music dictionary : S - Sb

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Safter Wolfgang Schmieder (1901-1990), the cataloguer of music by Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750); see 'BWV'
after Gustav Siebel, the cataloguer of music by Johann David Heinichen (1683-1729)
or Se, after Humphrey Searle (1915-1982), the cataloguer of music by Franz Liszt (1811-1886)
after Douglas Alton Smith, the cataloguer of music by Leopold Sylvius Weiss (1686-1750), now SC or S-C for Smith and Tim Crawford
or SWV, after Heinrich Schütz (1585-1672) whose music was catalogued by Werner Bittinger
or SR, after Padre Samuel Rubio, the cataloguer of music by Padre Antonio Soler (1729-1783)
after Joel Sachs, the cataloguer of unpublished works by Johann (or Jan) Nepomuk Hummel (1778-1837)
Sabbreviation of Sopran (German: soprano - soprano (French))
abbreviation of San, Santa, Santo, São (Portuguese: Saint), 'soprano' (voice)
abbreviation of 'sound recording'
sabbreviation of 'soprano' (instrument)
S.(Italian) abbreviation for segno, senza, sinistra, solo, sordini, subito, superious
abbreviation of 'Saint', 'South', 'Southern', San (Spanish m.: saint)
chemical symbol for 'sulphur'
abbreviation of 'soprano', as, for example, in S.A.T.B, the four voices in a choir, or S.C.T.B.
abbreviation of sine (Latin, literally 'without'), indicating a rest in early keyboard tablature
s.abbreviation of solidus (Latin: shilling - a unit of currency), solidii (Latin: shillings), 'second(s)', 'son'
S.A.or SA, abbreviation of società anonima (Italian: Ltd., Inc., PLC), société anonyme (French: Ltd., Inc., PLC), sociedad anónima (Spanish: Ltd., Inc., PLC), 'Salvation Army', 'South Africa', 'South Australia'
the equivalent term in German is GmbH (German abbreviation of Gesellschaft mit beschränkter Haftung - Ltd, Inc., PLC)
s.a.abbreviation of sub anno (Latin: under the year), sine anno (Latin: without date)
Saami musicthe traditional Saami songstyle is always referred to as Joik in English (originally Jojk/Juoigan) but it is actually only one of several modes of Saami singing. The joik is often compared to Amerind chanting, a description that is correct insofar as it sounds similar, yet a joik is not a song about a person or place but an attempt by the joiker to sing the essence of the subject. This songmode is intensely personal and touches upon the subject of Saami spirituality. The other modes are called lavlu/laavloe and vuelie and the word joik is often used incorrectly for these other modes. Laavloe are songs with words or lyrics whereas Vuelie is a song that tells a story about a person or an event, although this latter style can include chanting without words. All three modes of singing still exists in Saami society, and in recent years there has been a renewed interest among the young. A few Saami artists have reintroduced traditional drums to accompany the joik. The Saami also used an instrument which is found amongst some other "native" cultures - the bullroarer - a specially shaped piece of horn or wood that was attached to a string. The sound was created by swinging it around in circles over the head. By adjusting the speed and length of the string the player could create different pitch and sounds. The Saami also used the flute and possibly invented it independent of other cultures
Saarangisee sarangi
Sabaia stick rattle from China
s'abaisser(French) to go down, to drop, to humble oneself, to cringe, to abate, to decline, to stoop, to fall (the curtain in a theatre)
s'abaisser à(French) to stoop to
s'abaisser à faire(French) to stoop to doing
s'abaisser à le prier(French) to stoop to entreat him
s'abaisser vivement (French) to duck down (in order to hide, etc.)
s'abandonner à(French) to give oneself up to
s'abandonner au hazard(French) to trust to luck
s'abandonner au plaisir(French) to indulge in pleasure
(Senegal) a Wolof, Manding or Serer orchestra of from five to seven tom-tom drums carved from solid mahogany. Each drummer plays one drum with one hand and a stick. A set of Wolof sabers is composed of:
two solo drumsn'der (longest and highest pitched) and gorong yeguel (although some sources call this accompanying drum m'bung-m'bung)
three accompanying drumsgorong talmbar (the tenor drum), m'bung m'bung bal and m'bung m'bung tungoné
one bass drumlambe
Sabaro(West Africa) a large Mandinka drum carved from mango or mahogany wood. It is played with one hand a short stick. The head is covered with shaved goat skin
s'abâtardir(French) to degenerate, to become debased
s'abattre(French) to come down, to fall, to fall down
s'abattre sur(French) to swoop down on, to pounce on, to fall upon
Sabayonegg yolks and a liquid whipped over a bain marie until creamy
Sabbat(French m.) sabbath
Sabbath(Hebrew, 'rest') religious day of rest kept by Christians on Sunday and Jews on Saturday
Sabbaticalperiod of sabbatical leave
(of leave) granted at intervals to a university teacher for study or travel
sabbatique(French) sabbatical
Sabeca(Hebrew) translated as sackbut (from: Daniel 3:5,7,10,15), a kind of lyre
s'abêtir(French) to become dull, to become stupid
s'abimer(French) to get damaged, to get spoilt
s'abîmer(French) to get damaged, to get spoilt
s'abimer les yeux(French) to ruin or strain one's eyes, to spoil one's eyesight
s'abîmer les yeux(French) to ruin or strain one's eyes, to spoil one's eyesight
Sablesmall brown-furred mammal of Nothern Europe and Northern Asia, or its skin or fur
(French m.) sand
gloomy (poetic), (in heraldry) black
sabler(French) to sand
sabler le champagne(French) to drink champagne
Sables mouvants(French m. pl.) quicksands
sableux (m.), sableuse (f.)(French) sandy
Sablier(French m.) eggtimer
sablonneux (m.), sablonneuse (f.)(French) sandy
s'abonner(French) to subscribe
s'abonner à(French) to subscribe to
saborder(French) to scuttle (a project, a ship)
Sabot(French m.) hoof, clog, shoe
(French m.) a shoe made of a single piece of wood hollowed out to fit the foot, a shoe with a thick wooden sole and uppers made of leather
(French m.) the name of the metal hooks by which the vibrating length of the strings on a harp are shortened
Sabotage(French) deliberate and systematic destruction, deliberate interference with the proper functioning of something
to commit an act of sabotage
saboter(French) to sabotage, to botch
Saboteur (m.), Saboteuse (f.)(French) one who commits sabotage
Sabrecurved cavalry sword, light tapering fencing-sword
Sabre-rattlingdisplay or threat of military force
Sabre sawa portable jigsaw used to cut straight or curved lines in wood, plastic, or soft
s'abriter contre (le vent)(French) to take shelter against (the wind)
s'absenter(French) to go way, to be away, to go out, to leave
s'abstenir(French) to abstain
s'abstenir de(French) to refrain from
s'abuser(French) to be mistaken
Sac(French m.) bag, sack
Sacabuche(Spanish) sacbut, the ancestor of the modern trombone
Sac à dos(French m.) a rucksack, a bag designed to be hung on the back and supported by the shoulders
sacar esta ecuación(Spanish) to resolve this equation
saca esto de aquí(Spanish) take this away
Sac à main(French m.) handbag
sacar(Spanish) to take out (money from bank, etc.), to get (document), to get out, to draw (pistol), to pull out, to remove, to extract (petroleum, diamonds, etc.), to draw (card), to stick out (tongue), to put out (foot, hand, etc.), to let down (trousers, hem, skirt), to get (passport, permission), to get (entry, ticket, profit), to buy (ticket), to get (qualification, votes, points), to win (prize), to do (sums, calculation), to work out (sum, calculation, solution), to make (financial gain), to publish, to bring out (book), to release (record, film), to bring up (topic, subject), to take (pohotgraph), to make (copy), to take (copy), to serve (tennis), to kick off (football, basketball)
sacar a ... a bailar(Spanish) to ask ... to dance (person)
sacar a relucir(Spanish) to point out
sacar adelante(Spanish) to keep going
sacar apuntes(Spanish) to take notes
sacar brillo(Spanish) to polish
sacar conclusiones(Spanish) to draw conclusions
sacar de la pobreza(Spanish) to save from poverty
sacar dinero del banco(Spanish) to withdraw money from the bank
sacar el perro a pasear(Spanish) to take the dog out for a walk
sacar el coche del garaje(Spanish) to get the car out of the garage
sacar en claro(Spanish) to make sense of
sacar en limpio(Spanish) to make sense of
sacar la cabeza por la ventana(Spanish) to stick one's head out of the window
sacar la lengua(Spanish) to stick one's tongue out
sacar pecho(Spanish) to thrust one's chest out
sacarse(Spanish) to take ... out (splinter, spine, barb, tooth), to poke ... out (eyes), to take off (skirt), to remove (make-up), to take off (make-up), to get (Latin American - qualification)
sácate las manos de los bolsillos(Spanish) take your hands out of your pockets
Sacbut(Spanish sacabuche meaning 'pull-tube') a precursor of the trombone, the sacbut shares many of its features, a predominantly cylindrical, though narrower, bore, and a telescopic slide to change the length of the tube and its pitch. The term was used in England from the mid-15th century although it probably evolved as a lower-sounding version of the Renaissance slide trumpet that first appeared at the court of Burgundy. Unlike the trombone, sackbuts were made of thin, hammered metal, had a shallow and flat mouthpiece, and a narrow, non-flaring bell. These features contributed to a soft sound that complemented voice, harpsichord, viols, lutes, recorders, and cornetts. Like the trombone, the instrument is constructed in three sections: the mouthpiece; the slide joint, which is an assemblage of two parallel and stationary tubes attached by a crossbar (stay) that are covered by a long U-shaped sleeve (the telescopic slide tube), also supported with a stay, and the bell joint, a U-shaped tube terminating at the bell. The mouthpiece was inserted into one end of the slide joint and the bell joint inserted into the other. The bell joint could be fitted with crooks to change the pitch, and the slide joint often utilized a hinged handle attached to the stay, enabling the player to slide it further than arm's length. When playing the instrument the pitch is lowered as the player extends the slide away from the body. The sackbut appeared in at least four sizes: alto, tenor, bass and great bass with the latter two having hinged handles attached to allow greater extension of the slide to achieve the required depths. The alto, tenor and bass were to emerge as the trombone family with the tenor being the most widely used
Saccade(French f.) a jerk
(French f.) a sharp bow stroke
the term is used to describe a bow stroke so firm against several of the instrument's strings so that the player is able to produce two, three or four notes with the single bow stroke
saccadé(French, literally 'jerky') sharply accented, paticularly a sharp bow stroke
saccager(French) to sack (a town), to ransack (a house), to wreck
Saccharin(from Latin, saccharum, 'sugar') a sugar substitute
Saccharine(French f.) saccharin
excessively sentimental or sweet (of music, lyics, etc.)
s'accélérer(French) to speed up
s'accentuer(French) to become more pronounced, to increase
Sacco(Italian m.) double joint, butt
s'accorder(French) to tune, to tune up
s'acclimater(French) to acclimatize
s'accommoder de(French) to put up with
s'accompagner de(French) to be carried out, to happen
s'accomplir(French) to abstain
s'accorder(French) to agree
s'accorder avec(French) to get on with
s'accoter(French) to lean
s'accoter à(French) to lean against
s'accouder(French) to lean (ones elbows) on
s'accoutumer(French) to get accustomed
s'accrocher(French) to cling, to hang on, to clash
s'accroître(French) to increase
s'accroupir(French) to squat
s'accumuler(French) to accumulate, to pile up
SACD(English, German f.) acronym for 'Super Audio CD' (a form of digital audio storage), acronym for Société des Auteurs et Compositeurs Dramatiques (a French organisation that represents authors and their work
Sac de couchage(French m.) sleeping-bag
Sac de gemecs(Spain m.) Catalan bagpipe
SACEMabbreviation for La Société des Auteurs, Compositeurs et Editeurs de Musique - the French performing rights society founded in 1851
Sacerdoce(French m.) priesthood, vocation (figurative)
Sacerdotalof priests or priestly office
s'acharner à faire(French) to keep on doing
s'acharner sur(French) to set upon, to hound
Sachemthe supreme chief of an American Indian tribe
s'acheminer vers(French) to head for
Sachet(English, French m.) (small) bag, sachet (of medicine, etc.), a small bag made of perfumed cloth, a small cloth packet containing dry perfume, a small sealed container (usually made of plastic) for household liquids
Sachet de thé(French m.) tea-bag
s'achever(French) to end
Sachfrage(German f.) factual issue
sachkundig(German) expert, knowledgeable
sachlich(German) realist, objective (in art, etc.)
Sachlichkeit(German f.) realism, objectivism (in art, etc.)
Sachs-Hornbostel systemalso called the Hornbostel-Sachs system, a form of musical instrument classification divised by the Austrian Erich Moritz von Hornbostel (1877-1935) and the German Curt Sachs (1881-1959) and first published in the Zeitschrift für Musik in 1914, an extention of that devised earlier by Victor Mahillon, in which it is possible to classify any instrument from any culture
Sackbut(English, German f.) sacbut
(Biblical) a translation of sabeca, the name of a stringed instrument
Sackbut, electronicsee 'electronic sackbut'
Sackgeige(German) a pocket-fiddle, a kit
Sack papera porous paper with high elasticity and superb tear resistance, perfect for packaging products with high demands for strength and durability
Sackpfeife(German f.) cornamusa (Italian f.), piva (Italian f.), bagpipe, Dudelsack (German m.), cornamuse (French f.)
Sackpfeifer(German m.) player on the bagpipe
SäckpipaSwedish bagpipe with a single reed chanter and a single drone [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
Saco(Spanish m.) sack. sackful, jacket (Latin America)
Sacoche(French f.) bag, satchel (of a student), saddle-bag (of a motor-bike)
Saco de cemento(Spanish m.) sack (full) of cement
Saco de dormir(Spanish m.) sleeping bag
Saco de la ciudad(Spanish m.) sack of the city (pillage)
Saco gris(Spanish m. - Latin America) grey jacket
Saco sport(Spanish m. - Latin America) sports coat, sports jacket
Saco terrero(Spanish m.) sandbag
Sacqueboute(French) sackbut
Sacquebute(French) sackbut
sacquer(French) to sack (familiar)
s'acquitter de(French) to carry out (a promise)
s'acquitter envers(French) to repay
Sacramenta visible sign of a sacred thing; in the late medieval church there were deemed to be seven sacraments, representing life cycle rituals; baptism, confirmation, Eucharist, ordination, marriage, confession and extreme unction
Sacramentaryprecursor to the missal, being the service book of the mass containing only the sections intoned by the celebrant priest
Sacra rappresentazione (s.), Sacra rappresentazioni (pl.)(Italian f., literally 'sacred performance') sacred drama with music, an precursor of the opera form, that flourished particularly in Quattrocento Tuscany, supported by lay confraternities. Written primarily in ottava rima, the sacra rappresentazione was staged in an open space with luoghi deputati, multiple sets used in succession. Subjects were nominally sacred, from the Old and New Testaments, pious legend and hagiography, but the injection of realistic vignette and detail from contemporary local life or of romantic elaboration was considerable. There were no limits on time; a single rappresentazione or festa could begin with the Creation and end with the Final Judgment, and available techniques of elaborate scenery made such subjects desirable. Many compositions were anonymous, but others were the work of well-known figures, among them Feo Belcari (1410-84), author of La rappresentazione di Abram ed Isac (1449), and Lorenzo de' Medici, whose Rappresentazione dei SS. Giovanni e Paolo (1491) was performed by the children of the Compagnia del Vangelista. The rappresentazioni were often printed in the Cinquecento and continued to be performed on municipal occasions, but eventually they became fare only for monasteries and convents
Sacre(French m.) coronation (of a king), consecration (of a cathedral)
sacré (m.), sacrée (f.)(French) sacred, damned (familiar)
Sacred Canonthe collection of books received as genuine Holy Scriptures or general rule of moral and religious duty, given by inspiration, the Bible, any one of the canonical Scriptures
Sacred circle dancea dance that originated in the Findhorn Foundation community in Scotland following visits there from 1976 onwards by Professor Bernhard Wosien, a German dancer. Known first as 'Sacred Dance', it has changed over time as enthusiasts have made contributions, and may now be called 'Circle Dance' or 'Sacred Dance'
Sacred Dancesee 'Sacred circle dance'
Sacred Harp singinga tradition of sacred choral music that took root in the Southern region of the United States. It is part of the larger tradition of shape note music
Sacred Harp traditional singing features in Anthony Minghella's film Cold Mountain (2003)
  • Sacred Harp from which this information has been taken
Sacred musicmusic designed to be played in church inspired by or as part of services including religious texts
Sacred servicemay refer in its broadest sense to the liturgy of any Judeo-Christian group. A narrower meaning applies to the music of the Anglican or Jewish liturgies
Sacrement(French m.) sacrament
sacrer(French) to crown, to consecrate
sacrifier(French) to sacrifice
sacrifier à(French) to conform to
Sacrilège(French m.) sacrilege
sacrilège(French) sacrilegious
Sacring Bella small bell rung at the altar of the Catholic church during a sacred function. Also known as Sanctus or Holy Bell, tintinnabulum and parva campanula
Sacristain(French m.) sexton
Sacristie(French f.) vestry, sacristy
Sacristya room for the storage of sacred vessels, liturgical books and priestly vestments; and where the clergy don their ceremonial attire; also known as a vestry
sacro-saint (m.), sacro-sainte (f.)(French) sacrosanct
s'activer(French) to hurry, to rush
Sacudón(Spanish, 'flick') one of the many rasgueo or strumming techniques on the guitar
s'a curtasee s'a llarga
Sad, Sadlydolente (Italian), doloroso (Italian), mesto (Italian), schwermütig (German), schwermüthig (German), traurig (German), wehmütig (German), wehmüthig (German), triste (French)
s'adapter(French) to adapt oneself, to fit
Sadcorea sub genre of rock that developed from the downbeat melodies and slower tempos of late 1980s indie-rock
  • Sadcore from which this extract has been taken
Saddlesella (Italian f.), Sattel (German m.), sillet (French m.)
piece of the bridge on a stringed instrument that holds the string in place
the nut of the finger-board of the violin, voloncello, guitar, etc.
also called the 'key saddle', a metal version of the pin in block key mount but which also shares aspects of the post and rod mount. The key saddle was made from fairly heavy-gauge sheet metal, usually brass, most often rectangular, which was bent, cast, or forged into a form, staple-like (or U-shaped) in cross section, to duplicate in metal the pin in block key channel principle. It was sometimes mounted on a flange, and usually took a steel or brass screw rather than a pin for the fulcrum. Like the post and rod mount, it was a separate piece, and was usually attached mechanically using flat-head wood screws. Key saddles were applied to all early woodwinds but were usually reserved for large instruments such as bassoons and serpents
in a stringed instrument, that part of the bridge where the strings make contact, transferring the energy in the string vibration through the bridge to the table or belly of the instrument
Untersattel (German m.), sillet du bas (French m.), capo-cordiera (Italian m.), (on a violin, etc.) the lower saddle takes the pull of the tailgut off the edge of the belly
Saddle, lowersee 'lower saddle'
Saddle-wire stitchingin printing, to stitch with wire through the back of the folded work
Sadique(French m./f.) sadist
sadique(French) sadistic
Sadisme(French m.) sadism
s'adjoindre(French) to appoint
s'adjuger(French) to take
s'adonner à(French) to devote oneself to, to take to (e.g. drink)
s'adosser(French) to lean back
s'adosser à(French) to lean back against
s'adosser contre(French) to lean back against
s'adoucir(French) to soften, to mellow, to ease, to become milder (i.e. less tense)
Sadrafrom the Hindustani classical music tradition, a khayal composition set to a slow jhaptala
s'adresser à(French) to enquire at (an office), to go and ask, to go and see
Saenapsee taepyongso
Saengwhangthe Korean sheng
s'aérer(French) to get some air
Saerprent(Norwegian) offprint
Saertryk(Danish) offprint
Saertrykk(Norwegian) offprint
Saetaan unaccompanied Spanish folk song
Saetasflamenco music adopted from Spanish religious processions
Saeter(Norwegian) a mountain pasture in Scandinavia where cattle remain during the summer months, a farm house on such a pasture
Saeva indignato(Latin) fierce indignation
Safafter Milos Safrenek, the cataloguer of music by Bohuslav Martinu (1890-1959)
Safari(Swahili) a journey on foot, a party of travellers journeying together
s'affaiblir(French) to weaken
s'affairer(French) to bustle about
s'affaisser(French) to sink, to subside (building, land), to sag (beam, girder), to collapse (person)
s'affaler(French) to slump, to slump down, to collapse
s'affilier(French) to become affiliated
s'affoler(French) to panic
s'affronter(French) to confront each other
saftig(German, literally 'full of sap') juicy, succulent
SAGScreen Actors Guild, the union for film and TV actors
Saga (s.), Sagas (pl.)(Old Norse, 'saw' or 'saying') Scandinavian and Icelandic prose narratives about famous historical heroes, notable families, or the exploits of kings and warriors. Until the 12th century, most sagas were folklore, and they passed from person to person by oral transmission. Thereafter, scribes wrote them down
sagace(French) shrewd
Sage(French m.) wise man
Säge(German f.) saw (for cutting timber)
sage(French) wise, good, docile
Sage-femme(French f.) midwife
Sägemehl(German n.) sawdust
sagement(French) wisely, quietly
s'agenouiller(French) to kneel, to kneel down
Sägespäne(German m. pl.) wood shavings
Sagesse(French f.) wisdom
Sägewerk(German n.) sawmill
Sägezahnwelle(German f.) saw-tooth waveform
Saggeypo(Philippines) single tube panpipe, usually played in ensembles who sound various rhythms which combine to form interlocking patterns
  • Saggeypo from which this information has been taken
saggiare(Italian) to test
Saggio(Italian m.) essay, sample, trial, example
s'agglomérer(French) to pile up
s'agglutiner(French) to stick together
s'aggraver(French) to worsen
s'agir de(French) to be a question of
s'agiter(French) to bustle about, to fidget (child), to stir (e.g. thoughts)
Sagittala microtonal notation system by George D. Secor and David C. Keenan. George Secor began development of the Sagittal notation system in August 2001. In January 2002 he presented what he had developed to the Yahoo group tuning and offered to consider suggestions for improvements. At that stage the system could notate the equal temperaments with 17, 19, 22, 29, 31, 41, and 72 divisions per octave. Little did he know that he had provided a unifying symbolic principle which would ultimately be developed into a system capable of notating almost any conceivable microtonal tuning
Sagoma inferiore(Italian f.) or volta inferiore (Italian f.), lower bout, Unterbügel (German m.), courbe inférieure (French f.)
Sagoma superiore(Italian f.) or volta superiore (Italian f.), upper bout, Oberbügel (German m.), courbe supérieure (French f.)
s'agrandir(French) to expand, to grow
s'agripper à(French) to grab, to clutch
Sahel droughta series of historic droughts, beginning in at least the 17th century affecting the Sahel region, a climate zone sandwiched between the African savanna grasslands to the south and the Sahara desert to the north, across West and Central Africa
Sahib(Hindi) a European gentleman (a form of address used by native servants to their European masters)
Sahnai(India) an oboe played exclusively by the Muslims of India. It is used as a solo instrument in classical music, in mosques, for wedding processions, as well as for folk dance and theatrical performances
  • Sahnai from which this information has been taken
Saibara(Japanese) folk songs sung in Chinese, part of gagaku
s'aider de(French) to use
saignant (m.), saignante (f.)(French) rare (meat that is cooked only a small amount)
Saignée(French f.) bleeding
Saignement(French m.) bleeding
Saignement de nez(French m.) nosebleed
saigner(French) to bleed
saigner du nez(French) to have a nosebleed
s'aigrir(French) to turn sour, to become embittered
saillant (m.), saillante (f.)(French) projecting, salient
Saillie(French f.) projection
Saimon-katari(Japanese) recitation to the Buddhist deities, sometimes accompanied by the stick-rattle or shakujo
sain (m.), saine (f.)(French) healthy, sane
Saindo aos poucos(Portguese) 'fade out'
Saindoux(French m.) lard
sainement(French) healthily, sanely
Sainete(Spanish m.) similar to the French entr'acte, from late 18th-century Spain, a musical farce or opera buffa, portraying scenes from everyday life
sain et sauf(French) safe and sound
Saint (English m./f., French m.), Sainte (French f.)(English, French) a person whose virtue and holiness was considered to be proven and who was already with God; a saint was considered capable of interceding with God on behalf of a person who prayed to them, and of performing miracles
saint (m.), sainte (f.)(French) holy, saintly
Saint-Esprit(French m.) Holy Spirit
Sainteté(French f.) holiness, sanctity
Sainte Vierge(French f.) Blessed Virgin
Saint-Siège(French m.) Holy See
Saint's lifeanother term for the medieval genre called a vita
Saint-Sylvestre(French f.) New Year's Eve
Saison(German f., French f.) season
la morte saison (French f.: the off-season)
Saison de concerts(French f.) concert season
Saison en enfer(French f.) a period of intense mystery and often spiritual uncertainty
Saison théâtrale(French f.) theatre season
Saite (s.), Saiten (pl.)(German f., literally 'string') the string of a musical instrument (as in G-Saite, G-string), corda (Italian f.s., Spanish f.s., Portuguese f.s.), corde (French f.s.)
Saitenbändiger(German m.) a musician
Saitenbezug(German m.) a set of strings
Saitenchor(German m.) course (of strings), coro (Italian m.), córo (Spanish m.), jeu (French m.), choeur (French m.)
Saitendraht(German) wire string
Saitenhalter(German m.) cordier (French m.), cordiera (Italian f.), tailpiece, a piece of metal or wood at the lower end of a stringed instrument to which the strings are attached
Saitenhalterknopf(German m.) Endknopf (German m.), bouton (French m.), bottone (Italian m.), endbutton, a small projection at the bottom of a stringed instrument (violin, cello, etc.) to which the tailpiece may be attached or through which an endpin may be fitted (for example, on a cello)
Saiteninstrument (s.), Saiteninstrumente (pl.)(German n.) string instrument(s)
Saitenlage(German f.) action
Saitenschraube(German m.) tensioner
Saitenspiel(German n.) playing on a stringed instrument
Saitenspieler (m.), Saitenspielerin (f.)(German) performer on a string-instrument
Saiyoko(Japan) two drumheads are tied on by means of tuning cords which pass through the rims. Another long cord is used as a shoulder strap. It is struck with the palms of both hands
  • Saiyoko from which this information has been taken
Sajatsmall brass finger cymbals
s'ajouter(French) to add
s'ajouter à(French) to add to
s'ajuster(French) to fit
Sakshell trumpet from Sri Lanka
Sakara(Nigeria) a Yoruba musical style played at namings, weddings and funerals. Typically featuring the sakara frame drum and goje (2 string fiddle) as the background for a primarily vocal form of music. Sakara is typically slow and highly melismatic
(Nigeria) a Yoruba round shallow ceramic frame drum covered with goatskin, played with a stick, that is slightly narrower at the bottom than at the top. It has a clear high tone
Sakgo(Korean) a big drum which is suspended from a wooden frame. It was used to signal the beginning of court music in the Goryeo period but is now obsolete. The unggo is identical apart from its decoration
Sakristan(German m.) verger
Sakristei(German f.) vestry
Sala(Italian f.) room, auditorium
(Spanish f.) room, house (in the theatre), courtroom, court (tribunal)
Salaam(Hindi) an Oriental salutation (from the Arabic (as)-salam alaikum : peace be upon you)
Salacot(Spanish m.) pitch helmet, topee
Sala da ballo(Italian f.) ball room
Sala da concerto, Sala da concerti(Italian f.) concert hall, Konzerthalle (German f.), Konzertsaal (German m.), salle de concert (French f.), sala de conciertos (Spanish)
Sala d'aspetto(Italian m.) waiting-room
Salade(French f.) salad, lettuce, mess (disorder - familiar)
Sala de conciertos(Spanish f.) concert hall, sala da concerto (Italian), sala da concerti (Italian), Konzerthalle (German f.), Konzertsaal (German m.), salle de concert (French f.)
Sala de espectáculos(Spanish f.) concert hall, auditorium, cinema
Sala de espera(Spanish f.) waiting room
Sala de estar(Spanish f.) lounge, living room
Sala de exposiciones(Spanish f.) exhibition hall
Sala de fiestas(Spanish f.) nightclub, discotheque
Sala de lectura(Spanish f.) reading room
Sala de operaciones(Spanish f.) operating thetre
Sala de partos(Spanish f.) delivery room
Saladero(Spanish m.) salting room, salting house
Saladier(French m.) a salad bowl
salado (m.), salada (f.)(Spanish) salty, salted, witty, funny, charming, winsome, unlucky (in South America), expensive (in Chile)
Saladura(Spanish f.) salting
Salaire(French m.) wages, salary
Salamaniesee salameyya
Salami(Italian) a highly-seasoned Italian smoked sausage which is usually served in thin strips
hence, to 'salami' something is to cut it into small pieces
Salamnqués (m.), Salamanquesa (f.)(Spanish) a person from Salamanca, Spain
Salameyya(Egypt) salamanie or saliamiya, an end-blown flute made of reed cane, one end of which has been tapered off to a sharp edge. The player holds the instrument at an angle while playing. It is used to play the melody line in folk and popular music styles
  • Salameyya from which this information has been taken
s'alanguir(French) to grow languid
salar(Spanish) to salt, to add salt to
(Spanish, South Amercia) to bring bad luck, to ruin, to spoil
Salarié (m.), Salariée (f.)(French) a wage-earner
salarié (m.), salariée (f.)(French) wage-earning
s'alarmer(French) to become alarmed
s'alarmer de(French) to become alarmed at
Sal Atticus (s.), Sales Attici (pl.)(Latin, literally 'Attic salt') a poignant, delicate wit, peculiar to the ancient Athenians
Salaud(French m.) bastard (argot)
Salcionalor salicet or salicional, on the organ, a reddy toned sweet-sounding string stop with open pipes occuring at 8 ft. and 16 ft. pitch
saldremos en cuanto amanezca(Spanish) we'll leave at the break of dawn
sale(French) dirty, filthy, nasty
salé(French) salty, salted, salt (as in salt-beef), spicy, steep (excessive - familiar)
(un) sale coup(French m.) dreadful blow
Salegydance of the Sakalave people of Madagascar with its characteristic fast 12/8 rhythm, came to the south-east of the island (the Fort Dauphin region) with the first inhabitants, and then moved with them towards the south-west and later to the north. In each region it has a particular name. Tuska in the North and bassessa in the East are fundamentally the same, with variations that for someone who is not from these parts might be imperceptible
in the 1960s, salegy found a new life as part of Malagasy pop music. The new salegy is an electric music owing nothing to the West but finding its inspiration from Indonesia. In its modern form the instruments try to recreate the feel of the feel of earlier form, "the songs are those of the cow-herders running with their herds; the guitar imitates the valiha-playing of the great masters; the keyboards give the feeling of the traditional accordion and the bass copies the sound of five big drums. As for the drums they reproduce the sound of a Malagasy crowd on a day of celebration: hands clapping, maracas, feet beating the earth"
saler(French) to salt
Saleté(French f.) dirtiness, dirt, dirty trick, obscenity
Saleté(s)(French f.) rubbish
Saletés(French f.) mess
salgan con los brazos en alto(Spanish) come out with your hands in the air
Sälgflöjt(Swedish, literally 'willow flute') pipe made from the willow tree, called seljefløyte in Norwegian [entry by Lars Hellvig]
Saliamiyasee salameyya
Salic lawFrench law stating that the right of a king's son to inherit the French throne passes only patrilineally rather than matrilineally. In England, however, the English Queen Consort (a queen married to a ruling husband) can become the Queen Regnant (a queen ruling in her own right) if her husband dies and there are no other male relatives in line to inherit the throne. Likewise, in French Salic Law, if the queen remarries after the king dies, any children she has from the new husband cannot claim the throne. Likewise, if a male king dies without heirs, only his brothers and their male offspring can claim the throne. This right does not pass to male children of the queen that she might have later. However, under English law, a male descended from the English Queen can ascend to the throne
Salida(Spanish f.) exit, way out
(Spanish f.) the opening section of a song or dance
in flamenco, the exit of the dancer
Salidorthe high drum of the three basic tumbadora parts in the conga style (conga, rebajador, salidor)
in the rumba guaguancó, the low drum of the three parts (salidor, tres golpes, quinto)
one of the three güiros, or shakers, called the caja, mula and cachimbo, or the caja, dos golpes and salidor that feature in the music of Santería
one of the three conga drums, named, like the guïros mentioned above, caja, mula and cachimbo or caja, dos golpes and salidor
s'aliéner(French) to alienate
Salière(French f.) salt-cellar
s'aligner(French) to line up
s'aligner sur(French) to align oneself on
salin (m.), saline (f.)(French) saline
Salina(Spanish) a salt-lake, a salt-marsh, a salt-pan, a salt-works
Salinas, Francisco desee 'de Salinas, Francisco
salir(French) to make dirty, to tarnish (reputation)
salir a aire(Spanish) to go on the air (TV, radio)
salir a borbollones(Spanish) to gush out
salir a borbotones(Spanish) to gush out
salir airoso de una situación(Spanish) to come out of a situation with flying colours (figurative)
salir a tomar el aire(Spanish) to go outside for a breath of fresh air
salir bordado(Spanish) to come out very well
salir del anonimato(Spanish) to rise from obscurity
salir para airearse(Spanish) to go out for some fresh air
salissant (m.), salissante (f.)(French) dirty, easily dirtied
s'aliter(French) to take to one's bed
Salive(French f.) saliva
s'a llargaS'a llarga and S'a curta, the two most typical dances from the island of Ibiza, Spain. One stands for long and the other for short, depending on the beat. The woman dances slowly, barely moving while the man dances vigorously trying to prove his manhood and strength. A drummer, flute player and castanets accompany the dancers
Salle(French f.) room, hall, auditorium, ward (hospital)
Salle à manger(French f.) dining-room
Salle d'attente(French f.) waiting-room
Salle de bains(French f.) bathroom
Salle de classe(French f.) classroom
Salle de concert(French f.) concert hall, sala da concerto (Italian), sala da concerti (Italian), Konzerthalle (German f.), Konzertsaal (German m.), sala de conciertos (Spanish)
Salle de danse(French f.) ball room
Salle d'embarquement(French f.) departure lounge
Salle de musique(French f.) music room
Salle de séjous(French f.) living-room
Salle des ventes(French f.) saleroom
Salle d'opération(French f.) operating theatre
Salle des ventes(French f.) saleroom
Salle privée(French f.) a private room (for example, in a casino)
s'allier(French) to combine, to become allied, to become related
s'allier à(French) to become related to
s'allonger(French) to get longer, to stretch oneself out
s'allumer(French) to come on (light)
Sällskap(Swedish) society [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
Sally Goodinone of the figures unique to, or traditionally associated with, square dancing
Salm(German) psalm, psaume (French)
Salma(Spanish f.) psalm, psaume (French)
SalMar Constructionconceived by Salvatore Martirano, constructed between 1969 and 1972 at the University of Illinois by Martirano and others, the 'SalMar Construction' is one of the first interactive composing systems. The instrument contained a plasterboard panel with 291 touch-sensitive switches, an array of digital control circuits, analog oscillators, filters, and amplifiers, and 24 polyplanar loudspeakers suspended throughout the performance space. In performance, Martirano used the touch-sensitive switches, interacting with the digital control circuits to send sounds whizzing in different paths through the suspended speakers
Salmigondis(French m.) a hodgepodge (culinary and figurative)
Salmi spezzati(Italian) antiphonal settings of the psalms, a form associated with composers such as Gasparo Alberti (c.1489-c.1560), Dominique Phinot (c.1510-c.1556) and Adrian Willaert (c.1490-1562) although recent research suggests that Johannes Martini (c.1440-late 1497 or early 1498) was probably the first composer known to have set psalms for double choir singing antiphonally, seventy years before Willaert
Salmista(Spanish m./f.) psalmist, psalmiste (French)
Salmo (s.), Salmi (pl.)(Italian m.) psalm
Salmo (s.), Salmos (pl.)(Spanish m.) psalm
Salmò(Venetian dialect) simple soprano and tenor chalumeau found in music of Vivaldi's time
Salmodia(Spanish f.) psalmody, psalmodie (French)
salmodiar(Spanish) to study, compose or arrange psalms, or other religious songs
Salmonellaa pathogen found in meat and especially poultry
Salon(French m.) lounge, the main room (of a hairdressing establishment), show, a large reception room in a private house, a large public room
in 18th century Paris, the term came to be associated with the reception room of a lady of fashion where noted intellectuals would gather
as a proper noun Salon denotes an exhibition of sculpture and painting by living artists held annually in Parsi
Salón(Spanish m.) parlour, room, salon (French m.)
Salon d'attente(French m.) waiting room
Salón de baile(Spanish m.) dance-hall, ballroom
Salon de beauté(French m.) beauty salon
Salon de coiffure(French m.) hairdressing salon
Salón de música(Spanish m.) music room
Salon de réception(French m.) reception room
Salon des Refusés(French m.) an exhibition organised in 1863 at the order of Napoleon III for the display of pictures rejected by the Salon
the term is applied more generally to any exhibition of works of art rejected by some official organization
Salon d'essayage(French m.) fitting room
Salon de thé(French m.) tea-room
Salon musiclight chamber music of the 19th- and early 20th-century performed by small ensembles (for example, trios, quartets, etc.) often in a domestic setting
Salonmusik(German f.) salon music
Salonorchester(German n.) salon orchestra
Salon particulier(French m.) private room
Salope(French f.) bitch (argot)
saloper(French) to botch, to bungle, to make a mess of, to mess up, to muck up
Saloperie(French f.) dirty trick (behaviour), filthy remark, rubbish (something of poor quality), junk, trash
Salopette(French f.) dungarees, (work) overalls
salopp(German) casual, informal, informally
Salphinx(Greek) or salpinx, ancient Greek trumpet made of bronze and probably used for martial events
Salpinx(Greek) see salphinx
Salsa(Spanish, literally 'sauce') a reference to a sauce that is used as a dip for finger foods
(English, French f., German m., Spanish f., literally 'sauce') developed within the Puerto Rican community of New York, it is derived from Cuban son, the music is not always fast-paced and vibrant; it can be slow and romantic. Salsa music always has a 4/4 time signature, and is mostly phrased in groups of two bars with a characteristic rhythmic pattern played on the clave. The salsa has been influenced also by the Puerto Rican plena, the Dominican merengue, the Colombian cumbia as well as rumba, mambo, cha-cha and guaguanbo. Salsa bands require access to a huge array of percussion instruments, including güiros, maracas, bongos, timbales, conga drums and claves, and a clanging cow bell. Of course, it also takes a bass, a horn section, a chorus and, a lead vocalist to get the combination right
Salsa dura(Spanish f., literally 'hard salsa') a term that defines salsa as it developed in New York, with genres and rhythms drawn from Cuba and other islands in the Caribbean melding with the tempo, drive and improvisational techniques picked up by the immigrants in New York City
Salsa erotica(Spanish f.) a style of salsa music, very similar to salsa romantica in its soft style and beat, but characterized by sexually explicit lyrics, which are rare in the romantica style
Salsa monga(Spanish f.) see salsa romantica
Salsa romantica(Spanish f.) also known as salsa monga (Spanish, literally 'limp salsa') a commercialized, toned down version of salsa music that emerged in the mid 80's in New York and Puerto Rico
Salsero(Spanish m.) one who participates in salsa
saltado(Portuguese) sauté (French)
Saltairebuilt in 1851 by Titus Salt, an extensive model village built around Salt's textile mills. The village includes housing, shops, an institute, hospital, alms houses, park and mausoleum. Declined along with the textile industry, but has been revived in the 1990s by a combination of hi-tech industry, heritage and art
saltando(Italian, literally 'leaping') playing with a bouncing bow, i.e. sautillé, proceeding with skips or jumps
saltar a (la) pata coja(Spanish) to hop
Saltarellasee saltarello
SaltarelleFrench) saltarello
Saltarello(Italian m.) also saltarella or salterello, an Italian dance not unlike the galliard or tarantella with simple triple and compound duple rhythms, called alta dança ('high dance') in Spain, the saltarello is a lively dance that includes kicks and hops. One early 16th-century dance master, Antonio Cornazano, referred to it as "the merriest dance of all." With references dating from the 14th-century, the saltarello is the oldest known Italian dance
(Italian) a harpsichord jack
see misura
Saltarèllo(Italian m., mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) any little leape
Saltarelli(Italian m. pl.) plural of saltarello or saltarella
Saltarelo(Spanish m.) salterello, saltarelle (French)
saltar por los aires(Spanish) to explode, to blow up
s'altérer(French) to deteriorate
saltato(Italian, literally 'leapt' or 'jumped') bounding, dancing, hopping
on the violin, a springing, jumping or bouncing bow, sauté (French), gesprungen (German): however, see also saltellato
Saltatori(Italian, literally 'jumpers') dancers of very great agility
saltellato(Italian) or balzellato (Italian), bouncing (as in bowing), gehüpft (Bogenstrich) (German), sautillé (French)
Salter(German) psalter
Salterelli(Italian m. pl.) jacks of a harpsichord or spinet
(Italian) plural of salterello
Salterello(Italian m.) a jack of a harpsichord or spinet
(Italian m.) saltarello
a rhythmic pattern formed of three notes whose durations are in the ratios 3:1:2, as in the example given above, and often found in movements alla siciliana
Salterioor saltero, see chicotén
a psalter
(Italian m., Spanish m.) a psaltery, Psalterium (German), psaltérion (French)
Saltério(Portuguese) psaltery, salterio (Spanish), Psalterium (German), psaltérion (French)
(Portuguese) dulcimer, salterio (Italian, Spanish), Hackbrett (German), tympanon (French)
Salterio griego(Spanish m.) psalterion
Salterio tedesco(Italian m.) see tympanon
some early 20th-century writers suggest that the dulcimer in Italy was called salterio tedesco, 'German psaltery', but it is clear from Bonanni's Gabinetto Armonico that the usual word is simply salterio and that his illustration called salterio tedesco is of a German beggar girl who played one in the streets of Rome
Saltero (s.), Salteri (pl.)(Italian m.) see salterio
Saltétto(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) see saltícchio
Saltícchio(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) a hop, a skip, a friske, a leap, a jump, a tumbling cast, a sault
Salti del Fiocco(Italian m. pl., literally 'tassle kick') steps are found in Cesare Negri's dance manual, and involve a 'galliard' step ending with a 180 degree or 360 degree spin, during which the dancer kicks out to strike a tassle suspended between knee and waist height
Saltimbanco(Italian m.) charlatan (English, French m.), mountebank, ciarlatano (Italian), cerretano (Italian), Scharlatan (German m.), curandero (Spanish m.), curandera (Spanish f.), person falsely claiming knowledge or skill (particularly a fake doctor), an unfinished or superficial performer
[German translation provided by Michael Zapf]
Saltimbanque(French m.) a mountebank, a quack doctor, a street or fairground acrobat
Salto(Italian m., Spanish m.) leap, skip, jump
when describing a melodic line, the term means a leap, or skip, from one note to a distant one
saltó la alarma(Spanish) the alarm went off
Salto mortale(Italian m.) a somersault beginning with a standing jump
more generally, a critical moment in life, a crucial undertaking
Saltones(Spanish) traditional Asturian dance tunes
Saltspoonpertaining to keyed wind instruments, later key flaps, actually key cups, that were concave (i.e. nearly hemispherical), like a saltspoon, formed to receive a stuffed leather pad for more convenient pad seating. The back of the pad was essentially the shape of the cup and would automatically swivel to seat itself over the tonehole when applied with a heated adhesive such as shellac
Saltus(Latin) a sudden transition, a break in continuity
Saluanga long end-blown bamboo flute from Sumatra
salubre(French) healthy
Saludo(Spanish m., literally 'greeting') in Uraguay, the opening song in a murga theatre performance
Saludoy(Philippines) also kolitong, a multi-stringed bamboo tube zither
Salud y pesetas(Spanish, literally 'health and money!") a Spanish phrase invoking good fortune for another person
saluer(French) to greet, to take one's leave of, to nod (one's head) to, to wave to, to salute
Salut(French m.) greeting, nod (of the head), wave (of the hand), salute, salvation
Salut(French) hello (familiar), bye-bye (familiar)
salutaire(French) salutary
Salutation(French f.) greeting
salvar el abismo(Spanish) to bridge the gulf
Salvation Army (music)a family of musicians, named Fry, began working with the Salvation Army as their "bodyguards" and played music to distract the crowds. The tradition of having musicians available continued, and eventually grew into the creation of true bands. Their musical groups, usually a brass band or smaller collection of brass instruments, are seen in public at Army campaigns, as well as at other festivals, parades and at Christmas
Salvator noster(Latin) Our most beloved Saviour
Salve(French f.) salvo
Salve(German f.) burst (of laughter)
Salve(Dominican Republic) a call and response type of singing that uses panderos, atabales and other African instruments. Salves are highly ceremonial and are used in pilgrimages and at parties dedicated to saints
Salve PoloniaLiszt's Salve Polonia, published in 1884, has long been overshadowed by the composer's Hungarian rhapsodies. This Polish rhapsody incorporates of two Polish national themes. Liszt placed the Polish national hymn, Boze, cos Polske in the opening Andante pietoso section, while in the second and final section, the Polish national anthem Jeszce Polska nie zgiela appears
Salve Regina(Latin, literally 'Hail Queen') one of the four Marian Antiphons sung between Trinity Sunday and Advent
Salvete(Latin) greetings!
Sal volatile(Latin) or salt of hartshorn, one of the 'so-called' smelling salts, an aromatic solution of ammonium carbonate used to arouse consciousness
Salzedo conventiona convention for using accidentals that is applied to some 20th century music, specifically that accidentals only apply to the pitch to which they are attached, but not to any repetitions of the same pitch. Naturals are never used
Salzedo Harp Symbolssee Harp symbols
Samadhian ascetic
a Sanskrit term for the state of consciousness induced by complete meditation. Its etymology comes from sam (together or integrated), a (towards), and dha (to get, to hold). Thus the result might be seen to be to acquire integration or wholeness, or truth (samapatti)
  • Samadhi from which this information is taken
Samarbejde(Danish) collaboration
Samaritansa religious and an ethnic group located in the Palestinian territory and Israel. Ethnically, they are descendents of the inhabitants of ancient Samaria, the center of the Northern Kingdom of Israel. Religiously, they hold to a tradition based on the ancient Israelite religion; but they reject normative Judaism's Jerusalem-centered tradition as well as its scriptures, except for the Pentateuch
s'amasser(French) to pile up, to gather
Samba(English, German m.) a dance and type of music from Brazil. The dance, as it is performed today, is in double time and highly syncopated, and is very difficult as performed by Brazilians in comparison to the form seen in ballroom-dancing which is highly stylized. In Brazil, men and women dance samba differently and together yet without touching. The word samba is believed to have arisen from the meeting in Brazil of the Portuguese, the blacks and an Angolan rhythm, the kaduke/semba. It is this which may have led to samba. But Liceu Vieira Dias says that "samba is kaduque. Semba and masemba are one and the same. Semba is singular. The prefix ma in masemba, indicates the plural. Samba is directly linked to masemba and semba. Samba is not what the Brazilians think, a piece of folklore to which they attributed this name. Samba is the infinitive of kuzamba (to pray). It was natural, as I have already said, contrary to what Camara Cascudo claims, that in those big isolated plantations with the master tucked away in his big house with his family, at night, outside in the yard, the slaves should gather around and ask God to take them back to their homeland. So they used the term semba which they confused with samba, which was to pray, beg and plead with God, in the form of ethnic dance and music, as was common in all primitive peoples. The plantation owners thought it was some kind of social activity and not a religious one. This was how a religious act came to be associated with a festive one."
Fryer (Peter Fryer: Rhythms of Resistance: African Musical Heritage in Brazil. 2000 Hanover, New Hampshire: Wesleyan University Press/University Press of New England) traces the spread of batuque, an early Brazilian dance that was Congolese-derived and featured couples in a circle, pelvic isolation and touching. By the late 1700s batuque had spread to Brazil's poor white population and began to appear in a cleaned-up version in the salons of major cities, under the name lundu. Lundu became so popular that it is widely described as Brazil's first "national" dance. During the 19th century lundu acquired a new sung component, the modinha, which had developed in Lisbon as well as Brazil. The dance then incorporated aspects of new salon dances arriving in Brazil from abroad, polka after 1845 and Cuban habañera after 1860, emerging as the late-19th century dance craze maxixe, which in the early 20th century became a dance craze in Europe and the United States. Maxixe, re-Africanized through popularization among the poor and through recordings, and by the reincorporation of a primarily percussive orchestra, became modern samba
(Nigeria) a small, square drum
Samba Axéa solo dance that started in 1992 during the Brazilian Carnival season in Bahia when the Axé rhythm replaced the Lambada. For years it became the major type of dance for the North east of Brazil during the holiday months. The dance is completely choreographed and the movements tend to mimic the lyrics
Samba banjoa Brazilian instrument which is derived from the cavaquinho, especially associated with a samba subgenre called pagode. The samba banjo was first introduced by sambista Almir Guineto in the late 1970s and early 1980s, to meet the need for a louder acoustic instrument similar to the cavaquinho. The samba banjo has the same tuning and range as the cavaquinho, but its timbre is quite different, sounding like a traditional banjo, but pitched higher. It is played with a pick for rhythm comping, with sophisticated strumming beats; thus it is a primarily rhythmic instrument, and virtuosity is sometimes considered to be based on breaking repetitive patterns and surprising the listener with unexpected and inventive rhythmic figures, while keeping the rhythm steady
Samba batucadaa samba form that is both dense and complex performed by a large batería (percussion group) that heavily emphasizes the second beat of the bar (measure) and is driven by the bass notes of the surdo drum
Samba-canção(Brazil) a cooler, more sophisticated samba form useful for backing ballads
Samba de breque(Brazil) a samba variation that is both reggaeish and choppy, that does not use vocals or cavaquinho, focusing instead on percussion grooves and numerous breaks
Samba de cocoa fusion between the Fulnio Indian culture of Brazil and African musical roots
Samba de enredosee samba-enredo
Samba de Gafieira(also just called Gafieira and often spelled as Gafiera) a ballroom dance expression of Brazilian samba musical rhythm. The samba music played by a ballroom orchestra or the dancing hall where it is performed is also referred as gafieira. Gafieira is usually an elegant partner dance, although in artistic performances it is not uncommon mixing solo steps of Samba no Pé
Samba de rodaperformed by many capoeira groups, samba de roda is a traditional Afro-Brazilian dance that has been associated with capoeira for many years. The orchestra is composed of pandeiro (tambourine), atabaque (drum), berimbau-viola (berimbau with the smallest highest pitched cabaça), chocalho (a rattle), accompanied by singing and clapping
Samba-enredosong performed by a samba school in Rio de Janeiro during its yearly Carnival parade. The term also refers to particular style of samba music typical of such songs
Samba-exaltação(Portuguese, literally 'Exaltation Samba') a samba genre created by Ary Barroso in 1939 with the writing of Aquarela do Brasil (Watercolor of Brazil) is one of the best-known Brazilian patriotic songs
Sambaia dance music form of the Garifuna of Honduras and Belize
Sambaião(Brazil) a cross between a samba and a baião
Samba no péa solo dance that is most often danced impromptu when samba music is played. The basic movement involves a straight body and a bending of one knee at a time. The feet move very slightly - only a few inches at a time. The rhythm is 2/4, with 3 steps per measure
Samba Pagode(Brazil) a modern popular variety of samba
Samba reggae(Brazil) this style grew out of the blocos afros (Black carnival associations) in Bahia
Samba rocka genre of rock music, created in the 1960s, that combines the sounds of soul, funk and Brazilian samba
Samba schoola social, cultural, and club group that meets regularly and frequently with the purpose of learning and performing Brazilian samba dance, music, and costumes
Sambassor drum 'n' sambass (a portmanteau of "samba" and "bass") is a regional sub-genre of drum and bass music mostly native to Brazil, which combines drum and bass rhythms with influences from Latin American music
Sambenito(Spanish, from 'San Benito' - named for the similarity between the garment and the scapular introduced by St. Benedict) or sanbenito, a long straight garment of yellow cloth with a red St. Andrew's cross front and back (worn by penitent heretics under the Inquisition). The term is sometimes applied also to long straight garments of black cloth ornamented with flames, devils, etc. (worn by impenitent heretics at an auto-de-fé) although the correct terms for thses are samarra (for those who refuse to recant) or fuego revolto (for those who recant after being a convicted as heretics)
(Spanish) the lists of those heretics punished were also called sambenitos
Sambistaa person that performs samba, more commonly a female dancer
Sambucaangular harp used by the Greeks and Romans
Fabio Colonna lived in Naples, and published a treatise in 1618 called La Sambuca Lincea, which included a description of the instrument by that name which he built on commission from Scipione Stella, who had had the opportunity in 1594 to examine Vincentino's Archicembalo, a 31-tone-per-octave (not equal-tempered) keyboard instrument
Sambucistria(Italian) a player on the sambuca
Same, theidentical, not different, unvarying, l'istesso (Italian), dasselbe (German), même (French)
Samedi(French m.) Saturday
s'améliorer(French) to improve
s'amender(French) to mend one's ways
s'amener(French) to come along
samengebracht(Dutch) compiled
samengesteld(Dutch) compiled
samengesteld Interval(Dutch) compound interval
samenklang(Dutch) consonance, concord
samenspel(Dutch) play-a-long
Samenvatting(Dutch) summary
s'amenuiser(French) to dwindle
Samenzang(Dutch) community singing
samen zingen met(Dutch) sing along with
Same time, thel'istesso tempo (Italian), dasselbe Tempo (German), même mouvement (French)
Samfund(Swedish) society
Samfunn(Norwegian) society
Sami musicsee 'Saami music'
s'amincir(French) to get thinner
Samisen(English, German n./f.) see shamisen
Samitea heavy silk fabric worn in the Middle Ages: it was sometimes interwoven with gold
Samizdat(Russian) clandestine publication of banned literature
Samklang(Danish, Swedish) harmony
samlede(Danish) compiled, collected
Samling(Danish, Norwegian, Swedish) compilation, collection
samma(Swedish) same
Sammandrag(Swedish) summary
Sammanfattning(Swedish) summary
sammansatt Intervall(Swedish) compound interval
sammanställd(Swedish) compiled [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
Sammelbegriff(German m.) collective term
Sammelname(German m.) collective noun
Sammelwerk(German n.) collected works
other German words with a similar meaning include Auflage, Ausgabe, Gesammelte Werke, Gesamtausgabe, Sämtliche Werke
sammensat Interval(Danish) compound interval
Sammler (m.), Sammlerin (f.)(German) collector
Sammlung(German f.) collection, compilation, set (of airs, melodies, etc.)
(German f.) (inner) composure
s'amonceler(French) to pile up
s'amouracher de(French) to become infatuated with
Samovar(Russian) a Russian tea-urn heated by a central cylinder containing charcoal
Samoyedica non-Indo-European branch of Uralic languages spoken in northern Siberia
Sampan(Chinese) a small boat of Chinese type
Sampehsee sape
Sampeln(German n.) sampling
Sampetsee sape
Samphosmall Cambodian barrel drum
Sample(English, German n.) in music recording, a short extract or detail taken from one recording and used in another
Sampler(English, German m.) a device used in electronic music enables the production of sounds digitally
s'amplifier(French) to expand, to develop
Samplingtechnique of recording using a sampler for subsequent processing, editing and playback
Sampogna(Italian) a bagpipe
Sampooranin Indian music, 'complete' or 'heptatonic'
Samsiensee shamisen
Samskarasinnate tendencies inherited from past life, religious customs
Samstag(German m.) Saturday
Samt(German m.) velvet
sämtlich(German) complete, collected
sämtliche Werke(German n. pl.) complete works
other German words with a similar meaning include Auflage, Ausgabe, Gesammelte Werke, Gesamtausgabe, Sammelwerk
samt und sonders(German) without exception
SAMUabbreviation of secours d'aide médicale d'urgence (French: ambulance)
Samuri (s.), Samurai (pl.)(Japanese) a member of a Japanese military caste. The word samurai is derived from the archaic Japanese verb samorau, changed to saburau, meaning 'to serve'; thus, a samurai is a servant (i.e. the servant of a lord)
  • Samurai from which some of this information has been taken
s'amuser(French) to enjoy oneself, to play
Samvadiin Indian music, the note next in importance to vadi
San(Japanese) florid and very complicated Buddhist chant style performed in Sanskrit, Chinese, or Japanese
Sanabbreviation of Sanctus (Latin)
Sanai(Nepal) a shawm that features as one of the instrument is the Panche Baja ensemble
Sanatanistfaithful follower of ancient Vedic religion
Sanatorium (s.), Sanatoria (pl.)(Latin) an establishment designed for the care of invalids or convalescents
Sanbaa Japanese Okinawan wooden clapper held between the thmb and ring finger of the left hand struck together. Tremolo effects can also be produced by using the right hand
Sanbenitosee sambenito
Sancta simplicitas(Latin) holy simplicity
sanctifier(French) to sanctify
sanctioner(French) to sanction, to punish
Sanctimoniousostentatiously pious
Sanctuaire(French m.) sanctuary
Sanctoralthe annual cycle of services based around the celebration of the feasts of the saints
Sanctuaryholiest place of a temple, church, etc., the part of the church containing the high altar
Sanctuary, The
a community started by Miss V. Pagnell a mystical Christian socialist (inspired by Edward Carpenter), who bought land using her inheritance and gave away plots to anyone who cared to live there. One resident was anarchist W.C. Owen while another was Dion Byngham, ex-leading light in the Order of Woodcraft Chivalry. Miss Pagnell tolerated ("but did not encourage") naturism, `free love' and paganism
Sanctum(Latin) holy place, study (colloquial)
Sanctum sanctorum(Latin) the Holy of Holies of the Jewish Temple, a private retreat secure from intrusion
Sanctus(English, German n. from Latin, literally 'holy') the oldest item of the Ordinary of the Mass, the eighth item, the conclusion of the Preface of the Mass, following the Offertory and preceding the Agnus Dei, often set to music
Sand(German m.) sand
Sandto smooth with abrasive paper, etc.
Sandalshoe with an openwork upper, or no upper, fastened with straps
Sandale(French f.) sandal
Sandalwood(in medieval cookery) the pulverised wood of an East Indian tree used primarily to colour food dark red
Sand.Bl.abbreviation of 'sandpaper blocks'
Sandblastroughen, treat or clean with a jet of sand driven by compressed air or steam
Sandblocke(German m. pl.) sandpaper blocks
Sanderpower tool for sanding
Sandmanimaginary person causing tiredness in children
Sandpaper blockspapier de verre (French), Sandblöcke (German), Sandpapier (German), ceppi di carta vetro (Italian), papel de lija (Spanish)
wooden blocks with sandpaper attached, two blocks being rubbed together to create a coarse, brushing sound
Sandpapier(German n.) sandpaper
Sandouri(Greek, from the Turkish santur) or sanduri, trapezoidal hammered dulcimer
Sand, George (1804-1876)pen name of Amandine-Aurore-Lucile Dupin, later Baroness Dudevant, French author, one of the artistic group which included Frédéric Chopin (1810-1849), Franz Liszt (1811-1886), Honoré de Balzac (1799-1850) and Eugène Delacroix (1798-1863)
Sanduhrtrommel(German f.) hourglass-shaped drum
Sanduku(Zanzibar) a percussion bass with one string, made from a tea chest. Similar models are found in southern Africa
Sandurisee sandouri
Sandwichplace a thing, statement, etc. between two of another character
squeeze in between others
Sandwich-boardeach of two boards worn front and back to carry advertisements, announcements, etc.
Sandwich coursecourse with alternate periods of study and work experience
Sandy Balls
founded by Ernest Westlake, a community living on an estate on the northern edge of the New Forest bought as a base for the Code of Woodcraft Chivalry. Westlake & his family drew up a plan for a forest park stocked with the surviving fauna of the Old Stone Age. Annual folkmoots were held here until 1934 and Westlake is buried there in a replica Bronze Age burial mound
Sanfona(Portuguese) hurdy-gurdy
San Francisco Tape Music Centerfounded in 1962 by composers Morton Subotnick and Ramon Sender as a "nonprofit cultural and educational corporation, the aim of the San Francisco Tape Music Center was to present concerts and offer a place to learn about work within the tape music medium
sanft(German) soft, gentle, mild, smooth, sweet (gentle)
sanft berühren(German) gently touched
sanfter werden(German) raddolcendo (Italian), raddolcente (Italian), becoming gentler, calming down, becoming softer by degrees, sweetening, en adoucissant (French)
Sanftflöte(German) soft-toned flute
Sanftgedackt(German) a soft-toned organ stop formed of stopped pipes
Sanftheit(German) softness, smoothness, gentleness
sänftig(German) soft, gentle
Sanftmut(German) softness, gentleness
Sanftmuth(German) softness, gentleness
sanftmüthig(German) softly, gently
Sanftmüthigkeit(German) softness, mildness, gentleness
sanftmüthig(German) meek, softly, gently
sanft werdend(German) addolcendo (Italian), becoming sweet, softing, soft or dolce, abmildernd (German), en adoucissant (French)
Sang(German) song
Sang(French m.) blood
Sangaone of recreational musical types of the Ashanti-Akan of Ghana. The instruments used in this ensemble and their specific rhythms suggest northern Ghana, Dagbamba origins. The dance may be called a 'chase' - it is gay and flirtatious. The women dancers wear bustles to attract the men
Sångare och låtskrivare(Swedish) singer-songwriter
Sangatin Indian music, the accompaniment, usually on percussion to a vocal or instrumental solist. The sangatia (accompanist) not only maintain the laya (tempo) but also applies different subdivisions and tala patterns to make the performance more exciting
Sangatiain Indian music, the accompanist
Sang-de-boeuf(French) a deep red colour found in porcelain
sang d'encre, un(French) be worried stiff
Sangeetfrom sam (together) and geet (song), this Hindustani classical music form which was formerly applied to vocal music, instrumental music and dance, is now used only to refer to music
Sangensee shamisen
Sänger (m.), Sängerin (f.)(German) singer
Sänger-Liedschreiber(German m.) singer-songwriter
Sang fluyt(Dutch) voice flute (tenor recorder in D)
Sang-froid(French m.) calm, self-control, self-possession, coolness, absence of excitement (in the presence of danger or difficulty)
Sanghwangsee saengwhang
sanglant (m.), sanglante (f.)(French) bloody
Sangle(French f.) strap
SangleikScandinavian song games
sangler(French) to strap
sanglich(German) vocal
Sanglier(French m.) a wild boar
Sanglot(French m.) sob
an accent, an inflection at the end of a note, an 18th-century French term for what is, in effect, a descending appoggiatura
sangloter(French) to sob
Sangmeister(German) singing-master
Sangpipesee 'hwistle'
Sangre azul(Spanish f.) blue blood
SangriaSpanish drink of red wine with lemonade, fruit, etc.
Sangsaite(German f.) cantino (Italian), top string on a stringed instrument (for example, the top e" string of a violin), Singsaite (German), chanterelle (French)
Sangsue(French f.) leech
sanguin (m.), sanguine (f.)(French) blood (group), fiery
sanguinaire(French) bloodthirsty
Sanguineoptimistic, confident
(of the complexion) florid, ruddy
Sanhedrinhighest court of justice and the supreme council in ancient Jerusalem
s'animer(French) to liven up
sanitaire(French) health, sanitary, bathroom
Sanitaires(French m. pl.) bathroom
Sanitize(colloquial) censor (information, etc.) to make it more acceptable
Sanjesee timbila
Sankh(India) conch shell trumpet
Sankoa Japanese hourglass shaped drum
Sanjo(Korean) first developed around 1890 by Kim Chang-jo (1865-1920), for the gayageum, a tradition 12-string zither, it has now become solo music in three sections (slow, moderate, fast), usually performed on a zither, the geomungo or horizontal Korean flute to the accompaniment of an hour-glass drum
s'annoncer bien(French) to look good
s'annoncer mal(French) to look bad
s'annuler(French) to cancel each other out
Sannyasabandonment of all worldly ties with view to fixing the mind on the Supreme Being
Sannyasione who has taken to sannyas
Sanoitus(Finnish) lyrics
SanpiChinese word for flute
sans(French) without
Sansa(Italian f., English, German f., French f.) or sanza, an African plucked idiophone consisting of metal or reed tongues, placed side-by-side under a bracket, and thereby attached to one face of a resonator box. The sound is produced by plucking the tongues' free end and the pitch can by varied by sliding the tongue forwards or backwards under the bracket
Sans-abri(French m./f.) homeless person
sans accompagnement(French) unaccompanied
sans ambages(French) in plain language
sans arrêt(French) nonstop, without stopping
sans aucun doute(French) without doubt
sans bavure(French) flawless, flawlessly
sans broncher(French) without turning a hair
sans ça(French) otherwise
sans cérémonie(French) unceremoniously, without formality
sans cesse(French) incessantly
sans condition(French) unconditional, unconditionally
sans connaissance(French) unconscious
Sansculotte(French) a republican of the poorest classes during the French Revolution, a revolutionary, an anarchist
sans délai(French) without delay
sans desserrer les dents(French) without opening his (or her) mouth
sans doigte(French) open string
sans doute(French) no doubt
sans égal(French) matchless
sans encombre(French) without any problems, without incident
Sanserifor sans-serif, form of type with serifs (slight projection at the extremities of a printed letter - with serifs: T - without serifs: T)
sans excepter personne(French) without excluding anyone
sans-façon(French) unceremoniously, without beating about the bush
sans faute(French) without fail
sans fin(French) endless
sans frappé(French, literally 'without striking') play the notes without striking them hard or forcibly
Sans-géne(French m.) lack of constraint, disregard of ordinary politeness or formality, thoughtlessness
sans-gêne(French) inconsiderate, thoughtless
sans goût(French) tasteless
sans heures(French) a watch or clock without numerals on the dial, in the place of which thin rectangular marks known as bâtons are often found
Sanshinan Okinawan musical instrument, and precursor of the Japanese shamisen, it consists of a body, neck and three strings, named, from thick to thin (in Okinawan), uujiru (man-string), nakajiru (middle string) and miijiru (female-string)
see shamisen
sans importance(French) unimportant
Sanskrita classical language of India, and a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism. Its position in the cultures of South and Southeast Asia is akin to that of Latin and Greek in Europe and it has significantly influenced most modern languages of Nepal and India
  • Sanskrit from which this information has been taken
sans mesure(French) senza misura
sans pareil(French) unparalleled
sans péd.abbreviation of sans pédale (French: 'without pedal')
sans pédale (s), sans pédales (pl.)(French) without pedal (on the piano, a reference to the right pedal), without pedals
sans peur et sans reproche(French) fearless and blameless
sans phrase(French) bluntly, without qualification
sans plus(French) but no more than that, but nothing more
sans (plus) tarder(French) without (further) delay
sans précédent(French) unprecedented
sans prétensions(French) unpretentious, without affectation
sans que vous le sachiez(French) without your knowing
sans quitter la corde(French) without leaving the string
sans quoi(French) otherwise
sans rigueur(French) flowing, smoothly
sans se presser(French) without hurrying
Sans-serifsee 'sanserif'
sans sourciller(French) without batting an eyelid
sans sourdine(French) without mute, unmuted, undamped, senza sordina (Italian), ohne Dämpfer (German)
sans tarder(French) without delay
sans timbres(French) snares off
sans traîner(French) without dragging
sans travail(French) unemployed
sans vibration(French) without vibration
sans vergogne(French) shameless, shamelessly
Sans vouloir vous contredire(French) Without meaning to contradict you
Santé(French f.) health
Santería(Spanish, literally, 'way of the saints') also called Santeria, Regla de Ocha or Lukumi, a pantheistic religion, originating with the Yoruban/Nigerian people but now found influencing Afro-Caribbean cultures. The music of Santería, or the songs to the gods, involves the batá drums. These are three in number, hourglass-shaped with skins on both ends, and played horizontally with both hands on the laps of the sitting musicians. From large to small, they are called iyá, itótele and okónkolo or omelé. Contrary to practice with modern rumba groups, in which the highest-pitched drum improvises and serves as lead instrument, it is on the iyá that the most diverse sound combinations are played, reflecting the rhythms of the spoken Yoruba language; the itótele and okónkolo carry the more repetitive patterns. There are also three güiros, or shakers, called the caja, mula and cachimbo, or the caja, dos golpes and salidor. In addition, there may be from one to three conga drums, and a metal striker
Santiagocrusading order founded in Spain in the 12th century; unlike the other Spanish military orders its members were lay persons
Santirsee santur, santoor [information provided by Ware Page]
Santooralternatively santour, santouri, santir, or santur, a hammered dulcimer struck with light wooden mallets, indigenous to Kashmir, but nowadays played throughout Northern India. The number of strings may vary between 24 and more than a 100, although typical instrument have about 80. The Indian santur should not be confused with the Persian santur, the latter being much wider
[additional information provided by Ware Page]
Santoursee santoor
Santourisee santoor
Santur(Persian) The strings of the Persian santur or santir are tuned diatonically in groups of three so each neighbouring three strings will have the same pitch. The number of strings vary between sixty-three and eighty four. A santur with sixty three strings has twenty one pitches to play on. Santur is one of the most popular instruments of Iranian music
[additional information provided by Ware Page]
Sanxian(Chinese) it was written in Yang Shen's Shengan waiji of the Ming Dynasty that "the sanxian origins dated back to the Yuan Dynasty" (1279-1368)". Indeed, its origin can be traced to an ancient instrument of the Qin Dynasty, called xiantao. The sanxian is a long-necked lute with 3 strings and a small snake-covered head and plucked with the fingernails. A very similar instrument is known as shamisen in Japan
nameorigin of namerange/tuningregional details
quxian'story telling string' because it was used to accompany kunqu opera and tanci narrative songtwo and a half octaves
A-d-a or d-a-d'
found in the Yantzi valleys of southeast China
shuxian'narrative string' because it was used to accompany dagu and other northern singing narrativesthree octaves
found in northern China, but used today as a solo instrument and in ensembles
Sanzasee sansa
Sáo ba nguoia flute that allows two players to perform it at once
a novelty instrument invented by Khac Chi that combines three flutes into one instrument that allows three players to perform on it at once
Sáo treVietnamese transverse bamboo flute
Sáo trúcVietnamese bamboo flute
Saoutaone of the scale tunings used on the West-African harp-lute, the kora, a scale which is identical to the hypolydian mode
s'apaiser(French) to die down (storm)
Sapateado(Portuguese m.) tap, tap-dancing
Sapealso called sapeh, sampet or sampeh, a traditional lute of the Orang Ulu or "up-river people", who live in the longhouses that line the rivers of Central Borneo. with a body carved from a single bole of wood originally strung with two strings and fitted with three frets
saper(French) to undermine
s'apercevoir de(French) to notice
s'apercevoir que(French) to notice that, to realize that
Sapeur-pompier(French m.) a fireman
Saphir(German m., French m.) sapphire
Sapin(French m.) fir(-tree)
or bois de sapin (French m.), Fichte (Holz) (German f.), abete rosso (Italian m.), legno di abete rosso (Italian m.), Rot-Tanne (German f.), spruce (wood)
Sapin de Noël(French m.) Christmas tree
s'apitoyer sur(French) to feel pity for
s'aplatir(French) to lie fat, to grovel, to fall flat on one's face
Sapo(English, German m., French m.) a long cylindrical güiro made of hollow bamboo
Sapo cubano(Italian m.) sapo
s'appauvrir(French) to grow impoverished
s'appeler(French) to be called
Sapperton Workshopsfounded in 1901 by Ernest Gimson and Sidney Barnsley as a loose Arts & Crafts based community that grew up around the workshops of Gimson & Barnsley. The community rented Daneway house and built 3 houses
s'appesantir(French) to grown heavier
s'appesantir sur(French) to dwell upon (a thought, a situtation, etc.)
Sapphicof Sappho or her poetry
Sapphic metera pattern that is notoriously difficult in English, but more common in Greek, this meter is found in quatrains in which the first three lines consist of eleven syllables and the fourth line contains five
Sapphic odevirtually identical with a Horatian ode, a Sapphic ode consists of quatrains in which the first three lines consist of eleven syllables and the fourth line contains five
Sapphicsverses written in Sapphic meter
Sapphic verseverse written in Sapphic meter
Sapphiretransparent blue precious stone, its bright blue colour
because of their hardwearing properties, diamonds and sapphires were used as the 'neddles' that were the point of contact between vinyl records and the electro-mechanical system that reproduced the original sound by following the pitted continuous spiral groove in the record's surface
s'appliquer(French) to apply oneself
s'appliquer à(French) to apply oneself to
s'apprêter(French) to prepare
s'apprêter à(French) to get ready to
s'approcher de(French) to approach, to move near to, to move nearer to
s'approvisionner(French) to stock up
s'appuyer contre (un arbre)(French) to lean against (a tree)
s'appuyer sur(French) to rely on, to count on, to lean on
Saptakin Indian music, a gamut of seven notes
Saqueboute(French, German f.) a sackbut
Saquebute(French, German f.) a sackbut
saquen los libros de la mesa(Spanish) take the books off the table
Saraband sarabande
Sarabanda(Italian f.) sarabande
Sarabande(German f., French f.) a dignified, steady dance, a feature of the French ballet de cour, usually in triple time with the emphasis on the second beat, that had its origins as the racy and debauched zarabandas of Spain
Saraca funerary ritepracticed on Carriacou and throughout the Grenadines, the saraca funerary rite involves music, storytelling and feasting, the saraca songs, having both European and African lyrics, exhibit African elements including the call-and-response style
  • Carriacou from which this information has been taken
Saracena term used in the Middle Ages for Fatimids at first, then later all those who professed the religion of Islam
  • Saracen from which this extract has been taken
Sarafan(Russian) a long sleeveless cloak forming part of the national dress of a Russian peasant-woman
Sarangi(English, German f., the name derived from sau rangi meaning 100 colours) the sarangi is a common representative of vitat. It has three to four main playing strings and a number of sympathetic strings. The instrument has no frets or fingerboard - the strings float in the air. Pitch is determined by sliding the fingernail against the string rather than pressing it against a fingerboard and for this reason the instrument is extremely difficult to play. As a consequence, its popularity is on the decline. The sarangi has traditionally been associated with the kathak dance and the vocal styles of thumri, dadra and kheyal
Sarasvati vinasee saraswathi veena
Saraswathi veenaalso Saraswati vina sarasvati vina or simply vina, associated with Saraswati, the goddess of learning and the arts, this instrument is common in south India and is an important instrument in carnatic sangeet. It is variously called simply vina, or veena, the 'Saraswati' part being implied.The instrument has a body made of wood, generally jackwood, the instruments of highest quality having the entire body carved from a single block of wood while the ordinary vinas have a body which is carved in three sections (resonator, neck and head). There are 24 frets made of brass bars set into wax. There is a second resonator at the top of the neck that is no longer a functioning resonator, but is used mainly as a stand to facilitate the positioning of the instrument when it is played. Because it is no longer functioning, it is not unusual to find that this upper resonator may be made of acoustically neutral materials such as paper mache, cane or other similar materials. The saraswati vina has no sympathetic strings, only four playing strings and three drone strings (thalam). The main bridge is a flat, lightly curved bar made of brass. It is the light curve which gives the vina its characteristic sound
Saraswati(India) goddess of music
Saraswati vinasee Saraswathi veena
sarazenische Handpauke(German f.) nakers
Sarbacane(French f.) pea-shooter (toy)
Sarcasmanother term for verbal irony
Sarcasme(French m.) sarcasm
sarcastique(French) sarcastic
s'arc-bouter(French) to lean (for support), to brace oneself
sarcler(French) to weed
Sarcophagus (s.), Sarcophagi (pl.)(Greek) a stone coffin usually carved and inscribed
Sardanathe Catalonian national dance similar to a farandole
Sardonicbitterly mocking or cynical
sardonique(French) sardonic
Sargasee blaedhorn
Sargamshort for the syllables in the solfege system, sa-re-ga-ma, the Indian classical music equivalent of sol-fa. In addition to the syllables shown in the chart below there are also five minor notes. These are denoted ri (flattened Ri), ga (flattened Ga), ma (sharpened Ma), dha (flattend Dha) and ni (flattened Ni)
Sol-fa syllabledoremifasollatido
Note nameCDEFGABC (one octave higher)
Scale degree12345671 (8)
Sargam syllableSaReGaMaPaDhaNiSa
Sargijaa plucked, long necked lute used in Bosnian folk music. The sargija usually accompanies the violin, and has a jangling sound, not unlike to the Turkish saz
Sari(Hindi) a long strip of silk worn by Hindu women that serves both as a skirt and also covers the shoulders and head
Saringdaa folk version of the sarangi
Sark Artists Colony
founded by E. S. Drake, a small colony of artists lived in holiday huts around a purpose-built modernist gallery of pink and blue concrete. Mervyn Peake became the most famous of the Sark Group
Sarkasmus(German m.) sarcasm
sarkastisch(German m.) sarcastic, sarcastically
s'armer de(French) to arm oneself with
Sarodan instrument that is derived from the rabab, the sarod as been found in carvings of the 1st century in Champa temple and also in paintings of the Ajanta caves. The instrument was modified by Amir Khusru in the 13th-century. A definite change was made by Ustad Ali Akbar Khan in the shape of the instrument to improve the tonal quality. Essentially it is a bass rabab with a fretless metal fingerboard, a bridge that rests on a taut membrane covering the resonator and numerous strings, some of which are drones, some are played, and some are sympathetic. It is played with a pick made of coconut shell
Saron(Javanese) a metallophone with bronze bars struck with a wooden mallet, the principal instrument of Javanese gamelan. There are three kinds: saron barung (which plays an octave above the saron demung), saron panerus (which plays two octaves above the saron demung) and saron demung
Sarong(Malay) the Malaysian national costume of men and women, consisting of a strip of cloth wound round the waist like a skirt
s'arranger(French) to come to an arrangement, to manage
s'arranger pour(French) to manage to
s'arrêter(French) to stop
s'arrêter de faire(French) to stop doing
s'arroger(French) to assume (without justification)
Sarronca(from Portuguese, ronca, meaning 'snore') made from a bottomless can or pitcher, whose upper side is covered with a stretched skin through the centre of which is attached a cane. When the cane is rubbed with a wet hand it causes a vibration that is amplified in the can or pitcher below. It is used throughout the Iberia peninsula, although mainly at Christmas time. In some areas it accompanies folk songs, as in Colmenar de Oreja (Madrid), where it is inseparable from the arrabel, or around Salamanca and areas of Andalusia. In Spain it is called the zambomba
s'arrondir(French) to become rounded, to become round
Sarrusofon(German n.) sarrusophone, sarrusofono (Italian m.), Sarrusophon (German n.), sarrusophone (French m.)
Sarrusofono(Italian m.) sarrusophone, Sarrusofon (German n.), Sarrusophon (German n.), sarrusophone (French m.)
Sarrusophon(German n.) sarrusophone, sarrusofono (Italian m.), Sarrusofon (German n.), sarrusophone (French m.)
Sarrusophone(English, French m.) sarrusofono (Italian m.), Sarrusophon (German n.), Sarrusofon (German n.)
a family of double-reed transposing instruments, similar to a bassoon or oboe but made of brass, invented in 1856, named after its French inventor, the Parisian bandmaster Pierre Auguste Sarrus (1813-1876). They were available in all sizes from Eb sopranino to BBb contrabass, including contrabasses in Eb, C, and Bb. The Eb appears to be the most common contrabass sarrusophone. Among works written specifically for these instruments, Saint Saens' Les Noces de Promethee, for the contrabass sarrusophone Massenet's Esclarmonde (1908) and Eventyr (1917), and Ravel's Rhapsodie Espanole (1907). Gounod employed a sextette of sarrusophones in Chorale et Musette
namenotated rangesounding range
E sopraninoBb-g'''db'-ab'''
B sopranoBb-g'''ab-eb'''
E altoBb-g'''db-ab''
B tenorBb-g'''Ab-eb''
E baritoneBb-g'''Db-ab'
B bassBb-g'''AAb-eb'
E contrabassBb-g'''DDb-ab
C contrabassBb-g'''BBb-db
B contrabassBb-g'''AAb-eb
Sarsaparilla(from the Spanish zarzaparilla) the dried roots of a kind of smilax, used in the preparation of a tonic medicine
Sarsenetsoft silk material used especially for linings
Sartarella(Italian) saltarella
Sartarello(Italian) saltarella
Sartén (s.), Sartenes (pl.)(Spanish f., literally 'frying pans') used as percussion instruments in Spain and Spanish America. In parts of Spain, a single pan is played with a cuchara (spoon) and a dedal (thimble)
s'articuler(French) to articulate
Sartorialof men's clothes or tailoring
Särtryck(Swedish) offprint [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
Sarugaku nohSarugaku noh can be thought of as a different name for what we know as Noh today. The word "saru" in Sarugaku means "monkey," and Sarugaku originally referred to a form of comic acting. In ancient times, this word was used for comic routines and skits. Then to this were added the dances and Kusemai performed by Shirabyoshi female dancers, and the addition of Imayo to develop from Sarugaku into Sarugaku Noh. It became patronized by the Tokugawa shoguns and was established as the official performance art of the samurai class
Sarum chantor English chant, canto anglicano (Italian), englische Gesang (German), chant de Salisbury (French), canto de Sarum (Spanish)
chant that forms part of the Sarum (or Salisbury) rite
Sarune(Indonesia) shawm from Sumatra
Sarune bolon(Indonesia) shawm with detachable bell from Sumatra
Sarune etek(Indonesia) small shawm from Sumatra
Sarunggandi(Philippines) a two-stringed bamboo tube zither
Sarvodayawelfare of all
Sasaa traditional Samoan dance in which rows of dancers perform rapid synchronised movements in time to drums tins, or fala (rolled-up mats) beaten with sticks
Sashstrip or loop of cloth etc. worn over one shoulder or round the waist
Sashay(US colloquial) walk or move ostentatiously, casually, or diagonally
SashimiJapanese dish consisting of raw fish that is dipped into a mix of soy sauce and waasabi
s'asphyxier(French) to suffocate, to asphyxiate, to stifle (figurative)
Sassafras(Spanish) the dried bark of a small North American tree used in the preparation of a folk medicine
s'assagir(French) to sober down
Sassanid musicSassanid music refers to the golden age of Persian music that occurred under the reign of the Sassanid dynasty. Persian classical music dates to the sixth century BC; during the time of the Achaemenid Empire (550-331 B.C.), music played an important role in prayer and in royal and national events. But Persian music had its zenith during the Sassanid dynasty from 224 until 651 AD. In this era, many of Persian music's dastgahs and modes were invented, most of them by Barbod
s'assembler(French) to gather, to assemble
Sassenach(from the Irish Sasanach or Gaelic Sasunnach) the Irish or Scottish name for an Englishman, meaning 'Saxon'. The Welsh equivalent is Saesneg
s'asseoir(French) to sit, to sit down
s'asseoir contre (son ami)(French) to sit next to (one's friend)
Sassi(Italian pl.) stones
s'assimiler(French) to assimilate
s'associer(French) to become associated, to join forces
s'associer à(French) to become associated with, to join forces with, to share in, to share (someone's opinion), to take part in
Sassofonista(Italian m./f.) saxophonist
Sassofono(Italian m.) saxophone (English, French m.), Saxophon (German n.), saxofón (Spanish m.)
Sassofono baritono(Italian m.) baritone saxophone, saxophone baryton (French m.), Baritonsaxophon (German n.), saxofón baritono (Spanish m.)
Sassofono basso(Italian m.) bass saxophone, saxophone basse (French m.), Basssaxophon (German n.), saxofón bajo (Spanish m.)
Sassofono contralto(Italian m.) alto saxophone, saxophone alto (French m.), Altsaxophon (German n.), saxofón alto (Spanish m.)
Sassofono soprano(Italian m.) soprano saxophone, saxophone soprano (French m.), Sopransaxophon (German n.), saxofón soprano (Spanish m.)
Sassofono sopranissimo(Italian m.) soprillo
Sassofono subcontrabbasso(Italian m.) a member of the saxophone family planned by Adolphe Sax but never made. It was expected to lie one octave below the bass saxophone and two octaves below the tenor
Sassofono tenore(Italian m.) tenor saxophone, saxophone ténor (French m.), Tenorsaxophon (German n.), saxofón tenor (Spanish m.)
s'assombrir(French) to darken, to become gloomy
s'assortir à(French) to match
s'assoupir(French) to doze off, to subside
s'assurer contre (l'incendie)(French) to insure against (fire)
s'assurer de(French) to make sure of
s'assurer que(French) to make sure that
Sastrería(Spanish f.) tailor's (shop), tailoring, costume department (in a theatre)
Sastrugaor zastruga, a furrow in snow
Sat.abbreviation of 'Saturday'
satané(French) blasted (familiar)
satanique(French) satanic
SataraSouth Asian double flutes, one drone, one melodic
saltar de alegría(Spanish) to jump for joy
Sataysee saté
S.A.T.B.acronym for 'sopranos, altos, tenors and basses', in French soprano, alto (contralto), ténor, basse, the four voices in a choir or chorus
see S.C.T.B.
Satchelsmall shoulder-bag for carrying books, etc.
Saté(Indonesian for skewers or kebabs) or satay, has come to mean not just the skewer but everything served on it
Sateenglossy cotton fabric, a thicker version of satin, with a thicker weave, very luxurious for evening wear and linings of jackets
Satellitenfernsehen(German n.) satellite television
Satem languagesone of the two main branches of Indo-European languages
Satin(German m.) satin
(English) a fabric of a particular weave and gloss finish, the finish achieved by heat treatment, resulting in fabric with a high sheen face and matt reverse side. Often but not exclusively made from silk although modern alternatives include rayon
Satinetor satinette, thin or inferior satin - also, a strong cloth of cotton and wool, made to resemble satin
Satin-finisha finish involving soft scratch-brushing of polished metal surfaces to produce a soft sheen. The scratches result in a diffusely reflecting surface finish on metals, lustrous but not mirrorlike
a finish on glass, produced by hydrofluoric acid, suggestive of satin, especially in its smooth, lustrous appearance and sleek touch
also dull finish or velvet finish, a smooth paper with a low gloss finish
Satinwoodtowards the end of the eighteenth century, satin wood (a highly-figured golden-yellow timber) was introduced into England from the East Indies. It became very fashionable, and was a favourite ground-work for decoration, the medallions of figure subjects, generally of cupids, wood-nymphs, or illustrations of mythological fables on darker coloured wood, formed an effective relief to the yellow satin wood. Sometimes the cabinet, writing table, or spindle-legged occasional piece, was made entirely of this wood, having no other decoration beyond the beautiful marking of carefully chosen veneers; sometimes it was banded with tulipwood or harewood (a name given to sycamore artificially stained), and at other times painted
Satira(Italian f.) satire
Sátira(Spanish f.) satire
Satire(English, German f., French f.) satira (Italian f.), sátira (Spanish f.)
a literary work employing ridicule, irony, etc., to expose folly or vice, etc.
formal satireinvolves a direct, first-person-address, either to the audience or to a listener mentioned within the work
indirect satireemploys the form of a fictional narrative
Horation satiretends to focus lightly on laughter and ridicule, but it maintain a playful tone. Generally, the tone is sympathetic and good humored, somewhat tolerant of imperfection and folly even while expressing amusement at it. The name comes from the Roman poet Horace (65-8 BC),
Juvenalian satireuses withering invective, insults, and a slashing attack. The name comes from the Roman poet Juvenal (60-140 AD), who frequently employed the device, but the label is applied to British writers such as Jonathan Swift and Alexander Pope as well
medieval estates satirea medieval genre common among French poets in which the speaker lists various occupations among the three estates of feudalism (nobles, peasants, and clergy) and depicts them in a manner that shows how short they fall from the ideal of that occupation. In the late medieval period, the genre expanded to discuss the failings of bourgeois individuals as well. The genre was not unknown in England
spoofa comic piece of film or literature that ostensibly presents itself as a "genre" piece, but actually pokes fun at the clichés or conventions of the genre through imitative satire
Satíric comedyany drama or comic poem involving humor as a means of satire
satirico(Italian) satirical
Satírico(Spanish m.) satirist
satírico(Spanish) satirical
satirique(French) satirical
satirisch(German) satirical, satirically
Satiristwriter of satires, satirical person
satirizar(Spanish) to satirize
Satirizeto attack or to describe with satire
satisfaire(French) to satisfy
satisfaisant (m.), satisfaisane (f.)(French) satisfactory (acceptable)
satisfait (m.), satisfaite (f.)(French) satisfied
satisfait de (m.), satisfaite de (f.)(French) satisfied with
Satori(from Japanese) (Zen Buddhism) the state of sudden indescribable intuitive enlightenment
Satrapprovincial governor in the ancient Persian empire, a subordinate ruler
sats(Danish, Swedish) movement (section of an extended work, for example, a symphony)
s'attabler(French) to sit down at table
s'attacca(Italian) attacca
s'attacher à(French) to become attached to, to apply oneself to something
s'attaquer à(French) to attack, to tackle (problem, subject)
Sattara long-necked bowed instrument, with one metal playing string and 10 sympathetic strings, used by the Uigurs, a Turkman people from Western China
s'attarder(French) to linger
Sattel (s.), Sättel (pl.)(German m., literally 'saddle') the nut of the finger-board of the violin, voloncello, guitar, etc., sella (Italian f.), sillet (French m.)
s'atteler à(French) to get down to
Sattel machen(German) in cello playing, to place the thumb crosswise on a string, and thus form a temporary nut
s'attendre à(French) to expect to
s'attendre à mieux(French) to expect more, to expect better
s'attendrir(French) to be moved by pity
Sattriya danceor sattriya nritya, one of the eight principal classical dance traditions of India
Sattriya nrityasee sattriya dance
s'attrouper(French) to gather
s'atténuer(French) to subside
s'attirer(French) to bring upon oneself, to win (friends)
s'attribuer(French) to claim
Saturationa measure of colour purity. Highly saturated hues contain pure colour. As hues move toward grey their saturation is lowered (they desaturate). Greys have no saturation and are considered neutral
saturer(French) to saturate
Saturnalia(Latin, plural) the Roman festival of Saturn, celebrated as a time of universal merrymaking, the term today refers to any period of unrestrained licence or noisy revelry
Saturnineof gloomy temperament or appearance
Satvikatending of truth
Satyagraha(Sanskrit) passive resistance as a political policy
Satyagrahione who practices satyagraha
Satyr(in Greek and Roman mythology) woodland god with some horselike or goatlike features (more generally today, a lecherous man)
Satyr playa burlesque play submitted by Athenian playwrights along with their tragic trilogies. On each day of the Dionysia, one tragedy was performed, followed by one satyr play
Satz(German m.) movement, theme or subject, phrase, composition or piece, texture, style, sentence, clause, proposition, theorem (mathematics), set (tennis), grounds (coffee), setting, type, leap, bound
Brian Jefferies writes, "the German expression Orchestersatz is used in piano music to denote a phrase or passage written in a style or with a texture more typical of orchestral writing. The Beethoven sonatas contain several instances of this, e.g. the C major sonata, Op. 2, No. 3, which several German musicians refer to as the concertante sonata, because of its distinct changes from Orchestersatz to Bläsersatz, or to Streichersatz and (of course) to Klaviersatz. Another significant feature is the presence of a cadenza that is much the same as would be found in a piano concerto. The different sections can clearly be heard as being typical of orchestra music, woodwind, or strings, etc., and those of Klaviersatz are clearly distinct as well, mostly because of their virtuousity. This style is typical also of other composers of the same period. The most common instance of Orchestersatz is in the many 'piano reductions' of concertos
Satzaussage(German f.) predicate
Satzfehler(German m.) a dissonant suspension where the suspension and its resolution are sounded together; found in music from the renaissance, as in the six-part motet, In illo tempore stetit Jesus ascribed to Josquin des Prez) [entry prompted by Michael Lawlor]
Satzfolge(German f.) movement order
Satzgegenstand(German m.) subject
Satzlehre(German f.) rudiments of composition
Satzstruktur(German f.) movement structure
Satzzeichen(German n.) punctuation mark
sauberhalten(German) keep clean
sauberkeit(German f.) cleanliness, neatness, decency
saucer(French) to wipe (the plate)
Saucière(French f.) sauce-boat
Saucisse(French f.) sausage
Saucisson(French m.) a (slicing) sausage
Saucyimpudent, cheeky
Saudade(Portuguese) sadness associated with a longing for times past
a Brazilian dance associated with nostalgia and longing
Sauerkraut(German) acid-fermented cabbage, a popular item of diet in Germany
Sauerstoff(German m.) oxygen
sauf(French) except
sauf (m.), sauve (f.)(French) safe, unharmed
sauf avis contraire(French) unless you hear otherwise
Sauf-conduit(French m.) safe conduct
sauf erreur(French) barring error
sauf imprévu(French) barring the unforeseen
Sauge(French f.) (culinary) sage
saugen(German) to suck
(German) to vacuum (as in cleaning), to hoover
saugende Geräusch(German n.) suck (sound)
saugrenu(French) preposterous, ludicrous
Saule(French m.) willow
Saule pleureur(French m.) weeping willow
Säume(German m.) hem, edge
Saumon(French m.) salmon
saumon(French) salmon-pink (colour)
Saumure(French f.) brine
Sauna(Finnish) a Finnish steam-bath
SaùngBurmese harp
Saùng gauk (Burmese) wooden harp with silk or, today, nylon strings, elaborately gilded with the sound-body covered with deer skin
Sauntera leisurely walk
Saunterto walk slowly, to stroll
saupoudrer (de)(French) to sprinkle (with)
Sausage bassoonracket
säuseln(German) rustle (softly)
Saut(French m.) jump, leap, salto
(French m.) a term used in ballet for 'a jump off both feet, landing in the same position'
Saut de basque(French m., literally 'Basque jump') in the French and Russian Schools of ballet, a traveling step in which the dancer turns in the air with one foot drawn up to the knee of the other leg. Fifth position R foot front. Demi-plié with R foot retiré devant; step on the R foot in demi-plié to the second position, turning en dedans one half-turn and thrusting the L leg to the second position en l'air; push off the floor with the R foot and complete the turn, traveling to the side of the extended leg and landing on the L foot in fondu with the R leg bent in retiré devant. Both legs should be fully turned out during the jump. Saut de basque may also be performed with a double turn in the air
Saut de l'ange(French m.) in dance, the dancer springs off both feet and jumps forwards or backwards, with both legs straight and clinging together, inclining the whole body in the direction in which he is travelling and landing on both feet. The obliqueness of the body in the air is the only differentation between this step and an ordinary soubresaut
Saut-de-lit(French m.) a light dressing-gown, a morning wrap
saut du lit, au(French) on getting up
Saut du même au même(French m.) an error in copying caused by the omission of the passage between two occurences of the same word or phrase
Sauté(French, literally 'jumped' or 'jumping') saltato
to cook (food) using a small amount of fat in an open pan over a relatively high heat, shaking the pan so that the food does not stick to the pan
sauté, sautée(French, literally 'jumped' or 'jumping') in dance, when this term is added to the name of a step, the movement is performed while jumping, as, for example, échappé sauté
Note: In all jumping movements the tips of the toes should be the first to reach the ground after the jump, then the sole of the foot followed by the heel. In rising from the ground the foot moves in the reverse order
sautés include:
petits sautéssmall jumps where the feet don't change positions mid-air
échappés sautésjumps where the legs jump up together, but split apart mid-air and land in second position
changementssautés where the feet change position, i.e. front and back feet swap, whilst still very close together, mid air
entrechats quatreslike a changement but involves a rapid beating of the feet, where the front leg moves to the back and then moves back to the front, creating a rapid, blurring effect of the feet mid-air
Saute-mouton(French m.) leap-frog
Saut en hauter(French m.) high jump
Saut en longeur(French m.) long jump
sauter(French) to jump, to leap, to blow up, to blow (a fuse), to come off (to become detached), to skip (a class, a page), to jump over
sauter à la corde(French) to skip
sauter au cou de ...(French) to fling one's arms round ....
sauter aux yeux(French) to be obvious
Sautereau (s.), Sautereaux (pl.)(French m.) jack (on a harpsichord or a spinet)
Sautereau sans languette(French m.) unquilled jack (on a harpsichord or a spinet)
Sauterelle(French f.) a grasshopper
Sauter-Finegan Orchestrafounded in April 1952, by two well-known big-band arrangers, Bill Finegan and Eddie Sauter, it was basically a studio band, with fluctuating personnel, but they did sometimes play live dates where Finegan led the band from a small podium on which he had a primitive mixing board to mix the individually-miked musicians. The band's music straddled a number of fences. Nominally dance-band jazz, it ranged from popular songs (Love Is A Simple Thing) to standards (April In Paris, Autumn Leaves), to polytonal jazz, covers of classical or marching band pieces, modern woodwind quartets, and original suites of music. Sauter-Finegan were known as a "hi-fi" orchestra in the era when high fidelity was still a very new concept, but LP records were starting to merit that description. Sauter-Finegan used instruments of unusual timbre (such as a close-miked tenor recorder), and at the upper and lower ranges of audibility (piccolos to bassoons), as well as a broad range of percussion instruments (one album, Adventure In Time, was largely devoted to percussion). Their arrangements (impossible to tell without a scorecard who did which) were rich in unusual harmonies. And their musicians included most of New York City's top jazz session musicians, including some, like trumpeteer Doc Severinsen, who went on to fame of his own as Johnny Carson's bandleader
sauter sur une occasion(French) to jump at an opportunity
Sauteusein the early 19th-century, a leaping waltz commonly in 2/4 rather than 3/4 time, similar in pattern to the Redowa and Waltz Galop of the later 19th-century
sautillant(French) hopping
"In music there is a sort of rhythm [mouvement] that is continually hopping. It almost always is in triple meter, and the first note of each bar (measure) is pointée. Italians say in saltarello for en sautillant, when there are three crotchets (quarter notes) instead of a minim (half note), as in 6/4, or three quavers (eighth notes) instead of a crotchet (quarter note), as in 6/8, especially if the first note of each beat is pointée. This is how Venetian forlanas, sicilianas and English jigs and other gay dances are written, where the tunes move en sautant (Brossard)." - Trévoux (1771)
sautillé(French) hopped, skipped
(French) the bouncing of the bow on a stringed instrument, balzellato (Italian), saltellato (Italian), spiccato (Italian), saltando (Italian), saltato (Italian), gehüpft (German)
sautiller(French) to hop, to skip
s'autoriser à(French) to authorise, to allow to
Saut perilleux(French m.) a somersault
Sauvage(French m./f.) an unsociable person, a savage (a brute)
sauvage(French) wild, savage (primitive), unsociable, unauthorized (illegal)
Sauvagerie(French f.) savagery
Sauvegarde(French f.) a safeguard, a backup (computer)
sauvegarder(French) to safeguard, to save (for example, a file on a computer)
Sauve qui peut!(French) Run for your life!
Sauve-qui-peut(French m.) a general rout, a disorderly stampede
sauver(French) to save, to rescue, to salvage (material)
Sauvetage(French m.) a rescue, a salvage
Sauveteur(French m.) a rescuer
Sauver(French m.) a saviour
Sauveur's Philosophical Pitchsee 'philosophical pitch'
SAVreferring to the Strauss-Allianz-Verzeichnis (in preparation), a catalogue of the works of members of the Strauss family, Johann I (1804-1849), Eduard (son of Johann I) (1835-1916) and Johann III (son of Eduard) (1866-1939)
savamment(French) learnedly, skilfully
s'avancer(French) to move forward, to advance, to commit oneself
Savannah(old Spanish, of Carib origin) a treeless plain
Savant(French m.) a man professionally engaged in a learned occupation (for example, a scientist)
savant (m.), savante (f.)(French) learned, skilful
Savarininvented in 1844 by the Parisian pâtissiers, the Julien Brothers, a light cake raised with yeast, soaked in a rum syrup, and baked in a ring-shaped mould
Savart1/301 part of an octave. This unit was defined by Joseph Sauveur (1653-1716) in 1696 as eptaméride, one seventh part of a méride. Later, in the 20th century, its name became savart, after the French physicist Félix Savart (1791-1841) who also advocated it. In French acoustical literature it is still used now and then. It is close to 100 times the base-10 logarithm of 2 and therefore almost as accurate as jots in calculations. Sauveur proposed it because 301=7×43 and Savart proposed it because 301(.03) = 100×10log 2. Later the name savart was used in the book The Physics of Music by Alexander Wood to denote the slightly different value of 1/300 part of an octave. This would make it more practical for expressing 12-tET intervals. In some literature the savart is taken to be the 100/30103 part of an octave, making it exactly 100 jots.
Sävelaihe(Finnish) motive, motif, fragment of thematic material
Sävelaste(Finnish) scale degree
Sävelasteikko(Finnish) musical scale
Sävelkorkeus(Finnish) pitch
Sävellajin vaihdos(Finnish) modulation
Sävellajiosoitus(Finnish) key signature
s'aventurer(French) to venture
s'avérer(French) to prove, to prove to be
Saveur(French f.) flavour, savour (figurative)
Saving gracea redeeming quality
Saviour siblinga child born specifically to save the life of a brother or sister
s'aviser de(French) to suddenly realise
s'aviser de faire(French) to take it into one's head to do
Savitriwife of Satyavan who, according to legend, reclaimed his life from the God of Death
Savoir(French m.) learning
savoir(French) to know, to hear
savoir faire(French) instinctive knowledge of the right course of action in any circumstance, tact, social grace
savoir ... sur le bout du (des) doigt(s)(French) to know ... inside and out
savoir vivre(French) good breeding, experience of good society, knowing how to behave with propriety
Savon(French m.) soap
Savonettesoap or detergent used instead of soap
West Indian tree Pithecolobium micradenium whose bark serves as a soap
savonner(French) to soap
Savonnette(French f.) a bar of soap
savonneux (m.), savonneuse (f.)(French) soapy
Savoÿarde(French) a reference to the airs from Savoy, and used in the expression à la Savoÿarde
Savoy operasa term used to describe the operettas written by W. S. Gilbert (1836-1911) and Sir A. Sullivan (1842-1900)
Richard D'Oyly Carte was a concert agency executive, who at thirty-one was also serving as manager of the Royalty Theatre. Carte was always on the lookout for good material for use either as curtain raises or afterpieces. He wanted something to accompany Offenbach's La Périchole. Gilbert dropped in on D'Oyly Carte one day in mid-January 1875 and showed him a new libretto he had been working on. Carte suggested that Sullivan would be the man to set it. Gilbert then visited Sullivan with his manuscript and read it to him. Sullivan recalled the occasion: "He read it through, as it seemed to me, in a perturbed sort of way, with a gradual crescendo of indignation, in the manner of a man considerably disappointed with what he had written. As soon as he had come to the last word he closed the manuscript violently, apparently unconscious of the fact that he had achieved his purpose so far as I was concerned, inasmuch as I was screaming with laughter the whole time. The words were written, and the rehearsals completed, within the space of three weeks' time." The first announcement in the Times, in January, omitted the name of Gilbert entirely. There was no further advertisement of the new work until March 20th when the Times notice did contain Gilbert's name. La Périchole opened on March 25th, but it was Trial by Jury which stole the evening and started the famous pair on the long road of many successful ventures
Sawa hand tool with a toothed blade used to cut esp. wood with a to-and-fro movement, a power tool with a toothed rotating disk or moving band, for cutting
to move with a sawing motion (for example, sawing away on his violin)
a proverb, a maxim
Saw duang(Thailand) a fiddle with a small tubular hardwood body and a snakeskin soundboard. It can use 2 silk, gut or metal strings, and is the leading voice in a string ensemble
SawdustHerbert Brun began to write the Sawdust programs in 1972 at the University of Illinois. It was an exploratory approach to generating sound with a computer, whereby he could isolate small segments of a waveform and mix, mingle, and match them in different combinations. Dust, the first of a series of compositions that grew from the software, began to appear in 1976
  • Sawdust from which this extract has been taken
Saw kantrum(Southern Issan, Thailand) a wooden-bodied fiddle, with two metal strings, in which snakeskin acts as a soundboard. It comes in three different sizes
Saw samsai(Thailand) a spike fiddle made from a coconut shell with an animal skin soundboard. It is only played in the Mahori ensemble. It has been in use since the Sukhothai period (c. 1350)
Sawtooth, Sawtoothedserrated
Sawtooth wavea basic non-sinusoidal waveform, it is named a sawtooth because of its resemblance to the teeth on the blade of a saw. The waveform of a sawtooth wave usually ramps upward and then sharply drops. However, there are also sawtooth waves in which the wave ramps downward and then sharply rises. The latter type of sawtooth wave is called a 'reverse sawtooth wave' or 'inverse sawtooth wave'. The 2 orientations of sawtooth wave sound identical when other variables are controlled
Saw u(Thailand) a two-string fiddle with a coconut body and an animal skin soundboard, which, although similar to the Chinese hu-hu, has no frets
Sax, Sax.abbreviation of Saxophon (German), 'saxophone', saxophone (French)
Saxe(in full 'saxe blue') a light greyish-blue colour
Saxettea simple recorder-like instrument one of a number of experimental pre-band and orchestra instruments
Saxhorn(English, German n.) a family of brass instruments invented by Antoine Joseph (Adolph) Sax (1814-1894) and developed in the late 1830s, patented in Paris 1845, and similar to the flügelhorn family and to the Italian flicorni. Like the saxophone family, they were designed for band use and pitched alternately in Bb and Eb. During the mid-1850s Sax continued to experiment with the saxhorn's valve pattern; eventually the family consisted of more than ten models of different sizes. Saxhorns were popularized by the distinguished Distin Quintet, who toured Europe during the mid 19th-century. This family of musicians, publishers and instrument manufacturers had a significant impact on the growth of the brass band movement in Great Britain during the mid-to late-1800s. The most obvious difference between one of the smallest members of the saxhorn family, the 'cornet', and its orchestral equivalent, the 'trumpet', is the length of the instrument, with the cornet being quite a bit shorter. However, both instruments produce the same pitch of note. The main difference, that affects the sound of these instruments, is in the way the size of the tubing expands along the length of the instrument. Being based on the bugle, the saxhorn family have mainly conical (or flaring out) tubing along the entire length of the instrument, whereas the trumpet has mainly cylindrical (constant diameter) tubing for the entire length, only flaring out at the bell of the instrument. The cornet therefore produces a more mellow tone, where as the trumpet produces a bright brassy tone
the instruments from the saxhorn family are:
soprano cornetE flat
cornetB flat
flugel or contralto hornB flat
tenor hornE flat
baritoneB flat
euphoniumE flat
Bb bassB flat
Eb bassE flat
BBb bassB flat
EEb bassE flat
Saxhorn contrabajo(Spanish m.) double-bass saxhorn, tuba contrabbasso (Italian f.), Kontrabasstuba (German f.), contrebasse à pistons (French f.), saxhorn contrebasse (French m.), tuba contrabajo (Spanish m.)
Saxhorn contrebasse(French m.) double-bass saxhorn, tuba contrabbasso (Italian f.), Kontrabasstuba (German f.), contrebasse à pistons (French f.), tuba contrabajo (Spanish m.), saxhorn contrabajo (Spanish m.)
Saxo(French m.) sax (abbreviation for saxophone)
Saxofon(German n.) saxophone
Saxofón(Spanish m.) saxophone, sassofono (Italian m.), saxophone (French m.), Saxophon (German n.)
(Spanish m.) saxophonist
Saxofón alto(Spanish m.) alto saxophone, sassofono contralto (Italian m.), saxophone alto (French m.), Altsaxophon (German n.)
Saxofón bajo(Spanish m.) bass saxophone, sassofono basso (Italian m.), saxophone basse (French m.), Basssaxophon (German n.)
Saxofón barítono(Spanish m.) baritone saxophone, sassofono baritono (Italian m.), saxophone baryton (French m.), Baritonsaxophon (German n.)
Saxofonia(Italian m.) saxophone
Saxofonista(Spanish m./f.) a saxophonist
Saxofono(Italian m.) saxophone, sassofono (Italian m.), saxophone (French m.), Saxophon (German n.), saxofón (Spanish m.)
Saxofóno(Spanish m.) or saxofón (Spanish m.), saxophone, sassofono (Italian m.), saxophone (French m.), Saxophon (German n.)
Saxofón soprano(Spanish m.) soprano saxophone, sassofono soprano (Italian m.), saxophone soprano (French m.), Sopransaxophon (German n.)
Saxofón tenor(Spanish m.) tenor saxophone, sassofono tenore (Italian m.), saxophone ténor (French m.), Tenorsaxophon (German n.)
Saxon(historical) a member of the Germanic people that conquered parts of England in fifth and sixth centuries (hence Anglo-Saxon), language of the Saxons (usually Old Saxon)
Saxonettea member of the clarinet family, the saxonette is a soprano clarinet in C, A, or Bb that has both a curved barrel and an upturned bell, both usually made of metal. It has the approximate overall shape of a saxophone, but unlike that instrument it has a cylindrical bore and is therefore categorized as a clarinet. The instrument is also known as the Claribel and Clariphon. Other than the barrel and bell, there is no difference between a saxonette and a soprano clarinet (of the same fingering system). In fact, some manufacturers sold instruments having both clarinet- and saxonette-style barrels and bells
  • Saxonette from which this extract has been taken
Saxonya heavily industrial region of east central Germany, Saxony was incorporated into the German empire in 1871 where it remained a Kingdom until the end of World War One. It became a Free State of the Weimar Republic in 1919 until its collapse in 1933. It was dissolved in 1952 and broken down into smaller districts but it became part of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1990 after reunification
Saxophon(German n.) saxofón (Spanish m.), saxophone, sassofono (Italian m.), saxophone (French m.)
Saxophone(English, French m.) saxofón (Spanish m.), sassofono (Italian m.), Saxophon (German n.)
the saxophone was invented initially to create a better orchestral bass reed instrument, and to provide a matched family of wind instruments that would combine the power of brasses, the agility of woodwinds, the sonority of strings, the range of a keyboard, and the flexibility of the human voice. The Belgian manufacturer Antoine Joseph (Adolph) Sax (1814-1894) exhibited his new instruments to the world for the first time at the 1841 Brussels Exhibition. They were initially called ophicléide à bec by the French composer Hector Berlioz. The saxophone, as it is called today, is a relatively young instrument. A single reed instrument, it does everything from pop to big band to jazz, and has its place in classical music. Depending on the player, it can sound mellow or strong. The saxophone's individualized sound is possible because of the variety of mouthpiece materials and designs, the range of hardness in reeds, and a relatively loose mouth position that enables the player to vary the timbre and to "bend" notes
namekeycomments (middle C is C4)
orchestral saxophones
sopranino saxophoneFprobably never made
soprano saxophoneCthe C-soprano saxophone was first manufactured at the turn of the twentieth century although Adolphe Sax had C and F intruments in his original patent/design. C-soprano saxophones were most popular from 1917 to 1925. They were first available from foreign manufacturers such as the excellent Evette-Schaeffer but from 1916 to 1929 Conn (the first to make a C-soprano saxophone in the US) then followed by Buescher then King, Martin, Holton and York made C-soprano saxophones
written key: B3-F6; concert key: B3-F6 (not a transposing instrument!)
[information from the C Melody Saxophone Forum]
alto saxophoneFfirst displayed at the 1855 Industrial Exhibition in Paris; alto saxophone solo in Bizet's L'Arlesienne (1872); the most famous use of a quartet of orchestral saxophones in F & C is Strauss's Symphonia Domestica (1904) where Strauss employs C soprano, F alto, C tenor, and F baritone
tenor saxophoneCfirst displayed at the 1855 Industrial Exhibition in Paris; marketed in the US as the 'C melody saxophone'
written key: B3-F6; concert key: B2-F5
baritone saxophoneFthe most famous use of a quartet of orchestral saxophones in F & C is Strauss's Symphonia Domestica (1904), where Strauss employs C soprano, F alto, C tenor, and F baritone
bass saxophoneCthe first saxophone completed, and it received immediate praise. Berlioz wrote an article in the June 12, 1842 Journal des Débats praising the new instrument
contrabass saxophoneFprobably never made
band saxophones: all transposing instruments
sopranissimo or piccolo saxophoneBbSoprillo, manufactured by Benedikt Eppelsheim, written key: Bb3-F#6; concert key: Ab4-E7
sopranino saxophoneEbwritten key: Bb3-Eb6; concert key: Db4-Gb6
soprano saxophoneBbwritten key: Bb3-F#6; concert key: Ab3-E6
alto saxophoneEbwritten key: Bb3-F#6; concert key: Db3-A5
tenor saxophoneBbwritten key: Bb3-F#6; concert key: Ab2-E5
baritone saxophoneEbwritten key: A3-F#6; concert key: C1-Gb4
bass saxophoneBbwritten key: Bb3-Eb6; concert key: Ab1-Db4
contrabass saxophoneEbTubax, manufactured by Benedikt Eppelsheim
subcontrabass saxophoneBbTubax, manufactured by Benedikt Eppelsheim
manufactured by Conn
A sopranoArare, very few made
F mezzo sopranoFthere exist two kinds of F saxophones. In the 19th century several manufacturers made F altos that were essentially smaller altos in the key of F. In the late 1920s (1927-28) Conn brought out their amazing F Mezzo Soprano. This quite innovative Conn design, simply got caught up in the pressures of the start of the Great Depression, and a general lack of music written for them in the rather unnatural (save on the orchestral scene) key of F. In fact the last orchestral use of an F alto was by the English composer Joseph Holbrooke in 1910. Holbrooke was apparently fascinated by saxophones, for he wrote a sonata and a concerto, in addition to a chamber work using the entire family of saxophones. His orchestral work Les Hommages (Symphony No. 1) includes parts for B-flat soprano, E-flat and F alto, B-flat tenor and E-flat and F baritone
Conn-O-SaxFmanufactured in 1928, it had an extended range of nearly three octaves, from low A to high G. Its tone has been described as being mellow, somewhat reminiscent of that of a cor anglais or Heckelphone
Saxophone alto(French m.) alto saxophone, saxofón alto (Spanish m.), sassofono alto (Italian m.), Altsaxophon (German n.)
Saxophone, bamboosee 'bamboo saxophone'
Saxophone baryton(French m.) baritone saxophone, saxofón baritono (Spanish m.), sassofono baritono (Italian m.), Baritonsaxophon (German n.)
Saxophone basse(French m.) bass saxophone, saxofón bajo (Spanish m.), sassofono basso (Italian m.), Basssaxophon (German n.)
Saxophone quartetan ensemble of four saxophonists usually playing soprano, alto, tenor and baritone saxophones
Saxophone soprano(French m.) soprano saxophone, saxofón soprano (Spanish m.), sassofono soprano (Italian m.), Sopransaxophon (German n.)
Saxophone ténor(French m.) tenor saxophone, saxofón tenor (Spanish m.), sassofono tenore (Italian m.), Tenorsaxophon (German n.)
Saxophonist(English, German m./f.) a player of the saxophone
Saxophoniste(French m./f.) a saxophonist
Saxotromba(English, German n.) a valve trumpet invented by Antoine Joseph (Adolph) Sax (1814-1894), patented in 1845, and described in the patent as "a musical instrument, called the saxotromba, whose principles of construction may by means of slight modifications, be applied to saxhorns, cornets, trumpets, and trombones", The family is as extensive as that of the saxhorn family and was designed to supersede the horn in the military band
Saxtubaan instrument, similar to the saxotromba, introduced by Antoine Joseph (Adolph) Sax (1814-1894) which was made of brass, curved like the Roman buccina, and had a very sonorous tone
Sayasa dance form from Bolivia from which which lambada is derived
Sayingmaxim, proverb
however, 'to go without saying' means 'to be too obvious to need mention'
Saynète(French) sainete
Say-somere assertion
Saz (s.), Sazi (pl.)family of long thin-necked metallic-sounding fretted lutes played throughout Turkey that includes baglama (middle sized saz with six strings grouped in pairs), cura (small three stringed saz) and divan & meydan both having 9 strings
Armenian lute, with three strings, a small oval sounding box and an unusually long neck
Saz-cümbüssee cümbüs
sbadigliare(Italian) to yawn
sbagliare(Italian) to make a mistake, to be wrong
sbagliarsi(Italian) to be mistaken
Sbaglio(Italian m.) mistake
sbalordita(Italian) astounded
sbalzato(Italian, sbalzo, literally 'leap, skip, jump') play with a sense of impetuosity
Sbalze(Italian) leap, skip (in a melody)
sbalzo(Italian, sbalzo, literally 'leap, skip, jump') play with a sense of impetuosity
Sbarra(Italian f.) a bar-line
Sbarra doppia(Italian f.) a double bar
SBassdesigned and built by Curtis Bahn in 2001, the SBass is a 5-string upright electric bass fitted with an array of pickups and numerous tactile sensors, such as sliders, potentiometers, and tilt detectors, that track the performer's physical movements to process, shape, and mix sounds in realtime
  • The SBass from which this extract has been taken
S-bendan S-shaped bend in a road, pipe, etc.
Sbirro (s.), Sbirri (pl.)(Italian m.) an Italian police-officer
Sbitenshchik(Russian) a sbiten' vendor (sbiten' - a hot winter Russian traditional drink) in old Russia. The tradition began in 12th century
Sbuffando(Italian m., from sbuffare, 'fume') with anger