diaphragm, often of aluminum, or perhaps metalized plastic film, which supports a planar coil frequently made by deposition of aluminum vapour, suspended in a powerful magnetic field (typically provided by neodymium magnets) to reproduce high frequencies
Ribeba(Italian) Jew's harp
Ribeca(Italian f.) rebec
Ribecchino(Italian) a small rebec
Riberbula(Corsica) related to the Jew's harp
Ribsthe sides of a stringed instrument such as a violin, guitar, etc.
on a piano, made of Sitka spruce, the ribs help to keep the proper forward curve in the soundboard
Ributhe(Scottish) Jew's harp
Rib vaulta vault with bands of projecting stonework along the angles or groins
Ricassopart of sword and knife blades, the section just above the guard or handle, which is sometimes unsharpened and unbevelled
Riccio(Italian m.) scroll
(Italian m.) or chiocciola (Italian f.), Schnecke (German f.) or Kopf (German m. - scroll and pegbox), volute (French f.), tête (la volute et le cheviller) (French f. - scroll and pegbox), testa (Italian f. - scroll and pegbox), the scroll, that part of the violin, etc. where ornmental carving is normally found. On the violin and related stringed instruments it lies at the end of the neck just above the pegs
the scroll is the carved spiral found just above the pegs at the very top of the neck of a violin, viola, etc. - if the instrument bears a carving of a face, animal, etc. then it is called a head and not a scroll
Rice papera term that usually refers to paper made from parts of the rice plant, like rice straw or rice flour. However, the term is also loosely used for paper made from or containing other plants, like hemp, bamboo or mulberry
Ricerca(Italian f.) research
Ricercar(German n.) ricercare
Ricercare (s.), Ricercari (pl.)(Italian, literally 'to seek') ricercato or ricercarta, from the 16th- and 17th-centuries, originally improvisatory in style, these embellished, unaccompanied melodies were similar to preludes of the same period. From the late 16th-century, the name became associated also with contrapuntal polyphonic writing, first in two parts and later expanding to four. It is this latter use that led to the term being applied to any elaborate contrapuntal piece of music, for example, a Meisterfuge
also recercare, formerly the title of an instrumental piece from the 16th-century, often fugal, that can be classed with the fantasia and capriccio, anabole, prelude, preambulum, and prooemium
Ricercartasee ricercare
Ricercartosee ricercare
Rich (tone)tone containing many harmonic partials
richettato(Italian) spiccato
richiamare(Italian) to sing with a shrill voice, to warble or whistle in imitation of a bird
Richiamo(Italian m.) curtain call
Richiamo per uccelli(Italian m., literally 'call of the birds') bird pipe
richtig(German) right, precise
richtiges Tempo(German n.) appropriate speed, tempo guisto, temps juste
richtiges Zeitmaß(German n.) appropriate speed, tempo guisto, temps juste
Richtungsänderung(German f.) turnaround, change of direction
Ricocheta glancing rebound made by a projectile before reaching its target, to make a glancing rebound
a down-bow stroke on the violin, achieved by throwing the upper third of the bow on the same string resulting in a bouncing series of rapid notes in the single stroke, rimbalzando (Italian), abprallendes Stakkato (German)
Ricordanza(Italian f.) remeberance, recollection
Rictus(Latin) a gaping of the mouth, a wide-open grin
ridacchiare(Italian) to gigle, to laugh ironically
Ridda(Italian f.) whirling dance, crowd, confusion
Rídda(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) any kind of round Country dance as our Hay dance
Riddáre(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) to dance round
Riddima rhythm pattern, basically consisting of a drum pattern and a prominent bassline. This Patois or Jamaican-English term originates from the English word "rhythm"
  • Riddim from which this extract has been taken
Riddle(from Old English roedel, from roedan meaning 'to give council' or 'to read') a universal form of literature in which a puzzling question or a conundrum is presented to the reader
Riddle canona canon in which the composer has left it to the performer to choose at which point and at which pitch the following voice(s) should start
Rideablefit to be ridden (horse, bycycle, etc.), fit to be travelled on (bicycle, horseback, etc.)
Rideau(French m.) curtain
le rideau se baissethe curtain falls, the curtain goes down
le rideau se lèvethe curtain rises, the curtain goes up
le rideau s'ouvrethe curtain opens
le rideau de fermethe curtain closes
Rideau d'avant-scène(French m.) main drape
Ride cymbala cymbal (circular brass plate 20" to 22" in diameter) that sits on a stand at an angle, as a part of the drum kit, that is struck with drum sticks or brushes to keep a rhythmic pulse of the composition
ridente(Italian) laughing, bright (figurative), smiling
Ride outin jazz, the final chorus of a piece is called the 'ride-out', 'out chorus' or 'sock chorus'
ridere(Italian) to laugh
ridere sotto i baffi(Italian) to laugh up one's sleeve
ridersi (di)(Italian) to laugh (at), to deride
Ride rhythma basic jazz pattern of rhythmic beats in each bar (measure), so-named because it is often tapped out on either a 'ride cymbal' or a 'high hat'
ridestare(Italian) to re-awaken, to arouse (again), to wake, to wake up
RidgeBowa modern 'mouthbow' created by Wayland Harman
Ridge ribstone rib running longitudinally or tranversely at the top of a vault
Ridicolaggine(Italian f.) an absurdity, nonsense
Ridicolo(Italian m.) ridicule, ridiculousness
ridicolo(Italian) ridiculous, absurd, paltry
Ridiculewords designed to arouse laughter and contempt for a person, idea, or institution. The rhetorical goal is to condemn or criticize the object by ridicule by making it seem suitable only for mockery, by making it appear 'ridiculous'
RIdIM abbreviation of Répertoire International d'Iconographie Musicale (French)
Ridingplaying repeated rhythmic patterns with the sticks or brushes on a cymbal
ridondante(Italian) redundant
Ridondanza(Italian f.) redundancy, redundance
ridondare(Italian) to redound, to overflow
Ridotto(Italian m.) foyer (of a theatre), a resort, a retreat, a clubhouse
(Italian) reduced, adapted, arranged from a full score
or, in French, redoubte, an 18th-century public entertainment, introduced into England in 1722, consisting of singing and dancing in which audience and musicians would take part
ridurre(Italian) to reduce
Riduttore di rumore(Italian m.) noise reduction, noise suppression
Riduzione(Italian f.) a reduction, an arrangement, a discount, an adaptation
Riduzione per pianoforte(Italian f.) piano score
riecheggiare(Italian) to re-echo
riedere(Italian) to return (poetic)
riedificare(Italian) to rebuid
riempiere(Italian) to fill, to fill in (forms, etc.), to fill up, to cram, to stuff
Rien(French m.) nothingness
un rien (French m.: a mere nothing)
des riens (French trivia)
rien(French) nothing, anything, nil (score), not half, really
rien à déclarer(French) nothing to declare
rien à faire!(French) it's hopeless! nothing doing! it's not on!
rien à la cle(French) 'open key', clefless
a clefless staff may be used to represent a set of percussion sounds, each line typically representing a different percussion instrument
rien à signaler(French) nothing to report
rien au monde(French) nothing on earth, nothing in the world
rien d'autre(French) nothing else
rien de(French) nothing
rien de moins(French) nothing less
rien de plus(French) nothing more, nothing further
rien de plus facile(French) nothing easier
rien de neuf(French) nothing new
rien de rien(French) nothing, absolutely nothing
rien d'impossible(French) nothing impossible
rien du tout(French) nothing at all
rien entendu(French) hear anything
rien ne le fera reculer(French) nothing will make him go back
rien ne va plus(French, 'no more stakes accepted') in roulette, the cry of the croupier as the wheel begins to spin
rien partout(French) the French equivalent of 'love all' in tennis, etc.
rien que(French) nothing but
rien qu'à moi(French) mine alone
rien que la vérité(French) nothing but the truth
Rientrata(Italian f.) re-entrance, re-entry, reappearance
Rientro(Italian m.) shrinking, shrinkage
riepilogare(Italian) to recapitulate
Riepilogo(Italian m.) recapitulation, résumé
Riesen-harfe(German) Aeolian harp
Riesenschilf(German n.) Arundo donax, Arundo bifaria, Arundo donax var. versicolor, Arundo glauca, Arundo latifolia, Arundo sativa, Arundo versicolor, Cynodon donax, Donax arundinaceus, Donax donax, Scolochloa arundinacea, Scolochloa donax, bamboo reed, baranal (Hindi), bansi (Punjabi), caña común (Spanish f.), caña (Spanish f., Portuguese f.), caña cañabrava (Spanish f.), caña de roca (Portuguese f.), caña vieira (Portuguese f.), cane, giant cane, distaff cane, donako (Esperanto), gaha nal (Bengali), gardener’s garters, great reed, Indian grass, Italienskt rör (Swedish), jättiruoko (Finnish), Kaemperolr (Danish), Persian reed, canne de Provence (French f.), Provence reed, qasba (Maltese), reed, Pfahlrohr (German n.), roseau géant (French), shembeko (Ethiopian), spanisches Rohr (German n.), Spanish cane, Spanskrör (Swedish), Teberau gading (Malay) - used for over 5,000 years to make the single and double reeds used in numerous wind instruments this is the ‘reed’ ('rushes') referred to in the Bible. Today the giant reed is used to make clarinets, bagpipes and organ-pipes [Swedish terms corrected by Lars Hellvig]
Riesen-stimme(German) stentorian voice
Riet(Dutch) reed
Riet-instrumenten(Dutch) reed instruments, reeds
rieur (s.), rieure (pl.)(French) laughing, cheerful, merry (eyes)
rievocare(Italian) to recall, to conjure up again
Rifacimento(Italian m.) the recast or remodelled form of a literary work (in order to improve it), remaking, compensation, adaptation
sometimes mis-spelt rifaccimento or rifacciamento (Italian: refacing)
Riferimento(Italian m.) a reference
riferire(Italian) to report, to relate, to tell, to refer, to attribute, to return (thanks)
riferirsi(Italian) to refer, to relate
Riferma(Italian f.) a re-engagement
rifermare(Italian) to stop again, to confirm, to re-confirm, to re-engage
Riff(English, French m., Italian m., German m., Spanish m.) a short music phrase, often repeated, particularly in jazz or blues
Riffa(Italian f.) violence, raffle, lottery
riffoso(Italian) rowdy, insolent
rifiatare(Italian) to breathe again, to take a deep breath
Rifiorimenti(Italian pl.) ornaments, embellishments
Rififi(French m.) trouble
Riflard(French m.) brolly, umbrella
Rifletorre(Italian m.) spotlight
Riga(Italian f.) the stave
Rigadoon(Old English) rigaudon
Rigaudon(English, German m., French m.) a lively French dance in simple duple or quadruple time not unlike a bourrée with an upbeat on a crotchet (quarter note)
Riggsee riqq
Right and Left Grandone of the big circle figures danced by all couples in one large circle facing the centre which are traditionally associated with square dancing
Right and Left Grand Variationsone of the figures unique to, or traditionally associated with, square dancing
Right handmano destra (Italian), rechte Hand (German), main droite (French)
Right on itin jazz, with no introduction, to start right on the head
rigide(French) rigid (character), stiff (muscle, card), inflexible (personality), strict (rule), hard and fast (rule)
rigidement(French) strictly, rigidly
Rigo (musicale)(Italian m.) staff
Rigodino(Italian) rigaudon
Rigodón(Spanish m.) rigaudon
Rigodone(Italian) rigaudon
Rigolétto(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) a country skipping dance, horne-pipe, merrie-round. Also a gigge
Rigor(Latin) a sudden chill accompanied by fits of violent shivering (note: the stress is placed on the first vowel)
rigor (m.), rigore (f.)(Italian) rigour, strictness, exactness, strict (time)
Rigor mortis(Latin) the rigidity of the body after death
rigoroso(Italian) exact, rigorous, strict, in the sense of 'in strict time' (although tempo giusto is the more commonly used term)
rigoureux(French) exact, rigorous, strict, in the sense of 'in strict time' (although tempo giusto is the more commonly used term)
RigurigiUgandan one-string fiddle
Rijsttafel(Dutch) a dish consisting of plain boiled rice accomapnied by a variety of highly-seasoned foods
Riksee riqq
Riksmål(Norwegian) Riksmål denotes a conservative, chiefly pre-1938, unofficial variant of Bokmål. Bokmål or Dano-Norwegian which is the most commonly used of the two official written standards of Norwegian, the other being Nynorsk. Bokmål is used by around 85% of the population (regardless of dialect) and is the standard most commonly taught to foreign students of Norwegian
  • Bokmål from which this material has been taken
rilasciando(Italian) releasing, relaxing the time, giving way a little, nachlassend, rallentando
rilasciante(Italian) rallentando
rilassando(Italian) releasing, relaxing the time, giving way a little, nachlassend, rallentando
rilassato(Italian) rallentando
Rilcha Russian lute
Rileanna(Gaelic) reels
RILM abbreviation of Répertoire International de Littérature Musicale (French)
RILM Abstractsthis database lists dissertations about music, chapters in books about music, and articles in music journals. Each entry contains a short abstract. RILM is an acronym for Répertoire international de littérature musicale
Rimin the construction of brass instruments, either an additional strip of metal called a garland, an iron or brass wire, or both are used to create a rim to reinforce and protect the thin edge of the bell. The wire may be soldered onto the top of the bell or onto the garland. Alternatively, the edge of the garland or the bell edge itself may be rolled around the wire
Rimaa narrow elongated opening or fissure between two symmetrical parts
(Italian f., Spanish f.) rhyme
Ríma (s.), Rímur (pl.)(Icelandic) rhyme
Rima chiusa(Italian, literally 'closed rhythm') an arrangement of the rhymes in a quatrain such that the two outer and the two inner lines rhyme together
rimar(Spanish) rhyme
rimare(Italian) rhyme
rimbalzando(Italian) rebounding, abprallendes Stakkato (German), ricochet (French)
Rimbombo(Italian m.) echo effect
Rime(French f.) rhyme
Rime couée(French f.) or, in English, caudate rhyme, in Latin rhythmus caudatus, a unit of verse in which a short line, followed by a longer line or section of longer lines, rhymes with a preceding short line
rimer(French) to rhyme
Rime riche(French f.) identical rhyme
Rime royale(French f.) or 'rime royal', rhyme royal
rimettendo(Italian, literally 'resuming') returning to the original tempo
rimettendosi(Italian, literally 'resuming') returning to the original tempo
rimettere(Italian) send
Rim shotor rimshot, a percussion technique usually used on the snare drum, involving hitting the rim of the drum
there are two standard types of rim shots in marching percussion, the higher pitched 'ping shot' and the lower pitched 'gock'
in orchestral percussion, a rimshot is performed by placing one drum stick with the stick head near the middle of the drumhead, and the shaft pressed against the rim, and striking with the other stick. This produces a less powerful, but more precise rimshot than its marching cousin
Rímur(Icelandic pl., 'rhymes') a dramatic form of epic song from Iceland, rooted in narrative poetry. As originally performed, a rímur circle could last many hours and cover many subjects
rin.abbreviation of rinforzando (Italian: accenting, accented)
Rinascimento(Italian m.) Renaissance
Rinçage(French m.) rinse, (the act of) rinsing
rincalzando(Italian) in good humour
Rinceau(French) in decorative art, an elaborately foliated scroll-pattern
Rince-doigts(French m.) finger-bowl
rincer(French) to rinse
rinf.abbreviation of rinforzando (Italian: accenting, accented)
rinforzamento(Italian) reinforcement
rinforzando(Italian) strengthened, reinforced, accenting, accented
(Italian) or rafforzando (Italian), strengthening, verstärkend (German), en reforçant (French)
a sudden increase in volume, either on an individual note or chord or throughout a phrase or passage
rinforzare(Italian) rinforzando
rinforzato(Italian) rinforzando, strengthened, verstärkt (German), renforcé (French)
Rinforzo(Italian m.) reinforcement
Ringa set of bells, numbering 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, or 12, hung for change ringing. Mounted to each headstock is a wheel from whose grooved rim a rope extends to the floor below. When the rope is pulled, the bell is made to swing in an arc of slightly more than 360 degrees. The bells are so arranged that the suspended ropes form a circle. The great majority of rings are in the British Isles
Ring(German m.) band, circle, circlet, coil, collar, annulus, hoop
Ringbang(Caribbean) a fusion of all the music of the Caribbean with the focus on the rhythm rather than the melody. Since its creation in 1994, 'ringbang' has grown in popularity in Barbados and throughout the Caribbean
Ring Cycle, The
Richard Wagner (1813-1883) wrote this mammoth 16 hour cycle of operas between 1848 and 1876. The first complete performance took place at the Festspielhaus in Bayreuth, Germany in August 1876. The four operas are:
Das Rheingold1853-4
Die Walküre1854-6
Ring fluteJames Johnson, the inventor, spent 11 years developing this extraordinary unkeyed toroidal flute
Ring modulationan audio effect performed by multiplying two audio signals, where one is typically a sine-wave or another simple waveform. It is referred to as "ring" modulation because the analog circuit of diodes originally used to implement this effect took the shape of a ring. This circuit is similar to a Bridge rectifier, except that instead of the diodes facing "Left" or "Right", they go "Clockwise" or "Anti-Clockwise"
Ring modulatora ring modulator accepts two inputs and produces the sum and difference frequencies of them
for example, if two sine waves of 100 and 150 cycles are present at the inputs, the output will consist of two frequencies 50 cycles (150 minus 100) and 250 cycles (150 plus 100)
waves with many partials, such as rectangular or sawtooth waves, create very complex output signals. Ring modulators offer a convenient way to create metallic sounds, bells and klangs. They have been widely used in the creation of electronic music
Ring polskaalso known as 'step polska', this is an ancient dance associated with marriage rites. Being ritualistic in nature and hence accorded a religious reverence, marriage-rites are often the repositories of traditions which have disappeared in secular society. The dance is called hoijakka in Finnish because of a shouted "hoi!" upon change of rotational direction and is known as trindpolska (literally 'step-polska') in Swedish-speaking districts, where it serves as an efterdans (after-dance) for a minuet or quadrille
Ring shakea shake or fissure between the annual rings of a tree
Ring shoutreligious dance performed by African-American slaves, performed with hand clapping and a shuffle step to spirituals
Ringtoneor 'ring tone', a digital music file that is designed to be played on a mobile phone when there is an incoming call
Rinnakkaissävellaji(Finnish) relative key
rinviato(German) postponed
Rinyu-gaku(Japanese) the music of Southern Asia, always involving dances and pantomimes, that found its way to ancient Japan
Rinzaffato(Italian) in art, a coarse plaster used for filling hollows and cracks in a wall before the application of the arricciato and the intonaco
río abajo(Spanish) downstream, down-river
rioso(Italian) laughing
RIPabbreviation of requiescat in pace (Latin: may he/she rest in peace)
Ripa loud tonal slide up to a note often ending with a sharp accent
rip.abbreviation of ripieno
Rip and Snortone of the big circle figures danced by all couples in one large circle facing the centre which are traditionally associated with square dancing
Riparellea suggestive dance that appeared in Vert-Vert by Jacques Offenbach (1819-1880), not unlike the 'Can Can'
Ripercussione(Italian f.) repercussion
ripertere(Italian) to repeat
Ripetitore(Italian m./f.) a coach (particularly of singers)
Ripetizione(Italian f.) repetition, rehearsal
Ripiano(Italian m.) see repiano
Ripienist(German m.) ripieno violinist, a player of the ripieno or tutti parts in an orchestra
Ripienista(Italian m./f.) one of the ripieno
Ripièniste(French m.) one of the ripieno
Ripieno (s.), Ripieni (pl.)(Italian m., literally 'filling up') a term used to distinguish passages played by soloists (marked concertante, solo or obbligato) and those played by the whole orchestra (marked ripieno or tutti)
a direction used in military band music calling for the entrance of clarinets, oboes, etc.
on the organ, a combination stop drawing all registers of a particular manual
Ripieno di cinque(Italian) mixture stop of five ranks, in Italian organs
Ripieno di due(Italian) mixture stop of two ranks, in Italian organs
Ripieno di quattro(Italian) mixture stop of four ranks, in Italian organs
Ripieno di tre(Italian) mixture stop of three ranks, in Italian organs
Ripieur di cinque(Italian) mixture stop of five ranks, in Italian organs
ripigliare(Italian) to resume
RIPM abbreviation of Répertoire International de la Presse Musicale (French)
riposato (m.), riposata (f.)(Italian) reposeful, in a calm and tranquil manner
Riposo(Italian m.) repose, rest
Riposte(French) a quick counter-thrust, a prompt retaliation (originally a fencing term but now in general use
riposte(French) to make a quick counter-thrust, to retaliate promptly
Rippe(German f.) rib
Rippingto extract digital audio tracks from an audio CD
a software program that extracts audio files from a CD is called a ripper
riprende(Italian) resume
riprendendo(Italian) resuming
riprendendo poco a poco il tempo(Italian) gradually regaining the former tempo
riprendere(French, literally 'to resume') resume original tempo
Ripresa (s.), Riprese (pl.)(Italian f.) reprise, repeat, recapitulation, as a repeat sign usually associated with that refered to in dal segno
the ripresa, ritornello, and passacaglia are based on the 16th-century Italian dance form. The ripresa or ritornello (often appearing as V-I or IV-V-I) is a unit of music that precedes, follows, or alternates with a dance. The internal ripresa could be used as a portion within a dance or as a conclusion. While the number of internal riprese varies according to the time elapsing between sections of a piece, its harmonic design (i.e., the basic V-I pattern) is fixed. The concluding ripresa, on the other hand, occurs at the end of a piece and shows a greater harmonic variety through the insertion or substitution of alternate chords. In the concluding ripresa, the basic V-I pattern could be varied through the insertion, reshuffling, and mixing of chords, resulting in unpredictable chains of chord progressions such as IV-V-I-I, V-V-I-IV, V-V-I-II, or V-V-I-I. During the 17th-century, these concluding riprese became independent sets and took the name of the passacaglia or ciaccona. The technique of the passacaglia or ciaccona then, is simply an ostinato of derived formulas of the ripresa. Thus, the ripresa, ritornello, and passacaglia evolved from the same harmonic pattern which originally functioned as a unit of the Italian dance form
in 15th-century dance, a sideways step or steps (usually a sideways double) lasting one misura, except in piva misura where it is danced twice as quickly and can only be accomplished as a sideways single
Riproduzione(Italian f.) reproduction
Ripsawa coarse-toothed saw used for cutting wood along the grain
Ripsaw music(The Bahamas) a tradition that came from the Turks and Caicos Islands, and is characterized by the use of a carpenter's saw as a percussion instrument. The saw is scraped with a metal object, such as a screwdriver, to produce a unique sound; this is called 'ripping the saw'. Ripsaw is closely related to 'rake and scrape'
Riqsee riqq
Riqqalso reqq, tar or duff, Middle Eastern and North African tambourine
Rira bien qui rira le dernier.(French) Whoever laughs last laughs best.
Rire(French m.) laugh
le rires (French: laughter)
rire(French) to laugh, to joke, to have fun
rire de(French) to laugh at
rire sous cape(French) to laugh up one's sleeve
rire un bon coup(French) to have a good laugh
risaltato(Italian) emphasized, hervorgehoben (German), mis en relief (French)
riscaldano(Italian) livelier, warming up
Risein dance, this is a smooth relevé from a position à terre through all the levels of the foot (quarter-point, half-point and three-quarter point). The toes do not move from the spot at which the rise began
risentitamente(Italian) marked, distinct, lively, poignant, vigorous
risentito(Italian) lively, poignant, vigorous, angrily, firmly
Rises and fallsa category of the ballroom dance technique that refers to rises and falls of the body of a dancer achieved through actions of knees and feet (ankles)
Risha(Arabic, literally 'feather') pick for plucking strings, for example, on the barbat
risible(French) laughable
Rising actionthe action in a play before the climax
Rising rhymeanother term for masculine rhyme in which the final foot ends in a stressed syllable
RISMabbreviation of Répertoire International des Sources Musicales (French)
risol.abbrevation for risoluto (Italian: bold, resolute, energetic)
risolutamente(Italian) resolutely, boldly, rigorously
risoluto(Italian) bold, resolute, energetic
Risoluzione(Italian f.) determination, firmness, steady rhythm, resolution (for example, of a discord)
risonante(Italian) resounding, ringing, sounding
Risonanza(Italian f.) resonance, a sound
risonare(Italian) to resound, to ring, to echo
RisorgimentoItalian unification (called in Italian the Risorgimento, or 'Resurgence') was the political and social process that unified disparate states of the Italian peninsula into the single nation of Italy. It is difficult to pin down exact dates for the beginning and end of Italian reunification, but most scholars agree that it began with the Congress of Vienna in 1815 and the end of Napoleonic rule, and largely ended with the Franco-Prussian War in 1871, though the last città irredente did not join the Kingdom of Italy until the Treaty of Saint-Germain after World War I
Risotto(Italian) a dish made of boiled rice, meat or meat broth, butter, etc.
Rispettoa type of Italian folk-song
see strambotto
Risposta(Italian f.) the answer in a fugue
Risque(French m.) risk
risqué(French) (a remark or anecdote) that is indecent, suggestive or daring
risquer(French) to risk
risquer de faire(French) stand a good chance of doing
Rissaldar(Hindi) or ressaldar, the native commander of an Indian cavalry regiment
Risset scale, continuousJean-Claude Risset (b. 1938) created a version of the Shepard scale where the steps between each tone are continuous, and it is appropriately called the continuous Risset scale or Shepard-Risset glissando. He has also created a similar effect with rhythm in which tempo seems to increase or decrease endlessly
see 'Shephard scale'
rissoler(French) to brown
Ristampa(Italian f.) reprint
ristampare(Italian) reprint
ristretto(Italian) the stretto in a fugue
ristringendo(Italian) quickening, drawing together
Risuonanza(Italian f.) resonance
Risuonatore(Italian m.) resonator
Risus sardonicusa highly characteristic, abnormal, sustained spasm of the facial muscles that is most often observed as a symptom of tetanus. The name of the condition derives from the appearance of raised eyebrows and an evil, open grin that it gives to its victim
risvegliando(Italian) or risvegliato (Italian), re-awakening, re-animated, lively, with increased animation, wieder erweckend (German), en réveillant (French), réveillé (French)
risvegliare(Italian) to wake up, to revive, to re-animate
risvegliato(Italian) or risvegliando (Italian), re-awakening, re-animated, lively, with increased animation, wieder erweckend (German), en réveillant (French), réveillé (French)
rit.(Italian) abbreviated form of ritenuto (Italian: suddenly slower - also riten.) or ritardando (Italian: gradually slower - also ritard.)
see ritenuto
see ritardando
ritard.(Italian) abbreviated form of ritardando (Italian: gradually slower)
see ritardando
Ritardamento(Italian m.) a delay, a delaying, a deferment, a postponement
ritardando(Italian) gradually slower, retarding, to hold back, holding back, held back (gradual change of tempo), gradually delaying the tempo, en retardant (French), alongez (French), cédez (French), zurückhalten (German)
ritardare(Italian) to hold back, holding back, held back (gradual change of tempo)
ritardato(Italian) delayed, retardé (French), to hold back, holding back, held back (gradual change of tempo)
Ritardo(Italian m.) the gradual diminishing of speed
(Italian m.) in harmony, the prolongation of a note from a previous chord into the succeeding one, i.e. is a suspension
Rite(French m.) rite, ritual
Rite de passage (s.), Rites de passage (pl.)(France) a ritual or cermony marking the passage from one period of life to another
riten.(Italian) abbreviated form of ritenuto (Italian: suddenly slower)
ritenendo(Italian, literally 'deduct a little') holding back, rallentando (Italian), en retenant (French)
ritenendo un po'(Italian, literally 'deduct a little') becoming a little slower
ritenente(Italian, literally 'deduct a little') rallentando
ritenento(Italian) detained, slower, kept back
ritenuto(Italian, literally 'held back') suddenly slower, retenu (French)
sometime used instead of ritardando, although it differs from ritardando in that ritenuto implies a sudden change of tempo (often for only a short period of time) while ritardando indicates a gradual change
Ritior ziti, a Gambian/Senegalese one-string fiddle of kapok wood covered with lizard skin, used for exorcism ceremonies
ritmato (m.), ritmata (f.)(Italian) rhythmic, rhythmical, rythmé (French), rythmique (French), rhythmisch (German)
ritme(Dutch) rhythm
ritmico (m.), ritmica (f.)(Italian, Portuguese) rhythmic, rhythmical, rythmé (French), rythmique (French), rhythmisch (German)
ritmisch(Dutch) rhythmic
Ritmo(Italian m., Spanish m., Portuguese) rhythm, Rhythmus (German m.), rythme (French m.)
Ritmo compuesto(Spanish m.) compound time
Ritmo della musica(Italian m.) pacing (musical rhythm)
Ritmo di tre battute(Italian m.) music played so quickly that each bar (measure) is played as a single beat and each group of three bars is a single hyperbar (hypermeasure)
Ritmo libre(Spanish m.) a term used to describe the structure of the music of Ancient Greece and Rome, Gregorian chant, Spanish chants, unmeasured music, etc., where the rhythm is determined by the text to which the musical line is applied rather than to a mathematical relationship that might exist within the musical notation itself
Ritmo Pilón(Cuba, Spanish m.) a beat created by Enrique Bonne and brought to fame by Pacho Alonso
Ritornel(English) ritornello
Ritornell(German n.) ritornello
Ritornello (s.), Ritornelli (pl.)(Italian, m. literally 'refrain') a piece or section that is returned to
a passage in a concerto during which the soloist is silent
the closing section or couplet of a 14th-century Italian madrigal or caccia
in 17th-century opera, an instrumental piece, for example, prelude, interlude or postlude
(Italian m.) the name for the 'repeat sign'
see 'form' for information about 'ritornello form'
Ritornell(German) ritornello
Ritornelo(Spanish m.) ritornello
Ritorno(Italian m., of which ritornello is the diminutive) return
Ritorto(Italian m.) crook
Ritournelle(French) a quick 17th-century dance in triple time, for example, Ritournelle de Scocapur and Ritournelle des Amazons by Jean-Baptiste Lully (1632-1687), Ritournelle d'alma mia by Michel-Richard de Lalande (1657-1726)
see 'ritornel'
Ritson Manuscriptalthough very much smaller and less elaborate than the Eton, Lambeth and Caius Choirbooks, the Pepys and Ritson Manuscripts contain shorter and rather simpler pieces, presumably for smaller and less able choirs. The Ritson MS, unlike the Pepys, was on internal evidence the work of at least five distinct hands. It was compiled over a long period between early in the second half of the fifteenth century and 1510, apparently in the West Country
Ritterbratsche(German f.) see 'Ritter-viola'
ritterlich(German) knightly
Ritter-violabuilt in 1875 by Karl Adam Hörlein of Würzburg, the viola alta designed by Hermann Ritter was played by the designer at one of the Wagner Festivals with the Bayreuth orchestra. He later added a fifth string (e'') so combining the compass of the viola and the violin
Ritual(English, Spanish m., German n.) a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community
  • Ritual from which this short extract has been taken
Rituale(Italian m.) ritual
Ritual in religion
rituel (m.), rituelle (f.)(French) ritual
Rituel(French m.) ritual
Rivage(French m.) shore
Rive(French f.) bank (of a river), shore (of a lake)
riveduto(Italian) revised
Rive gauche(French f., literally 'left bank') the district of Paris on the left bank of the Seine inhabited by students, artists and writers
Rivelatore(Italian m.) pick-up
river(French) to rivet
Riverain (m.), Riveraine (f.)(French) riverside resident, the resident (of a street)
riverain (m.), riveraine (f.)(French) riverside
Riverbero(Italian m.) reverberation
Riverbo(Italian m.) reverb
established by Russell Hoare in the village of Riverside, Leicestershire, as an experimental educational community. Hoare insisted that the children should do whatever seemed good to them. He gave talk to the Friends Guild of Teachers and stated his intention: "I am not out to make good little citizens. I am out to make rebels."
Riversosee rovescio
riverso, al(Italian) reversed, as regards motion of parts, so that it may be used in the sense of 'contrary' or 'retrograde'
Rivesciosee rovescio
Riviera(Italian) a coastal district
Rivière(French f.) river
(French) a necklace of precious stones, especially a necklace of more than one string
Rivista(Italian f.) magazine, review
rivolgimento(Italian) inversion of the parts in double counterpoint
rivoltato(Italian) inverted, turned upside down (in counterpoint)
Rivolto(Italian m.) complementary interval, inversion (of a melodic or harmonic interval)
Rizitikathe most important genre of vocal music from the northern part of the Lefka Ora (White Mountains), within the province of Chaniá, in western Crete. They are the principal musical repertoire for feasts in the villages, above all marriages and baptisms, but also for simple banquets. Based on the occasion, rizitika songs can be divided into two repertoires: the tavla repertoire ('songs for the table', reserved for convivial occasions, mainly wedding banquets) and the strata repertoire ('songs for the road', reserved for parts of the wedding rites other than the banquet, that is, for the transfer of the dowry to the bridegroom's house, the ceremonial welcome by the bridegroom's mother of the bride, the gathering of the gifts, etc., where they are called tou gamou tragoudi, wedding song)
Rizorkestraa one-man-roots-blues-band, with guitar, singing, kazoo, hi-hat and bass drum playing simultaneously. repetoire consists of early blues songs, jug band tunes, gospel music classics, instrumental stomps, romps, jumps, and rags, early country music, early jazz, tin pan alley tunes, folk music songs and novelty songs, with the additional insertion of themes and motifs from sousa marches, European classical music composers, musical theatre and film music, in original compostions and improvisations
Rizzio guitara French 16th-century guitar, usually decorated with tortoise shell, ivory, mother of pearl and ebony, named for David Rizzio or David Riccio (c.1533-1566) a singer and guitarist, born at Turin, the son of a music teacher who rose to become the private secretary of Mary I of Scotland
Rkan-dunTibetan bone pipes made of human thighs
Rkang-glingTibetan trumpet
RKO abbreviation of Radio-Keith-Orpheum (German)
RMCMabbreviation of 'Royal Manchester College of Music'
rms abbreviation of 'root mean square'
RMWVreferring to the catalogue prepared by Mathias Herrmann of music by Rudolf Mauersberger (1889-1971)
RNabbreviation of route nationale (French: main road), revenu national (French: GNP - gross national product)
RNCMabbreviation of 'Royal Northern College of Music, Manchester'
Rnga(Indian, China, Nepal) a double headed frame-drum
  • Rnga from which this extract has been taken
ROfrom the catalogue of music by Louis Moreau Gottschalk (1829-1869) prepared by Robert Offergeld
ROabbreviation of Radio Orchestra
Roacha fresh-water fish of the carp family
Roaring silencethe title of David Revill's 1993 biography of John Cage
Robabsee rubab
Robbed timerubato (Italian)
Robe(French f.) (woman's) dress, (judge's) robe, (horse's coat)
Robe de chambre(French f.) dressing-gown, a woman's dressing-gown suitable for an informal reception of friends
Robe de quatre sous(French f.) cheap dress
Robe de terrasse(French f.) a woman's dress suitable for wearing on the terrace of a mansion in warm weather
Robe du soir(French f.) evening gown
Robertsbridge Codex (c. 1360)an Italian music manuscript of the 14th century. It contains the earliest surviving music written specifically for keyboard
Robin and Marionsee 'Play of Robin and Marion'
Robinet(French m.) tap, faucet (U.S.)
Robot hip hopsee 'electro music'
robuste(French) robust
Robustesse(French f.) robustness
Robusto(Italian) robust, strongly voiced
(Italian m.) a vigorous tenor suitable for strong masculine operatic parts
robusto(Italian) strong, powerful
Roc(French m.) rock
Rocaille(French f.) rocky ground, rockery (in a garden)
in art, decorative design based on the forms of rocks and shells
rocailleux (m.), rocailleuse (f.)(French) rocky (terrain)
Rocchetta(Italian f.) rankett (Italian m.), racket, rocchetta (Italian f.), Rankett (German n.), Stockfagott (German n.), Wurstfagott (German n.), racket (French m.), cervelas (French m.)
Roche(French f.) rock
(Italian) raucous, hoarse, rough-sounding, jarring
Rocher(French) rock
rocheux (m.), rocheuse (f.)(French) rocky
Rock(English, German m.) see 'rock music'
Rockabilly musicpioneered by stars like Carl Perkins, but popularized by Elvis Presley, Jerry Lee Lewis, and Sun Records producer Sam Phillips, it is usually accompanied by a guitar, drums, and an upright bass. The earliest recognized style of rock and roll by white performers, Rockabilly has been strongly influenced both harmonically and melodically by African-American rhythm and blues and Gospel music
Rock and roll(English, Rock and Roll German m.) American popular music of the 1950s, essentially a highly rhythmic style of blues with most compositions some form of the 12-bar blues, played on electric and amplified instruments (guitar, sax, drum kit, piano and bass) with an emphasis on the first beat
Rock and roll anthema celebratory rock and roll song. The subject that the anthem celebrates can vary, although one common anthemic theme is the celebration of rock and roll for itself
Rock balladsee 'power ballad'
Rock en españolthe latest generation of Spanish language rock and roll. Borrowing heavily from British and American rock and roll music and from popular music of Spanish-speaking cultures (cumbia, ranchera, rumba, tango, etc) rock en español has evolved from a cult-like music movement to a more well established music genre
Rocketmildly pungent plant grown like spinach and eaten in salads
Rocket themesee 'Mannheim'
Rock harmonicona "great novelty in musical instruments, the Rock Harmonicon" was exhibited in Edinburgh in 1842. The 'Harmonicon' was originally developed by a stone-mason and consisted of 65 pieces of hard slate cut to different sizes and set in tiers, to form a musical scale
Rocking melodeonsee 'lap organ'
Rock in Oppositionor RIO, a term today almost synonymous with 'avant-progressive rock' or 'experimental rock', originally a movement representing a collective of "progressive" bands in the late 1970s united in their opposition to the music industry that refused to recognise their music. It was initiated by Henry Cow in March 1978 when they invited four European groups to come to London and perform in a festival called "Rock in Opposition"
Rockisman ideology of popular music criticism about which form of popular music constitutes 'authentic' rock and roll'
  • Rockism from which this extract has been taken
Rock musicoften shortened to just 'Rock', a popular music style developed in the United States and Great Britain in the late 1960s characterised by a driving backbeat, electric guitar and vocals. Its main influences were 1950s rock and roll, soul music and blues. As the genre grew, other influences were added, such as jazz, folk, and classical music. Rock spawned a lot of subgenres: hard rock, southern rock, heavy metal, progressive rock, punk rock, grunge, etc.
Ger Tillekens writes, "Though initially most people called it "beat music", from its very beginnings rock music was mainly a harmonic thing. The British beat revolution that started it all, revolved around guitars and the chords played on those instruments. Not hindered by any formal musical knowledge, the artists of early rock music were just sticking chords after one another till they seem to fit with the moods they wanted to express for themselves and to transfer to their audience. That's why chord progressions are so important in rock music. That doesn't mean, however, that other things - like the "beat" itself, rhythm - don't count as well. A good rhythm trick can turn a harmonically simple song, based on just the three basic chords, into a hit song"
Rock musical(English, Rockmusical German n.) see 'rock opera'
Rockmusik(German f.) rock music, rock
Rock nacionalsee 'Argentine rock'
Rock'n'rollsee 'rock and roll'
Rockoper(German f.) rock opera
Rock operaor rock musical, a musical production in the form of an opera or a musical in a modern rock and roll style rather than more traditional forms. It differs from conventional rock and roll music, which is often a song that is unlinked in plot or story with other songs, but overlaps considerably with concept albums and song cycles
Rocksteadythe name given to a style of music popular in Jamaica between 1966 and 1968. The term comes from a dance style which Alton Ellis named in his recording "Rock Steady". The Rocksteady dance was a more relaxed affair than the earlier, more frantic ska moves
roco(Italian) raucous, hoarse, rough-sounding, jarring
Rococo(French, from rocaille, literally 'like a shell') originally an architectural term, it is now applied to a florid musical style overlapping the late baroque and early classical periods. The Rococo period (1725-1775) was an 18th-century reaction against the Baroque style. Less formal and grandiose in structure, it was a graceful rather than profound style. The goal of all artists was to charm, delight and entertain. There were great painters such as Jean Antoine Watteau (1684-1721), and composers like Francois Couperin (1668-1733), although the two musical figures most closely associated with this style are Jean-Philippe Rameau (1683-1722), whose Treatise on Harmony (1722) set forth concepts that became the point of departure for modern music theory, and Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (1714-1788), son of Johann Sebastian Bach. His theoretical treatise Essay on the True Art of Playing Keyboard Instruments (1753-62) explained the musical practices of the mid 18th-century
Rocongoa larger, deeper-sounding, member of the charango family
Rockosona form of Cuban music containing elements of timba, nueva trova and 'rock and roll'
Roda(Portuguese, literally 'wheel') the circle in which capoeira takes place
Rodeo(Spanish) a rounding-up of cattle, an enclosure into which cattle are rounded up, an open-air entertainment at which cowboys exhibits their horsemanship
a ballet score written in 1942 by American composer Aaron Copland (1900-1990). It was originally created for a string orchestra but was later modified for a full symphony orchestra. The ballet consists of five sections: Buckaroo Holiday, Ranch House Party, Corral Nocturne, Saturday Night Waltz and Hoe-Down, while the symphonic version omits Ranch House Party, leaving the other sections relatively intact
Rodilla(Spanish f.) knee
semibreve(Catalan f.) a semibreve, whole note
Roei(Japanese) Japanese courtly songs written in T'ang style, part of gagaku
Roer-quint(German, literally 'reed fifth') an organ stop sounding the fifth above the diapasons
Roertrom(Dutch) tenor drum
Roertrommel(Dutch) tenor drum
Roffel(Dutch) (drum)roll
Rogoi(Malaysia) a 2 string, steel-strung, bowed spike lute with a body made from a hollow coconut
  • Rogoi from which this information has been taken
Roh(German) coarse, rough
Rohr (s.), Röhre (pl.)(German n.) reed, canna (Italian f.), ancia (Italian f.), linguetta (Italian f.), Rohrblatt (German n.), Zungestimme (German f.), anche (French f.), éiglotte (French f.), caña (Spanish f.), lengüetta (Spanish f.)
Rohrblatt (s.), Röhrblatter (pl.)(German n.) reed, canna (Italian f.), ancia (Italian f.), linguetta (Italian f.), Rohrblatt (German n.), Zungestimme (German f.), anche (French f.), éiglotte (French f.), caña (Spanish f.), lengüetta (Spanish f.)
Röhrenglocken(German f. pl.) tubular bells, tubes de cloches, campane tubolari
Rohrflöte(German f., literally 'reed flute') in the organ, a cylindrical pipe with a small tube welded into its closed top section. The length of these pipes varies in proportion to their diameter, giving different shapes and sounds
Rohr-nasat(German) see 'Reed-nasat'
Rohr-pfeife(German) reed-pipe
Rohr-quint(German, literally 'reed fifth') an organ stop sounding the fifth above the diapasons
Röhrtrommel(German f.) tenor drum
Rohrwerke(German n.) the collective term for the reed-stops of an organ
Roi(French m.) king
Roi de la fève(French m.) see Bohnenkönig
Roi fainéant(French m.) a king who does nothing, a king in name only
Roi Soleil, le(French m.) 'The Sun King' (a reference to Louis XIV of France)
RojokRussian trumpet carved from a single piece of wood, usually apple wood
Roko(Hausa, literally 'eulogy') praise-singing, a traditional form of oratory, is actually proclaiming another's name to honour him/her. Traditionally, each Hausa has at least one personal praise song (take), which relates genealogy and life accomplishments. The praise-singer recites the praised person's genealogy, recounting his/her feats, fame, prosperity, and influence
Rokoko(German n.) rococo (Italian)
Rokokomusik(German f.) rococo music, music of the Rococo
(Japanese) the formal name of Rokudan is Rokudan-no-Shirabe, Roku meaning six and dan means section. Rokudan belongs to the rather small category of purely instrumental koto pieces, called dan-mono or shirabe-mono. The main characteristics of dan-mono are as follows:
they are instrumental (without singing)
they consist of several sections (dan), each section having 52 beats according to traditional counting, or 52 bars of 2/4 time (104 beats) if counted in a manner closer to Western practice
as for the tempo, dan-mono starts slowly, accelerates gradually throughout the piece, and slows down again at the last phrase
rolar(Portuguese) deboulés (French)
Rôle(French m.) actor's part in a film, drama, play, etc.
the word is used more generally for the part a person plays in society, or for the function of a person of thing
Rollrollo (Italian), Wirbel (German), roulement (French), a series of rapid drum beats played so quickly that they sound like a continuous sound
in organ playing, a rapid arpeggio
on the tambourine, a rapid repeated striking with the knuckles
on the banjo, Scruggs style fingerpicking
in traditional fiddle playing, an ornament like a turn
rollando(Italian) rolling on the drum or tambourine
Roll Away with a Half Sashayin contradance, a basic figure which begins with two opposite-gender-role dancers facing in the same direction, holding hands. One of them takes a step or two toward the other, who is pulled in front of him/her while changing hands. At the end of the figure, the dancers have changed places but are still facing in the same direction as initially. (Most commonly, this figure starts with the lady on the gent's left and the lady passes in front of the gent). Giving weight is of key importance in this figure
Rolle(German f.) a rolling passage of quick notes of equal value, proceeding by degrees up or down the scale
(German f.) part, role (in a play, film, etc.)
Rolled chordarpeggio (the chord itself), arpeggiato (the manner of playing using rolled chords)
Roller-board movementor just 'roller'. In an organ with a mechanical action, the keys are directly in front of the pipes and wind chest so the connection between the key and valve follows straight lines and right angles. Sometimes the architecture and space available necessitate the placing of the pipes off to the side. Then the connection must follow straight lines at irregular angles. The 'roller', a wooden rod, is used in this circumstance as its rotation can accommodate the irregular angles. It has two arms at each end. One is attached to the key (or pedal) and the other is attached to the valve directly, or trackers which lead to the valve. The roller mechanism is frequently used in the pedal division and is only found in mechanical action instruments
Rollingin dance, dancers who do not have a good turn-out should not force their legs to turn out too much at first, as this usually results in rolling ankles. If the weight is on the inside of the feet, dancers call this 'rolling in'; if the weight is on the outside of the feet, it is called 'rolling out'. The toes and heels should be flat on the floor and the turn-out must come from the hip joints
Rolling paperssmall sheets, rolls, or leaves of paper which are sold for rolling one's own cigarettes either by hand or with a rolling machine
Rollo(Italian) a drum-roll (which can be played on a drum or on the tambourine)
Roll The Barrelone of the two-couple figures danced in a circle of four people traditionally associated with square dancing
Rolltitel(German m.) scroll titles
Rolltrommel(German f.) tenor drum
Rolmohorizontal ritual cymbals used by Tibetan monks in Buddhist rites
Rôle(French m.) role (in the theatre, film, etc.)
Rôle principal(French m.) main role (in the theatre, film, etc.)
Rom.abbreviation of 'Romanian'
Romalisa type of seguidilla
Roma musicmusic is highly varied among the diverse communities of the Roma (also called 'Gypsies'). By far the most popular form of Roma music among outsiders is flamenco, which developed in the Spanish Roma community. In all the places Roma live, in Europe, North Africa, the Middle East and north-west India, they have become known as musicians. Typically nomadic, Roma have long acted as wandering entertainers and tradesmen. The wide distances travelled have introduced a multitude of influences, using Indian roots and adding Arab, Persian, Slavic, Romanian, German, French, Spanish and Celtic flourishes
  • Roma music from which this short extract has been taken
Roman(Danish, French m., Norwegian, German m.) novel
Roman à clef(French m.) also livre à clef (French m.), key-novel (English), Schlüsselroman (German m.), a novel that portrays real events in recent history by concealing the identities of real persons under invented names
Roman à thèse(French m.) a novel which sets out to prove some hypothesis or to express some specific point of view or opinion
Roman cantataone of the most important secular vocal genres of the Baroque era. Destined for aristocratic cognoscenti, it survives almost exclusively in manuscript form. It is therefore quite remarkable that this repertoire was widely exported, in Italy as well as abroad. Most of the manuscripts are magnificent volumes with exceptionnally rich bindings, mainly realized in the famous bottega degli Andreoli, bookbinders of the Vatican. They show splendid decorated initials and beautiful calligraphies of professional scribes such as Antonio Chiusi, Bernardino Terenzi, Giorgio Lottico, and Giovanni Antelli. These are clearly objects of prestige, commissioned by a patron and realized by professional copyists. They were an exclusive gift from the papal court, considered the most important at that time, deliberately intended for a selected audience
Roman Catholic Churchalso called the Catholic Church, the Christian Church in full communion with the Pope, who is currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original undivided Christian community founded by Jesus, with its traditions first established by the Twelve Apostles and maintained through unbroken Apostolic Succession. The Church is not only the largest Christian Church, but also the largest organized body of any world religion. According to the Statistical Yearbook of the Church, the Church's worldwide recorded membership at the end of 2004 was 1,098,366,000, or approximately 1 in 6 of the world's population. According to canon law, members are those who have been baptized in, or have been received into, the Catholic Church on making a profession of faith, provided they have not formally renounced membership. While the Holy See of Rome is seen as central, the Catholic Church is a worldwide organization made up of one Western and 22 Eastern Rite particular Churches. The Church is divided into jurisdictional areas, usually on a territorial basis. The standard territorial unit is called, in the Latin Rite, a diocese, and in the Eastern Rites, an eparchy, each of which is headed by a bishop. At the end of 2004, the total number of all these jurisdictional areas or sees was 2755
Romance(French f.) a short lyric tale set to music, a sentimental ballad
Romanceromanza (Italian), Romanze (German), romance (French)
(Spanish m.) from fourteenth- to eighteenth-century Spain, an epic ballad with a legendary or historical theme, sung either by groups of solo singers, or by a single singer to the accompaniment of a vihuela, later taking on the characteristics of the villancico
(Spanish, French) a song with a simple vocal line and a simple accompaniment, especially popular in late 18th- and 19th-century France and Italy
a short instrumental piece with the lyrical character of a vocal romance
Romance, historicala narrative that takes a small episode or group of episodes from some ancient or famous chronicle and then independently develops those events in much greater detail
Romance languagesa major branch of the Indo-European language family, comprise all languages that descended from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. The Romance languages have more than 600 million native speakers worldwide, mainly in the Americas, Europe, and Africa, as well as in many smaller regions scattered through the world. All Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic) descend from Vulgar Latin
Romance, medievalalso called a chivalric romance, in medieval use, romance referred to episodic French and German poetry dealing with chivalry and the adventures of knights in warfare as they rescue fair maidens and confront supernatural challenges. The medieval metrical romances resembled the earlier chansons de gestes and epics
Romance, metricalany medieval romance written in verse or meter
Romance, modernin contrast with medieval and Renaissance romance, the meaning of a modern romance has become more restricted in the 20th century. Modern nonscholarly speakers refer to romances when they mean formulaic stories recounting the growth of a passionate sexual relationship
Romance, renaissancethe original medieval genre of metrical romances gradually were replaced by prose works in the 1500s. At that point, the meaning of a "romance" expanded to include any lengthy French or Spanish story written in the 1500s and 1600s involving episodic encounters with supernatural or exciting events. The connotations were of wild adventures rather than romantic longing as in the modern meaning of romance
Romancero(Spanish) a collection of romantic songs
Romance sans paroles(French f., literally 'song without words') a romantic piano piece, similar in mood to a nocture
Roman courteois(French 'courtly romance') a genre of aristocratic entertainment in narrative verse popular in the Middle Ages. Among the most famous of the courtly romances is the Roman de la Rose
Roman de Fauvelfirst published in Paris in 1314, in a climate of political instability. The text is attributed to Gervais du Bus, a member of the royal administration. It was successful enough to be still copied in the 15th century. Twelve manuscripts have survived, the most famous of which is probably the fr. BN146, written in 1316
Roman de la Rosea late medieval French poem styled as an allegorical dream vision. The first section was written by the French epic poet Guillaume de Lorris (fl. 1230) and the remainder written forty years later by Jean de Meun (or Jean de Meung) (c.1250-c.1305)
Romane(German m.) Latin
Romanesca(Italian) a dance rather like the galliard
popular in the mid 16th- to the mid 17th-century, a melody, purportedly from Rome, often used as a ground bass
an Italian song from the Renaissance
Romanesque(French) romanesca, resembling or having the characteristics of a novel
(English) an architectural term that is used to describe the architecture of Europe which emerged in the late 10th century and evolved into the Gothic style during the 12th century. The Romanesque style in England is more traditionally referred to as Norman architecture
Roman expérimental(French m.) an experimental novel, a novel using previously untried techniques
Roman-feuilleton(French m.) the dominant literary genre of the nineteenth century, serialised fiction printed in French newpapers to boost circulation
Roman-fleuve (s.), Romans-fleuves (pl.)(French m.) a sequence of novels (each complete in itself) which follows the life and development of a character or of a group of characters often within a family
Romanian hip hop
Romanian minor scaleromanianminorscale
RomanichalsRomanies in England are generally known as Romanichals or Romani Gypsies, while their Welsh equivalent are known as Kale
Roman Imperial periodafter long centuries of representative democracy, within only a few generations, power in Roman government first collapsed into unofficial triumvirates and ultimately into dictatorships. Although Julius Caesar was a monarch in all but name, historians consider his nephew Octavian (alias Caesar Augustus) the first official Emperor, and his rise to power in 27 AD marks the end of the Roman Republican Period and the beginning of the Roman Imperial Period. Writers living during this enormous power shift include Cicero, Julius Caesar, Lucretius, Catullus, Livy, and Tibullus. Imperial writers who wrote primarily after the Republic collapsed include Horace, Ovid, Seneca, Longinus, Pliny the Elder, Jospehus, Lucan, Martial, Plutarch, Statius, Tacitus, Juvenal, Pliny the Younger, Suetonius, Marcus Aurelius, and Apuleius. The Roman Empire itself collapsed in the fifth century AD. Vandals sacked the city of Rome in 455 AD, and in 476, another wave of barbarians dethroned the last Western Emperor, Romulus Augustulus
romanisch(German) Latin, Romanesque, Romance (pertaining to the language)
Roman mandolinesee 'mandolin, mandoline'
Roman notationthe music of Rome has its origins in Greek traditions. Our term for music itself is derived from the Greek term mousike, which means 'the art of the muses'. Early Greek music was purely melodic, or homophonic, utilizing only one melody without chordal accompaniment. Musical notation didn't appear in Roman music until the 9th-century. It was used mainly by the clergy to standardize chants. Prior to this time, music was an aural tradition. When it developed notation was achieved through the use of neumes, a system derived from the Greeks
Roman numbering
roman numberarabic number
Roman numeral analysisthe use of Roman numerals, Römischen Zahlen (German), and other figures associated with chord symbols to indicate the quality of chords and their positioning relation to the key centre
Roman poétique(French m.) a poetic novel, a novel which achieves its effects by techniques normally associated with poetry
Roman policier(French m.) a novel in which the detective is a policeman, a 'thriller'
Roman Republican periodthe period of Roman history between 514 BC up until 27 AD, when Rome was primarily and (at least officially) a Republic with elected senators. After Rome's traditional founding in 753 BCE, it fell under the power of Etruscan rulers who were viewed as tyrants. The Romans rebelled, and rose from a primitive monarchy to a complex system of indirect representation under Patrician families, where the richest individuals in select families were eligible for public office; they would represent either particular districts or a number of "clients" (the forerunners of modern special interest groups). By the first century BC, Julius Caesar, Sulla, the Gracchi brothers, and other men increasingly upset this system - sometimes as part of oligarchic coalitions, sometimes as dictators (Latin imperatores). Although Julius Caesar was a monarch in all but name, historians consider his nephew Octavian (alias Caesar Augustus) the first official Emperor, and his rise to power in 27 AD marks the end of the Republican Period and the beginning of the Imperial Period. Examples of early Roman and Republican literature include Plautus, Ennius, and Terence. Writers that bridge the gap between the two periods include Cicero, Julius Caesar, Lucretius, Catullus, Livy, and Tibullus
Roman RiteThe liturgical rite of the Church of Rome is called the Roman Rite. The quite distinct term Latin Rite, usually refers not to a liturgical rite but to the particular Church within the Roman Catholic Church that was sometimes referred to also as the Patriarchate of the West, within which liturgical rites other than the now almost universally adopted Roman Rite have been and still are in use. Like other liturgical rites, the Roman Rite has grown and been adapted over the centuries. The development of its Eucharistic liturgy can be divided into three stages: Pre-Tridentine, Tridentine, and the Post-Tridentine
Roman Schoolin music history, the Roman School was a group of composers of predominantly church music, in Rome, during the 16th and 17th centuries, therefore spanning the late Renaissance and early Baroque eras. The term also refers to the music they produced. Many of the composers had a direct connection to the Vatican and the papal chapel, though they worked at several churches; stylistically they are often contrasted with the Venetian School of composers, a concurrent movement which was much more progressive. By far the most famous composer of the Roman School is Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina, whose name has been associated for four hundred years with smooth, clear, polyphonic perfection. However, there were other composers working in Rome, and in a variety of styles and forms
Romanschriftsteller (m.), Romanschriftstellerin (f.)(German) novelist
Roman stoicismthe philosophy espoused by Marcus Aurelius's Meditations, "Roman Stoicism" actually originates with earlier Greek thinkers, a specific school of philosophers that met at the stoa in Athens. Stoicism asserts that the natural world consists of suffering, and that the appropriate response of a human being is to face this suffering with dignity and a lack of tears while doing one's duty, acknowledging that life and pleasure are transitory
Roman stringsa term formerly given to gut strings from the kingdom of Naples
Roman stylesee 'stile antico'
Romantic balleta style of ballet produced during the early 19th-century in which the accent was on the conveyance of a mood to a story, for example, La Sylphide and Giselle
Romantic comedysympathetic comedy that presents the adventures of young lovers trying to overcome social, psychological, or interpersonal constraints to achieve a successful union. Commedia dell'arte is a general type of drama that falls into this category
Romantic eraan era of music following the Classical era and ending around 1900. For many, the era began formally with Symphony No. 3 Op. 55 by Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827), known as the Eroica (Italian for 'heroic'), and written in 1803/4. In terms of sheer scale, the piece is about twice as long as any symphony that came before - the first movement alone is as long as the entirety of many symphonies from the classical period. The work also covers greater emotional ground than had earlier works
Romanticisma term loosely applied to literary and artistic movements of the late 18th- and 19th-centuries. Resulting in part from the libertarian and egalitarian ideals of the French Revolution, the romantic movements had in common only a revolt against the prescribed rules of classicism. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity; the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator; the development of nationalistic pride; and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. In addition, romanticism was a philosophical revolt against rationalism
Romanticismo(Italian m., Spanish m.) Romanticism
Romanticismo tardío(Spanish m.) late Romanticism
Romantic music19th-century music that is lyrical, harmonically chromatic, emotionally charged and nationalistic
Romantic operain the 19th-century, Italian opera reached its apogee with the work of Bellini, Donizetti and Verdi, where the music is romantic, the plots dramatic and the presentation clear
Romantik(German f.) Romanticism, the romantic era
romantique(French) romantic
romantisch(German) romantic, romantically
romantische Ära(German f.) Romantic era
romantische Epoche(German f.) Romantic period
Romantische Musik(German f.) Romantic music, music of the Romantic period
romantische Stil(German m.) Romantic style
Romantisme(French m.) Romanticism
Romantismo(Portuguese m.) Romanticism
Romanza(Spanish f., Italian f.) originally long, lyric tales that were sung by minstrels
a slow single-movement aria in a 19th-century Italian opera, for example Una furtiva lagrima in Donizetti's L' Elisir d'Amore
more generally, any song or aria of a lyrical and intimate nature
(Spanish f., Italian f.) romance
Romanza senza parole(Italian f.) 'song without words', a romance, usually for piano
Romanze(German f.) romance
romanzesco(Italian) romantic, imaginative, fairy-like
Romanzo(Italian m.) novel (book)
Romaunt of the Rosea partial translation into Middle English of the French allegory, the Roman de la Rose
rombando(Italian) humming
Rombo(Spanish m., Italian m.) bull-roarer, thunder stick
Römer (m.), Römerin (f.)(German) Roman
RomeríasSpanish religious processions and festivals
Basque open circle dances, danced by a wide circle of men and women holding hands, or joined by handkerchiefs
römisch(German) Latin, Roman
Römischer Gesang(German m.) Gregorian plainchant
Römische Zahl (s.), Römischen Zahlen (pl.)(German f.) Roman numeral (i.e. I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, etc.)
römische Unruhe, oder Die edelmüthige Octavia, Die (1705)the German composer Reinhard Keiser (1674-1739) worked as director of the Hamburg Opera and afterwards for some time in Copenhagen. He wrote more than 100 operas. His opera Die römische Unruhe, oder Die edelmüthige Octavia has long been recognized as a source of material for Handel in the first decade of the 18th-century as well as for other compositions for some fifty years, from Aminta e Fillide (1708) to The Triumph of Time and Truth (1758)
Rommé(German n.) rummy (card game)
Rommelpot(Dutch) friction drum
Rommelpott(Swedish) also Rummelpott or Friktionstrumma, friction drum [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
Romoa short-lived British pop cultural movement, which had its heyday in late 1995 and early 1996
  • Romo from which this extract has been taken
Romp(Dutch) body or shell of a drum
Roncónthe drone pipe on an Iberian bagpipe
Rond(French m.) ring (circle), slice
rond (m.), ronde (f.)(French) round, plump, tight (familiar)
"Is used figuratively in music. A voice that is "round" is a voice that is full, smooth and uniform. And one also says figuratively that a declamatory period [complex sentence] is "round" when it is full, rhythmical [nombreux] and well shaped [bien tourné] and has an agreeable rhythm [cadence]." - Dictionnaire de l'Académie Françoise (1694)
Ronda(Italian f.) a round
Rondadorsmall panpipes, that originated in Ecuador, where the pipes are arranged on one row but with neighbouring pairs an interval of a third apart, therefore capable of producing harmony by blowing a tube and its immediate neighbour
  • Rondador from which this extract has been taken
Rondalla(Spanish f.) a group of Spanish serenade songs sung by large groups of singers and players as they walk through the city streets
(Spanish f.) a group of serenaders
Rond-de-cuir(French m., literally 'a circle of leather') a bureaucrat, a petty official
Rond de jambe(French, literally 'round of the leg') in dance, a circular movement of the leg. Ronds de jambe are used as an exercise at the barre, in the centre and in the adage, and are done à terre or en l'air. When used as a step,ronds de jambe are done en l'air and may besauté or relevé. All are done clockwise (en dehors) and counterclockwise (en dedans
in the French can-can, quick rotary movement of lower leg with knee raised and skirt held up
Rond de jambe à terre(French, literally 'rond de jambe on the ground') in dance, an exercise at the barre or in the centre in which one leg is made to describe a series of circular movements on the ground. Both legs must be kept perfectly straight and all movement must come from the hip, along with the arching and relaxing of the instep. The toe of the working foot does not rise off the ground and does not pass beyond the fourth position front (fourth position ouvert) or the fourth position back. This is an exercise to turn the legs out from the hips, to loosen the hips and to keep the toe well back and heel forward. There are two kinds of ronds de jambe à terre: those done en dedans (inward) and those done en dehors (outward)
Rond de jambe, demi grand(French) a rond de jambe where the leg is sustained at a lower height than a grand battement, usually 90º
Rond de jambe en l'air(French, literally 'rond de jambe in the air') in dance, ronds de jambe en l'air are done at the barre and in centre practice and may be single, or double, en dehors or en dedans. The toe of the working foot describes an oval, the extreme ends of which are the second position en l'air and the supporting leg. The thigh must be kept motionless and the hips well turned out, the whole movement being made by the leg below the knee. The thigh should also be held horizontal so that the pointed toe of the working foot passes at (approximately) the height of the supporting knee. Ronds de jambe en l'air may also be done with the leg extended to the second position en l'air (demi-position) and closed to the calf of the supporting leg. The accent of the movement comes when the foot is in the second position en l'air. The movement is done en dehors and en dedans
Rond de jambe, grand(French) a rond de jambe where the leg is sustained at grand battement height
Ronde(French f.) round, beat (of a policeman)
semibreve(French f.) a semibreve (whole note), ganze Note (German)
a lively Renaissance round dance or country dance associated with the outdoors, in which the participants danced in a circle or a line. As La Ronde, the dance survived in the 19th-century where it was danced to quadrille music
Rondeau (s,), Rondeaux (French pl.)(English, German n.) well-established by the 13th-century, in the 14th- and 15th-centuries, the most enduring of the formes fixes, popular with the troubadours, characterised as a song with a refrain. The rondel and virelai are two types of rondeaux and are thought to have been dances
see formes fixes
a short poem consisting of ten, thirteen, or fifteen lines using only two rhymes which concludes each section with an abbreviated line that serves as a refrain
(French) rondo
Rondeau cinquaina later form of rondeau with a refrain of five lines
Rondeau quatraina later form of rondeau with a refrain of four lines
Rondel(French) a type of song, sometimes danced, in which a refrain alternates with a number of contrasted passages, based on the poetic style of ten or thirteen lines with only two rhymes and the opening words used twice as a refrain
a short poem resembling the rondeau. It usually totals fourteen lines containing only two rhyming sounds. The first two lines are repeated at the middle of the poem and again at the end. The rondel differs from the rondeau only in the number of lines and the use of complete (not partial) lines for the refrain
Rondellusa 13th-century style of round, usually with three voices where there is voice exchange
rondement(French) briskly, straight, evenly
"In a circle, in a manner that is "round." ... Is also said figuratively to mean frankly and sincerely. ... A good man goes about his work rondement, does not split hairs, is not wily. ... Also means uniformly, with equal strength. A man who walks rondement and without stopping covers a lot of ground. A master likes a journeyman who works rondement, who does not slacken, who never stops working." - Furetière (1727)
[P. M. Ranum: It would seem that rondement implied near equality of notes and a smooth, unaccented performance, at a moderate and steady tempo. This conclusion seems corroborated by the 1752 French translation of Quantz, p. 117, ¶ 22, and p. 123, ¶ 11: rund is translated as rond.]
Rondeñathe name may derive from rondar, which means 'to patrol' or 'to prowl around'. It may be that the rondeña was originally a song of young men serenading their loved ones from beneath windows. In its toque form, the rondeña is believed to have originated with the bandits who practiced their trade in the mountains near Ronda in Malaga
Rondeñassee flamenco
Ronde pointée(French f.) a dotted semibreve, a dotted whole note
Rondeur(French f.) roundness, frankness, plumpness, a rounded contour, a rounded outline
Rondiletta(Italian) a short rondo
Rondin(Ecuador) an Ecuadorean folk flute
Rondinetto(Italian) a short rondo
Rondino(Italian) a short rondo
Rondo(English, German n., Italian m.) or rondeau (French), sometimes termed 'old rondo', an instrumental form in which the first or main section (sometimes called the 'refrain) is repeated between subsidiary sections (called 'episodes', 'couplets', 'digressions' or 'subordinate themes') and to conclude the piece - usually in a lively tempo
see 'form'
Rondó(Spanish) rondo, rondeau (French)
Rondo all'OngareseHungarian rondo
Rondoform(German f.) rondo form
Rondoletto(Italian) a short rondo
Rondo-sonata formsometimes termed the 'modern rondo', a form which is basically like a rondo but observes also the sonata principle. The principle rondo theme is followed by the first episode in a contrasting key (the exposition). This is followed by the rondo theme again and then by an episode that has the character of a development. This is followed by a recapitulation of the exposition in the tonic key and finally the rondo theme reappears in the manner of a coda
see 'form'
Rond-point (s.), Ronds-points (pl.)(French m.) a circus, a point where several streets meet
Roneat ekCambodian high-pitched xylophone
Roneat thungCambodian low-pitched xylophone
roñoso(Spanish) rusty
Ronquera(Spanish f.) hoarseness (of the voice)
Ronquetaa smaller drone pipe on an Iberian bagpipe
Ronquido(Spanish m.) snore
Ronquillathe smallest drone pipe on an Iberian bagpipe
Ronrocoan Andean string instrument that is part of the family of charangos. The ronroco has five double-strings and it is the largest of the charangos. It is also known as charangón
röntgen(German) to X-ray
Röntgenaufnahme(German f.) X-ray
Röntgenbild(German n.) X-ray
Röntgenstrahlen(German m. pl.) X-rays
Rooda crucifix, usually wooden, suspended across the chancel arch above the rood screen; it could also be painted on the chancel arch
Rood lofta gallery set over the rood screen, sometimes the rood loft was substantial enough to be used as a singing gallery - access was via a rood stair
see jubé
Roof bossan ornamental knob covering the intersection of ribs in a vault or on a ceiling
Roota word in an older language that became the source for future words in later languages. Words in different languages that ultimately descend from the same root - cousins and siblings on the linguistic family tree - are said to be cognates to each other. Etymology is the study of how words can be traced back to an older root
a base morpheme without affixes attached to it
(in music) basso fondamentale (Italian), Ursprung (German), Wurzel (German), ton générateur (French)
in a chord, the fundamental note, that is the note that would be the lowest note if the chord were in 'root' position. Note, however, that if the root note is not at the bottom, the chord is said to be 'inverted'. An equivalent definition is that the root is the note that would be the lowest note in a chord once the chord has been rearranged into its fundamental triadic (or 7th, 9th, 11th or 13th) structure
Root creationcreating a new word by inventing its form from scratch - without reference to any pre-existing word or sound
Rootless voicing
Root notethe note by which a chord or scale is named (usually the deepest note in the chord, and always the first note in a scale)
Root positionalso called 'normal form' or 'uninverted', a triad or chord is said to be in 'root position' when the root note of the chord is the lowest note, for example, a C major triad is in root position when the note C is the lowest note
Roots reggaethe name given to specifically Rastafarian (that is 'spirtual') reggae music, with lyrics predominantly in praise of Jah (God)
Roots rocksee 'alternative country'
Ropa blanca(Spanish f.) household linen
Ropa de abrigo(Spanish f.) warm clothes
Ropa de cama(Spanish f.) bed linen
Ropa interior(Spanish f.) underwear, underclothes
Ropa sucia(Spanish f.) dirty laundry
Rosa(Italian f.) rose, as for example in the table of a lute, Rosette (German f.), rose (French f.)
(German n.) pink (colour)
Rosace(French f.) sound hole on a guitar
Rosalia(Latin) or 'sequential modulation', from the 19th-century, a musical sequence where a phrase or passage is successively repeated, each time modulated a tone (step) or semitone (half step) higher, named after an Italian song Rosalia mia cara
rosa Rauchen(German n.) pink noise
Rosarya series of prayers; to assist the memory, the prayers are counted off on a string of beads
Rose(English, French f., German f.) the ornamental rosette set into a hole cut into the harpsichord soundboard, usually of cast metal in North European instruments and of parchment and veneer in Italian instruments. It is almost never cut into the wood of the soundboard as in the lute, rosa (Italian f.), Rosette (German f.)
rosé (m.), rosée (f.)(French) rose-coloured, pinkish (wine)
Roseau creux(French m.) hollow reed
Roseau géant(French m.) Arundo donax, Arundo bifaria, Arundo donax var. versicolor, Arundo glauca, Arundo latifolia, Arundo sativa, Arundo versicolor, Cynodon donax, Donax arundinaceus, Donax donax, Scolochloa arundinacea, Scolochloa donax, bamboo reed, baranal (Hindi), bansi (Punjabi), caña (Portuguese f., Spanish f.), caña común (Spanish f.), caña cañabrava (Spanish f.), caña de roca (Portuguese f.), caña vieira (Portuguese f.), cane, giant cane, canne de Provence (French f.), distaff cane, donako (Esperanto), gaha nal (Bengali), gardener’s garters, great reed, Indian grass, Italienskt rör (Swedish), jättiruoko (Finnish), Kaemperolr (Danish), Persian reed, Provence reed, qasba (Maltese), reed, Riesenschilf (German n.), Pfahlrohr (German n.), shembeko (Ethiopian), spanisches Rohr (German n.), Spanish cane, Spanskrör (Swedish), Teberau gading (Malay) - used for over 5,000 years to make the single and double reeds used in numerous wind instruments this is the ‘reed’ referred to in the Bible. Today the giant reed is used to make clarinets, bagpipes and organ-pipes [Swedish terms corrected by Lars Hellvig]
Rose hipsthe fleshy, bright-coloured fruit of the rose plant
Rosen-Kranz(German m.) rosary (religious artifact)
Rosenmontag(German m.) Monday before Shrove Tuesday
Rosette(English, German f.) a small architectural ornament consisting of a disc on which there is a carved or moulded a circular, stylized design representing an open rose
the decorative strip or inlay work found around the soundhole on an acoustic guitar
the decoration often found in the centre of members of the Renaissance and Baroque plucked instrument family that includes the lute, mandora, etc. carved from the soundboard or laid into it, with a 'rose-like' pattern, rose (French f.), rosa (Italian f.)
Rosette patterna flower like pattern created when four-colour halftones are overlapped with specified angles of difference between them. The exact positions are 45-degrees for black, 75-degrees for magenta, 90-degrees for yellow, and 105-degrees for cyan. The rosette pattern that emerges recreates the look of a colour photograph
Rose windowa circular window with tracery arranged like the spokes of a wheel
Rosewood(Latin name, Dalbergia sp.) there are a number of different American and African species that go under the name "Rosewood". It was used for inlays and veneer from the 16th century on
rosig(German) rosy
Rosincolofonia (Italian f., Spanish f.), Kolophonium (German n.), colophane (French f.), or resin, a substance refined from turpentine which is applied to the hair of the bows of stringed instruments to give the necessary 'grip' or roughness to the contact between string and hair to set the strings in vibration. Rosin is a solid form of resin obtained from pines and some other plants, mostly conifers, produced by heating fresh liquid resin to vapourise the volatile liquid terpene components. It is semi-transparent and varies in color from yellow to black. At room temperature it is brittle, but it melts at stove-top temperatures. It chiefly consists of different resin acids, especially abietic acid
rosin is used by string players to improve the 'bite' of the bow hair on the string and by dancers on their shoes to prevent them slipping
rosin is used often in intaglio printing as a component of acid resists, especially with the aquatint method
  • Rosin from which part of this entry has been taken
Rosine(German f.) raisin
Rosmarin(German m.) rosemary (herb)
Rossi Codex(Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, Rossi 215) a music manuscript collection of the 14th century. Currently in the Vatican Library, it is the oldest source of secular polyphonic Italian music to survive. While the music is anonymous, some composers have been identified from the appearance of the same pieces in other sources. The Codex was probably copied sometime between 1350 and 1370, and the music was written between approximately 1325 and 1355. The history of the Italian musical trecento begins with the Rossi Codex
  • Rossi Codex from which part of this entry has been taken
Rossignol(French m.) nightingale
Rosso antico(Italian m.) a dark red marble
rostfrei(German) stainless (steel)
rostig(German) rusty
Rostral(German) a music pen
Rostro(Spanish m.) face, nerve (colloquial), cheek (colloquial)
Rostro anguloso(Spanish m.) angular face
Rostrum (s.), Rostra (pl.)see 'podium'
Róta(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) any kind of wheele
Rotasee 'round'
(Latin) wheel
(Latin) hurdy-gurdy
a list of persons required to perform certain duties at specified times
the Roaman supreme court for ecclesiastical and secular cases
rot anlaufen(German) go red, blush
Rota Romanathe papal court, founded in the 13th century
Rotary pressa printing press where the plate is mounted on a cylinder and a roller system applies ink to the raised area of the plate. The paper passes between the plate cylinder and an impression cylinder where the resulting squeeze between the two rollers produces the printed impression on the paper. These presses can either be sheet-fed where individual pieces of paper are mechanically supplied, or web-fed where the paper is unwound from a large roll. After printing, the web is cut into individual sheets. Web-fed presses are used for larger print runs. The letterpress web-fed press usually contains several printing units so that multiple colours can be printed during a single run. Rotary presses were first with letterpress but eventually adapted to print gravure and lithography after a workable method of stereotyping was developed for them. The general process for these techniques remains the same except for the manner in which the image is attached to the cylinder, and the inking mechanism that must cater to the specific needs of each medium
Rotary valveválvula rotatoria (Spanish f.), válvula rotativa (Spanish f.), cilindro rotativo (Italian m.), Drehventil (German n.), Zylinderventil (German n.), cylindre à rotation (French m.)
rotary valves were developed by 1818, when Friedrich Blühmel and Heinrich Stölzel, both from Berlin, were asked to include them in their valve patent. Further development took place in Vienna - in 1835 by Joseph Riedl, followed in 1843 by Leopold Uhlmann - to the point that eventually led to the modern form of rotary valve. In rotary valves, additional tubing is added by the turn of a rotor enclosed in an outer casing . The valve loops and main tubing are soldered to the outer case on the same plane. The port of the rotor allows free passageway either to the main tubing or to the additional valve tubing
rotativo(Spanish) rotary
Rotea method of teaching by imitation
see 'round'
crwth, lyre
Rotella(Italian f.) shank
rote Titelbuchstabe(German m.) rubric
Rôtisserie(French f.) an establishment where cooked food may be purchased, a device for spit-roasting meat or fowl
Rotogravurean intaglio printing process in which an image is transferred to a rotary cylinder by photochemical means
Rotondo(Italian, literally 'round') a full tone, a rounded tone
roto-toms are a type of pitched skin percussion which are occasionally used in orchestral music. The skins are stretched over metal frames, tunable by rotating the drum. They are played with any kind of drumsticks or soft beaters. Available sizes/tunings are as follows:
diameter (in inches)pitch range
18" E2-C#3
16" F2-F3
14" G2-G3
12" B2-B3
10" G3-G4
8" C4-C5
6" E4-E5
Rotrouengeor rotruenge, a Medieval term applied to a style of troubadour song, that may have implied that a refrain was present and that the text followed a particular rhyme scheme, but the precise definition remains uncertain
Rotstift(German m.) red pencil
Rotta(German f.) a type of medieval dance (usually played at the end of a series of other dances), a rote (a medieval stringed instrument)
Rot-Tanne(German f.) abete rosso (Italian m.), legno di abete rosso (Italian m.), Fichte (Holz) (German f.), (bois de) sapin (French m.), spruce (wood)
Rottesee 'round'
rotto(Italian) broken, torn, interrupted
Rotulador(Spanish m.) felt-tip pen
Rotulae(Latin) Christmas roundelays
Rotunda(Latin) a circular building or hall, usually one with a dome
Johannes de Grocheio (c.1255-c.1320), a Parisian musical theorist, was the first to describe the rotunda or round dance. Grocheio wrote that the round dance was performed at great feasts (magnis conviviis)
Roturier (m.), Roturière (f.)(French, literally 'commoner') a person of low status in society
roturier (m.), roturière (f.)(French) plebeian
Roud Folk Song Indexa database of 300,000 references to over 21,600 songs that have been collected from oral tradition in the English language from all over the world. It is compiled by Steve Roud, a librarian in the London Borough of Croydon. Roud's Index is a combination of the Broadside Index (printed sources before 1900) and a "field-recording index" compiled by Roud. It subsumes all the previous well-known printed sources known to Francis James Child (the Child Ballads) and includes recordings from 1900 to 1975
Roué(French m.) a profligate, a debauchee, one whose life is given over to sensual pleasure
Roue de frottement(French f.) friction wheel (for example, on a hurdy-gurdy), ruota a sfregamento (Italian f.), Streichrad (German n.)
Rouge(French m.) a red powder used to give artificial colour to the cheeks, a red powder used for polishing plate (hence 'jeweller's rouge')
any of the red numbers in roulette
Rouge-et-noir(French) also called trente-et-quarante, a gambling game played with cards
Rouge flambé(French m.) a red colour found in porcelain, and produced by the reduction of copper
Rough musiccharivari
Roulade(German f., French f.) a vocal variation, melisma or division, often a run or arpeggio that runs from one melody note to another, usually using only one syllable
in music, any vocal or instrumental flourish, but particularly those termed 'free embellishments', ornamentation that is not indicated by symbols or has any set form, passeggi (Italian pl.), Passagen (German pl.)
Roulade aux frais de l'auteur(French f.) a vocal variation that is considered 'in bad taste' in that it obscures the melodic intentions of the composer
roulant (m.), roulante (f.)(French) rolling
roulé (m.), roulée (f.)(French) curved (brim of a hat), (in linguistics) trilled or rolled (r)
Rouleau (s.), Rouleaux (pl.)(French m.) shank
(French m.) player piano roll
(French m.) a cylindrical packet of identical coins, or a pile of counters in a game of hazard
(French m.) a decorative trimming to a woman's dress formed by a roll of cloth, lace, etc.
(French m.) in art, a decorative moulding resembling a roll of paper, etc.
(French m.) ringlet (hair), roll (of paper), roll (for applying ink in printing)
Roulement(French m.) rotation (work: rota basis, rota system)
(French m.) drum roll, which may be performed on a drum or a tambourine
on the guitar, the prolonged reiteration of a single note
Roulement de batterie(French m.) drum roll
Roulement de tambour(French m.) drum roll
Roulement de timbales(French m.) drum roll
Roulement serre(French m.) tremolo strisciato, closed roll
Roulement simple(French m.) single beat roll (on a drum)
rouler à droite(French) to drive on the right
rouler à gauche(French) to drive on the left
rouler à ... km à l'heure(French) to go ... km per hour
rouler à vive allure(French) to race along
rouler au pas(French) to go at a snail's pace, to crawl along
rouler des mécaniques(French) to swagger
rouler la pâte(French) to roll out crust, to roll out dough
rouler les hanches(French) to wiggle one's hips
rouler les R(French) to roll one's Rs
rouler pour ...(French) to work for ...
rouler sa bosse(French) to see the world, to knock around
rouler ses manches (jusqu'au coude)(French) to roll up one's sleeves (to the elbow)
rouler sous la table(French) to be drunk
rouler sur(French) to centre on (conversation)
rouler sur l'or(French) to be very rich, to be loaded (colloquial)
rouler une cigarette(French) to roll a cigarette
rouler une poussette(French) to push a pram, to push a baby carriage
rouler une voiture(French) to drive a car
rouler un tapis(French) to roll up a rug
Roulette(French f.) a game of chance in which a small ball is thrown so as to lodge in one of the numbered sections of a rotating wheel
in art, a toothed wheel used as an engraving tool
Rouleur(Reunion) or houleur, a bass drum that is ridden like a horse. It is used in maloya
Round(English, German m.) a short perpetual canon in which all the parts sound at the same pitch or at an octave to it, sometimes with an accompaniment called a pes. The round is distinctively different from all other canons in that it employs the principle of the circle in all parts, and for this reason it is often called a 'circle canon'. The round is also known as a 'roundel', a diminutive of the word 'round', and historically the terms appear to have been used interchangeably. 'Rota' is another name for round, and is sometimes spelled 'rotte' or 'rote'. Rota is a Medieval Latin term meaning 'wheel', and is used primarily in the British Isles
Round charactera round character is depicted with such psychological depth and detail that he or she seems like a "real" person. The round character contrasts with the flat character, a character who serves a specific or minor literary function in a text, and who may be a stock character or simplified stereotype. If the round character changes or evolves over the course of a narrative or appears to have the capacity for such change, the character is also dynamic. Typically, a short story has one round character and several flat ones. However, in longer novels and plays, there may be many round characters. The terms flat and round were first coined by the novelist E. M. Forster in his study, Aspects of the Novel
Round dancinga type of dancing where basic steps can be danced to different tunes, for example, in waltzes, polkas, etc.
Rounded binary formcompositional form with two sections, in which the second ends with a return to material from the first, each section is usually repeated
Rounded vowela vowel made with the lips sticking out - i.e., all of the back vowels except [a]
Roundela poem in the pattern of the rondeau, but only having eleven lines. Like the rondeau and the rondel, the roundel uses only two rhymes and a twice-repeated refrain
or 'roundelay', in the 14th-century, a ballad in which a simple strain is often repeated
a circle-dance
see 'round'
Roundelaya term used as a generic label for fixed forms of poetry using limited rhymes - such as the rondeau, rondel, and roundel. The word roundelay can be used in reference to the musical background (setting) for a poem in a fixed form and also for a round dance that is to be performed while the music plays and the poem is recited or sung
Roundheada member or supporter of the parliamentarian or Puritan party during the English Civil War, one of those who opposed King Charles I (c.1625-49) and his Cavalier followers
Round Oin the 17th- and 18th-century, an anglicized form of the French word rondeau
a dance from John Playford's The Dancing Master (1709)
Routa process that may be applied to a guitar, where a hole or cavity is cut into the body of the instrument, for example, in order to replaced an original pickup with a pickup of a different shape or size
Roux(French m.) a mixture of melted butter and flour used to thicken soups, sauces, etc.
Rou xian(Chinese) on the erhu, left hand vibrato
Roversciosee rovescio
Roversiosee rovescio
rovesciamento(Italian) or rovescio, reversion, contrary motion, sometimes used in the sense of retrograde, backward motion
(Italian) inversion, for example, of chords or intervals
rovescio(Italian, literally 'reverse') see rovesciamento
Rowan alternative name for 'series'
Rowan(German Eberesche, French Sorbier, European Species: Sorbus aucuparia) believed to have been used only for carving, small turnery, and tool handles
Royal anthema patriotic song, much like a national anthem that recognizes the nation's monarch. It is usually performed during events of royal importance, such as a public appearance by the monarch
Royalealso called changement battu (French, literally 'royal') in dance, a changement in which the calves are beaten together before the feet change position
Royal Music of the Kabaka of Bugandabaakisimba: sematimba ne kikwabanga and olutalu. The Kabaka is the king of the Buganda of Uganda. Two types of log xylophones are found among the Baganda of Uganda and are played in the enclosure of the Kabaka's court. The amadinda is a twelve -key xylophone and the akadinda has seventeen or twenty-two keys. The akadinda is performed only for the Kabaka. Its range extends beyond that of the amadinda, especially in the upper register. Three musicians play on the amadinda whilst the akadinda involves three to six players. Both xylophone styles are based on interlocking melodies that are performed in octave duplications. The individual parts are often relatively simple, but their combination yields music of extreme complexity and beauty. Accompanying the xylophones are: enderre (bamboo flute), endigidi (one string fiddle), ensasi (two container rattles), empunyi, engalibi, nankasa and embutu (drums)
Royal portable harpan Irish harp
Royaltiesor 'running royalties', usage-based payments made by one party (the "licensee") to another (the "licensor") for ongoing use of an asset, sometimes an intellectual property (IP) right
  • Royalties from which this extract has been taken
Royalty free musiccommonly refers to stock or 'library music' licensed for a single fee, without the need to pay any subsequent royalties
Roza(Spanish f.) groove
Rozadura(Spanish f.) scratch
Rozenice(Croatia) Istrian shawm
RozhokRussian folk trumpet, a reed instrument made from a cow's horn, birch, maple or juniper. Juniper horns are said to possess the best quality of sound. Originally, they were hollowed in the same way as shepherd's horns, i.e. two halves hollowed out and then bound together with birch bark; nowadays they are bored and shaped on a lathe. The total length of the horn is 400-500 mm. The mouthpiece is shaped as a cup - the other end has a conical bell. The horn has 4 or 5 finger-holes on the front side and one hole set higher than the others on the back
RPabbreviation of 'received pronunciation'
RPOabbreviation of 'Royal Philharmonic Orchestra'
RSFSRabbreviation of 'Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic'
RSOabbreviation of 'Radio Symphony Orchestra'
R.S.V.P.abbreviation for répondez, s'il vous plaît (French: please reply)
RSWVreferring to the catalogue prepared by Stephan Pflicht on music by Robert Stolz (1880-1975)
RT60also known as 'reverberation time', the RT60 is the time taken for an impulse sound to decay by 60 dB. For speech, the RT60 of a space should be lower than for a room used for music. In general, as the volume of a room increases, the RT60 time can be longer. The RT60 time of a room can be estimated using mathematical formulae
RTÉabbreviation of Radio Telefís Éireann
RTFabbreviation of Radiodiffusion-Télévision Française (French)
RTVBabbreviation of Radio-Télévision Belge de la Communauté Française (French)
Ruanin the artifacts unearthed in the Six Dynasties (220-581) grave at the Xi Shan Bridge, Nanjing, there was an engraved picture showing Ruan Xian, a member of the 'Seven Wise Men of the Bamboo Grove', playing a musical instrument. In memory of this great player, the instrument bears his name. It is a mellow sounding Chinese instrument played with a plectrum and similar to the mandolin. It was once known as the qin pipa (dating it to the Qin dynasty between 221-207 BC) or yue qin (moon mandolin) and is a member of the tan bo yue, the family of plucked instruments
to extend its usefulness in the modern Chinese orchestra, it is now constructed as a family made up of:
gao yin ruansoprano ruan  
xiao ruansmall or treble ruan  
zhong ruanalto ruanA-d-a-d' or G-d-a-e'A-a''
da ruantenor ruanD-A-d-a or C-G-d-aD-e'
di yin ruanbass ruan  
RubabAfghan plucked lute, with a short neck with double chambers, three main playing strings (made of animal gut or string), drone strings and sympathetic metal strings
rubandoto perform in a rubato style
Rubaiyatan Arabic term meaning a quatrain, or four-line stanza. The term is nearly always included in the title of any Arabic poem that is built upon such quatrains
rubatosee 'dislocation'
(Italian, literally 'robbed') abbreviated from tempo rubato (Italian: robbed time), a limited freedom of rhythm and tempo when performing a piece of music where the time extension applied to one note is taken (hence 'robbed) from an adjoining note or notes
Rub boardthe southern Louisiana version of the washboard, used by Cajun and Zydeco musicians
RubelRussian washboard
Rubella(Latin) German measles
Rubiblethe rebec
Rub-on gold finishesalso known as 'rub and buff', 'treasure gold wax', 'gilt sticks' or 'gilt cream'. These are gold coloured pigments mixed into a wax medium. These finishes will tarnish due to the properties inherent in the copper content of bronze powders. Many of these can be made in-house using clear waxes and mica powders
Rubricin a medieval manuscript, a heading in red letters, using an ink derived from red lead, rote Titelbuchstabe (German m.)
Rubrica(Italian) column (in a newspaper)
address book
Rúbrica(Spanish f.) heading (of a document)
Rubricatorscribe who entered the rubric headings in a manuscript
Ruche(French, literally 'bee-hive') a full frilling of gauze or other light fabric used as an ornament on a woman's dress, although it can also be used to create draping and texture within the body of the garment
Rücken(German m.) back, spine (of a book)
Rückfrage(German f.) further inquiry
Rückgang(German m.) a transposition leading to the repetition of a preceding theme
Rückkoppelung(German f.) feed back
Rück-Positiv(German n.) in the organ, a set of pipes built behind the organist, developed for accompaniment of the choir. This is a smaller, quieter organ with its own dedicated manual positioned below that of the main organ
Rücksicht(German f.) consideration
Rücksichtslosigkeit(German f.) inconsiderateness, lack of consideration, recklessness, thoughtlessness
Rückstand(German m.) backlog (of work)
Rückstande aufarbeiten(German) clear backlog (of work)
Rückstrählung(German f.) reverberation, reflection
Rückung(German f.) syncopation (probably archaic), abrupt modulation (contemporary usage)
rückwärts(German) backwards
Ruea plant with yellow flowers whose bitter-tasting leaves were used mostly in herbal cures but occasionally in salads
Rueda de prensa(Spanish f.) press conference
rudement(French) roughly
Rudiments(English, German pl.) a set of basic patterns used in rudimental drumming. These patterns form the basic building blocks or "vocabulary" of drumming, and can be combined in a more-or-less infinite variety of ways to create drumming music
  • Rudiment from which this extract has been taken
(English, German pl.) short for 'rudiments of music'
Rudimenti(Italian m. pl.) rudiments
Rudimentos(Spanish m. pl.) rudiments
Rudiments of musica term synonymous with 'music theory'
Rudingthe Jew's harp of the Kenyah and Kayan peoples of Northern Borneo, both the wood and metal versions being extremely thin and very fragile
Rudl/rullSwedish and Norwegian country dance
Rudra vina also known as the bin (been), it appears to be one of the oldest styles of vina. The evidence is readily seen in elements of its construction, and from its depiction on the walls of ancient temples. This instrument is basically a bamboo stick with two gourds attached. It has frets which are set into wax. This instrument is quite rare nowadays.
Ruedaa Spanish round dance in quintuple time
Ruf-Antwort-Form(German f.) call and response (form)
Rufftype of stroke in drum playing involving three rapid strokes before the main one
(in use 1550-1630) a circular collar in the form of a starched and crimped or pleated frill. From 1562 to 1577, ruffs measured about three inches wide and two inches deep, becoming separate articles of clothing by 1570. The cartwheel ruff was in fashion from 1550 to 1610 and the fan-shaped ruff, made almost entirely of lace, from 1570 to 1625. Men's ruffs were generally higher in back than in front, following the line of the jaw, to frame the face and set off the shape of the skull
Ruffleto stir up (water) so as to form ripples, to trouble or vex, to twitch or flutter, to shuffle, to mix so as to make a random order or arrangement, to fluff up, to disturb the smoothness of, to pleat or gather into a ruffle
frill, affray, drum roll
Ruffles and Flourishesdrum rolls (ruffles) and flourishes (selected brass instruments) performed by U.S. bands to honour high ranking dignitories, the number of Ruffles and Flourishes to be performed being set out in Table 2-1 of AR 600-25
Rufousa colour that may be described as reddish-brown or brownish-red, the colour of rust or oxidised iron. It is derived from the meaning of “red” in Latin and is used in the names of many animals, especially birds, to describe the colour of their skin, fur or plumage
Ruggieroa bass line, popular in late 16th- and early 17th-century Italy, upon which it was the practice of Italian composers to improvise contrapuntal variations. In one sense, the term is nearly synonymous with the 'ground bass' of a passacaglia or the fundamental progression of a chaconne. In actual practice, ruggieri of the 17th- and 18th-centuries tended to be longer and subject to considerable variation. Unlike a passacaglia where the ground is invariant, and a chaconne where there is not repeating bass line, a ruggiero work repeats the bass but never the same way twice. In this sense a ruggiero might be seen as a hybrid of ostinato techniques represented in both passacaglia and chaconne
the name Ruggiero is believed to come from Orlando furioso the epic poem by Lodovico Ariosto (1474-1533), one stanza of which begins Ruggier, qual sempre fui
Rugghio di leone(Italian) friction or string drum, called Rommelpot, tambour à cordes or Löwengebrull
Ruggine(Italian f.) rust
Ruggio di leone(Italian) friction or string drum, called Rommelpot, tambour à cordes or Löwengebrull
ruggire(Italian) roar
Ruggito(Italian m.) roar
Ruggito del leone(Italian m.) or ruggito di leone, a friction or string drum, also called Rommelpot, tambour à cordes or Löwengebrull
Rugido(Spanish m.) roar
rugir(Spanish) roar
Rugissement de lion(French m.) friction or string drum, called Rommelpot, tambour à cordes or Löwengebrull
Ruhe(German f.) peace, quiet, rest
ruhelos(German) restless
fermata(German m.) or Ruhezeichen, the fermata sign, a musical symbol placed over a note or rest to be extended beyond its normal duration
Ruhezeichen(German n.) see Ruhepunkt
ruhig(German) quiet, restful, peaceful, calm, tranquil, calmly, tranquille, tranquillo
ruhig bleiben(German) keep calm
ruhig gehend(German) gently moving, andante moderato
ruhig verhalten(German) to keep silent
rühren die Trommel(German) beat the drum
Rührtrommel(German f.) field drum, tenor drum
Rührung(German f.) emotion
Ruido(Spanish m.) noise, din, commotion
Ruído(Portuguese) noise, din, commotion
Ruído alba(Portuguese) white noise
Ruído rosa(Portuguese) pink noise
ruidosamente(Spanish) noisily
ruidoso(Spanish) noisy
(Spanish) sensational (used figuratively)
Ruiseñor(Spanish m.) nightingale
Rule of St Augustinea rule for religious community life first devised by a follower of St Augustine of Hippo in the 5th century; revived in the 11th century for use by the regular canons
Rule of St Benedicta set of rules for monastic life devised by an Italian monk, Benedict of Nursia, in the 6th century; became the basis for Western monasticism
Rule of the octavea formula for the harmonisation of the ascending and descending scale
many 18th-century thoroughbass and composition texts follow the figuring found in François Campion's Traite (1716), which shows the following figures for the ascending and descending C-major scale:
ascending scale:CD(4/3)E(6)F(6/5)GA(6)B(6/5)C
descending scale:CB(6)A(#6/4/3)GF(4/2)E(6)D(4/3)C
although it is true that this procedure essentially defines a unique harmony for each scale degree, the harmony changes depending on whether the bass ascends or descends, and thus the "leading of the bass" is taken into consideration. For example, a ^3-»^4-»^5 ascent would result in I6ii6/5V, whereas a ^5-»^4-»^3 descent would result in VV4/2I6. Also consider the use of the secondary dominant, V4/3 of V, as a way of passing from V6 to V when descending. This gambit helps redirect the tension toward a new goal, after leaving the chord above the leading note. On the other hand, when ascending to ^1, the leading tone was set with V6/5 in order to increase the upwards-striving tension. Furthermore, this rule of the octave also clearly defines the stable goals of the progression. The only root-position chords are I, V, and I. The other chords - which pass to and from these stable harmonies - are in inversions
rullando(Italian) drumming, rolling on the drum or tambourine
rullante(Italian) rolling (on the drum or tambourine)
rullante, Tamburo(Italian) tenor drum
rullio di tamburo(Italian) beat the drum
Rullo del timpano(Italian m.) drum roll
Rullo di tamburo(Italian m.) drum roll
Rumba(German m./f., Italian m.) type of drum, synonymous with the conga drum
Rumba(English, German m./f., Italian m.) Cuban rhythms played at informal celebrations, combining African drumming and Spanish or African vocal traditions with improvised dancing and singing
there is a difference between flamenco rumba and Cuban rumba. Flamenco rumba, proof of the impact of Cuban music in Europe and especially in Spanish gypsy music, is played with guitars and clapped hands. The Cuban rumba is played with drums (three tumbadoras) two sticks or palitos and chorus. Two of the drums, the tumbadora and the segundo or tres golpes, play the basic rhythm and the quinto, which is a higher pitched drum, plays improvised beats to guide the dancers
there are now three kinds of Cuban rumba rhythm:
guaguancóa moderate to fast style where the rhythm can be more complex and a couple dances in a flirtatious fashion. The man throws his arm or leg or pelvis in the direction of his partner, symbolically attempting to touch or sexually contact the woman. She entices him and then turns away when he reaches out. The Spanish word vacunar refers to this moment
columbiaa style of Cuban rumba developed at the end of the 19th-century in the eastern province of Matanzas, differing from other rumbas by having a 6/8 beat. It is usually danced by solo male dancers who perform acrobatic and daring moves to demonstrate their courage, strength and agility
yambúa slower, simpler style where older people and others dance in a relaxed manner
now-extinct variants:
Rumba congolaisea catch-all term for the amalgams of Congolese folk music and Latin American styles that swept Africa in the mid twentieth century
see sebene
Rumba de cajónthe Cuban rumba that features the Cuban cajón, box-shaped percussion instruments often used in sets of three like conga and batá drums
Rumba flamencaalso called rumba gitana, this sensual style derives from the Afro-Cuban rumba brought back from Cuba to Southern Spain in the 19th-century
Rumba gitanaa Catalonian-derived genre associated with the French Roma, popularised by The Gipsy Kings
Rumbakugel (s.), Rumbakugeln (pl.)(German f.) maraca
Rumba soukousthe highly commercial modern form of Congolese rumba
Rumbastäbe(German m. pl.) claves
Rumberoa participant in the tradition of rumba
Rummelpott(German m.) see Brummtopf
(Swedish) also Rommelpott or Friktionstrumma, friction drum [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
Rumorarmonioalso called 'Noise Harmonium' or the 'Russolo-Phone', an invention made in 1922 by the Italian Futurist Luigi Russolo (1885-1947) which combined several noise machines with a rudimentary keyboard. This was presented to the Parisian public in 1929 by Edgar Varèse
Rumore(Italian m.) noise
rumoreggiare(Italian) rumble
rumoroso(Italian) noisy, loud
Runrapid ascending or descending of notes, which may start with an embellishment, and which in vocal music might be sung to a single syllable
a roulade
RunddansSwedish round dance
Rundfunk(German m.) broadcasting
Rundfunkaufnahme(German f.) radio recording
Rundfunkchor(German m.) radio choir, radio chorus
Rundfunkorchester(German n.) radio orchestra
Rundfunktanzorchester(German n.) radio dance orchestra
Rundfunkübertragung(German f.) radio transmission
Rundgesang (s.), Rundgesänge (pl.)(German m.) round
Rundholzstab(German m.) or Dübel (German m.), dowel, wooden rod
Rune chantingsee 'kalevalaic music'
Runesa form of the Latin alphabet used for inscriptions in Germanic countries in the early medieval period
Rune singingsee 'kalevalaic music'
Runestonea commemorative stone carved with runes
Runic alphabetsa set of related alphabets using letters known as runes to write various Germanic languages prior to the adoption of the Latin alphabet and for specialised purposes thereafter
Runninga defect in an organ produced by a leakage of the wind in the wind-chest, the pipes sounding when a key is pressed down although no stop in drawn
Running heada shortened version of the title of a book, article, etc. placed at the top of each page
Runolaulusee laulu
Run-in lineor enjambement (French, 'straddling'), in poetry, a line having no pause or end punctuation but having uninterrupted grammatical meaning continuing into the next line
Run-on sentencea grammatical error, to continue a sentence without a punctuation mark where it should be
Runosongsee laulu
Ruolo(Italian m.) role (in the theatre, film, etc.)
Ruolo principale(Italian m.) main role (in the theatre, film, etc.)
Ruota a sfregamento(Italian f.) friction wheel (for example, on a hurdy-gurdy), Streichrad (German n.), roue de frottement (French f.)
Rupee(Hindi) a monetary unit in India
Rural bluessee 'country blues'
Rural contemporarysee 'alternative country'
Rural deana minister assisting a bishop to administer a subdivision of an archdeaconry; known on the Continent as an archpriest
Rural deanerya group of parishes forming a subdivision of an archdeaconry
Rural milongasee milonga
rusé (m.), ruée (f.)(French) cunning, wily, full of tricks
Ruse de guerre(French m.) a stratagem
Rus in urbe(Latin) the country in the city, an urban retreat specifically designed to seem rural
Russ.abbreviation of 'Russian'
russ.abbreviation of russisch (German: Russian - russe (French))
russare(Italian) snore
Russe(French f.) Russian
Russian bassoonupright serpent
Russian bow gripthe Russian bow hold is more of a push-pull grip. Nonetheless, it is not to be discounted, as Heifetz and other students of Leopold Auer made good use of. It isn't very springy, but can creates a large, robust sound with proper technique. The bow on the index finger lies on the second joint, or between the second and knuckle. The hand tends to be very flat, with the fingers spread apart. Russians use less taut bow-hair
[taken from]
some have suggested that this should be called the "Wieniawski bow grip" because Wieniawski taught his students his own kind of very stiff bowing that allowed him to play a "devil's staccato" with ease
Russian chantalso Znamenny chant, canto russo (Italian), canto znamenny (Italian), Znamenny-Gesang (German), chant russe (French), canto ruso (Spanish)
a term that refer to either 'any monodial, unison liturgical singing that is performed using Kryuki notation, rather than linear notation', or 'a particular system of unison liturgical singing'. Both meanings refer to the Russian Orthodox Church tradition of singing
Russian criminal musica Russian urban folk genre originating from Odessa. Many songs were composed in the 1920s/30s by prisoners sentenced to long period of hard labour. Nowdays this chanson-style glamorises the post-Soviet underworld with lyrics that are decorated with jailhouse slang. The classic of the form, entitled Murka, tells of a gangster killing his girlfriend for being an undercover agent of the Bolshevik secret police
Russian guitarthe classical and acoustic seven-string guitar arrived Russia in the 19th-century, most probably as a development of the English guitar and the baroque lute. The standard tuning is a G major chord as follows: D'-G'-B-D-g-b-d'
Russian hip hop
Russian horna form of hunting horn which, because it plays only one note, must be used in sets, one horn and one performer for each note to be played
Russian horn bandbands of horns were heard in Weissenfels on church feast days in the 19th-century. A long tradition of playing in Russian horn bands also existed in eastern Germany's Erzgebirge. The instrument was developed in Russia in the mid 18th-century
Russian psychedelic trancealso called 'Russian psytrance', 'Russian dark' or simply 'dark', a form of darker and distorted psychedelic trance music made mostly in Russia and Central Europe. The music is considered to be less popular than mainstream melodic psychedelic trance
Russian sacred music
Russian School (ballet)the Russian School was founded in St. Petersburg in 1738 by the French dancer Jean-Baptiste Landé. The French influence continued under such great teachers as Charles Le Picq, Charles Didelot, Christian Johanssen, Jules Perrot, Arthur Saint-Léon and Marius Petipa. In 1885 Virginia Zucchi, a famous Italian ballerina, appeared in St. Petersburg and created a sensation with her forceful and brilliant Italian technique which differed from the soft, graceful elegance of the French technique prevalent in Russia until then. Other Italian dancers such as Enrico Cecchetti arrived in Russia and continued to astound the Russians with their amazing dexterity, brilliant pirouettes, tours and fouettés. The Russian dancers rapidly absorbed everything the Italians had to teach and incorporated it into the Russian system. Thus, the Russian School of Ballet is a development of the French and Italian Schools. During the 1920s the Russian ballerina and teacher Agrippina Vaganova developed a planned instructional system which later became known to the whole world as the Vaganova system. This svstem has become the basic method of the entire Soviet choreographic school
russo (m.), russa (f.)(Italian) Russian
Russolo-Phonesee 'Rumorarmonio'
Rust(Dutch) rest
Rusticbuccolico (Italian), ländlich (German), bucolique (French), pertaining to the countryside, unsophisticated, of rude or rough workmanship
rústica, en(Spanish) paperback
Rustico(Italian m.) in a rustic manner, rural
Rustle noisenoise consisting of aperiodic pulses characterized by the average time between those pulses (such as the mean time interval between clicks of a Geiger counter), known as rustle time
Rustpunt(Dutch) caesura
Rute(German f.) a switch, a birch brush used with the bass drum
Ruthe(German f.) a switch, a birch brush used with the bass drum
Rutina(Spanish f.) routine
rutinario(Spanish) routine
Rutscher(German) a dance also known as the Galopade
Rutto(Italian m.) belch
Rumore(Italian m.) noise
ruvidamente(Italian) roughly, harshly, avec rudesse (suggested by Prof. Wes Kenney)
ruvido(Italian) in a rough, harsh style
RVacronym of Ryom-Verzeichnis, after Peter Ryom (b.1937), the cataloguer of the music of Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741)
rvabbrevation of rendez-vous (French: meeting, date)
Rwaïs(literally 'chief' or 'master') Chleuh Berber professional musicians who play in ensembles consisting of ouds, rababs and cymbals, with various numbers of vocalists. The leader (rayes) leads the choreography and music of the group. These performances begin with an instrumental astara on rabab, which also gives the notes of the melody which follows. The next phase is the amarg, or sung poetry, and then ammussu, a danced overture, tammust, an energetic song, aberdag, a dance, and finally the rhythmically swift tabbayt. Although the exact order may vary, the astara always begins, and the tabbayt always at the end
Rwandan hip hop
RWVacronym of Rosetti-Werke-Verzeichnis, reference to the catalogue of music by Francesco Antonio Rosetti (born Anton Rössler) (c.1750-1792) by Sterling E. Murray
Rxmay be written also with the x formed by a short diagonal cutting through the diagonal foot of the letter R, abbreviation of recipe (Latin: take!)
(Latin) a prescription, a solution to a problem
Rysee RV
Ryan's Mammoth Collection, 1050 Reels and Jigs, Hornpipes and Clogs (1883)edited and collected by William Bradbury Ryan of Boston, an important source of traditional Irish music
Ryomsee RV
Rythme(French m.) rhythm, ritmo (Italian m., Spanish m.), Rhythmus (German m.)
rythmé(French) measured, rhythmic, rhythmical, rhythmisch (German), ritmico (Italian), ritmato (Italian), rythmique (French)
Rythme binaire(French m.) duple rhythm
Rythme cardiaque(French m.) (rate of) heartbeat
rythmer(French) to give a certain rhythm to, to punctuate, to give rhthm to
Rythme saccadé (s.), Rythmes saccadés (pl.)(French m.) or rythmes sautillants, the 'jerky' or hopping dotted rhythm associated particularly with the French ouverture's first section and the entrée grave
Rythme sautillant (s.), Rythmes sautillants (pl.)(French m.) see rythme saccadé
Rythme ternaire(French m.) triple rhythm
Rythme un peu abandonné, un(French m.) a fairly free rhythm
rythmique(French) rhythmic, rhythmical, rhythmisch (German), ritmico (Italian), ritmato (Italian), rythmé (French)
(French) the rhythm section
Rythmus(German) alternative spelling of Rhythmus
Rytm(Swedish) rhythm
Rytme(Danish) rhythm
Rytmi(Finnish) rhythm
Ryuso(Japanese) the pick worn on the index finger of the right hand by the player of zithers such as the yakumogoto
Ryutekialso called yokobue, oteki, yojoor or ryuuteki, Japanese transverse flute, one of the three side-blown flutes used in gagaku, the other two being koma-bue and kagura-bue
Ryuutekisee ryuteki