music dictionary : Sp - St

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SPabbreviation of strada provinciale (Italian f.: secondary road)
Sp.abbreviation of 'Spanish'
s.p.abbreviation for sine prole (Latin: without issue), senza pedale (Italian: without pedal), 'speech prefix'
S.p.A., SpA, Spaabbreviation of società per azioni (Italian f.: plc, corporation, joint-stock company)
Spaccalegna(Italian m.) wood-cutter
Spaccamento(Italian m.) splitting, cleaving
Spaccamontagne(Italian m.) or spaccamonti (Italian m.), braggart, boaster
Spaccapietre(Italian m.) stone-breaker, stone-cutter
spaccare(Italian) to split, to chop (wood)
spaccare il capello in quattro(Italian) to split hairs over something (figurative)
spaccare il minuto(Italian) to keep perfect time
spaccare il muso a ...(Italian) to smash ...'s face in (slang)
spaccare in(Italian) to split into
spaccare l'atomo(Italian) to split the atom
spaccare un capello in quattro(Italian) to split hairs
spaccarsi(Italian) to split, to crack, to burst
Spaccato(Italian m.) cross-section
spaccato(Italian) cracked
spaccato in due(Italian) split in two, split-off
Spaccatura(Italian f.) a split, a cleft, a crack
spacchettare(Italian) to undo (a parcel, a package)
Spacchino(Italian m.) wood-breaker
spacciabile(Italian) readily saleable
spacciare(Italian) to sell, to sell out, to sell off, to get rid of, to give out (figurative), to spread (reports), to dispatch, to kill
spacciato(Italian) done for
Spacciatore(Italian m.) seller, distributor (figurative), one who gives currency to (false news, etc.)
Spaccio(Italian m.) a sale, a shop
Spacco(Italian m.) a split, a crack, a cleft
Spacconata(Italian f.) brag, braggadocio
Spaccone(Italian m.) braggart, boaster
Space (s.), Spaces (pl.)spazio (Italian), Zwischenraum (German), espace (French), interval(s) between the lines on the staff, or between two leger lines above or below the staff, where each line and each space indicate a different pitch. A note lying immediately above the top line, or immediately below the bottom line of the staff is said to be 'in a space'
Space musicor 'spacial music', music where the placement and spacing of individual musicians or groups of musicians is integral to its performance
Space operaa subgenre of "soft" science fiction especially popular between 1930-1960, often used in a derogatory sense
Space rockthe term originally referred to a group of early mostly British 1970s progressive rock and psychedelic bands like Pink Floyd and Hawkwind, though it now tends to refer to a series of late 1980s British alternative rock bands. This style is characterized by shimmering, melodic sounds, often with copious drug and science fiction references
Spacesynthalso known as synthdance, spacedance and spacedisco, a genre of European electronic dance music
Spacial musicsee 'space music'
spacieux (m.), spacieuse (f.)(French) spacious
Spacingthe 'voicing' of a chord is characterised by the distances between notes within the chord, so that when the note are close together, the chord is said to be in 'close position' or 'close harmony', and, when the notes are less closely spaced, the chord is said to be in 'open position' or 'open harmony'
see 'score layout'
Spada(Italian f.) a sword
Spadaccino(Italian m.) swordsman
Spadino(Italian m.) a dirk, a short sword
Spadone(Italian m.) a broadsword, a big sword
spadroneggiare(Italian) to domineer, to lord it (over someone)
Spaesato(Italian m.) a displaced person
Spa Fields Congregational Families
founded by George Mundie, the first community set up on Owenite principles by a group of printers. Housed in a number of rented properties 21 families had their own private apartments with communal facilities including meals, all domestic services and childcare. They pooled wages from community businesses and outside jobs and ran a printing press, a community 'health centre' and planned to open a Fellenbergian school
Spaghetti(Italian, literally 'cords') a dried wheaten paste in the form of long sticks
Spaghetti strapsvery fine, ribbon like dress straps, popular on summer dresses
spaginare(Italian) (in typography) to alter the paging of
Spagna(Italian f.) Spain
Spagnicolettaa late 16th-century round dance related to the pavan
Spagnilettaa late 16th-century round dance related to the pavan
spagnola(Italian f.) Spanish
spagnolesco(Italian) in a Spanish manner
Spagnolettaa late 16th-century round dance related to the pavan
(Italian f.) a sash-bolt (for a window), a spool (of silk, etc.), (type of) cigarette
Spagnolettoa late 16th-century round dance related to the pavan
Spagnolo(Italian m.) Spanish
spagnolo(Italian) Spanish
Spagnuolo(Italian m.) Spaniard
spagnuolo(Italian) Spanish
Spago (s.), Spaghi (pl.)(Italian m.) string, twine, strong thread
Spahi(Turkish, from Persian) a cavalryman in the Turkish army, an Algerian horseman serving under the French government
spaiare(Italian) to separate a pair
spaiato(Italian) odd, unmatched
spalancare(Italian) to open wide, to throw open
spalancato(Italian) wide open
Spalapipasee spelpipa
spalare(Italian) to shovel away, to sweep away
Spalata(Italian f.) or spalatura (Italian f.), shovelling, sweeping away
Spalla(Italian f.) shoulder, back
(Italian f.) (figurative) strength, courage, aid, expoense
Spall'armi!(Italian) shoulder arms!
spallare(Italian) to sprain or dislocate the shoulder of
Spallata(Italian f.) push of the shoulder (to move something), shrug of the shoulder
spalleggiare(Italian) to back, to support
Spalletta(Italian f.) aparapet, an embankment, a retaining-wall
Spalliera(Italian f.) back (of a choir, sofa, etc.), bed-head, row of plants trained up a wall, espalier (English, France)
(Italian f.) shoulder rest, Schulterstütze (German f.), coussin (French m.)
Spalliere (s.), Spallieri (pl.)(Italian) in art, a decorative painting on the back of a chair
Spallina(Italian f.) epaulette
Spallucia(Italian f.) narrow shoulder
Spalluciata(Italian f.) shrug of the shoulders
spalmare(Italian) to smear
Spalpeen(from the Irish) a common labourer, a young lad, a rascal
Spalted wooda byproduct of the early stages of the rotting process (also called 'incipient decay') caused by an array of mould and fungi invading the wood, leading to very unusual patterns and colouration
span.abbreviation of spanisch (German: Spanish - espagnol (French))
spandendo(Italian) expanding, getting more powerful
Spandexshiny man-made fabric, popular for sportswear, swimwear, leotards and hosiery
spanisch (m.), spanische (f.)(German) Spanish
spanische Gitarre(German f.) Spanish guitar
spanisches Rohr(German n.) Arundo donax, Arundo bifaria, Arundo donax var. versicolor, Arundo glauca, Arundo latifolia, Arundo sativa, Arundo versicolor, Cynodon donax, Donax arundinaceus, Donax donax, Scolochloa arundinacea, Scolochloa donax, bamboo reed, baranal (Hindi), bansi (Punjabi), caña común (Spanish f.), caña (Spanish f., Portuguese f.), caña cañabrava (Spanish f.), caña de roca (Portuguese f.), caña vieira (Portuguese f.), cane, giant cane, distaff cane, donako (Esperanto), gaha nal (Bengali), gardener’s garters, great reed, Indian grass, Italienskt rör (Swedish), jättiruoko (Finnish), Kaemperolr (Danish), Persian reed, canne de Provence (French f.), Provence reed, qasba (Maltese), reed, Pfahlrohr (German n.), roseau géant (French), shembeko (Ethiopian), Riesenschilf (German n.), Spanish cane, Spanskrör (Swedish), Teberau gading (Malay) - used for over 5,000 years to make the single and double reeds used in numerous wind instruments this is the ‘reed’ ('rushes') referred to in the Bible. Today the giant reed is used to make clarinets, bagpipes and organ-pipes
Spanische Tonleiter(German f.) Spanish scale
Spanish danceone of the richest of all dance traditions that stretches back to the Hellenic period (550 B.C.) and that influenced early court dance, classical ballet, and contemporary dance. The Sarabande (from an Arabic word meaning 'noise') which was to become one of the most characteristic of French court dances, was originally La Zarabanda, a dance of Moorish origin from the time when the Moors invaded Spain. Spanish theatre, which included dance, flourished during the reign of Ferdinand (1452-1516) and Isabella (1451-1504). The Sevillida, the national dance of Spain, grew from the Seguidilla Manchegras. Originally danced by women to the accompaniment of bells and castanets, the dance was refined by the French and it became a solo for dancers of either sex with three distinct styles: southern, northern and Flamenco. Spain has 47 provinces and they each have their own style of dance
Spanish guitarsee 'guitar'
Spanish Gypsy Dancesee España Cañi
Spanish hip hop
Spanish Phrygiansee dorico flamenco
Spanish Phrygian scalePhrygian dominant scale
the Phrygian dominant scale is constructed by raising the third of the Phrygian scale and is the fifth mode of the harmonic minor scale, the fifth being the dominant. It is often known as a 'Spanish Phrygian scale', as it is commonly used in flamenco music. It is also known as Ahava Rabboh or Freygish when used in Hebrew prayers and Klezmer music (earning it the additional title of the Jewish scale), or as the Hijaz scale when used in Turkish or Arabic music. The sequence of steps comprising the Phrygian dominant scale is semitone - augmented - semitone - tone - semitone - tone - tone (or half - augmented - half - whole - half - whole - whole)
Spanish poetic meter
unlike English poetry, which measures poetic lines by metric feet, Spanish (like French and Italian) poetry measures poetic lines ("verses") by syllables. Hence, poetic lines may be:
monosyllabicconsisting one one syllable
bisyllabicconsisting of two syllables
trisyllabicconsisting of three syllables
tetrasyllabicconsisting of four syllables
hexasyllabicconsisting of six syllables - the second Spanish national meter
heptasyllabicconsisting of seven syllables - of Italian origin
octosyllabicconsisting of eight syllables - the Spanish national meter
decasyllabicconsisting of ten syllables
hendecasyllabicconsisting of eleven syllables - of Italian origin
dodecasyllabicconsisting of twelve syllables - of French origin
tetradecasyllabicconsisting of 14 syllables - clerical poetry only (i.e. clerecía)
the "national" meter in Spanish is the octosyllable (like the iambic pentameter is the English "national" meter). It is also called the "romance" (or ballad) meter. A shorter form of the "romance", called romancillo, is hexasyllabic (six-syllables long) and is also "national". Those two meters are in effect the most "Spanish". The French national meter, the Alexandrine (consisting, in French, of 12-syllable long lines) is also used in Spanish clerical poetry (called mester de clerecía poetry), and, on occasion, for Modernist effects, although in Spanish it is tetradecasyllabic (14-syllables long) instead of dodecasyllabic (12-syllables long). During the Renaissance, Italian meters were imported into Spanish, basically heptasyllables (7-syllables long) and hendecasyllables (11-syllables long). The most important meters are octosyllables (8), hexasyllables (6), heptasyllables (7), hendecasyllables(11), and alejandrinos or tetradecasyllables (14). The other meters are used less often, although they certainly appear in early mester de juglaría poetry and even in the Romantic period
Spanish tuningan alternate tuning for the acoustic or electric guitar, also called 'Open G' tuning (from low to high): D-G-d-g-b'-d'
Spannbettbezug(German m.) fitted sheet
spannen(German) to tighten, to tension
spannendes Buch(German n.) thriller (book)
spanning(Dutch) tension
Spannung(German f.) voltage
(German f.) tension
spannungsgesteuerter Filter(German m.) voltage-controlled filter
spannungsgesteuerter Oszillator(German m.) voltage-controlled oscillator
spannungsgesteuerter Verstärker(German m.) voltage-controlled amplifier
Spannungssteuerung(German f.) voltage control
Spannung und Entspannung(German f.) tension and release
Sparadrap(French m.) sticking-plaster
Sparkdans(Swedish, literally 'kick mazurka') the dance name refers to the kicking action of the open mazurka step
Sparklingwitty, scintillating, effervescent (of wine, etc.), having a lively quality (for example, the song lacks sparkle), brillante (Italian), glänzend (German), étincelant (French)
Sparring partnerboxer employed to spar with another in training, a person with whom one enjoys arguing
Sparta(German) score of a vocal-orchestral piece with keyboard arrangement of the orchestra
(Italian) see sparto
Spartitino(Italian) score of only homogeneous groups of instruments
Spartito (m.), Spartita (f.)(Italian) synonymous with sparto and sparta
Sparto (m.), Sparta (f.)(Italian) score, but particularly a score of a work originally for voice and orchestra reduced to a version for voice and keyboard (the keyboard part being a reduction of the original orchestra material)
spasimodico(Italian) spasmodic
Spasme(French m.) spasm
Spasmodicof in in spasms, intermittent
spasmodique(French) spasmodic
Spaß(German m.) joke
Spassapensiero (s.), Spassapensieri (pl.)(Italian) Jew's harp
diversion, amusement
spassarsi(Italian) to amuse oneself
spaßen(German) to joke
spaßhaft(German) playful, jocular, merry, droll, scherzando
Spaßhaftigkeit(German) playfulness
spaßhaftlich(German) merrily, playfully
spaßig(German) amusing, funny
Spatshort gaiter covering a shoe (abbreviation of 'spatterdash'), petty or brief quarrel
Spätbarock(German n.) the late baroque
später(German) later
spatial(French) space
(English) of space
Spatializationthe distribution of sound in a listening space, i.e. a concert hall, gallery, or home
Spatial musicthe American composer Henry Brant (1913-2008) became interested in music in which instrumental groups are separated in the performance area. Performances of Berlioz's Grande Messe des Morts (1837), in which brass ensembles are situated at each of the corners of the space, Gabrieli's brass music and particularly Charles Ives's The Unanswered Question (1908), in which strings, solo trumpet, and winds play from separate areas of the hall, all exploited this effect. It was Brant who coined the term 'spatial music' and his Antiphony I (1953) for five orchestral groups was the first non-jazz spatial piece, although began his experiments in this area in 1951. The German composer Karlheinz Stockhausen (1928-2007) claimed that he had invented spatial music with Gruppen (1958), but Brant's spatial music was both earlier and more complex. Brant experimented with the properties of space, including aspects of direction, projection, spill (the interaction between two group sounds), density, and the perception of movement. He had written 112 spatial pieces by 2003
Spatium(Latin) a space, a distance, an interval in time, the distance between two points, a measured distance, the space between the lines of a stave, the distance between heading and text in a letter, an open space, a space for walking in, a promenade, a period
Spätlatein(German n.) Low Latin
Spätrenaissance(German f.) the late renaissance
Spätromantik(German f.) the late romantic era
Spatula(Latin, diminutive of spatha (Latin: sword)) a flat blade of wood, ivory or metal used for various specialized purposes (for example, stirring, mixing piants, etc.)
Spatule(French f.) spatula
Spatzenstimme(German f) a squeaky voice
Spatzléa German wet noodle
Spätwerk(German n) a late work
spavaldo(Italian) defiant
Spazcoresee 'spazzcore'
Spazio(Italian m.) the space between the lines of a stave, a distance, an interval
Spazzcoreor 'spazcore', a term for over-the-top spastic & volatile punk
Spazzole(Italian f. pl.) wire or steel brushes
Spazzolino metallico(Italian m.) wire or rhythm brush
Speakutter words in an ordinary voice, converse, talk, make a speech, use or be able to use a specific language, convey an idea
Speak aboutor 'speak of', mention in writing, etc.
Speakeasy(slang) place where alcoholic liquor was sold illicitly (during Prohibition in the US)
Speakera person who talks, whether to declaim, converse or lecture
an abbreviation of 'loudspeaker'
Speaker (m.), Speakerine (f.)(French) announcer
Speaker cabinetthe container within which loudspeakers are placed, the acoustic properties of which are important to the quality of sound the speakers can produce
Speaker, poeticsee 'poetic speaker'
Speak foract as spokesman or spokeswoman for
Speak for itselfbe sufficient evidence
Speaking lengththis term refers to that portion of a piano string which vibrates freely and determines the pitch of the note heard
Speaking stopsee 'stop'
Speak tospeak with reference to, support in words, communicate feeling, affect, touch
Speak upspeak loudly or freely, speak louder
Speak volumesbe very significant
Specabbreviation of 'specification', detailed working description, specification
spécial(French) special, peculiar (singular)
Special correspondentjournalist writing on special events or a special subject
Special deliverydelivery of mail outside the normal delivery schedule
speciale(Italian) special
Special effectsillusions created by props, camera-work, etc. (in the theatre, films, etc.)
Special HTML Characterssee 'HTML Special Characters'
spécialement(French) especially, specially
Spécialisation(French f.) specialization
Spécialiste(French m./f.) a specialist
Spécialité(French f.) a speciality
Spécialité de la maison(French f.) a dish which is characteristic of one particular restaurant, etc. (although the term is now used more broadly of anything characterisitc of a person, a writer, a painter, a composer, etc.)
Specializationa semantic change restricting the referents of a word - i.e., a linguistic movement from a more general to a more specific meaning for a word
Special licencelicence allowing immediate marriage without banns
Special pleadingbiased reasoning
Specie(Italian f. literally 'type' or 'kind') an interval is described in terms of its size (Italian, la distanza) and its quality (Italian la specie). The quality may be major (Italian, maggiore), minor (Italian, minore), perfect (Italian, giusta), augmented (Italian, aumentato), doubly-augmented (Italian, più che aumentato), diminished (Italian, diminuito) or doubly-diminished (Italian, più che diminuito)
(English) coin as opposed to paper money
Species counterpointalso called 'strict counterpoint', involving the addition of voices to a melody, most commonly a cantus firmus, advancing from simple to more complex harmonies
see 'counterpoint'
Specificationa list of the stops or ranks found in an organ
Specific intervalsin diatonic set theory, specific and generic intervals are distinguished. Specific intervals are the interval class or number of semitones between scale degrees or collection members, and generic intervals are the number of scale steps between notes of a collection or scale
Specific language impairmenta category of language disorder characterized by deficits in language not explained by mental retardation, hearing impairment, or autism spectrum disorder
Specific sizesee 'general size'
spécifier(French) to specify
Spécification(French f.) a specification
spécifique(French) specific
Spécimen(French m.) a specimen
Spec(s)also spex, TV special(s)
Spectacle(French m.) a sight, a show, show business, a performance
spectaculaire(French) spectacular
Spectateur (m.), Spectratrice (f.)(French) a spectator, an onlooker
Spectral glidea modification of the vowel quality (determined by the overtones, spectrum, or timbre) of a note which may be accomplished through the use of a wah-wah mute or pedal or through the modification of one's vocal tract while speaking, singing, or playing an instrument such as the didgeridoo. Buzzed-lip instruments with large mouthpieces such as tuba and trombone allow extensive modification of vowel quality while woodwinds have a smaller range with the exception of the flute in air-sound mode
Spectral musicmusic that is concerned with timbral structures, especially when decisions about timbre are informed by a mathematical analysis known as a Fast Fourier Transform. FFTs can be used to provide graphs that illustrate details about the timbral structure of a sound, which might not be initially appearent to the ear. FFTs can also be used in creating sounds with computers, in order to transform the timbre of a sound in various ways, such as creating hybrid timbres through a collection of processes known as cross-synthesis, or applying a room reverberation to a sound through a process known as convolution. Spectral music was first associated with France and especially with the music of Gérard Grisey and Tristan Murail. As was the case with impressionism and many other labels for musical style, those composers whose music has been called "spectral" do not generally accept the label
Spectral sensitivitythe ability to perceive specific wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum
Spectre(French m.) a spectrum, a spectre (a ghost or spirit)
Spectrogramsee 'frequency spectrum'
Spectrum (s.), Spectra (pl.)the coloured band into which a beam of white light is decomposed by a prism or diffraction grating
a range of related but dissimilar things
a source of sound can have many different frequencies mixed together. Each frequency stimulates a different length receptor in our ears. When only one length is predominantly stimulated, we hear a note. A steady hissing sound or a sudden crash stimulates all the receptors, so we say that it contains some amounts of all frequencies in our audible range. Things in our environment that we refer to as noise often comprise many different frequencies
see 'frequency spectrum'
Spectrum analysera device for producing a spectrogram, a display of the relative amplitudes of a range of frequencies or partials in an audio signal
Spéculateur (m.), Spéculatrice (f.)(French) a speculator
Speculative fictionalso called 'alternative history', speculative fiction is science fiction that explores how the "real world" we live in today might be different if historic events had unfolded with slight changes
spéculer(French) to speculate
Speculum (s.), Specula (pl.)(Latin) a medical instruments used to facilitate an internal examination
(Latin) the concave mirror of a reflecting telescope
spedendo(Italian) promptly
spediendo(Italian) speeding, hurrying
spedito(Italian) quick
Speechuse of the respiratory, phonatory, and articulatory systems to create audible expression of ideas and emotions
Speech act theoryan idea set forth by J. L. Austin's How to Do Things with Words, which argues that language is often a mode of action rather than a means of communication or conveying information. Language-use that conveys information is called constative, and constative sentences by their very nature are either true or false in the sense that they are accurate or inaccurate. Language-use that serves as a mode of action is called performative. Performative language causes something to happen merely by making assertion
Speech naturalnessa measure, using a perceptual scale, of how natural a person's speech sounds. This measure has been shown to be fairly reliable, both for a person judging her own speech as well as judging someone else's
Speech prefixoften abbreviated s.p., this term in drama refers to a character's name or an abbreviated version of a character's name which indicates what actor is speaking subsequent words in the text of a play. Conventionally, in modern drama a colon or period separates the speech prefix from the lines to be read
Speech processingbrain activity which involves hearing speech and resolving the acoustic signal into meaningful sounds, words, and sentences
Speech ratethe speed with which speech is produced. It is usually measured by counting the number of syllables or words produced in a given amount of time. Typically pauses that the speaker uses for formulation are not included. A finer-grained measure of how fast person talks is called "articulatory rate," which omits all pauses
Speech-songsee sprechgesang
Speedtempo (Italian), Zeitmass (German), mouvement (French)
Speedcorea form of hardcore techno that is typically identified by its high rate of beats per minute and aggressive themes. Tracks can range from 235 BPM all the way up to 1000 BPM and above (there is some debate around a genre called extratone, in which the music must be 1000 BPM or above and is soaked in noise. Some say it doesn't exist while others feel it surpasses speedcore in intensity). Unlike other styles of aggressive dance music like gabber, the high rate of BPM makes Speedcore less accessible as a danceable genre, although most fans of the genre headbang and mosh to the music
  • Speedcore from which this extract has been taken
Speed garagethe evolution of house music in the UK in the late 1990s led to the term being applied to a new form of music also known as 'speed garage' or 'UK Garage'. This style is now frequently combined with other forms of music like hip hop, rap and R&B, all broadly filed under the description urban music
Speed metala genre of 'heavy metal' music that is similar to 'thrash metal', but tends to be more melodic and show less influence of punk music
Speed of soundthe speed of sound in air at a temperature of 0° centigrade and 50% relative humidity is 331.6 m/s. The speed is proportional to the square root of absolute temperature and it increases by 0.61 m/s for each increase of 1° centigrade (it is therefore about 12.2 m/s greater at 20° centigrade). The speed is nearly independent of frequency and atmospheric pressure but the resultant sound velocity may be substantially altered by wind velocity
a good approximation for the speed of sound in other gases at standard temperature and pressure can be obtained from

c = √ (γ P / ρ)

where γ is the ratio of specific heats, P (pressure) is 1.013E5 Pa and ρ is the density

in 1822, Jean-Daniel Colladen, a Swiss physicist/engineer and Charles-Francois Sturm, a mathematician, used an underwater bell in an attempt to calculate the speed of sound in the waters of Lake Geneva, Switzerland. In his experiment an underwater bell was struck simultaneously with ignition of gunpowder. The flash from the ignition was observed 10 miles away and compared with the arrival of the sound from the bell underwater heard through a trumpet-like device in the water. In spite of these crude instruments, they managed to determine that the speed of sound under water was 1435 m/s, a figure not too different from what is known today. The speed of sound in water is approximately 1500 m/s. It is possible to measure changes in ocean temperature by observing the resultant change in speed of sound over long distances. The speed of sound in an ocean is approximately:

c = 1449.2 + 4.6T - 0.055T2 + 0.00029T3 + (1.34-0.01T)(S-35) + 0.016z

where T is the temperature in ° centigrade, S is the salinity in parts per thousand & z is the depth in metres

Speeldoos(Dutch) musical box
Speeldoos orgel(Dutch) barrel organ
speels(Dutch) playful
speels (vrolijk)(Dutch) merry
spegnendo(Italian) estinguendosi (Italian), extinguishing, dying away, verlöschend (German), auslöschend (German), en éteignant (French)
Spektrum(German n.) spectrum
spelen(Dutch) playing
spelend in gebroken akkoorden(Dutch) playing in broken chords
Spelling pronunciationan unhistorical way of pronouncing a word based on the spelling of a word
Spelling reformany effort to make spelling closer to actual pronunciation
Spelman (s.), Spelmän (pl.)(Swedish) fiddler
Spelmanslag(Swedish) Scandivanian fiddlers team
Spelpipaa traditional Swedish wooden whistle usually with eight finger holes, scale usually includes 'blue notes' that add special character
Spennymoor Settlement
founded by Bill and Betty Farrell with the aid of the Pilgrim Trust, to provide a community centre in Spennymoor, a small industrial town in the depressed south Durham coalfield area. Its objectives were "To encourage tolerant neighbourliness and voluntary social services and give its members opportunities for increasing their knowledge, widening their interests, and cultivating their creative powers in a friendly atmosphere". It fostered amateur drama, art, literary and musical activities, provided a children's play centre, a citizen's advice bureau and poorman's lawyer service, and a range of other recreational, educational and welfare activities, and housed a branch of the county library. . In 1938-1939 it built its Everyman Theatre-Art Gallery. Among the painters and writers it encouraged were Norman Cornish, Herbert Dees, Tom McGuinness, and Sid Chaplin. The Farrells retired in the fifties, when the Settlement ceased to have a resident warden
Spenserian stanzaa fixed verse form invented by Edmund Spenser for his epic poem The Faerie Queene. Each verse contains nine lines in total: eight lines in iambic pentameter followed by a single line in iambic hexameter (or alexandrine). The rhyme scheme of these lines is ABABBCBCC. The Spenserian stanza is probably the longest and most intricate stanza generally employed in narrative poetry
spento(Italian) stinto (Italian), erloschen (German), erlöscht (German), éteint (French)
Speranza(Italian f.) hope
sperdendosi(Italian) dying away, fading away
Sperrholz(German n.) plywood
Sperrholzkiste(German f.) plywood box
Spettacolo(Italian m.) performance, show
Spettacolo diurno(Italian m.) matinée
Spettro(Italian m.) spectrum
spezial(German) special
spezielle Untertitel für Hörgeschädigte(German m.) closed caption
spezzato(Italian) broken
spezzato (s.), spezzati (pl.)(Italian) a term used to describe the splitting up of a choir of voices or instruments into small groups which are then distributed about a building from where they then perform together, i.e. coro spezzato (s.), cori spezzati (pl.)
Sphärenharmonie(German f.) celestial harmony
Sphère(French f.) a sphere
Spheres, music ofsee 'music of the spheres'
sphérique(French) spherical
Spia(Italian f.) peep-hole
spianato (m.), spianata (f.)(Italian) level, smoothed, even, tranquil, legato
spiccando le parole(Italian) detaching her words
spiccante(Italian) bright (colour), striking
spiccare(Italian) to detach, to cut off, to pluck (off), to articulate, to pronounce distinctly, to bring out clearly (meaning, sense), to stand out, to be conspicuous, to excel
spiccare il bollore(Italian) to begin to boil
spiccare il volo(Italian) to fly up, to take to flight (figuratively)
spiccare un salto(Italian) to take a leap
spiccatamente(Italian) brilliantly, distinctly, notably, conspicuously
spiccato(Italian) (Italian) prominent, striking, clear distinct, strong, notable, remarkable
in musical performance, separated, detached
a form of staccato bowing in which the bow is bounced on the string while the bow-stroke is restricted to the tip to produce rapid notes, synonymous with sautillé (French) or saltato (Italian). It is really a combination of two things: dropping the bow onto the string and a detaché (French); the result is a detached staccato, deutlich getrennt (German), très detaché (French) or très net (French)
see 'slurred spiccato'
Spicchio(Italian m.) segment (of fruit), quarter (of a lemon, etc.), slice (of apple, etc.)
spicciare(Italian) to dispatch (business), to attend to the requirements of (customers, etc.), to gush out, to spurt out, to dash away
spicciarsi(Italian) to make haste
spiccicare(Italian) to detach, to articulate, to pronounce clearly
spiccio(Italian) expeditious, quick, prompt
spicciolare(Italian) to pluck, to pick off, to change into smaller money
spicciolata (alla)(Italian) or spicciolatamente (Italian), little by little, (a) few at a time
Spicciolo(Italian m.) a small coin , small change, coppers (colloquial)
spicciolo(Italian) small
spicco(Italian) vividness, relief
spiegando(Italian, literally 'unfolding') becoming louder, entfaltend (German), en déployant (French)
spiegata(Italian) with full voice
Spiegel(German fm) a mirror
Spiegelcanon(Dutch) mirror canon
Spiegelfuge(German f.) mirror canon
Spiegelkanon(German m.) mirror canon
Spiel(German n.) play
spiel(German) perform
Spielalt(German f.) or Lyrischer Mezzosopran, lyric mezzo-soprano
Spielart (s.), Spielarten (pl.)(German f.) (in plural form) modi di suonare (Italian pl.), playing techniques, façons de jouer (French pl.)
(German f.) manner of playing, style of performance, variety
Spielbass(German) or Bassbuffo, (lyric) comic bass
Spielblättchen(German n.) plectrum, pick, plettro (Italian m.), plectre (French m.), Plektrum (German n.), plectro (Spanish m.)
Spieldose(German f.) musical box
spielen(German) to play, to perform, to sound (i.e. to play on an instrument)
spielen auf(German) to play upon ... (violin, piano, etc.), to perform upon ... (violin, piano, etc.)
Michael Zapf makes an important distinction between zum Tanze aufspielen (German: 'to strike up a dance') where the verb is aufspielen as opposed to auf (einer Geige) spielen (German: 'to play upon (the violin)'), where auf is a preposition and spielen is the verb
spielend(German) playing, playful
Spieler(German m.) a player
Spielfilm(German m.) the main feature (in a cinema programme)
Spielfigur(German f.) a short figure or motiv, usually relating to early keyboard music
Spielleiter (m.), Spielleiterin (f.)(German) opera director or producer
Spielleitung(German f.) stage direction
Spielleute(German) a musician
Spielmanier (m.), Spielmanieren (pl.)(German f.) instrumental ornament, grace
Spielmann(German m.) a musician, a singer of glees
Spieloper(German f., literally 'play-opera') a light opera form from the 19th-century not dissimilar to Singspiel in that it uses spoken dialogue
Spielplan(German m.) elenco artistico, prospectus, playbill
Spieltenor(German m.) lyric comic tenor
Spieltisch(German m.) console (of an organ)
Spieluhr(German f.) musical clock
Spielzeit(German f.) theatre season
Spigliatezza(Italian f.) agility, dexterity
Spike (on a cello)Stachel (German m.), pique (French f.), puntale (Italian m.), endpin (on a cello)
Spikenardan aromatic plant of northern India whose root was used in the preparation of medicinal ointments for curing bruises
Spike fiddlethe spike fiddle is considered a rebab, which is part of the lute family, and typically has 2 or 3 strings. The word rebab is an Arabic term translated as 'bowed string instrument'. It is closely associated with Islamic culture, and dates back to at least the 8th century. Its roots are probably in Arabia or Persia, and its influence has reached from Indonesia to Europe and Africa (it is thought to be the earliest ancestor of the violin). There are two basic types of rebab: wooden fiddles with pear-shaped bodies, and spiked fiddles, named for the spike on the bottom of the instrument on which it stands while being played. Spiked rebabs typically have no frets, but instead, the fingers of your left hand become movable bridges. These instruments complement the melodic line by creating a dialogue with the singers
Spillan unusual type of portamento, which is found in jazz, a descending glissando that falls from the end of a note, also known as a 'fall off' or 'drop'
Spinae(Latin, literally 'thorns') the quills of a harpsichord and spinet
Spindleflöte(German f.) an organ-stop of 8 ft. or 4 ft. pitch, the tone being thin and reedy
Spindle Tree(German Pfaffenhuten, Dutch Wilde Kardinaalsmuts, European Species: Euonymus europaeus) the Spindle Tree produces a very hard and dense wood similar to box. It was often used for spindles (hence the names in English and German)
Spinetspinetta (Italian), Spinett (German), épinette (French)
a small member of the harpsichord family, popular between the 16th-and 18th-centuries, generally wing-shaped or triangular, which has the keyboard set into the bentside to save space. The strings run at an angle to the player. The lid is usually hinged on the spine side which acts to reflect sound back to the player
a vertical or upright piano, 36" or 37" in height
Spinett(German n.) spinet
Spinetta(Italian f.) spinet
Spinettchen(German) an octave stop of a keyboard stringed instrument
Spinettdraht(German) virginal or spinet wire
Spinettina(Italian f.) octave spinet, ottavina
Spinetto(Italian m.) spinet
spingendo(Italian) pressing forward
Spinnerlied(German n.) spinner's song
Spinnlied(German n.) spinning song
spinto(Italian) pushed, urged on, intense
a lyric voice or a part for that voice, usually soprano or tenor, that can be 'pushed' to be more powerful or dramatic
Spionagethriller(German m.) Agentenfilm (German m.), spy film
Spirafina(Italian f.) a glass harmonica
Spiraglio(Italian m.) peep-hole
Spirale(French f.) a spiral
Spirale, la(French f.) a new music society founded in 1935 under the leadership of Georges Migot(1891-1976), its other committee members were Paul Le Flem (1881-1984), his pupil André Jolivet (1905-1974), Edouard Sciortino (1893-1979), Claire Delbos (1906-1959), her husband Olivier Messiaen (1908-1992), Daniel-Lesur (1908-2002) and Jules Le Febvre. The common link between almost all of these musicians was their connection with the Schola Cantorum. Several of them held teaching positions there after the Schola's radical reorganisation in December 1934, with Nestor Lejeune as the new director. La Spirale gave its first concert in December 1935 and its last in May 1937. A second new music society, La Jeune France, was inaugurated in June 1936 and continued its collective activity until the mid-1940s
Spiral of fifthsunlike the 'circle of fifths' where successive intervals of a fifth (set using equal temperament) finally return to the note from which it started but transposed by several octaves, the 'spiral of fifths' uses a Pythagorean fifth (3:2), and the original note can never be reached because all multiples of 2 are irrational, i.e. cannot be expressed in the form a/b, where a and b are integers
spirando(Italian) fading away, en expirant
Spirantanother term in linguistics for a fricative
spirante(Italian) expiring, dying away
Spirea tall pyramidal, polygonal or conical structure arising from a tower
spirit.abbreviated form of spiritoso
Spirite(French m./f.) a spiritualist
Spiritedlively, animated, con spirito (Italian), spiritoso (Italian), lebhaft (German), animé (French)
Spirit guidea conventional figure in mythology, in the medieval visio and in shamanistic myths that serves as a guide to a lost or wandering soul or to a guide to the dreaming psyche of another character
Spirito(Italian m.) spirit, vigour, life, energy
spiritosamente(Italian) brisk, spritedly, in a spirited manner, in a lively manner
spiritoso(Italian) or spirituoso, spirited, lively
Spiritual(English, German n.) an African American song, usually with a Christian religious text. Originally monophonic and a cappella, these songs are antecedents of the 'blues'. The terms 'Negro spiritual', 'Black spiritual', and 'African-American spiritual' are all synonyms; in the 19th-century the term 'jubilee' was more common (at least among African-Americans; whites often called them 'slave songs'). Some musicologists call them 'African-American folk songs'
(English, German m.) sacred, spiritual
Spiritual autobiographyan autobiography (usually Christian) that focuses on an individual's spiritual growth
spirituale(Italian) sacred, spiritual
Spiritualsmembers of the Franciscan order devoted to maintaining the ideals of the founder with respect to money and property
spirituel (m.), spirituelle (f.)(French) sacred, spiritual, witty
spirituelle(French) witty
Spiritueux(French m.) spirit (alcohol)
spirituososee spiritoso
spitz(German) pointed, sharp, shrill, acute
Spitzbube(German m.) scoundrel, rascal
spitzbübisch(German) mischievous, mischievously
Spitzdämfer(German m.) straight mute
Spitze (s.), Spitzen (pl.)(German f.) top, front, tip (of the finger, toe, etc.), apex, pinnacle, maximium, (cigarette) holder, lace (textile), dig, barb, accuteness
(German f.) point or tip of a bow (Spitze des Bogens), punta (Italian f.), pointe (French f.)
(German f.) in organ playing, toe
spitze Bemerkung(German) dig
Spitze des Bogens(German f.) point or tip of the bow
Spitzel(German m.) informer, peeper (e.g. Peeping Tom)
Spitzen(German pl.) flouncing
spitzen(German) to sharpen, to purse (lips), to pick up (ears)
Spitzen-(German prefix) lacy
Spitzenarbeit(German f.) lacework
Spitzenagentur(German f.) leading agency
Spitzenangebot(German n.) top offer
spitzenartig(German) lacy
Spitzenberater(German m.) leading adviser
Spitzenflügel(German m.) lacewing (insect)
Spitzengruppe(German f.) top flight
Spitzenkandidat(German m.) top candidate
Spitzenklasse(German f.) top class
Spitzenklöpplerin(German f.) lacemaker
Spitzenleistung(German f.) top performance
spitzenmäßig(German) big time
Spitzenqualität(German f.) top quality
Spitzentänzerin(German f.) toe dancer (a female dancer who performs on the toes, especially in ballet)
Spitzenwäsche(German f.) lacy underwear
spitze Winkel(German m.) acute angle
spitzfindig(German) over-subtle
Spitzflöte(German f., literally 'pointed flute') an organ stop of 8ft. or 4ft. pitch, with conical pipes and a soft pleasing tone
Spitzflutean organ stop of 8ft. or 4ft. pitch, with conical pipes and a soft pleasing tone
Spitzgamba(German f.) cone gamba
[entry provided by Michael Zapf]
Spitzgeschwindigkeit(German f.) top speed
Spitzhacke(German f.) pickaxe
Spitzharfe(German f., literally 'pointed harp') double harp, a small harp with two sound boards and two rows of strings - one row of steel and other of brass (the instrument is also called arpanetta or arpa doppia)
spitzig(German) pointed, cutting, sharp
Spitzname(German m.) nickname
Spitzquinte(German f.) an organ stop, with conical pipes, sounding a fifth or a twelfth above the foundation stops
spitz zulaufen(German) taper to a point
spkr(s)abbreviation of 'speaker(s)'
Splabbreviation of Singspiel (German)
Splash cymbalsa small cymbal used for an accent in a drum kit; splash cymbals and china cymbals are the main types of 'effects cymbals' [an error pointed out by A Waksman has been corrected]]
Splatin jazz, a musical effect in which a note is played with no definite pitch
Splendeur(French f.) splendour
splendide(French) splendid
Split coila double coil pickup wound with multiple coils that are smaller than a standard 2 coil pickup where each coil works with a few strings. Most commonly one coil is used for the e and a strings and one coil is used for the d and g strings. A split coil generally has a little less hum canceling but better high frequency response
Split E mechanisma system to facilitate playing high A on a flute
Split fretssee tastini
Split note chordsa chord in which one or more chord members are 'split' by adding a note a minor second away; e.g., C E G G#
Split pointthe point on a music keyboard where one sound ceases to be played and another takes over
Spleen(German m.) obsession
spleenig(German) eccentric
Splendide mendax(Latin) lying in an honourable cause
Splitter(German m.) splinter
SPNM abbreviation of 'Society for the Promotion of New Music'
Spoken languagea human natural language in which the words are uttered through the mouth. Almost all languages are spoken languages
Spolvero (s.), Spolveri (pl.)(Italian) in art, a cartoon or sketch into which holes have been pricked in order that by sprinkling coloured dust the penetration of the dust through those holes will transfer details of the original image to the surface immediately behind it
Spondaicthe adjective spondaic describes a line of poetry in which the feet are composed of successive spondees
Spondeein scansion, a metrical foot consisting of two successive strong beats
a musical foot consisting of two long notes or syllables
Spondylosisa term referring to degenerative osteoarthritis of the joints between the centra of the spinal vertebrae and/or neural foraminae
spongieux (m.), spongieuse (f.)(French) spongy
sponsern(German) to sponsor
sponsoriser(French) to sponsor (an event, a person, etc.)
spontan(German) spontaneous, spontaneously
spontané(French) spontaneous
Spontanéité(French f.) spontaneity
spontanément(French) spontaneously
Spontaneous compositionsee 'improvisation'
Sponte sua(Latin) of his (her) own free will, voluntarily
Spoofa comic piece of film or literature that ostensibly presents itself as a "genre" piece, but actually pokes fun at the clichés or conventions of the genre through imitative satire
Spoonerismthe comic (and usually unintentional) transposition of two initial consonants or other sounds
Spoonsusually used in pairs and played against the leg or knee to produce a percussion effect
Spoor(Dutch) track (on a CD, record or tape)
sporadique(French) sporadic
sporadisch(German) sporadic, sporadically
Sporen(German f. pl., literally 'spurs') a percussion instrument made of 6 - 8 metal discs strung on a single wooden rod with a handle
[information provided by Erna Van Daele]
Sporen are called for in the overture to Der Zigeunerbaron by Johann Strauss
Spot coloura single colour printed from a plate that is not created through colour separation
Sportif (m.), Sportive (f.)(French) an athlete, a sportsman (m.), a sportswoman (f.)
sportif (m.), sportive (f.)(French) sporting, athletic
Sportivesee 'playful'
Spot(French m.) a spotlight, an advertisement (an ad)
Spot dancea dance that is generally danced in a restricted area of the dance floor, for example, 'rumba', 'salsa' and 'East Coast swing'
Spotted metalon an organ, a combination of tin and lead used for metal flue pipes
Spotteur(French m.) a police spy, a detective engaged to watch a suspect
Spottingin dance, the characteristic movement of the head in pirouettes, in order to avoid becoming dizzy. The dancer should focus on a distant object and, during the turn, snap the head from one object to another, in each case fixing the eyes on that object for long enough that it is seen clearly
see 'foxing'
spöttisch(German) mocking
Spougea musical genre from the Caribbean nation of Barbados. It is typically played with mandolin, guitar and drums, often with other, unusual instruments like the cowbell
Sprabbreviation of Sprecher(in) (German: speaker - récitant(e) (French))
spr.abbreviation of 'spring'
Sprachbund(German, 'speech bond') a group of languages - often technically unrelated to each other otherwise - that are spoken in the same geographic area or shared by members of the same occupation. Since they tend to share many bilingual speakers, they tend to influence each other through loanwords and linguistic adaptations
Sprache(German f.) language, speech
Sprachfehler(German m.) speech defect
Sprachgefühl(German n.) a feeling for language, a sensitiveness to the idiom (for example, of a foreign language)
Sprachinseltänze(German m. pl., literally 'language island dances') an Austrian term for dances that originate in Austria, but are now performed by German-speaking minorities living outside Austria
Sprachlabor(German n.) speech laboratory
sprachlich(German) linguistic, linguistically
sprachlos(German) speechless
Sprachmittler(German m.) translator
Sprachschnitzer(German m.) illiteracy
Spread harmonyopen harmony
Spread vowelalso called an unrounded vowel, in linguistics, a vowel made with the corners of the lips retracted so the lips are against the teeth
Sprechanlage(German f.) intercom
Sprechchor(German m.) choral speaking, when a choir, rather than a solist, delivers a vocal line as sprechgesang, midway between song and speech
sprechen(German) to speak, to talk, speak, to say, to pronounce
sprechend(German) speaking
Sprecher (m.), Sprecherin (f.)(German) narrator, speaker (person), announcer (TV, radio), spokesperson
Sprechchor(German m.) chorus
Sprechgesangexample of sprechgesang notation
(German m., literally 'speech-song') or inflected speech, Sprechgesang is a term used by Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951) to describe a voice delivery midway between song and speech, although he preferred the terms sprechstimme speaking voice, which was first used by Engelbert Humperdinck (1854-1921) in Königskinder (1910), sprechmelodic (speech melody) or rezitation (recitation). The crosses through the note stems are one form of sprechgesang notation, another is to use crosses for the noteheads themselves
Sprechgesang im Chor(German m.) choral speaking
[entry by Michael Zapf]
Sprechmelodie(German f.) synonymous with Sprechgesang
Sprechspruch(German, 'saying', 'epigram') an alliterative term refering to a short lyrical poem set to music common among the German Minnesingers. The term is usually used in contrast with the Spruch (the original gnomic verse meant to be spoken and read), while Sprechspruch is meant to be sung
Sprechstimme(German f.) synonymous with Sprechgesang
Sprechstunde(German f.) consulting hours, surgery (medical)
Sprechstundenhilfe(German f.) (medical) receptionist
Sprechzimmer(German n.) consulting room
Spreekstem(Dutch) Sprechstimme
spreizen(German) to spread
Sprengel(German m.) parish
sprengen(German) to blow up, to blast, to burst (figurative), to water, to sprinkle, to dampen (with water)
Sprenger(German m.) a sprinkler
Sprengstoff(German m.) an explosive
Spreu(German f.) chaff
Sprezzatura(Italian, 'recklessness') a word that embodies both the appearance of reckless spontaneity and its opposite quality, careful and practiced preparation. Sprezzatura is carefully practicing witticisms, cultured eloquence, and feats of athletic prowess in private, and then later, when other viewers are present, pretending to make the witticism, the eloquent speech, or the athletic feat appear off-the-cuff. Sir Thomas Hoby translation into English of the 1528 treatise by Baldassare Castiglione (1478-1529) which appeared in 1561 as The Book of the Courtier, had a profound influence on courtly manners in England
in art, the nonchalance and apparently effortless technique of the supreme artist, originally applied by Baldassare Castiglione (1478-1529) to his concept of the ideal courtier
a free style of musical performance that ignored strict tempo and rhythm but embraced freedom of tempo and expressiveness, typically in 17th-century Italy
Sprichwort(German n.) proverb
sprichwörtlich(German) proverbially
SpringarSwedish and Norwegian dance for two people
spring.Bog.abbreviated form of springenden Bogen
Springbogen, mit (dem)(German) playing with a bouncing or springing bow, spiccato (Italian), saltando (Italian), saltato (Italian), balzato (Italian), fliegendes Staccato (German), bondi (French), staccato volant (French), sautillé
Springbrunnen(German m.) fountain
Spring coilsthe springs formerly used in car shock absorbers which when suspended and hit with a metal beater produce a sound rather like that of a triangle but less refined
SpringdansSwedish and Norwegian dance in simple triple time
Springend(German) springing, bouncing
springende bevægelse(Danish) disjunct movement
springenden Bogen(German m.) bouncing bow, spiccato (Italian), saltando (Italian), saltato (Italian), balzato (Italian), fliegendes Staccato (German), mit (dem) Springbogen (German), bondi (French), staccato volant (French), sautillé
Springeran ornament consisting of the main note followed by the note above it followed by the note above that, then returning to the original main note
springer example
also called in French, accent, aspiration, plainte, in German Nachschlag and in English the acute or sigh, an auxiliary note lying between two main notes which takes its time from the note before, unlike an appoggiatura that takes its time from the note following
[corrected by Michael Zapf]
(German m.) jack (on a harpsichord)
Springheada Dorset community founded by Rolf Gardiner in 1933, it was the base of the Springhead Ring founded to promote the revival of rural life. Pioneered work in organic farming and reforestation alongside reviving countryside festivals and traditional song and dance. Became target of rumour of Nazi sympathys during WW2
Springing bow
in violin playing, a style of bowing (sautillé in French) in which the bow leaves the string between notes:
spiccatoindicated by dots over the notes, and played near the middle of the bow with a loose wrist and employing the wrist, for rapid passages in equal notes
saltatoa longer fall and higher rebound, employed when several equal staccato notes are to be played in one bow
Springleik(Norwegian) Swedish and Norwegian country [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
Springlek(Swedish) Swedish and Norwegian country dance [entry provided by Lars Hellvig]
Springseil(German n.) skipping-rope
Spring and Autumn Periodfrom 770–476 BC, a period which roughly corresponds to the first half of the Eastern Zhou dynasty named for one of the Confucian classics, Chunqiu (Chinese: Spring and Autumn Annals)
spröde(German) brittle, dry, chapped, harsh, aloof
Sprong(Dutch) leap
sprongsgewijze beweging(Dutch) disjunct movement
Spruce(German Fichte, French Épicéa, European Species: Picea excelsa, P. vulgaris, P. abies (Norway spruce): Average Weight: 28-34 pounds per cubic foot) soft light wood used for building material
Spruch(German m.) saying, motto, quotation
two kinds of Medieval German poetry, the first verbal Spruch consisted of rhymed couplets and was intended for spoken performance, while the second lyric Spruch was intended to be sung and was related to the Minnelied
Spruchband(German n.) a banner
Sprucingdecorating or making neat
Sprudel(German m.) sparkling mineral water
sprudeln(German) to bubble
Sprühdose(German f.) aerosol (can)
sprühdosen(German) to spray, to fly, to sparkle (figurative)
Sprühregen(German m.) a fine drizzle
Sprung (s.), Sprünge (pl.)(German m.) leap, skip, jump, dive, stone's throw (familiar), crack
Sprungbett(German n.) a springboard
sprunghaft(German) erratic, sudden, erratically, suddenly
sprunghafte Bewegung(German f.) disjunct movement, moto disgiunto (Italian), mouvement (mélodique) disjoint (French)
Sprung rhythmalso called accentual rhythm, sprung rhythm is a term invented by the poet-priest Gerard Manley Hopkins to describe his personal metrical system in which the major stresses are "sprung" from each line of poetry. The accent falls on the first syllable of every foot and a varying number of unaccented syllables following the accented one, but all feet last an equal amount of time when being pronounced
Sprungseil(German n.) a skipping-rope
Spucke(German f.) spit
spucken(German) to spit, to be sick
Spugna(Italian f.) sponge
Spuk(German m.) (ghostly) apparition
spuken(German) to walk (of an apparition)
Spülbecken(German n.) a sink
Spule(German f.) a spool
Spüle(German f.) a sink unit, a sink
spulen(German) to spool
spülen(German) to rinse, to wash
Spülkasten(German m.) a cistern
Spülmittel(German n.) washing-up liquid
Spültuch(German n.) dishcloth
Spur(German f.) a track, a lane, a trail, a trace, a lead
spürbar(German) noticeable, noticeably
spuren(German) to toe the line (familiar)
spüren(German) to feel, to sense
Spürhund(German m.) a tracker dog
spurlos(German) without trace
spurlos versunken(German) sunk without trace, vanished leaving no vestige behind
Spurssee sistrum, Sporen (German)
spurten(German) to put on a spurt, to sprint (familiar)
sputato(Italian, literally 'to spit') when playing the recorder, using a sharp, forceful "t" tonguing (as required, for example, in Recorder Rally a piece composed by Matthias Maute)
sputen(German) to hurry
Sputnik(Russian) an artificial satellite set in orbit round the earth
Sputterto utter hastily or explosively in confusion or excitement
Sputum (s.), Sputa (pl.)(Latin) saliva, spittle
Squarcialupi Codex(Florence, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Med. Pal. 87) is an illuminated manuscript compiled in Florence, Italy in the early 15th century. It is the single largest primary source of music of the 14th-century Italian Trecento (also known as the "Italian ars nova"). It consists of 216 parchment folios, richly illuminated and in good condition, so complete pieces of music are preserved. Included in the codex are 146 complete pieces by Francesco Landini, 37 by Bartolino da Padova, 36 by Niccolò da Perugia, 29 by Andrea da Firenze, 28 by Jacopo da Bologna, 17 by Lorenzo da Firenze, 16 by Gherardello da Firenze, 15 by Donato da Cascia, 12 pieces by Giovanna da Cascia, 6 by Vincenzo da Rimini, and smaller amounts of music by others. It contains 16 blank folios, intended for the music of Paolo da Firenze, since they are labeled as such and include his portrait; the usual presumption by scholars is that Paolo's music was not ready at the time the manuscript was compiled, since he was away from Florence until 1409
Squarcio di vita(Italian) literally 'slice of life', in French, tranche de vie, in German ein Stück aus dem Leben
see verismo
Squarein early English church music, a bottom part taken from a late 14th century, or later, polyphonic composition for use in a later composition. The borrowed material may be transposed, used in any voice part or may migrate between different parts, and can be unchanged (literal) or subject to some degree of rhythmic and melodic elaboration
Square dancea form of American dance, with music derived from popular or Anglo-American folk genres and played on a fiddle, piano, guitar or banjo, usually performed by four couples facing each other, arranged in a square
Square dance listsee 'square dance program'
Square dance programor 'square dance list', a set of defined square dance calls or dance steps which are associated with a level of difficulty. Programs and program lists are managed and universally recognized in modern Western square dance
Square Do-Si-Doone of the figures unique to, or traditionally associated with, square dancing
Square pianoa early form of domestic piano about the size and shape of large dressing table, often ornately decorated with precious-hardwood inlay and brass. Later instruments had a pedal to operate dampers
Square time4/4 time
march time
SquashboxSouth African diatonic concertina
Squeakera novelty postcard containing a device between two sandwiched layers of card stock that makes a squeaking sound when squeezed. A small hole is placed on the card's back for the expulsion of air. These cards were marketed at children and often depict animals
Squeezeboxslang word meaning an 'accordion'
Squeeze drumsee 'talking drum'
squillante, squillanti(Italian) clear, ringing, sounding, tinkling
a direction that cymbals should be suspended and struck with drumsticks rather than clashed together
squillare(Italian) to peal (of bells), to blare (of trumpets)
Squillo(Italian m.) blare, ring
Squintan angled slit in a wall allowing a view of the high altar from outside the sanctuary
Squirea knight-in-training, a young boy who has spent several years as a page to learn humility, patience, and the manners of polite society and who is now acting as the servant of a knight while he perfects his combat and riding skills. In older medieval times, the offices of page and squire were limited to the children of aristocrats. By the fourteenth century, wealthy middle class or bourgeois parents began making arrangements for their children to be trained as pages in noble households
SRor S, referring to the catalogue prepared by Padre Samuel Rubio of music by Antonio Soler (1729-1783)
S/Rafter Max Schönherr & Karl Reinhold the cataloguers of music by Johann Strauss Jr (1825-1899)
Sralai (thomm)Cambodian low-pitched quadruple-reed shawm
Srijemski stim(Croatian, literally 'Srijemski tuning') the tuning system used on certain tambura-instruments. The instrument usually have five strings tuned as three single and one double string, the double strings being the thinnest) or six strings tuned as two double courses and two single strings. The four different notes are tuned a fourth apart. Srijem is a region in the eastern part of Croatia
bisernica I. (prim)b naturalead
bisernica II. (primterc)b naturalead
braè I. (basprim), G-braèeadg
braè II. u. III. (basprimterc), D-braèB naturalead
bugarija I.(g)b naturaldg
bugarija II.(d)gb naturald
bugarija III.(d)f#ad
berda (bass, beges)EADG
  • Strings from which this table has been taken
S.r.l.abbreviation of Società a responsabilità limitata (Italian: limited company)
SROsee 'standing room only'
SrutiIndian music uses small intervals called sruti, a term referring to the displacement of a note by an interval smaller than a semitone (half step)
SSafter Kaethe Schaefer-Schmuck, the cataloguer of music by Georg Phillip Telemann (1681-1767)
SSabbreviation of 'Saints' (English, Italian, Spanish), Santissima (Italian: Most Holy), Santissimo (Italian: Most Holy)
SSabbreviation of 'steamship' (before the given name of a ship)
s.s.abbreviation of senza sordini (Italian: without mutes)
s.sord.abbreviation of senza sordini (Italian: without mutes)
Sspilåpipasee spelpipa
SSRabbreviation of 'Soviet Socialist Republic'
SSWVthe catalogue prepared by Klaus-Peter Koch of music by Samuel Scheidt (1587-1654)
stabbreviation of stimmig(er) (German: part - à voix (French))
Stabbreviation of Stimme(n) (German: voice(s), part(s) - voix, partie(s) (French)), 'Saint'
s.t.abbreviation of senza tempo
Sta(Italian) this, as it stands, to be played as written
Sta.abbreviation of Santa (Spanish f.: Saint)
staande piano(Dutch) upright piano
Staart (van noot)(Dutch) stem (of a note)
Staat(German m.) a state, a country, finery
staatlich(German) (of the) state, by the state
Staatsangehörige (m.), Staatsangehöriger (f.)(German) national
Staatsangehörigkeit(German f.) nationality
Staatsanwalt(German m.) state prosecutor
Staatsbeamte (m.), Staatsbeamter (f.)(German) civil servant
Staatsbesuch(German m.) state visit
Staatsbürger (m.), Staatsbürgerin (f.)(German) national
Staatsmann (s.), Staatsmänner (pl.)(German m.) statesman
Staatsstreich(German m.) coup
Stab(German m.) a rod, a bar, a baton, team (of workers), staff (military)
Stabat Mater (Dolorosa)(Latin, Stabat Mater, 'the mother was standing') a sequence in the Roman Catholic liturgy regarding the crucifixion, and used in several Divine offices
Stabbingin printing, to stitch with wire through the side of gathered work at the binding edge
Stäbchen(German n. pl.) beater for the triangle, chopsticks
Stabeisen(German n.) iron bar
Stabglockenspiel(German n.) synonymous with Glockenspiel
Stabhochsprung(German m.) pole-vault
stabil(German) stable, robust, sturdy, sturdily
stabile(Italian) steady, firm
stabilisieren(German) to stabilize
Stabilität(German f.) stability
Stabpandereta(German) pandereta
Stabreim(German, literally 'alliteration') a term to describe alliterative verse, originating in early English verse (e.g. Piers Plowman) and taken up by Richard Wagner (1813-1883) in his music dramas
stacc.abbreviated form of staccato (Italian: detached, separated)
staccare(Italian) to detach, to separate each note
staccatissimo or wedge (Italian) an extreme form of staccato, marked with a 'wedge', taken to indicate that one should shorten the note thus marked to one quarter of its written length, the remaining three-quarters replaced with silence
staccatissimo duro(Italian) strong and staccatissimo
Staccatissimo duro marking
staccatissimo duro mark an inverted V over a staccatissimo mark both over the notehead
staccatissimo forzato(Italian) marcato and staccatissimo
Staccatissimo forzato marking
staccatissimo forzato mark a V on its side over a staccatissimo mark both over the notehead
Staccato(French m. from the Italian staccato) detached, jerky
staccato (s.), staccati (pl.)(Italian) detached, jerky (for example, manner of speech or manner of playing a musical line), separato (Italian), abgestoßen (German), gestoßen (German), détaché (French), piqué (French)
staccato example
(Italian, literally 'detached') a dot above the note indicating that the note thus marked should be shortened to half its written length, the second half replaced with silence
see mezzo staccato, staccatissimo
see 'springing bow'
when playing, some mistakenly add an accent to staccato notes, although the principal purpose of this marking is to 'lighten' the rhythmic character of the note (or notes) to which it has been applied
although the term becomes general in the 18th-century, in his Il Cobattimento di Tancredi e Clorinda (1624), Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643) instructs the string players "Qui si lascia l'arco e si stappano le corde con duoi ditti" (put the bow down and pluck the string with two fingers)
staccato duro(Italian) strong and staccato
Staccato duro marking
staccato duro mark an inverted V over a staccato dot both over the notehead
staccato forzato(Italian) marcato & staccato
Staccato forzato
staccato forzato mark an V on its side over a staccato dot both over the notehead
staccato volante(French) also called 'slurred spiccato' or 'flying staccato', similar to slurred staccato except that the bow bounces on the string to create the separation of the pitches. Instead of reversing direction for each note as in ordinary spiccato, the bow picks up a series of short notes, usually on an up-bow
Stachel(German m.) spine, sting
pique (French f.), pied (French m.), puntale (Italian m.), spike (on a cello), endpin (on a cello)
Stachelbeer(German f.) goose-berry
Stacheldracht(German m.) barbed wire
Stachelgeige(German f.) a spike fiddle
stachelig(German) prickly
Stachelschwein(German n.) a porcupine
Stacked triadan arpeggio, with one or two octave stacked triad, implies the sounding in sequence of 'tonic', 'mediant' and 'dominant' of a scale, repeated twice with an additional tonic, added to the highest point in the shape. Thus, an A Minor stacked triad would notate as A-C-E-A-C-E-A
Stack perma type of permanent wave which is designed for women with hair which has been cut to a single length. With the use of rollers of varying sizes, curls are added to the middle and bottom sections of the hair to create a textured, curly look which is softened by leaving the hair on top flat. When done well, a stack perm can look very natural, with soft curls forming at the ends of the client's hair exactly as they would on someone with a natural soft curl
Stadion(German n.) (sports) a stadium
Stadium(German n.) a stage
Stadt(German f.) a town, a city
Städtchen(German n.) a small town
städtisch(German) urban, municipal
Stadtmauer(German f.) city wall
Stadtmitte(German f.) town centre
Stadt-musikus(German) town musician, similar to the Stadtpfeifer
Stadtpfeifer(German m.) established in the late 14th-century, a musician, publicly employed in Germany, and expected to perform on civic occasions, similar to the British wait. Turmmusik, 'tower music', was specifically composed for them
Stadtplan(German m.) street map
Stadtteil(German m.) district
Stadtzentrum(German n.) town centre
Staffor stave (the plural form is 'staves'), rigo (Italian), sistema (Italian), Liniensystem (German), portée (French), the set of parallel lines (today, usually five) used during the common practice period. Clef signs are used to set the name of one particular line from which the names of the remaining spaces and lines follow. When bracketed together several staves make up a system. In plainsong, it is common to find staves with four lines or fewer
see 'score layout'
Staffel(German f.) a team, a relay, a squadron (military)
Staffelei(German f.) an easel
Staffellauf(German m.) relay race
staffeln(German) to stagger, to grade
Staff notation
staff notation has a number of distinct components:
staff or stavea framework to indicate all aspects of music (i.e. pitch, duration, dynamics, etc.)
bracketthe bracket brings independent parts into a single system
bracethe brace brings related parts (e.g. two piano staves) into a single system
clefthe clef indicates the pitch of a note sign placed on a particular staff line and thereby indicates the pitch of any other note placed on the staff
key signaturethe key signature generally indicates, but does not prescribe, the principal key or tonality of the composition
meter or time signaturethe meter or time signature generally indicates, but does not prescribe, the underlying rhythm of the composition
ledger (or leger) linessupplementary horizontal lines that extend the staff to notes placed above and below the staff
barlinethe barline separates rhythmic note groupings based on the meter or time signature
double barlinethe double barline indicates a change in the composition (e.g. a change of key or change of meter). It may also be used as a convenient way of breaking an extended piece into smaller parts or sections, more convenient for a rehearsal
final barlinethe final barline indicates the end of the composition or, in some cases, the end of a movement of a composition
Staff paperalso called 'manuscript paper', paper with staves printed on it used for writing music
Stagean area set aside or deliberately constructed as a place for actors, dancers, musicians, or singers to perform. Often (but not always) a stage is located in an indoor theatre or a large outdoor arena. It often has seating provided for an audience
Stageband(German f.) a stage band
Stage directionsometimes abbreviated s.d., in the script of a play or an opera libretto, any instruction for the actors/singers, or setting or character description
Stage divingassociated with punk music, where members of the audience climb onto the stage and then throw themselves back into the trong. This activity is usually performed by the more outgoing concert goers and during times of lenient security. A stage dive is more dangerous than just moshing ,but is generally an enjoyable experience. For a good stage dive you need a fairly large crowd, with preferably lots of your friends because this means you know theres going to be someone out there to catch you
Stage leftthe side of the stage on the left when facing the audience
Stage rightthe side of the stage on the right when facing the audience
Staggione(Italian f., literally 'season') see stagione
Stagione(Italian f., literally 'season') or staggione, period (season), season (time of year), era (epoch)
a short run of a particular opera with a fixed cast, as opposed to the more extended repertory system
Stagione autunnale(Italian f.) fall, autumn
Stagione concertistica(Italian f.) concert season
Stagione di cartello(Italian f.) the operatic season
Stagione esitva(Italian f.) summertime
Stagione lirica(Italian f.) an opera season (put on at any Italian theatre or teatro)
Stagione morta(Italian f.) off-season (that part of the year when there is little happening)
Stagione primaverile(Italian f.) springtime
Stagione teatrale(Italian f.) theatre season
Stahl(German m.) steel
Stahlbeton(German m.) reinforced concrete
Stahlblech(German n.) sheet steel
Stahldraht(German m.) piano wire, music wire
Stahlharmonica(German f., literally 'a steel harmonica') carillon, glockenspiel
Stahlharmonika(German f., literally 'a steel harmonica') carillon, glockenspiel
Stahlplatte(German f.) steel plate
Stahlsaite(German f.) steel string, corda d'acciao (Italian f.), corde d'acier (French f.)
Stahlstäbe (order Glocken) von tiefem (und) umbestimmtem Klang(e)(German) steel bars (or bells) of deep (and) indefinite pitch
Stahlstich(German m.) a steel engraving
Stahltrommel(German f.) or Calypsotrommel, steel drum
Stainedgebeizt (German), teinté (French), tinto (Italian), coloured
Stairway to Heavena popular rock song by the English rock group Led Zeppelin, composed by guitarist Jimmy Page and vocalist Robert Plant, and recorded on their fourth studio album, Led Zeppelin IV. It is the most requested and most played song on FM radio stations in the United States, despite never being released as a single there. One feature is the use of three over-dubbed recorders played by John Paul Jones (born John Baldwin on January 3, 1946 in Sidcup, London), an English multi-instrumentalist musician, the bassist and the keyboardist for the rock band from its inception until the band's breakup following the death of John Bonham in 1980. More recently Jones has developed a successful solo career, and is widely respected as both a musician and a producer. A versatile musician, Jones also plays guitar, mandolin, koto, lap steel guitars, autoharp, ukulele and cello
Staithes Artists' Colonyestablished in the 1880s, a small artists' colony in Staithes, a small Yorkshire coastal fishing village
Stakkato (s.), Stakkati (pl.)(German n.) staccato
Stalacpipe Organsee 'Great Stalacpipe Organ'
Stall(German m.) a stable, a shed, a sty, a coop, a hutch
Stämgaffel(Swedish) tuning fork
Stamm(German m.) a trunk, a triber, a core, a stem (of a word)
Stämma(Swedish) part, voice, (as in a polyphonic composition)
Stammakkord(German m.) the fundamental or radical (that is, not an inverted) chord (i.e. in root position)
Stammbaum(German m.) a family tree, a pedigree
stammeln(German) to stammer
Stammentin-pipean organ stop, Schwiegel
Stammgast(German m.) a regular (customer, supplier, etc.)
Stammhalter(German m.) son and heir
stämmig(German) sturdy
Stammkundschaft(German f.) regulars
Stammlokal(German n.) favourite pub
stammt aus(German) dates from
Stammtisch(German m.) table for the regulars, meeting of the regulars
stammt von(German) comes from, dates from
Stampa(Italian f.) press (publishing), printing, press (journalism)
Stampa a caratteri mobili(Italian f.) printing using moveable type (first employedby by Johann Gutenburg)
Stampa musicale(Italian f.) music press (journalism), music printing
Stampatello(Italian m. pl.) block letters
stampfen(German) to stamp, to pound, to tramp, to mash (potatoes)
Stampfkartoffeln(German f. pl.) mashed potatoes
Stampináta(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) a fit of mirth or fidling. Also a kind of country dancing, singing or fidling anciently used in Italie
Stamping tubeslong pieces of stout bamboo that are held perpendicularly and, when struck on the ground, emit low and resonant sounds
Stampita(Italian f.) an air, song, strain, sonata, estampie
Stamtoon(Dutch) natural (note)
stanchezza(Italian) wearily, in a weary manner
Stand(German m.) standing position, a state (condition), a score (in a game), level (grade), class (social), a stall, a stand (at a fair), rank (taxi)
Standalso called a music stand, a wooden or metal device for holding musical scores or parts during a performance
a structure for supporting an instrument, for example a harpsichord or clavichord for which the stand may be separated from the body and which may consist of a set of legs joined by an apron, like a table without a top, and corresponding in shape to the instrument it holds. Stands can be ornamental as well as functional and historically were carved, gilded and decorated, sometimes quite lavishly
Standardwhat is usual or most common, for example 'standard notation', standard tuning', etc.
technical and/or musical level of attainment, as, for example, 'intermediate standard' or 'advanced standard'
(English, German m.) a tune that has become a jazz or popular music classic (in jazz circles, the general presumption would be that the tune was composed by a non-jazz songwriter, although this is not always the case)
in dance, a category of dances in 'International Style' ballroom competitions, in that context also called 'Ballroom' or 'International Ballroom'. The category, which includes 'waltz' (also called 'slow waltz'), 'tango', 'foxtrot' (also called 'slowfox'), 'quickstep', 'Viennese waltz', corresponds loosely to the 'Smooth' category of 'American Style' ballroom
Standardabweichung(German f.) standard deviation (statistics)
Standardbesetzung(German f.) standard instrumentation
Standard Englishthe more prestigious variety of English described in prescriptivist dictionaries and grammars
Standard intervalan interval 'measured' in the conventional way, from the lower note up to the higher note
Standard MIDI Fileidentified by its extension (.MID, sometimes .MFF or .SMF), this is a file that can store MIDI messages, such as songs. The data in a MIDI file can be played, manipulated, edited. A MIDI file stores efficiently information about actions performed on an instrument (keys pressed, how hard and so on) There is a standard MIDI file format, the principal advantage of which is that it provides standard acorss platforms and sequencers. The SMF protocol includes type 1 (multiple track / multiple channel) and type 0 (single track / multiple channel) formats
Standard Music Font Layoutsee SMuFL
Standard notationmusic written on one or more staves, using traditional note symbols and clefs to indicate pitch locations and durations
Standard postcard sizein 1878 the member countries of the Universal Postal Union agreed that the postal items mailed between them should be set at a standard size of 3 1/2" x 5 1/2" to be eligible for the postal rate. The same standard is in use today
Standard tuninga term usually applied only to string instruments, signifying the most usual or most common tuning of the individual strings as opposed to any variation which leads to 'altered tuning'. Altered tuning is more common on plucked string instruments (for example 'open tuning'), but is not unknown on bowed string instruments (where it is called scordatura tuning)
Ständchen(German n.) a serenade
standhaft(German) firm, steady, resolute, firmly, steadyly, resolutely
Standhaftigkeit(German f.) firmness, steadiness, resolve
Standing ovationat the end of a performance, when the audience stands and claps, a higher form of praise than normal applause
Standing rooma space where people can stand to watch a performance, especially if all the seats are filled
Standing room onlyor 'SRO', admittance to a performance after all of the seats are filled which requires people to stand to watch
Standup basssee 'double bass'
Stanghetta(Italian f.) bar line
St. Anthony Chorale(Latin, Chorale Sancti Antoni) a pilgrims hymn for the feast day of Saint Anthony. Johannes Brahms (1833-1897) found the theme in the second movement of a Feldpartie or Divertimento for Wind Instruments in B flat attributed to Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) and used it for his first large work for symphony orchestra The Variations on a Theme of Haydn
Stanzaan arrangement of lines of verse in a pattern usually repeated throughout the poem. Typically, each stanza has a fixed number of verses or lines, a prevailing meter, and a consistent rhyme scheme. A stanza may be a subdivision of a poem, or it may constitute the entire poem. Early English terms for a stanza were 'batch', 'stave', and 'fit'
(English, Italian f.) also called 'verse', in songs or ballads, one of several similar poetic units, which are usually sung to the same tune
in Byzantine music, stanzas are units of paraphrased biblical text that are grouped together, by both theme and similar metrical composition, under an heirmo. An heirmo is a stanza to which a melody is attached. Usually, the heirmos is a well-known hymn that could be used as a template for the singing of all stanzas of a similar metrical composition. That is why heirmoi are used in several places throughout the Byzantine hymnography, the kontakion and the kanon
Stanzaic genrethe genre of songs, ballads, hymns, etc. that have 'verses' which are usually sung to the same tune
Stapedial reflexthe reflexive contraction of the stapedius muscle in the middle ear that occurs at the same time or just prior to phonation. This reflex is thought to protect one's own hearing from the loudness of one's voice
Stapeling van seconden(Dutch) note cluster, tone cluster
Staphylococcusa pathogen found in the human throat, nose and in septic cuts
Stapsgewijze beweging(Dutch) conjunct movement
Starin contradance, a basic figure in which four dancers in a minor set all join either right or left hands in the centre of the set and walk around the set. A star usually turns one full time around, less commonly stars will turn 3/4 or 1 1/4 turns. There are two styles of stars ('New England style' and 'Southern style'), and which style of star is used generally depends upon local custom, although there are some dances that require one or the other
  • Star from which this extract has been taken and where the two variants are explained
Starone of the two-couple figures danced in a circle of four people traditionally associated with square dancing
star bene(Italian) suit
Starcha carbohydrate found in cereals, certain vegetables and farinaceous products
stare attento(Italian) to pay attention
stare discosto(Italian) to stand apart
stare in agguato(Italian) to lie in wait
stare in bilico(Italian) to be balanced, to be undecided (figurative)
stare in disparte(Italian) to stand aside
stark(German) strong, loud, vigorous, forcible, forte
Starkabarettist(German m.) cabaret star
stark anblasen(German) strongly blown (as when playing wind instruments)
stark betonend(German) forcing, forcierend (German), forzando (Italian), en contraignant (French)
stark blasend(German) strongly blown (as when playing wind instruments)
Stärke(German) vigour, force, energy, stress
stärker(German) stronger, louder, più forte
stärker werdend(German) becoming stronger, becoming louder
starken Stimmensee mit starken Stimmen
stark geblasen(German) strongly blown
stark hervorgehoben(German) forced, forcing, sforzato (Italian), sforzando (Italian), forcé (French), en forçant (French),
Staro sito(Croatia) a folk dance with energetic jumps, found in the northern part of Croatia
Starovtitska bandurasometime after 1800, the unfrettable Eastern European gusli developed a shape resembling bandura, and became common among Ukrainian blind singers. This instrument is now known as starovtitska bandura, although it had little in common with the bandura of the previous century
  • Bandura from which this extract has been taken
Starnthwaite Home Colony
founded by Herbert V. Mills, a community based on Starnthwaite mill and the neighbouring 127 acre Browhead Farm. Mills made extravagant claims for his 'co-operative' village, but came into conflict with socialist members early on who disputed his autocratic leadership. It had a good reputation in land reform circles and was known for the quality of its fruit. The Quaker craftsman A.W. Simpson from Kendal was involved with the colony after Mills left when it was used for training men sent from workhouses and as a home for epileptic boys
starsene quatto quatto(Italian) keep very quiet
Stars of the Nightthe song of the Vietnamese National Liberation Front which is quoted in Hans-Werne Henze's Sinfonia No. 6 for two Chamber Orchestras
Stasimon (s.), Stasima (pl.)(from Greek, 'stationary song') an ode sung by the chorus in a Greek play after the chorus takes its position in the orchestra. The stasima also serve as dividing segments separating episodia of dialogue spoken by the actors. Structurally, a tragedy involves a balanced alternation between the episodia and the stasimon
Stasiôtika(Greek) political party-songs of ancient Greece
Stasis(Greek, literally 'stagnation') a static figure, commonly used as background, for example, repeating chord figure
Stat(Latin) this, as it stands, play as written
Statementsee 'exposition'
Static charactera simplified character who does not change or alter his or her personality over the course of a narrative. Such static characters are also called flat characters if they have little visible personality or if the author provides little characterization for them. The term is used in contrast with a round or dynamic character
Stationers' registerthe account books of the Company of Stationers (of which all printers were legally required to be members), recording the fees paid for permission to print new works as well as the fines exacted for printing without permission. The Stationers' Register thus provides a valuable if incomplete record of publication in England
[quoted from Stephen Greenblatt]
Stations of the Cross(Latin) also called Via crusis, Via dolorosa or The Way of the Cross, a devotion performed in succession in front of each of the fourteen representations of episodes in the Passion of Christ
statistische Musik(German f.) aleatoric music
Stato d'anima(Italian m.) mood, atmosphere, frame of mind
statt(German) instead of
Status(Latin) the state or condition of a thing or of things in general, the position of a person (for example, good standing)
Status quo(Latin) the current state of being (always with reference to a continuation or prolongation of some thing or condition already in existence)
Status quo ante(Latin) the status formerly (usually with reference to the restoration of some thing or condition currently not in existence)
Staub aufwiebeln(German) stir up dust, cause a stir (figurative)
StavanJain devotional hymn
Stavein poetry, another term for stanza
see 'staff'
Stave-rulingthe pattern of stave-lines ruled in a single stroke
Stazione balneare(Italian) seaside resort
STB abbreviation of 'Bachelor of Sacred Theology'
St.B.abbreviation of 'string bass'
STCPDSacronym for 'story, trailer, cast, production notes, downloads and stills'
St.D.abbreviated form of 'stopped diapasons'
St.Diap.abbreviated form of 'stopped diapasons'
Stealing the leadsee 'hijacking'
Steam organsee 'calliope'
Stecca(Italian f.) a fluffed note, a false note
Stechen(German n.) an engraving
Stecher (m.), Stecherin (f.)(German) engraver
Steckschlüsseleinsatz(German m.) a socket
Steel bandoriginally from the West Indies, a band playing pans, tuned percussion instruments made from 55 gallon oil drums
Steel drum(English, German f.) tambour d'acier (French), Stahltrommel or Calypsotrommel (German), tamburo d'acciaio (Italian), tambor de acero (Spanish)
(English, German f., French m.) steel pan
Steel engravingan intaglio printing method in which an engraving is made on a steel plate. Iron had been used for etching and engraving since its inception, but its susceptibility to corrosion kept it out of general use in favour of copper. In 1797 Jacob Perkins patented a method of softening steel for engraving upon it, and then hardening it afterwards for printing. Because of its durability, steel engraving became a competitive printing medium until the invention of a method for electroplating copper
Steel guitar(English, German f.) strictly speaking, a method of playing using a metal slide (or 'steel') on a guitar played horizontally, with the strings uppermost. This covers lap steel guitar, pedal steel guitar and 'Dobro' style guitars. The technique was invented in and popularized in Hawaii, thus the term Hawaiian guitar, more common in the early 1900s; and is predated by bottleneck guitar
the term is also applied to the instruments that can be played using this method of playing
Steel panor 'steelpan', a percussion instrument made from a 55 gallon oil drum cut to a shallow depth, developed in Trinidad in the 1940s. Since the Second World War, the steel pan has been further developed by panmakers through sophisticated experimentation. This development, still in progress, has produced new refined crafting techniques. Modern steel bands have ten different drums, from tenor to the Nine Bass drums, which produce a vast tonal range. This tonal range of modern steel bands includes several octaves that emulate those available in a grand piano. Today, huge steel band orchestras are common in many Caribbean islands, but the Trinidadians are credited with having been the creators of the steel pan
instrument namerangemusical functionno. of drums in a setno. of notes in a set
high tenor/high leadsoprano (D4-F#6)melody129
low tenor/low leadsoprano (C4-E6)melody129
double tenor/double leadsoprano/alto (F3-B5)melody counter melody231
double secondalto (F#3-C#6)melody counter & melody harmony232
double guitartenor (C#3-G#4)harmony220
triple cellotenor (C3-B4)low harmony & melody324
four cellotenor (Bb2-C#5)low harmony & melody428
quadrophonicstenor/alto (B2-D6)melody counter &melody harmony440
tenor basstenor/bass (F2-E4)reinforce bass & bass lines424
bassbass (Bb1-Eb3)bass lines618
9- or 12-bass pan setsincreased bass rangebass9 or 12 
Steel string guitaran acoustic guitar which has all steel strings (usually four wound and two plain ones)
Steelyarda transportable balance with unequal arm lengths that uses balances and counterweights
a place where steel (and possibly other metals as well) is stored and sold
Stefi motifthe notes C-D#-Fx-B, which may be written as C-Eb-G-B, used by Bartok in his opera Bluebeard's Castle, taken from the Christian name of Stefi Geyer (1888-1956), the Hungarian violinist to whom Bartok dedicated his first violin concerto, which was published only after he and Geyer had both died, to to whom Willy Burkhard dedicated his 1943 violin concerto jointly to Geyer and Paul Sacher
Steg(German m.) bridge (on a string instrument)
Steg.(German) at the bridge, ponticello
stegvis rörelse(Swedish) conjunct movement
Stehgeiger(German m.) a violinist employed to play while wandering around the tables in a restaurant, night-club, etc.
Stehplatz(German m.) standing-room
Steifheit(German f.) stiffness, primness, angularity
steigendes Intervall(German n.) ascending interval
steigern(German) to intensify, to increase
steigernd(German) augmenting, aumentando (Italian), vermehrend (German), zunehmend (German), en augmentant (French), increasing (an alternative to crescendo)
steigerung(German) crescendo
Stein (s.), Steine (pl.)(German m.) a stone, a large earthenware drinking-mug, a tankard
Steindruck(German m.) lithography (printing), lithograph (picture)
Steiner hornNyle Steiner, a professional trumpet player in L.A., completed his first electric valve instrument called the "Steiner Horn" in 1975. A woodwind version was developed soon after. Nyle and Akai have improved the Steiner Horn to achieve better playability and human interface and the EWI1000 electric wind instrument and EVI1000 electric valve instrument were finally developed in 1987. Like the saxophone, the EWI1000 uses fingering similar to a recorder but with hundreds of varieties of different fingerings also available making it very easy to play The EWI1000 and EWV2000 sound module are designed as a complete set that is capable of the same sensitive musical expression as acoustic wind instruments with a wide range of seven octaves
Steinspiel(German n.) lithophone, stone discs
Steirische Harmonika(German f.) also called 'Styrian accordion', a German-Austrian button accordion with the buttons set in rows which can vary from three to five. Some instruments include a "drone" bass button that produces the same note on press and draw
Steken(Dutch) engraving
Stela (s.), Stelae (pl.)(Latin, from Greek) an upright slab carved with an inscription or decorative pattern (for example, a gravestone, a milestone, a commemorative stone, etc.)
Stelea carved stone slab used to mark graves or to commemorate historical events
Stella(Italian f.) star
Stelle (s.), Stellen (pl.)(German f.) place, job, post
Stellring(German m.) collet
Stellung(German f.) position
Stellvertreter (m.), Stellvertreterin (f.)(German) stand in, understudy
Stemin linguistics, a form consisting of a base and an affix to which other affixes can be attached
see 'note'
in music production, the individual components of a mix, separately saved (usually to disc) for the purposes of use in a remix
(Dutch) part, voice (as in a polyphonic composition)
Stembanden(Dutch) vocal folds
Stemfluitje(Dutch) pitchpipe
Stemma(Finnish) voice, part (e.g. one line in a contrapuntal work)
Stemma (s.), Stemmata (pl.)(Greek) a genealogical tree, a diagram showing the genetic relationships of the manuscripts of a text
Stemme(Danish) voice, part (e.g. as in a polyphonic composition)
Stemmegaffel(Finnish) tuning fork
Stemmer(Dutch) tuner
stemming(Dutch) tuning, temperament
Stempelabdruck(German m.) a stamp (on a document, form, etc.)
Stempelflöte(German f.) swanee whistle, piston flute, slide whistle
Stempelhöschen(German n.) rompers
StempleGrubenstützholz (German n.), a crossbar of wood in a shaft, serving as a step
Stemschroef(Dutch) tuning pin, tuning peg
Stemsleutel(Dutch) tuning key
Stemtechniek(Dutch) placing of the voice
Stemvork(Dutch) tuning fork
Stenchcorethe original name for 'crust punk'
'Stencil' instrumenta term used in the musical instrument trade to describe an instrument made by one firm but bearing the mark of another
stendendo(Italian, literally 'stretching out') slowing, rallentando
Stengah(Malay, literally 'half') a small whisky and soda
Steno(German f.) shorthand (familiar term)
Stenosisabnormal narrowing of a bodily canal or passageway
stentamento(Italian) laboriously, slowly
stentando(Italian) toiling, struggling, dragging, delaying, retarding, to play in a laborious manner
Michael Zapf comments: in German stentato is equivalent to mühsam, schleppend, zögernd, zurückhaltend, langsamer werdend
stentare(Italian) heavily and slightly slowing
stentato(Italian) hard (tone), forced, emphasised, loud, stentorian
Stepa step is the interval between one degree of a scale and the next, regardless of whether the interval is a major, minor, augmented, or diminished second
a degree
in dance, a step, or a footstep, is a single move of one foot, usually involving full or partial weight transfer to the moving foot. However foot actions, such as tap, kick, etc., are also sometimes called "steps"; thus, for example, in a description: "step forward, replace, together" all three actions are steps
in a broader sense, step means dance step, that is a dance figure, as, for example, 'Basic Step', 'Triple Step', etc.
Step dancethe generic term for dance styles where the footwork is the most important part of the dance. Body and arm movements and styling are either restricted or considered irrelevant. Step dances are usually solo or group dances. Aurella Atchison is a fine example of a step dance performer
Step indexsee 'cut-in index'
Steppe(Russian) a level treeless plain (particularly in Siberia or in southern Russia)
Steppingan American dance form that combines elements of military drills with contemporary jazz and hip-hop moves. In stepping, the body takes the place of the drum: clapping, slapping the hands against various parts of the body, and stomping the feet produce the complex rhythmic foundation for the dance. In addition to this array of bodily percussion, stepping also features complex synchronized body movements, along with singing, chanting, and verbal play. Begun as a tradition among members of Black Greek-letter organizations, stepping has more recently become a popular activity for children and teens
Stepping stonea stone, often placed, to raise the feet above the surface of water or mud in walking
a means of progress or advancement (figurative)
Step polskasee 'ring polska'
Steptanz(German m.) tap-dance, step dance
Step-timesee 'real time'
Sterbelied(German) funeral hymn
sterben(German) to die, morire
sterbend(German) dying away, morendo
Stereoan abbreviation of 'stereophony'
Stéréo(French f.) stereo
Stereofonia(Italian f.) stereophony, stereo
stereofonisch(Dutch) stereophonic
Stereophonictwo-channel sound reproduction
Stereophonie(German f.) stereophony, stereo
Stéréophonie(French f.) stereophony, stereo
Stereoscopya technique for capturing a 3-dimensional view by placing two photo images next to each other on a card, usually 3 1/2 x 7", each taken as from a slightly different perspective. When the 2-dimensional cards are viewed at the proper distance, each eye will perceive only one individual image each and create the illusion of three dimensions. Sir Charles Wheatstone invented this process in 1838. The images, called 'stereoviews', became very popular but by the 1924 only one company was still producing them in quantity. The last stereoviews were made in the 1950s. These companies amassed large inventories of photographs
Stereotypein a play, novel, etc., a character who is so ordinary or unoriginal that the character seems like an oversimplified representation of a type, gender, class, religious group, or occupation
a flexible printing plate created by making a plaster or paper mould of type or a wood engraving in a thick flat letterpress form, then casting it into a thin metal sheet. Stereotyping is the primary method used to wrap a plate around the cylinder of rotary presses
Stern(German m.) star
steso(Italian) slow, diffuse, large, extended, expanded, stretched, diffused
steso moto(Italian) a slow movement
stesso, stessa, stessi, stesse(Italian) the same
Stet(Latin) let it stand (a direction that something which has been deleted or altered in a manuscript or proof is to remain uncorrected or unaltered)
stets(German) steadily, always
StevNorwegian short songs
Stevengraphan image manufactured from woven silk by Thomas Stevens of Coventry, England. The first Stevengraphs were bookmarks produced in 1876, followed by pictures in 1879, portraits in 1886, and then postcards in 1904. Production ceased after a German air raid destroyed the factory and inventory in 1940. Other weavers copied this process
Stevens techniquea method of playing keyboard percussion instruments with four mallets - two in each hand. It was developed by marimbist Leigh Howard Stevens during his studies at the Eastman School of Music in the 1970s, and codified in his 1979 book The Method of Movement for Marimba
Sthenochirea mechanical device for strengthening, and imparting flexibility to the fingers
Sthitaprajnaliterally, 'one of steadfast mind', a soul unaffected by extremes of joy and sorrow
stibacchiato(Italian) relaxing, retarding (the tempo)
Sticcadoor sticcato, an instrument with small bars of wood, flat at the bottom and rounded at the top, their lengths steadily decreasing from the lowest sounding to the highest, that lie across an open box. The notes are produced by striking the bars with flexible beaters with hard ball shaped heads
Sticcardo pastorateglass harmonica
Sticcarto(German) xylophone, strohfiedel
Sticcatosee sticcado
Stich(German m.) an engraving
Sticherariona codex containing the stichera (s. sticheron) for orthros (the morning office, corresponding to lauds in the West) and vespers services throughout the year
Sticherona form of Orthodox hymn sung during orthros (the morning office, corresponding to lauds in the West) and vespers after a verse of a psalm (usually one of the last three to six verses)
Sticheron idiomelona sticheron with its own unique melody
Stichnoten(German f. pl., Dutch) cue notes
Stichomythia(Latin, from Greek) in English, 'stichomythy', dialogue in verse drama in which each speech occupies a single line, designed for rapid delivery and snappy exchanges
Stichos (s.), Stichoi (pl.)(Greek) one of the units corresponding to a line of average length into which the contents of ancient manuscripts were sometimes divided to make easier the calculation of the payment to be made to the scribes
Stichvorlage(German f.) engraved copy, printer's score
Sticka wooden or metal dowel-shaped beater used to strike a drum, comprised of a bead (tip), a neck, a taper, a body and a butt; a stick is called a mallet when used to strike tuned percussion instruments
slang term for a conductor's baton
Stick castanetscastanets attached to a stick. When attached to a stick, castanets are played by orchestra or band percussionists to provide a Spanish sound, without having to master the difficult technique of the traditional castanets
Stickera part of the organ action that intervenes between the key and the pallet
Stickledispute or argue stubbornly (especially minor points)
Sticklera person who insists on the strict observance of something specified (hence, a stickler for ...)
Stiefbruder(German m.) stepbrother
Stiefel(German m.) foot
Stiefkind(German n.) stepchild
Stiefmutter(German f.) stepmother
Stieftochter(German f.) stepdaughter
Stiefvater(German m.) stepfather
Stiel(German m.) stem (of a note)
Stielkastagnetten(German f. pl.) handle castanets
Stierhorn(German n., literally 'bull-horn') a medieval war-horn generally played by trombonists and used in Wagner's operas Walküre and Götterdämmerung
(German n.) cowhorn, corno di toro (Italian m.), cor de vache (French m.), cuerno de vaca (Spanish m.)
stifen(German) to found, to endow
Stiff leafa form of carved decoration for column capitals consisting of foliate motifs projecting from the capital
Stift(German m.) tube, staple, peg, pin, sprig, stud, pen
(German m.) the jack of a spinet, harpsichord, etc.
stiften(German) to pin, to peg, to plant
Stifter (m.), Stifterin (f.)(German) founder
Stiftschraube(German f.) stud
Stiftskirche(German f.) collegiata (Italian f.), collegiate church, a church having, like a cathedral, a chapter of regular clergy (priests living by a monastic rule), who together perform the offices (canonical hours)
[entry prompted by Michael Zapf]
Michael Zapf observes that although Stiftskirche is the most common translation, in German, for 'collegiate church', two other synonyms are also used, namely, Collegiat-Kirche (German f.) and Kollegiatkirche (German f.)
Stiftung(German f.) foundation, endowment, settlement (of money, etc.), institution
Stiftungsfest(German n.) founder's day celebration
Stiftungsprofessur(German f.) an endowed professorship
Stiftungsrat(German m.) the board of a foundation
stigande Intervall(Swedish) ascending interval
stigende Interval(Danish) ascending interval
Stigma (s.), Stigmata (pl.)(Greek) a mark made by branding as a punishment and hence as a mark of infamy or condemnation, in the plural particularly a reference to marks resembling the wounds of the crucified body of Christ (St Francis of Assisi was the first to claim to have miraculously received the stigmata)
stijgend Interval(Dutch) ascending interval
Stijl, (De)(Dutch) a Dutch movement in architecture and abstrct art which laid great emphasis on geometrical structure. One of the movement's leaders was Piet Mondrian (1872-1944)
stijl(Dutch) style
Stijiráricas(Spanish f. pl. from the Greek stichera) melodies from the Byzantine rite, usually moderate in speed (60-80 bpm) and neumatic
Stiknoder(Danish) cue notes
Stil(German m.) style (in writing, design, etc.), language, diction, brush (style of an artist), manner, tone, pen, strain (verse), style, writing
Stile(Italian m.) style
Stile antico(Italian m., literally 'old style') Alt-Stil (German m.), style ancien (French m.), also known as Roman or Palestrina style, a term used to refer to the 16th-century conservative, basically a cappella, style favored by the Roman church. Some composers continued to develop this style into the 18th- and 19th-centuries side-by-side with the more progressive idioms
Stile concertato(Italian m.) concertato style, often abbreviated to concertato
Stile concerto(Italian m.) concerto style, often abbreviated to concerto
Stile concitato(Italian m., literally 'agitated style') a Baroque style developed by Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643), which introduced novel effects such as rapid repeated notes as symbols of passion
Stileinübung(German f.) stylistic tool in composition
Stile lombardo(Italian m.) Lombardy style, reversed dotted rhythm, as, for example, the Scotch snap
Stile moderno(Italian m., literally 'modern style') nuove musiche, seconda prattica
Stile osservato(Italian m.) strict style, according to the rules
Stile rappresentativo(Italian n., literally 'representative style') a dramatic recitative style of the Baroque period in which melodies move freely over a foundation of simple chords, a form first promoted in humanist-inspired Florence, but which then spread to many other Italian cities including Mantua where Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643) worked
Stile risentito(Italian m.) a vigorous style
Stiletto(Italian m.) a short dagger with a thick narrow blade, an instrument for making small circular holes (for example, in leather), a round tapering sharp-pointed object
stilisiert(German) stylized
stilistisch(German) stylistic, stylistically
stilizzato(Italian) stylized
Stillnevertheless, ancora (Italian), noch (German), encore (French), tourjours (French)
Still(English) quiet, tranquil, immobile (English, French), calme (French), tranquille (French), calma (Italian),
(German) quiet, calm, quietly, calmly
Still-born(a baby) born dead, morte-né (French), totgeboren (German), nato morto (Italian)
Stille(German f.) silence
Stilleben(German n.) still life, natura morta (Italian), nature morte (French)
Stillgedackt(German) a soft-toned stopped diapason organ stop
stillhalten(German) to keep still
stillstehen(German) to keep still
Stilnovisti(Italian m. pl., 'new style') or stilnuovistii, Italian poets noted for their troubadour-derived poetics, including the Italian Florentine poet Durante degli Alighieri, better known as Dante, (1265-1321). There were two main 'schools' that drew their inspiration from the troubadour poetry of Southern France, those of Sicily and Tuscany. They comprise the Dolce Stil Novo (Italian for 'the sweet new style') which is considered the most important literary movement of 13th-century Italy
Stilo(Italian) style, manner of composition, manner of performance
Stilpluralismus(German m.) stylistic pluralism, a style that draws on many different influences
Stilte(Dutch) quiet, calm, silence
Stilus(Latin) style
Stilyaga (s.), Stilyagi (pl.)(Russian) a (Russian) teddy-boy
Stimmband (s.), Stimmbänder(German n.) vocal cord
Stimmbildung(German f.) vocal training
Stimmbogen(German m.) crook
Stimmbuch (s.), Stimmbücher (pl.)(German n.) partbook
Stimmbruch(German m.) mutation, breaking of the voice, changing of the voice
Stimmbuch(German n.) part book
Stimmdeckel(German) sound-board
Stimme (s.), Stimmen (pl.)(German f.) voice, part (for example, as in a contrapuntal work)
(German f.) or Stimmstock (German), soundpost of a violin, anima (Italian), âme (French)
(German f.) or register, a term for the individual sounds of the organ
(German f.) the mechanism (stop) which activates the different group of pipes
Stimmen(German n.) tuning
stimmen(German) to tune, to pitch (a note), to voice (an organ pipe, a recorder, etc.), accorder (French), accordare (Italian), afinar (Spanish)
Stimmengewirr(German n.) a buzz
Stimmensatz(German m.) a set of parts
Stimmenwerbung(German f.) to canvass opinion
Stimmer (m.), Stimmerin (f.)(German) tuning hammer, tuner, for example, a person who tunes a piano or organ
Stimmfach(German n.) category of voice
see Fach
Stimmfall(German m.) inflection
Stimmflöte(German f.) pitch pipe
Stimmführer (m.), Stimmführerin (f.)(German) principal (for example, 'principal flute')
Stimmführung(German f.) voice leading (a term that can be applied to singers and/or instrumentalists, as well as being an important goal-directed 'process' in Schenkerian analysis)
(German f.) part-writing
Stimmgabel(German f.) tuning fork
Stimmgattung(German f.) voice type
Stimmhammer(German m.) tuning key, tuning hammer
Stimmholz(German n.) soundpost of a violin, etc.
Stimmhorn(German n.) pitch pipe, tuning cone
stimmig(German) having a sound
Stimmlage(German f.) range, compass, register
Stimmlippen(German pl.) larynx
stimmlos(German) voiceless
Stimmnagel(German n.) tuning pin, wrest pin, pirolo caviglia (Italian m.), cheville (French f.), clavija (Spanish f.)
Stimmpfeife(German f.) wooden fife, pitch pipe
Stimmritze(German f.) larynx
Stimmstock(German m.) soundpost (of a violin, etc.), anima (Italian), âme (French), alma (Spanish f.)
Stimmtausch(German m.) a term used to describe the exchange of parts between voices in medieval polyphony
Stimmtechnik(German f.) vocal techniques
Stimmton(German m.) concert pitch
Stimmumfang(German m.) compass of a voice
Stimmung(German f.) tuning, accordatura (Italian) accordage (French), afinación (Spanish)
(German f.) pitch, tone, temperament
(German f.) mood, a frame of mind, atmosphere (of a work of literature, etc.)
Stimmung halten(German) to keep in tune
Stimmungsbild(German n., literally 'mood picture') a short characteristic piece of music
(German n.) a piece of background or mood music
Stimmungsmusik(German f.) mood music, light music
stimmungsvoll(German) full of atmosphere
Stimmwechsel(German m.) mutation, changing of the voice, breaking of the voice
Stimmweite(German f.) compass, ambitus
Stimmwerkzeuge(German m.) vocal organs
Stimmwirbel(German m.) tuning peg
Stimmzange(German f., literally 'tuning tongs') a tool for tuning the reed-pipes of organs
Stimmzug(German m.) tuning slide
Stimulus (s.), Stimuli (pl.)(Latin, literally 'a goad') a spur, an incentive, something that elicits a response
Stinga short sequence played by a drummer to punctuate a joke, especially an obvious or slapstick one. A sting is often used as accompaniment during cabaret- or circus-style shows. It is often erroneously called a 'rimshot'
stinguendo(Italian, literally 'extinguishing') dying away, fading away
stinto(Italian) spento (Italian), erloschen (German), erlöscht (German), éteint (French)
Stip(Dutch) dash, dot
Stipendium(German) scholarship, grant
Stipplein print-making, a process of securing a dotted effect somewhat coarser than mezzotint. The plate us covered with a wax ground and worked upon with a fine-pointed instrument, then biting with acid, and further flecking with a graver where heavier dots are required
stiracchiando(Italian) tugging, holding back, ritardando, en tiraillant
stiracchiato(Italian) stretched, forced, retarded, held back, allargando, ritardando
stirando(Italian) stretching, forcing, retarding, holding back, allargando, ritardando, en s'étendant
stirato(Italian) stretching, forcing, retarding, holding back, allargando, ritardando
Stiriana(Italian f.) Styrienne
Stirn(German f.) forehead
Stirnrunzeln(German n.) frown
Stiro(Italian m.) iron
Stis trisa Thracian dance that is both slow and swift
Stitchin printing, to sew, staple or otherwise fasten together by means of thread or wire the leaves or signatures of a book or pamphlet
the different styles of stitching are:
double stitchtwo loops of a single thread are fastened in the centre of the fold
machine stitcha lock stitch is made
saddle or saddle-back stitchthe centre of the fold is placed across the saddle in the machine and wire staples are driven through and clenched on the inside
side stitchthe thread or wire is stitched through the side of the fold
single stitcha single loop is drawn through the centre and tied
wire stitchwhere staples are made, inserted and clenched by a machine from a continuous piece of wire, as in the saddle back stitch
St. Ives Artists Colonyestablished in 1885 and the best known of the English artists colonies. Originally known for its mainly foreign landscape painters, it was always more cosmopolitan than its sister colony at Newlyn. It enjoyed a renaissance when discovered by a new generation of modern artists in WW2, becoming home to Barbara Hepworth and Ben Nicholson. Still a magnet for the art world with the recent opening of the new Tate Gallery there
Stizza(Italian f.) anger
stizzire(Italian) to irritate, to annoy
stizzirsi(Italian) to get cross, to get annoyed
stizzito(Italian) adirato (Italian), angry, angered, irate, irritated, annoyed, infuriated, erzürnt (German), en colère (French)
stizzoso(Italian) peevish
St. John's Worta plant with brownish stalks and small, narrow leaves; the latter were used in salads and pounded into oil for healing wounds
St. Louis bluesa type of blues music. It is usually more piano-based than other forms of the blues, and is closely related to the jump blues, ragtime and piano blues
St. Martial organumsee 'Aquitainian organum'
Stoa (s.), Stoai (pl.)(Greek) in architecture, a roofed colonnade
stöbern(German) to rummage
Stoc(also 'stocc', 'stock-horne', 'stock-and-horn') originally a pipe formed of a sheep's thigh-bone inserted into the smaller end of a cut horn, with an oated reed, although later rather less utilitarian materials could be used
Stoccata(Italian f.) stab
(Italian f.) gibe
Stochastic(from the Greek stochos or 'goal') means of, relating to, or characterized by conjecture and randomness. A stochastic process is one whose behaviour is non-deterministic in that the next state of the environment is partially but not fully determined by the previous state of the environment. The antonym is astochastic
  • Stochastic from which this short extract has been taken
Stochastic music(from the Greek stokhos, 'goal') a fully-composed piece whose composition is governed by the rules of probability. This distinguishes it from 'chance music' where it is the detials of the performance that are left to chance
Stochastic screeningalso known as FM (Frequency Modulated) screening. With conventional halftone screening, the variable dot size formed, creates the optical illusion of various tonal values; however, the dot center pitch distance is constant. In the case of FM screening systems, the dots are randomly distributed to create this tonal change illusion. The greater the number of dots located within a specific area, the darker the resultant tone. The dots produced in this way are usually smaller than conventional halftone dots, resulting in improved definition, although greater care and attention to detail is required in platemaking stage
stochastische Musik(German f.) stochastic music
Stock(German m.) stick, (ski-)pole, (bee-)hive, (rose-)bush, vine
(German m.) storey, floor
Stock arrangementthe standard score of the work in contrast to an arrangement that has been produced especially for one particular band or ensemble
Stockbett(German n.) bunk-beds
Stock character
a character type that appears repeatedly in a particular literary genre, one which has certain conventional attributes or attitudes:
alazonin Old comedy of Greek drama, the imposter or self-deceiving braggart
bomolochosin Old comedy of Greek drama, the buffoon
eironin Old comedy of Greek drama, the self-derogatory and understating character
miles gloriosusin Elizabethan drama, the braggart soldier
machievellein Elizabethan drama, a villain
senex amansin Elizabethan drama, the ugly old man married to a younger girl
stockdunkel(German) pitch-dark
stocken(German) to stop, to come to a standstill, to falter
stockend(German) hesitant, hesitantly, hesitating, slackening the time gradually
Stockfagott(German n.) racket, rankett (Italian m.), rocchetta (Italian f.), Rankett (German n.), Wurstfagott (German n.), racket (French m.), cervelas (French m.)
Stock musicor 'production music', the name given to the music owned by production music libraries and licensed to customers for use in film, television, radio and other media. Unlike popular and classical music publishers, who typically own less than 50 percent of the copyright in a composition, music production libraries own all of the copyrights of their music, meaning that it can be licensed without seeking the composer's permission, as is necessary in licensing music from normal publishers. This is because virtually all music created for music libraries is done on a work for hire basis. Production music is therefore a very convenient medium for media producers - they can be assured that they will be able to license any piece of music in the library at a reasonable rate
stocktaub(German) stone-deaf (familiar)
Stockung(German f.) a hold up
Stockwerk(German n.) storey, floor
stoelendans(Dutch) musical chairs
Stoelzel valveThe first piston valve instruments were developed just after the start of the 19th-century. The Stoelzel (or Stölzel) valve (invented by Heinrich Stoelzel in 1814) was an early variety. In the mid 19th-century the Vienna valve was an improved design. However most professional musicians preferred rotary valves for quicker, more reliable action, until better designs of piston valves were mass manufactured in towards the end of the 19th-century. Since the early decades of the 19th century, piston valves have been the most common on brass instruments
Stoep(Dutch) a raised platform or verandah along the front and sometimes also round the sides of a house (the same feature in houses in parts of the United States is called a stoop)
Stoff(German m.) substance, fabric, material, subject, subject matter, a topic
Stoffbespannung(German f.) fabric covering
Stofftier(German n.) a soft toy
Stoffwechsel(German m.) metabolism
Stöhnen(German n,) a groan, a moan
stöhnen(German) to groan, to moan
stoisch(German) stoic, stoically
Stok (van een noot)(Dutch) stem (of a note)
(Dutch) stick, beater, striker (particularly to strike a drum)
Stokluitinstrumenten(Dutch) spike lutes
Stola(German f.) a stole
Stoleitem of mass vestments; a long rectangular piece of fabric worn around the neck and crossed on the chest by a priest, over the left shoulder be a deacon
Stollen(German m.) see 'bar form'
(German m.) gallery, stollen (a German cake associated with Christmas)
stolpern(German) to stumble
stolpern über(German) to trip over
Stolz(German m.) pride
stolz(German) proud, proudly
stolzieren(German) to strut
stom(Dutch) mute
Stomachera separate front panel of rich decorative fabric which ended in a point at the waist and was worn on top of the bodice
Stompa lively, rhythmic jazz marked by a heavy beat, a term derived probably from early, foot-stomping forms of blues and ragtime dance music
Stomp boxor 'effects pedal', an effects unit housed in a small metal chassis, used by musicians, usually guitar players, but sometimes players of other string instruments. These devices alter the sound quality or timbre of the input signal, adding effects such as distortion, fuzz, overdrive, chorus, reverb, wah-wah, flanging, or phaser. They are called pedals or stomp boxes because they sit on the floor and have large on/off switches on top that are activated by foot. Some, such as wah-wah or volume pedals, are also manipulated while in operation by moving a large foot-activated analog switch
  • Stomp box from which some of this material has been taken
stonante(Italian) dissonant, discordant, out of tune
stonare(Italian) to sing out of tune
stonato(Italian) out of tune
Stoner metalsee 'desert rock'
Stonespierres (French), Keiselsteine (German), sassi (Italian)
in music, the use of stones in contemporary music includes striking one stone with another, and laying one stone on a timpani head and rubbing it (the stone) with the other - the natural resonance of the drum enhances the sound of the stones rubbing together
Stop(on an organ) registro (Italian), Registerzug (German), registre (French)
a lever, knob or tablet that pulls a rank of pipes into play (by controlling the entry of air to sets of pipes), or a lever that engages a set of strings on a keyboard instrument
the term is also used to mean a set of pipes producing a particular sound quality on an organ, usually one pipe per note, although some kinds of sounds use several pipes for one note on the keyboard. Many stops on an organ result in a great many possibilities for tonal color and volume
not all stops are 'speaking' or 'sounding stops' (stops that acts on pipes). For example, couplers are not, and, on the harmonium, neither the 'expression stop' nor the tremolo stop are 'sounding stops'
organist distinguish between a stop that contains a pipe for every note (whole or perfect stop) and a stop that gives only notes for about a half of the row of keys (half or imperfect stop)
family/tonal grouptonal characteristicsexamples
reedsproduce sound in a different way to other pipes, in that a metal reed vibrates against a resonator tube. They are very rich in harmonic content and may be very loud and brilliant. They may be used as solo stops or to add vibrance and presence to a chorus of other stopsTrumpet, Clarion, Trombone, Clarinet, Oboe and Contra Fagotto
diapasons or principalspure 'organ tone', rich in harmonics, with a full-bodied sound. These form the main diapason chorus on the Great, the backbone of the organ. Secondary, softer diapason choruses are often found on other manuals. They are often used for the mutations and mixturesDiapason, Principal, Octave, Fifteenth, Prestant, Montre
flutesless harmonic development, and are of a softer, purer soundGedackt, Clear Flute, Harmonic Flute, Rohrflute, Hohl Flute and Bourdon
stringsstrictly a subclass of the diapasons, but with a much narrower scale of pipe. They are harmonically rich and designed for their string-like qualities, usually warm and soft tonedViola, Viola di Gamba, Salicet, Geigen Principal and Violin Principal
on a stringed instrument, the placing a finger firmly on a string or a fret so that its sounding length is shortened. Double stopping on a violin, etc. is when two different strings are stopped at the same time each with a different finger, and where both strings bowed
on a wind instrument, the placing a finger or closing a key on a finger-hole so that it is closed
on a member of the trumpet family, partially closing the bell by inserting the hand
a term used for the final chord of a cadencial chordal sequence
Stopalso called a plosive, in linguistics, a stop is any sound made by rapidly opening and closing airflow. Examples are /p/, /b/, and /n/
stopfen(German) to stop (a hole), to stuff, to put, to darn, to guzzle (familiar)
Stoplap(Dutch) cliché
Stopp(German m.) stop
Stopped diapasonin an organ, pipes that are covered or stopped at one end, have a softer tone than an open pipe of the same pitch, and which are half the length of the equivalent open diapason pipes
Stopped hornplayers discovered that by inserting the hand into the bell of the horn they could alter the pitch of the instrument for improved intonation and additional pitches, and that they could also make the tonal color darker and more mellow. This technique was known by hornists in the 1720s at the latest. By gradually closing the hand in the bell one can lower any sounding pitch one half step with moderate stopping, and any pitch may be lowered to a half step above the next open pitch by combining full stopping and "lipping" the note down
see 'half stopped horn'
in French horn parts: a '+' above notes to be stopped, followed by a 'o' above notes that are open
for longer stopped passages the word is just written out:
do not be confused by the French word cuivré which means brassy. It is often found in stopped passages which are played loud, brassy, and stopped, but you can play cuivré open too
Stopped notea note produced on a stringed instrument where the sounding length of an string has been shorted by placing a finger on the string, thereby producing a note of a higher pitch than that produced by the open or unstopped string. Pairs of strings may be so stopped (called 'double stopping') that the two string produce a particular interval
a note produced by 'stopping' a horn, i.e. by placing the right hand into the instrument's bell, thereby shortening the tube and raising the pitch
see 'stopped horn'
Stopped pipean organ pipe that is closed at its top, as opposed to open, and therefore produces a note an octave lower in pitch than does an open pipe of the same length
organ builders discovered long before Tartini that stopped pipes give a less solid bass than open pipes. The explanation is that stopped pipes only sound the odd-numbered partials - the even-numbered ones are completely absent. Since, in an open pipe, the fundamental is reinforced by the difference tones between the partials, in a stopped pipe the fundamental will appear relatively weak
stoppelig(German) stubbly
Stoppeln(German f. pl.) stubble
stoppen(German) to stop, to time (a run, etc.)
Stopperon a flute, the cork in the head that on a standard flute lies about 19mm (3/4") back from the centre of the embouchure hole
Stoppingthe playing of stopped notes
in order to change the pitch of a course on a lute (or other instrument of a similar nature), the string is held against the fingerboard behind a fret, thus preventing it from vibrating for its full length, and raising the resultant pitch. The course is therefore stopped on that fret
  • Glossaries from which the second entry has been taken
Stoppschild(German n.) a stop sign
Stoppuhr(German f.) a stop-watch
Stöpsel(German m.) a plug, a stopper (of a bottle)
Stop tabssee 'drawknobs'
Stop tailpieceor 'stud tailpiece', on a guitar, a tailpiece that has slots in it to hold string balls in place. Usually used with a Tune-o-matic bridge
Stop timein jazz, a rhythm where certain beats are silent, for example 1 2 3 (rest) 1 2 3 (rest), in order to provide more freedom for the soloist
in music, stop-time is, according to Samuel A. Floyd Jr., "a musical device in which the forward flow of the music stops, or seems to stop, suspended in a rhythmic unison, while in some cases an improvising instrumentalist or singer continues solo with the forward flow of the meter and tempo."
  • Stop-time from which the second entry has been taken
Storch(German m.) a stork
Store(German m.) a net curtain
stören(German) to disturb, to disrupt, to jam, to bother, to be a nuisance
Störgeräusch(German n.) babble
Storia(Italian f.) history
Storia della musica(Italian f.) music history, history of music
Storico(Italian m./f.) historian
storico(Italian) historical
Stornello (s.), Stornelli (pl.)Tuscan folk-song
in poetry, a reference to Italian flower songs
stornieren(German) to cancel
störrisch(German) stubborn, stubbornly
Storta(Italian f.) a serpent
Stortina(Italian f.) a small serpent
stort Interval(Danish) major interval
stort Intervall(Swedish) major interval
storto(Italian) crooked, twisted
Störung(German f.) disturbance, disruption, (medical) trouble, (radio) interference
Story arcan extended or continuing storyline in episodic storytelling media such as television, comic books, comic strips, boardgames, video games, and in some cases, films
Stoß(German m.) a push, a knock, a dig (with an elbow), a butt (with the horn of an animal), a thrust, a stroke (swimming), a jolt, a shock (earthquake), a stack, a pile
Stoßdämpfer(German m.) a shock absorber
Stössel-lautesee 'lute-zither'
stoßen(German) to push, to knock, to kick, to butt, to poke, to nudge, to thrust
stoßen an(German) to knock against, to adjoin
stoßen auf(German) to bump into, to come across, to strike (oil), to meet with (figurative)
stoßend(German) pushing, spingendo
stoßen gegen(German) to knock against, to bump into
Stoßstange(German f.) a bumper
Stoßverkehr(German m.) rush-hour traffic
Stoßzahn(German m.) a tusk
Stoßzeit(German f.) rush-hour
StotraJain hymn
stottern(German) to stutter, to stammer
strabbreviation of 'string(s)'
Str, Str.abbreviation of Streicher (German: strings - cordes (French))
abbreviation for Straße (German: street - the English equivalent is St.)
stracciacalando(Italian) babbling, prattling, chattering
stracciare(Italian) to tear
stracciato(Italian) torn, in rags (a person)
straccinato(Italian, literally 'stretched out') ritardando, dragging
Straccio(Italian m.) rag, cloth, duster
straccio(Italian) torn, waste
Straccione(Italian m.) ragamuffin
stracinando(Italian) strascicando, dragging
SträckharpaSwedish bowed harp [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
Stracotto(Italian m.) stew
stracotto(Italian) overdone
Strada(Italian f.) road, street, way
Stradella bass systemthe left-hand bass button system used by classic 120-bass piano accordion and its variants. Invented by accordion (fisarmonica) makers in Stradella, Italy in the late 19th-century, the Stradella system consists of twenty (20) columns of six (6) rows each. The columns represent the 12 notes of Euro-American music (with four columns at each end for wrap-around, so that the hand need not take sudden jumps) arranged in a cycle of fifths
see 'free bass left hand' system
see 'converter bass system'
Strafanstalt(German f.) a prison
Strafarbeit(German f.) an imposition
strafbar(German) punishable
Strafe(German f.) punishment, penalty (judicial and figurative), fine (monetary), sentence (of the court)
strafen(German) to punish
straff(German) strict, tight (also used in reference to the tightness of a drum head), taut, tense
Straffälligkeit(German f.) culpability
straffando(Italian) throwing off
straff anliegen(German) to fit tightly
straffato(Italian) thrown off
straffen(German) to tighten (used in reference to the tightness of a drum head), to tense
straffer(German) stricter, tighter (also used in reference to the tightness of a drum head)
Straffheit(German f.) tautness, tenseness, tightness
straff ziehen(German) strain, tauten
Strafgesetz(German n.) the criminal law
sträflich(German) criminal, criminally
Sträfling(German m.) a prisoner
Strafmandat(German n.) a parking ticket, a speeding ticket
Strafporto(German n.) excess postage
Strafpredigt(German f.) lecture (familiar)
Strafraum(German m.) penalty area
Strafstoß(German m.) a penalty
Straftat(German f.) a crime
Stafzettel(German m.) a parking ticket, a speeding ticket (familiar)
Strahl(German m.) a ray, a beam (of light), a jet (of water)
strahlen(German) to shine, to sparkle, to beam (smile)
Strahlenbehandlung(German f.) radiotherapy
strahlend(German) shining, sparkling, beaming, radiant
Strahlentherapie(German f.) radiotherapy
Strahlung(German f.) radiation
Strähne(German f.) a strand
strähnig(German) straggly
Straight 8sin jazz, to play with equal, even quavers (eighth notes) - also called 'Latin'
Straight aheadin jazz, play with a swing feeling
Straight edgesometimes abbreviated to sXe or SxE, a lifestyle and (counter cultural) subculture, closely associated with punk, and hardcore punk music. Originally inspired by hardcore band Minor Threat, it has spread around the world, but is most popular in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, and Australia. It advocates abstinence in relation to tobacco, alcohol, and recreational drug use (especially psychoactive and stimulant drug use), and for some people in relation to promiscuous sexual behavior
Straight eighth-noteseight notes (quavers) where each note takes exactly half a beat, in other words they are not 'swung'
Straight notesnotes which are not 'swung', that is played without a 'shuffle'
Straight rhythma performance in which the notes are played straight, that is 'not swung'
Straina contrasting section found in early dance music, rags and marches, in rags and marches often in duple meter with sixteen-bar (measure) motives. Most English dances fall into equal strains of four, eight or sixteen bars (measures), which are repeated in an ornamented form before moving on to the next strain
technically, the term is sometimes applied to a musical sentence, and also to the various subdivisions of a sentence
in cooking, etc., to separate a liquid from solids
Stråkar(Sweden) strings (i.e. orchestral section)
Strambotto (s.), Strambotti (pl.)(Italian, literally 'rustic song') Serafino dall'Aquila (d. 1500), the leading poet of strambotti served at Mantua when at the height of his fame in 1494. Like many poets at that time, he would have been skilled in singing verses to his own lute accompaniment. The strambotto was a strict form of 16th century Italian poetry arranged in stanzas of eight hendecasyllabic lines (or eight lines with eleven syllables), known as rispetto or ottava rima. When set to music, the subject of rispetto was the composer paying his respects to his lady love and can be found in one or more stanzas, while the ottava rima came from literature generally in multiple stanzas. The strambotto was typically created with a single stanza
there are three basic types of strambotto that are identified by their rhyme scheme, but there are also a few examples of the strambotto being through-composed
strambotto toscanorhyme scheme: ABABABCCthe most common form of poetry set to music in the 15th- and 16th-centuries
strambotto siciliano or arie sicilianorhyme scheme: ABABABABmost common during the 17th-century
strambotto romagnuolorhyme scheme: ABABCCDDthe least common form
stramm(German) tight, tightly, sturdy, sturdily, upright
Strancicasee fajfa
Strand(German m.) a beach
stranden(German) to run aground, to fail (figurative)
Strandkorb(German m.) a wicker beach-chair
Strandpromenade(German f.) a promenade
Strang(German m.) a rope
straordinario(Italian) extraordinary
Strapaze(German f.) a strain
strapazieren(German) to be hard on, to tax (the nerves, etc.)
strapazierfähig(German) hard-wearing
strapaziös(German) exhausting
Strapontin(French m.) folding seat, collapsible aisle seats given to standees in French theatres
Strapuntino(Italian) folding seat
strappare(Italian, literally 'to pull off') (in piano playing) to 'throw off' a note or chord by a rapid, light turn of the wrist
strappato(Italian) strong pizzicato, strongly plucked, torn, raked, gerissen (German), arraché (French)
Strappera powerfully built, robust person
strascicando(Italian) dragging the tempo, heavy slurring, singing portamento
strascicato(Italian) dragged, played slowly, sung portamento
strascinando(Italian) dragging the tempo, heavy slurring, singing portamento
strascinando l'arco(Italian) keeping the bow close to the strings so as to slur or bind the notes
strascinare la voce(Italian) to sing with an exaggerated portamento
strascinato(Italian) dragged, played slowly, heavy slurring, singing portamento
strascinio(Italian) dragging, playing slowly
Strascino(Italian m.) a grace, or embellishment, chiefly vocal, and used in slow passages. It is a kind of drag and consists of about 8 or 10 notes given in an unequal, and descending motion
Straß(German m.) a paste
Straße(German f.) a road, a street, a strait
Straßenbahn(German f.) a tram
Straßenkarte(German f.) a road-map
Straßenlaterne(German f.) a street lamp
Straßenmusik(German f.) street music
Straßensperre(German f.) a road-block
Strata repertoirein Crete, rizitika songs reserved for parts of the wedding rites other than the banquet, that is, for the transfer of the dowry to the bridegroom's house, the ceremonial welcome by the bridegroom's mother of the bride, the gathering of the gifts, etc.
Strategie(German f.) a strategy
strategisch(German) strategic, strategically
Strathspey(English, German m.) a slow Scottish dance in 4/4 time, said to have originated in the Strath valley of the Spey around the start of the 18th-century, that is often coupled with the even-paced 'reel', characterised by the alternation of dotted quavers (dotted eighth notes) and semiquavers (sixteenth notes), the shorter preceding the longer
Stratificationa layering of musical texture or the independent operating of more than one parameter simultaneously
Strato(Italian m.) layer, coat (of varnish, etc.), stratum
Strato di intonaco(Italian m.) plasterwork (surface of plaster)
Stratosfera(Italian f.) stratosphere
Stratum (s.), Strata (pl.)(Latin) a layer (for example, in geology, a bed of sedimentary rock)
sträuben(German) to ruffle up (feathers)
Strauch(German m.) a bush, a shrub
Strauchdieb(German m.) a tramp
Straucheln(German n.) a stumble
straucheln(German) to stumble, to lapse, to falter
Strauß(German m.) a bunch (of flowers), a bouquet
(German m.) ostrich
stravagante(Italian) extravagant, fantastic, whimsical, capricious, odd, eccentric (odd)
Stravaganza(Italian f.) extravagance, eccentricity, quaintness, eccentricity
(Italian f.) an extravagant, fantastical composition
stravedere(Italian) to see wrongly
stravedere per(Italian) to worship
Stravizio(Italian m.) excess
stravolgere(Italian) to twist, to upset
straziante(Italian) heartrending, agonizing
straziare(Italian) to tear apart
Strazio(Italian m.) agony
Stream of consciousnesswriting in which a character's perceptions, thoughts, and memories are presented in an apparently random form, without regard for logical sequence, chronology, or syntax
Streamline modernethough often associated with Art Deco, Streamline design was a style that came into its own right in the 1930s. It derives in inspiration from the scientific principal that curves of certain proportions will provide the least resistance to currents of air or water. Though conceivably useful on cars and planes, streamlining was also placed on radios, refrigerators, and other household items. More than a science it came to represent faith in the progress of science and the future. Its diversified use on so many products was a reflection of increasing modernist attitudes
Streaming Audiolive audio received over the Internet without downloading it. Streaming does not save a copy of the audio on your PC, while downloading a file does. Internet radio stations generally use streaming audio for their broadcasts
Strebe(German f.) a brace, a strut
Streben nach(German) a head for, strive for
Streben zu(German) a head for
Strebler(German m.) a pushy person, a swot (academically)
strebsam(German) industrious
Strecke(German f.) a stretch, a section, a distance, a line (railway), a route
strecken(German) to stretch, to stretch out, to straighten, to thin down (in cooking)
to put, as in den Kopf aus dem Fenster strecken (German: put one's head out of the window)
Streek (met strijkstok)(Dutch) stroke (of the bow)
Streekboog(Dutch) slur
Street balladssee 'broadstreet ballads'
Street criescomposers from the Middle Ages incorporated the calls of the criers that earned their living by walking the streets, selling their wares or providing services to the community. They would draw attention to their presence by bawling characteristic songs or playing on musical instruments
Street dancean umbrella term used to describe dance styles that were originally danced mostly at night clubs or outside in the streets, mainly because of their social nature that encourages performance and 'battles'
Street organa mechanical organ designed to play in the street
see 'barrel organ'
Street pianosee 'barrel piano'
Strega(Italian f.) a witch
an Italian liqueur made at Benevento
stregare(Italian) to bewitch
Stregone(Italian m.) wizard
Streich(German m.) stroke (of the bow)
(German m.) a prank, a trick
streicheln(German) to stroke
streichen(German) to bow, to stroke
(German) to spread, to smooth, to paint, to cut, to delete, to strike out, to discard, to cancel, to lower (flag), to retrench, to scratch out
streichen über(German) to stroke
Streicher(German m.) bowed strings (expressed as Die Streicher: i.e. the string section or the strings), a string player
Streichersatzsee Satz
Streichholz(German m.) a match (for lighting a fire, a candle, etc.)
Streichinstrument (s.), Streichinstrumente (pl.)(German n.) bowed instrument, string-instrument, stringed-instrument, (the plural also means 'strings', meaning a group of stringed instruments as in 'the strings of an orchestra')
Streichinstrumentenfamilie(German f.) bowed instrument family, string-instrument family, stringed-instrument family
Streichleier(German f.) a bowed harp
Streichorchester(German n.) string orchestra, string band
Streichquartett(German n.) string quartet
Streichquintett(German n.) string quintet
Streichrad(German n.) friction wheel (for example, on a hurdy-gurdy), ruota a sfregamento (Italian f.), roue de frottement (French f.)
Streichschachtel(German f.) a matchbox
Streichsextett(German n.) a string sextet
Streichtrio(German n.) string trio
Streichung(German f.) a deletion, a cut (to shorten the length of a piece of text, film, etc.)
Streichzither(German) a bowed zither
Streife(German f.) a patrol
Streifen(German m.) a stripe, a streak (of light), a line (at a railway station), a strip (of material)
streifen(German) to brush against, a touch, to graze, to touch on (figurative), to slip
mit dem Blick streifen (German: to glance at)
streifend(German) striped, touching lightly, strisciando (Italian), en frôlant (French)
Streifenwagen(German m.) a patrol car
streifig(German) streaky
Streifschuß(German m.) a glancing shot, a graze (a slight wound)
Streik(German m.) a strike
Streikbrecher(German m.) a strike-breaker
Streikende (m.), Streikender (f.)(German) a striker
Streikposten(German m.) a picket
Streit(German m.) a quarrel, a dispute
Streitigkeiten(German f. pl.) quarrels
streitsüchtig(German) quarrelsome
streng(German) strict, severe, rigid, tight, strictly, sternly, severely, sharp (smack)
Strenge(German f.) severity, sternness
strenge gebunden(German) strictly legato, exceedingly smooth
streng genommen(German) strictly speaking
strenggläubig(German) strict, orthodox
streng im Takt(German) strictly in time
streng im Tempo(German) strictly in tempo
strengstens(German) strictly
Strepito(Italian) noise
strepitosamente(Italian) noisily, boisterously
strepitoso(Italian) noisy, boisterous, impetuous
an instrumental effect, where the player rapidly and repeatedly alternates two notes of a particular chord
Stressin linguistics, the emphasis, length and loudness that mark one syllable as more pronounced than another
in music, the emphasis, length and loudness that mark one note, or group of notes, as more pronounced than another
Streß(German m.) stress
Stress accentsee 'accent'
stressig(German) stressful (familiar)
Stretchan interval or chord that is to be played entirely with one hand
Stretched octavesee 'pseudo-octave'
Stretched tuningstretched tuning is a detail of musical tuning, applied to wire-stringed musical instruments and older, non-digital electric pianos (such as the Fender Rhodes piano and Wurlitzer electric piano) to accommodate the natural inharmonicity of their vibrating elements. In stretched tuning, two notes an octave apart, whose fundamental frequencies theoretically have an exact 2:1 ratio, are tuned slightly farther apart
Stretchfilm(German m.) flexible film
Stretch outin jazz, an extended and often highly inventive improvisation in place of an anticipated shorter set of phrases
Stretta(Italian f., literally 'tightening' or 'squeezing') a coda, which, mainly in the 19th-century, meant a passage at the end of an aria, act or ensemble, in which the tempo is accelerated to effect a climax
see stretto
Strette(Italian, French f.) stretto
strettissimo(Italian) very hurriedly
Stretto (s.), Stretti (Italian pl.), Strettos (English pl.)(English, Italian m.) (as applied to contrapuntal music) Engführung (German f.), strette (French f.): fugal entries that occur closer together, the following beginning before the previous has finished (i.e. they overlap)
stretto (m.), stretta (f.)(Italian, literally 'close', 'narrow', 'pressed') (as an expression mark) accelerated, brought together, faster, in quicker time
Stretto fugueor close fugue, a fugue in which the opening exposition takes place in stretto form
Stretto maestrale(Italian m.) also called a 'grand stretto', a stretto in which each part continues the subject to the end, making a strict imitation. Note particularly that stretto maestrale involves all the voices in a fugue - otherwise, if any of the voices are missing, the description 'false stretto' is more appropriate
Stretto pedale(Italian m.) the quick shifting of the loud piano pedal in a strongly marked chordal passage to strengthen power and retain harmonic clarity
streuen(German) to spread, to scatter, to sprinkle (salt, sugar, etc.)
streunen(German) to roam, to stray
streunener Hund(German) a stray dog
Stria (s.), Striae (pl.)(Latin) the space between adjacent flutings of a column, a groove or ridge (particularly one of a series of grooves or ridges)
stricciandosee strascicando
Strich(German m.) line, stroke, dash (Morse)
(German m.) bow stroke, the manner of bowing
Strichart(German f.) the management of the bow, the art of bowing, bow stroke, bowing, colpo d'arco (Italian m.), arcata (Italian f.), Bogenführung (German f.), Bogenstrich (German m.), coup d'archet (French m.)
Stricharten(German f. pl.) the different ways of bowing
Strichcode(German m.) bar code
Strich für Strich(German) separate bows (i.e. not slurred)
strichpunktiert(German) dot-dashed (as in a dot-dashed line, a line made up of a series of alternating dots and dashes)
Strichzeichnung(German f.) delineation
Strick(German m.) a cord, a rope, a rascal (familiar)
stricken(German) to knit
Strickjacke(German f.) a cardigan
Strickleiter(German f.) a rope-ladder
Stricknadel(German f.) a knitting needle
Strickwaren(German f. pl.) knitwear
Strickzeug(German n.) knitting
Strict canona canon where the consequents follow exactly the intervals and rhythmic values of the antecedent, thus, for example, all canons at the octave or at the unison are strict
Strict chordal stylealso called 'familiar style', homorhythmic texture (music written as a succession of chords which are horizontally connected to a melody, for example, church hymns) as opposed to free chordal style where the notes of a chord are not fixed by the melody
Strict counterpointit is a common and pedantic misconception that counterpoint is defined by 'five species' (hence its alternative name, 'species counterpoint'), and therefore anything that does not follow the strict rules of the five species (i.e. is not 'strict' counterpoint) should not be considered counterpoint at all. This is not true; although much contrapuntal music of the common practice period indeed adheres to the rules, there are exceptions. In his book Gradus ad Parnassum (1725), Johann Fux (1660-1741) introduced the concept of 'species' purely as a method of teaching counterpoint, not a definitive or rigidly prescriptive set of rules for it. He arrived at his method of teaching (or so he believed) by examining the works of Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina (1525/1526-1594) who, in Fux's time, was held in the highest esteem as a contrapuntalist. Works in the contrapuntal style of the 16th century - the prima prattica or stile antico, it was called by modernist composers then - were often said by Fux's contemporaries to be in "Palestrina style." Indeed, Fux's treatise is a rather accurate compendium of Palestrina's techniques
  • Counterpoint from which the essence of this comment has been drawn
Strict harmonycomposition according to the strict rules of harmony, usually 'four-part harmony'
Strict imitationcanonic imitation
Strict stylea compositional form in which each dissonance is properly prepared and resolved, or appear as passing notes
Strict time, inmeasured, in tempo (Italian), abgemessen (German), en mesure (French), a rigore di tempo (Italian), tempo rigoroso (Italian), Streng im Tempo (German), exactement (French)
Stride (left hand pattern)(English, German m.) the typical piano style of the 1930s in which the left hand plays alternating low-register bass notes (or octaves, fifths or tenths) and middle register rootless voicings, giving an 'oom-pah' effect, interspersed with step-wise parallel tenths. The right hand often employs busy runs, arpeggios and octaves or full chords
stridente(Italian) strident, rough, harsh, martellato
striegeln(German) to groom
strijken(Dutch) bowing
Strijkers(Dutch) bowed strings (i.e. orchestral section)
strijkers tremolo(Dutch) bowed tremolo
Strijkinstrument(Dutch) stringed instrument
Strijkstok(Dutch) bow
Strikein the theatre, to remove a set piece or from the stage (for example, 'strike that chair')
in reference to a percussion instrument, to hit, as in 'strike a bell'
Strike noteor 'strike tone', the initial timbre and pitch of a bell immediately after being struck by the beater. This note (tone) results from all possible frequencies at their initial amplitude. Its pitch corresponds with that of the fundamental, or prime note (prime tone)
Strike the showto disassemble, in its entirety, the set, return all equipment to storage and leave the venue as it was before the show was set up
Strikethroughwhen all or more likely a portion of text is overprinted to render it unreadable. Sometimes additional text might be printed in its place. The striking of words can be done to correct a previous mistake in printing or denote changes that will allow continued use of the original printed material
Strike tonesee 'strike note'
Strike upto begin playing, as in 'Strike up the band' which means that the band starts playing
Striking reedanche battante (French f.) beating reed, ancia battente (Italian f.), aufschlagendes Rohrblatt (German n.), Gegenschlagzunge (German f.)
the kind of reed in an organ, in which the tongue strikes against the tube, in producing the note
Striking stickbeater used to sound percussion instruments (drums, bells, cymbals, xylophone, etc.) in automatic music players
strikt(German) strict, strictly
strillanti(Italian) screaming
strimpellata(Italian) strumming, scraping
string.abbreviation of stringendo (Italian: pressing)
Stringcorda (Italian f.), Saite (German f.), corde (French f.), cuerda (Spanish f.)
a strand of gut, wire, silk or nylon that, when bowed, plucked or struck, produces a sound determined by its tension, length and density. Strings are numbered in decreasing pitch from the top string which is called the first string. Albert Augustine (1900-1967) who was employeed by the DuPont Corp. developed nylon strings for the Spanish guitarist Segovia in about 1947
guitar strings are of two main classes: synthetic (usually nylon) and metal, and the instruments themselves are built to accommodate one or the other. Within each class there are plain and wound strings. Plain are simple monofilament or drawn metal. Wound strings are either nylon or metal core with a metal wrap, or winding. Metals most commonly used in guitars are steel and bronze, with a great variety of alloys of each. Wound strings are normally round wound (basically a wire wrapped around a wire) which give them a more ridged surface
violin strings are similar in that they may be of metal or synthetic cores with or without metal windings. But here the similarity ends. Violin strings are made with a whole different variety of metals, as well as different synthetic and natural cores. Metals used in violin strings include silver, copper and aluminum, with a steel gut or nylon core. Violin strings also more commonly use natural gut as a core. Violin strings are normally flat wound, which means the winding metal is flat (like a tape). This gives a smooth surface to the string, which is more comfortable to the finger when sliding along the length
William Brockedon (1787-1854), English writer, painter and inventor, was granted a patent in 1819 for a diamond wire drawing die through which he began drawing steel wire. In the same year it would appear Broadwood began using steel wire in their pianos. In 1884, the Imperial standard wire gauge was sanctioned by the board of trade. Prior to this British piano makers used the Birmingham wire gauge because they used Birmingham's piano wire, where in 1854, Webster and Horfall invented a means of making tempered cast steel piano wire. The Germans had done this before, with little success, but the wire from Birmingham's factory was much stronger than that produced in Germany
strings for all modern instruments are carefully engineered to perform optimally under specific conditions, such as being fretted or bowed or picked up by a magnetic transducer or whatever. Professional musicians are very sensitive to subtle differences in string brands and will try a lot of them until they find ones that work best for them and their given instrument
the section of the orchestra formed by members of the violin family but excluding harp, guitar, harpsichord, piano, viols, etc.
treble stringcorda melodicaMelodiesaitecorde mélodiquecuerda melódica
bass stringcorda del sol
quarta corda
G-Saitequatrième cordecuerda baja
drone stringcorda di bordoneBordunsaitecorde hors manchecuerda bordón
aliquot stringcorda di risonanzaAliquotsaitecorde de résonancecuerda alícuota
sympathetic stringcorda simpaticoResonanzsaitecorde sympathetiquecuerda de resonancia
open stringcorda vuotaleere Saitecorde à jour
corde à vide
cuerda abierta
gut stringcorda di budelloDarmsaitecorde de boyaucuerda de tripa
silk stringcorda di setaSeidensaitecorde de soiecuerda de seda
nylon stringcorda di nylonNylonsaitecorde de nyloncuerda de nailon
metal stringcorda di metalloMetallsaitecorde métalliquecuerda de metal
steel stringcorda d'acciaoStahlsaitecorde d'aciercuerda de acero
brass stringcorda d'ottoneMessingsaitecorde de laitoncuerda de latón
String adjuster(English) or Feinstimmer (German m.), a device fitted to stringed instruments to assist in the fine tuning of individual strings
String bandthe string section of the orchestra
String bandsa type of country-music ensemble of fiddle, five-string banjo, acoustic guitar, mandolin, and upright bass dominant during the 1920s and 1930s, and an important precursor to bluegrass. Occasionally the cello, piano, hammered dulcimer, Appalachian dulcimer, tenor banjo, tenor guitar, mouth bow, or other instruments were used, as well as such non-string instruments as the jug, harmonica, jew's harp, concertina, accordion, washboard, or spoons. Today it is played primarily in circles where old-time country music remains popular, such as family picnics, square dances, fiddle conventions, and jam sessions. In Louisiana, the old-time string band sound is found primarily in North Louisiana and the Florida Parishes
Montserrat is also home to a string band folk tradition that provides accompaniment to many kinds of songs and dances. These generally include the ukulele (yokolee, imported from Hawaiian music), guitar, triangle, the bass boom pipe, shak-shak, gradge and fife. String bands traditionally performed for weddings but now also play at hotels and nightclubs
String basssee 'double bass'
String calculator
String drumsee 'friction drum'
Stringed instrumentor 'string instrument', instrumento da corda (Italian), stromento da corda (Italian), Streichinstrument (German), instrument à cordes (French)
stringendo(Italian) squeezing together, pressing, accelerating the tempo, a rapid accelerando with a crescendo
stringere(Italian) to hasten
Stringingthe process of fitting strings onto a stringed instrument (for exmaple, a violin, a harpsichord, etc.
in printing, to insert and tie string on hanging cards, catalogues, and other work either singly or in batches
String instrumentany musical instrument that produces sound by means of strings under appropriate tension that are set into vibration by being plucked (for example, harp, guitar, or lute, etc.), strummed (for example, harp, guitar, or lute, etc.), struck (for example, piano, dulcimer, or clavichord, etc.), or bowed (for example, violin, viol, or 'cello, etc.)
since the early 20th century musicologists have divided string instruments into five categories:
zithersthe strings go mainly across a soundbox
lutesthe strings also go across a fingerboard
lyresthe strings go across air and a soundbox
harpsthe strings go across air and are attached to a soundbox
bowthe strings extend across a frame, with no soundbox
String musicmusic especially composed for string instruments, that is for violins, violas, cellos and double basses
String, opensee 'open string'
String orchestraa moderately large ensemble form only of first and second violins, cellos and double basses
String pianoa tradition piano but where the strings are acted upon directly by the player, for example, by plucking, strumming or hammering the strings
String quarteta quartet formed of one first violinist, one second violinist, one violist and one cellist
String quinteta quintet formed only of string players, usually two violins, one viola, one cello and a double bass, or two violins, viola and cello, or two violins, one viola and two celli
String Rotary Valveswhile the connection between touchpiece and rotor takes the form of metal levers in German rotary valves, 19th-century American rotary valves used a string linkage. The first to make rotary valves with string linkage was Tomas D. Paine in Woonsocket, Rhode Island. String rotary valves come with a variety of different stopping mechanisms, such as the three-point-wing device with pin stop, the horseshoe-stop, and the V-shaped stop, which is a variation of the horseshoe-stop
Stringsin an organ, flue pipes of narrow scale, voiced to have many harmonics
String triothree string players, usually two violins and a cello, or violin, viola and cello
Stringypossessing the particular tone qualities associated with bowed strings
Stripin TV, a five- or six-day-per-week TV series, in newspapers a cartoon series, usually in syndication
a narrow length of material, land, etc.
the removal of a layer of paint, varnish, clothing, etc.
Striped cymbalscymbals with a higher pitch, more focused overtones and a faster decay, often used as crash, ride, splash or hi-hat cymbals
strisciando(Italian, literally 'trailing') smooth, gliding, glissando (slurring smoothly from note to note)
(Italian) touching lightly, streifend (German), en frôlant (French)
Strisciáre(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) to make a trampling noise with ones feet as Canarie dancers use
strisciato(Italian, literally 'trailed') smooth, slurred, striped, glissando
strittig(German) contentious
Strofa(Italian f.) strophe, stanza
Strofe(Italian f.) strophe, stanza
Stroh(German n.) straw
Strohblumen(German f. pl.) everlasting flowers
Strohdach(German n.) a thatched roof
Strohfiedel(German, literally 'straw fiddle') a form of xylophone, where a series of graduated bars of wood lie on cords of twisted straw and are struck with sticks
strohgedeckt(German) thatched
Strohhalm(German m.) straw
Strohviol(German) produced at the begining of the twentieth-century for use in early acoustic recording studios, and later as a novelty in vaudeville shows, the stohviol is a violin sized instrument that incorporates a natural horn amplifer
Stroke letterin paleography, a stroke letter was one made mostly from minims (i.e., straight vertical lines). These included the letters i, m, n, u, and v. Such stroke letters in medieval handwriting are often hard to distinguish from one another when written in close proximity to each other. This led to scribes inventing modifications like the dotted i and the "descender" letters j and y to help distinguish them visually
Strolch(German m.) a rascal (familiar)
Strollin jazz, a direction indicating that a performer, usually the pianist or the rhythm section, should be silent (i.e. should lay out)
Strom(German m.) a river, a stream (of blood, water, people, etc.), a flood, a torrent, current (electrical), power
stromabwärts(German) downstream
stromaufwärts(German) upstream
strombettare(Italian) to sound or play on a trumpet
Strombettiere(Italian m.) a trumpeter
strömen(German) to flow, to stream (people, blood, water, etc.), to pour
strömender Regen(German) pouring rain
stromentato(Italian) scored for instruments, played by instruments, instrumented, scored for an orchestra
stromentato, recitativosee 'recitative'
Stromenti(Italian m. pl.) musical instruments
Stromenti a percossa(Italian m. pl.) percussion instruments
Stromenti da corda(Italian m. pl.) stringed instruments
Stromenti da fiato(Italian m. pl.) wind instruments
Stromenti da percossa(Italian m. pl.) percussion instruments
Stromenti d'arco(Italian m. pl.) stringed instruments played with a bow
Stromenti da tasto(Italian m. pl.) keyboard instruments
Stromenti di fiato(Italian m. pl.) wind instruments
Stromenti di legno(Italian m. pl.) wood instruments
Stromenti di metallo(Italian m. pl.) metal instruments
Stromenti di vento(Italian m. pl.) wind-instruments
Stromento (s.), Stromenti (pl.)(Italian m.) instrument(s)
Stromkreis(German m.) a circuit
stromlinienförmig(German) streamlined
Stromsperre(German f.) a power cut
Strömung(German f.) current
Strongheavy (beat, pressure, etc.), loud (tone, etc.), robusto (Italian), stark (German), fort (French)
Strong declensionin Germanic languages, any noun or adjective declension in which the stem originally ended in a vowel
Strong verbin Germanic languages, a strong verb is one whose linguistic principal parts were formed by ablaut of the stem vowel, as opposed to a weak verb, which forms its parts by adding a dental suffix such as -d or -t to the end of the stem. Examples of a strong verb surviving into modern English would be the verb swim, with forms like swim, swam, swum, as opposed to a weak verb like indicate, indicated, or have indicated
Strophasee apostropha
Strophe (s.), Strophae (pl.)(English, German f. from the Greek, strephein 'to turn', 'to twist') in linguistics, the first group of lines in a metrical system of the Greek lyric, which is exactly repeated in the antistrophe, thus the term is used for any group of lines of verse arranged according to a sytematic and recurring pattern
or 'chorus form', commonly associated with folksong and art-songs based on folk-song, a sectional and/or additive way of structuring a piece of music based on the repetition of one formal section or block played repeatedly. It is the musical analogue of 'repeated stanzas' in poetry or lyrics: where the text repeats the same rhyme scheme from one stanza to the next, the accompanying music for each stanza is either the same or very similar from one stanza to the next. It may be considered AAA... or AA'A".... If different music is used for different stanzas, it is said to be through-composed
(German f.) verse
in ancient Greek drama, a strophe is that portion sung by the chorus when dancing from the right to the left, the antistrophe, that sung when the movement is reversed
Strophenlied(German n.) a strophic song
Strophicsee strophe
Strophic basswhere a common bass line supports all the stanzas of a song, even when the melodies in the upper part are varying. Basso ostinato and 'strophic bass' are examples of continuous and sectional variation, respectively
Strophic compositionsee 'song'
Strophicussee apostropha
Strophic variationsor 'theme and variations' form, where a musical melody (the theme) is followed by many altered versions of it (the variations). The variations are all altered forms of the theme; the theme is always present, in some form however disguised, in each of the variations. The theme may be either original or previously written by another composer
strophisch(German) strophic
Strottehoofd(Dutch) larynx
StrQuabbreviation of Streichquartett (German: string quartet - quatuor à cordes (French))
Stubenorgel(German) small portable organ
Structural accentsee 'accent'
Structural acousticsstructural acoustics is concerned with the coupled dynamic response of elastic structures in contact with non-flowing fluids. (The fluid, although non-flowing, undergoes small-amplitude vibration relative to some equilibrium position.) For heavy fluids like water, the coupling is two-way, since the structural response is influenced by the fluid response, and vice versa. For lighter fluids like air, the coupling may be either one-way (where the structural vibration affects the fluid response, but not vice versa) or two-way (as occurs, for example, in the violin).
structural acoustics problems of interest involving water include the vibration of submerged structures, acoustic radiation from mechanically-excited, submerged, elastic structures; acoustic scattering from submerged, elastic structures (e.g., sonar echoes); acoustic cavity analysis; and dynamics of fluid-filled elastic piping systems. These problems are of interest for both time-harmonic (sinusoidal) and general time-dependent (transient) excitations. Water hammer in pipes can be thought of as a transient structural acoustics problem.
structural acoustics problems of interest involving air include determining and reducing noise levels in automobile and airplane cabins
Structural grammaralso called structuralism, this term refers to a descriptivist approach to grammar the purpose of which is to describe how language is actually used rather than prescribing a "correct" version for students to learn
Structural notesthe first, fourth and fifth notes of the scale that are the roots of the three primary triads
Structurewhether the elements are melodic, harmonic, rhythmic or textural, the structure of music is central to our understanding of what music is. We use our listening skills and analytical methods to seek a deeper understanding of how structure, memory and aesthetic issues including representation and expression give music the meaning that it has for us. One influential theory of musical structure is that proposed by Heinrich Schenker (1868-1935)
Structures vivantes(French) in art, works of plastic art which by mechanical means are maintained in constant motion, or which, through design, give that appearance
Strudel(German m.) a whirlpool, a type of cake
Struktur(German f.) structure, texture
Strukturalismus(German n.) structuralism
strukturell(German) structural
strukturieren(German) to structure
Strukturwandel(German m.) structural transformation
Strumto brush the fingers or a pick over the strings of a stringed instrument so that a number of strings are stuck almost simultaneously
strumentale(Italian) instrumental
strumentato(Italian) instrumented, orchestrated
Strumentazione variable(Italian f.) alternative scoring
Strumenti a corda(Italian m. pl.) stringed instruments
Strumenti a corde con tastatura(Italian m. pl.) fretted stringed instruments, for example the viola da gamba, lute, guitar
Strumenti ad arco(Italian m. pl.) bowed string instruments
Strumenti a fiato(Italian m. pl.) wind instruments
Strumenti a fiato di legno(Italian m. pl.) woodwind instruments
Strumenti a fiato di ottone(Italian m. pl.) brass instruments
Strumenti a percussione(Italian m. pl.) percussion instruments
Strumenti a pizzicato(Italian m. pl.) plucked instruments
Strumenti a tastiera(Italian m. pl.) keyboard instruments
Strumenti a tastiera elettronica(Italian m. pl.) electronic keyboard instruments
Strumenti di legno(Italian m. pl.) woodwind instruments
Strumenti elettrici(Italian m. pl.) electric instruments
Strumenti elettronici(Italian m. pl.) electronic instruments
Strumenti generatori di effetti(Italian m. pl.) special effects equipment
Strumentini(Italian m. pl.) woodwind
Strumenti traspositori(Italian m. pl.) transposing instruments
Strumento (s.), Strumenti (pl.)(Italian m.) instrument
Strumento accompagnatore(Italian m.) accompanying instrument
Strumento a tastiera(Italian m.) keyboard instrument
Strumento de basso continuo(Italian m.) continuo instrument
Strumento di fondamento(Italian m.) continuo instrument
Strumento di misura(Italian m.) a measuring instrument
Strumento di vento(Italian m.) wind-instrument
Strumento d'ottone(Italian m.) brass instrument
Strumento elettrofono(Italian m.) electrophonic instrument
Strumento melodico(Italian m.) melodic instrument
Strumento ritmico(Italian m. pl.) rhythm instrument
Strumento solistico(Italian m. pl.) solo instrument
strummen(German) to strum
Strummingto strum
Strumming patterna preset pattern used by a rhythm guitar
Strumpf(German m.) a stocking, a sock
Strumpfband(German n.) a suspender, a garter
Strumpfbandgürtel(German m.) a suspender, a garter belt
Strumpfhalter(German m.) a suspender, a garter
Strumpfhose(German f.) tights
Strung backon a piano, the entire assembly consisting of back frame, posts, soundboard, wrest plank, plate, ribs, bridges, strings, tuning pins, pressure bar, etc
Strunk(German m.) a stalk, a stump (tree)
struppig(German) shaggy
Strygere(Danish) strings (i.e. orchestral section)
Stube(German f.) a room
stubenrein(German) house-trained
Stucco(Italian m.) in architecture, a fine plaster used to cover exterior walls in imitation of stone or marble and for executing cornices, mouldings, etc. in the interior of buildings
Stucco lustro(Italian m.) in architecture, stucco so treated as to give it a lustrous surface
Stuck(German m.) stucco
Stück (s.), Stücke (pl.)(German m.) composition, piece, air, tune, piece, lump, tablet, play (theatre), item, specimen
Stück aus dem (wirklichen) Leben, ein(German) a slice of (real) life, tranche de vie (French), squarcio di vita (Italian)
Stückchen(German n.) a little air or tune, a little bit
Stückliste(German f.) parts list
stückweise(German) bit by bit, singly (one at a time)
Studded onionin cooking, a peeled onion studded with cloves and bay leaf
Student (m.), Studentin (f.)(German) a student
Student Communityestablished in the 1830s by G.J. Holyoake whle he was a student at the Birmingham Mechanics Institute. Holyoake discovered Owenism and set up a small community house with three fellow students. Holyoake went on to become a radical journalist, champion of the co-operative movement and founding father of the secular movement
studentisch(German) student
Studie (s.), Studien (pl.)(German f.) study, étude
Studienpartitur(German f.) study score
studieren(German) to study
Studierzimmer(German n.) a study
Studio(Italian m.) a study, an exercise
(English, French m., German n.) a place of work for a recording engineering, painter, sculpture, designer, etc.
Studio de Fonologia(Italian m.) in 1955, the Studio de Fonologia was established at the RAI (Radio Audizioni Italiane / Italian Radio Broadcasting) in Milan with Luciano Berio and Bruno Maderna as the artistic directors. Berio's first composition, finished in 1958, was Thema: Omaggio a Joyce (Theme: Homage to Joyce) in which Cathy Berberian's recitation of chapter eleven of James Joyce's Ulysses is transformed electronically
Studiomusiker(German m.) studio musician, session musician
Studio pianosspecially designed and made for use in schools and universities, and ranging from 44 to 51 inches in height, these are the tallest pianos a professor can sit at and still see the students or audience
Studium(German n.) studies, exercises (plural in English)
Stud tailpiecesee 'stop tailpeace'
Studya musical work designed to explore and thereby to overcome a technical difficulty, studio (Italian), Studie (German), étude (French)
Study scorea medium to small-sized conductor's score that shows all the parts, but is usually too small to use for rehearsal or performance
Stufe (s.), Stufen (pl.)(German f.) step, stair, stage, level
(German f.) step, degree (of a scale)
Stufe der Tonleiter(German f.) a degree of the scale
stufen(German) to terrace, to grade
Stufen-Akkorde(German f. pl.) chord built on the degrees of the scale
Stufenbezeichnung(German f.) roman numeral analysis
stufenweise Bewegung(German f.) conjunct movement
Stuhl(German m.) a chair
Stuhlbezug(German m.) chair cover
Stuhlpolonaise(German f.) musical chairs
Stuivertje wisselen(Dutch) musical chairs
Stuk(Dutch) part
StullGrubenholz (German n.), any of several kinds of supports or frameworks used in mines to prevent cave-ins, support a platform, etc.
stülpen (über)(German) to put (over)
stumm(German) dumb, mute, silent, silently
Stummel(German m.) stump, butt (of a cigarette), stub (of a ticket)
Stummelpedal(German n.) see elektronische Orgel
stumme Pfeifen(German f. pl., literally 'mute pipes') also known as 'blind pipes', these produce no sound but are included to improve the symmetry of the visible organ pipes
Stummfilm(German m.) silent film
Stummfilmvertonung(German f.) the enhancement achieved by the addition of a sound track to a silent movie
Stümper(German m.) bungler, an incompetent
stümperhaft(German) incompetent, incompetently
Stumpf(German m.) stump (for example, of a tree)
stumpf(German) blunt, obtuse, dull, apathetic (figurative), apathetically (figurative)
Stumpfsinn(German m.) apathy, tedium
stumpfsinnig(German) apathetic, apathetically, tedious
Stunde(German f.) an hour, a lesson
Stundenbuch(German n.) book of hours
[entry provided by Michael Zapf]
Stundenhotel(German n.) a disorderly house
Stunden/kilometer(German m. pl.) kilometres per hour
stundenlang(German) for hours
Stundenlohn(German m.) hourly rate
Stundenplan(German m.) a timetable
stundenweise(German) by the hour
stündlich(German) hourly
Stupa(Sanskrit) a Buddhist sepulchral monument
stupendo(Italian) wonderful
stupito(Italian) astonished
Stupor mundi(Latin, literally 'the wonder of the world') a person who has achieved a world-wide reputation in which astonishment is mingled with awe
Stups(German m.) a nudge, a push
stupsen(German) to nudge, to push
Stupsnase(German f.) snub nose
stur(German) pigheaded, pigneadedly, stolid (phlegmatic), stolidly (phlegmatically), dogged, doggedly
Sturm(German m.) a gale, a storm, an assault (military)
stürmen(German) to blow hard (wind), to rush, to storm, to besiege
stürmend(German) stormy, passionate
Stürmer(German m.) forward
stürmisch(German) stormy, passionate, boisterous, impetuous, furious, tempestuous, rough, tumultuous (figurative), tumultuously, tempestuously
Sturm und drang(German, literally 'storm and stress') a powerful, highly emotional romantic movement originally literary but associated also with 1760s and 1770s German music
Sturz(German m.) a (heavy) fall, a sharp drop (in prices), ovethrow (a monarch, a government, etc.)
Stürze(German f.) bell of a wind instrument
Stürze hoch(German) with bells turned upwards (a direction to horn players), a direction which in French is pavillon en l'air
Stürze in die Höhe(German) with bells turned upwards (a direction to horn players), a direction which in French is pavillon en l'air
stürzen(German) to fall (heavily), to plunge, to drop sharply (prices, etc.), to fall, to rush, to throw, to turn upside down, to turn out, to overthrow, to topple
Sturzflug(German m.) a dive (in an aircraft)
Sturzhelm(German n.) a crash-helmet
Stute(German f.) a mare
Stütze(German f.) a support, a rest (arm, back, head, etc.)
stutzen(German) to stop short, to trim, to cut back, to crop
stützen(German) to support (for example, the voice), to rest
stützend(German) leaning, appoggiando, en appuyant
Stutzer(German m.) a dandy
Stützfinger(German m.) buttress finger
[entry provided by Michael Zapf]
Stutzflügel(German m.) baby grand (piano)
stutzig(German) puzzled, suspicious
Stützpunkt(German m.) a (military) base
stuwkracht(Dutch) drive, pulse
Styl(German m.) or Stil, style
Stylegenere (Italian), Stil (German), manière (French)
(English, French m.) the way musical elements (melody, rhythm, harmony, dynamics, form, etc.) are presented
the relationship between the organisation of compositional material and a particular era or country
what distinguishes one performance from another, one author's writing from another, one artist's work from another, and so on
'in the style of' is translated as alla (Italian), wie (German) or à la (French)
Style ampoulé(French m.) high-flown, bombastic style
Style ancien(ne)(French m., literally 'old style') a term describing music that is inspired by forms from an earlier era
Style brisé(French m., literally 'broken style') or style luthé, from the late 17th- and early 18th-century, an arpeggiated style of keyboard music, derived from earlier 17th-century lute music
(le) style, c'est l'homme(French) the style of a writer is a reflection of his personality
Style champêtre(French m.) a pastoral style (idyllic and rustic)
Style décousu(French m.) loose, unconnected style
Style de musique(French m.) musical style
Style fugué(French m.) fugal style
Style galant(French m.) see galant
Style hongrois(French m., literally 'Hungarian style') Gypsy music
Style lié(French m.) legato style
Style luthé(French m., literally 'lute style') synonymous with style brisé
Style mécanique(French m.) an angular and mechanistic style, a feature of much of the painting, sculpture and architecture of the 1920s and 1930s
Style moderne(French m.) one of the original terms used to describe the design style that is now known as Art Deco. The term Art Deco was not used until the 1960s after the style had already gone out of fashion
Style musical(French m.) musical style
Style of, in thealla (Italian), wie (German), à la (French)
Style périodique(French m.) a literary style evolved in imitation of the long and complex periods of Ciceronian prose
Style pompier(French m.) a style of writing characteristic of a windy imitator of the style of others (in other words, derivative, banal, vulgar, etc.)
Style soutenu(French m., literally 'sustained style') oratorical style in which the speech is equally strong throughout
"Speaking noblement in public [and using the so-called style soutenu, "sustained style"] demands a sonorous, low and imposing voice that can reflect the elevated thoughts and expressions being used. ... He who speaks in this manner in public must do it posément, with grandeur. ... The goal of these speeches not being to please or to convince, one should only vary the voice imperceptibly in order to make the emotions [mouvements] and main points clear. ... When one raises or lowers the voice, it should be done gently ... but it should be so well modulated around the chosen pitch that it will not be raised or lowered as a result of the liveliness of the subject or expressions. This would amount to declaiming, which is a major fault in this sort of Pronunciation [of the style soutenu]. ... And if one is obliged to arouse listeners' attention by using a firmer voice, this must be done by imperceptible degrees, so that it is not noticeable. For I dare say that, in a way, one would be showing disrespect for those listening to this sort of speech if one allowed oneself to be carried away to the point of exclaiming. ... One must avoid gestures and at the most simply move the hand." - Grimarest, Traité du récitatif (1760 edition) pp. 61-65
Style vocal d'onomatopees(French m.) scat singing
stylisé(French) stylized
Stylisticsaspects of form or style in contrast with aspects of content, i.e., stylistics are those features that distinguish how certain writers write rather than what they write about - such as sentence length, preferred rhetorical devices, tendencies in diction, etc.
Stylo(French m.) pen
Stylo (à) bille(French m.) ball-point pen
Stylo (à) encre(French m.) fountain-pen
Stylophonesee 'Dubreq stylophone'
Stylus (s.), Styli (pl.)used in writing in the fourteenth century, a stylus is a writing utensil. It usually refers to a narrow, elongated staff, similar to a modern ballpoint pen. Many styli are heavily curved to be held more easily. Styli were first used by the ancient Mesopotamians in order to write in cuneiform. Styli were usually made out of reeds that grew on the sides of the Tigris and Euphrates and down to Egypt where the Egyptians used styli from sliced reeds with sharp points. Cuneiform was entirely based on the "wedge-shaped" mark that the styli made when pushed into a clay tablet, hence the name cuneiform coming from the Latin root cuneus meaning wedge-shaped
in the sound recording industry, a stylus is a phonograph or gramophone needle used to play back sound on gramophone records, as well as to record the sound indentations on the master record
  • Stylus from which these extracts have been taken
Stylus fantasticusor 'stylus phantasticus', a style of early baroque music that stems from organ toccatas and fantasias, particularly those of Claudio Merulo (1533-1604), organist at St Mark's, Venice. A later practitioner, Girolamo Frescobaldi (1583-1643), worked in Rome while his German student Johann Jakob Froberger (1616-1667) took the style north with him. There was a constant flow of Italian musicians north, to both Bavaria and Saxony (for example, Hans Leo Hassler (1562-1612) and Heinrich Schütz (1585-1672) while other musicians careers in both Austria and Italy such as Giovanni Felice Sances (c.1600-1679) and Francesco Turini (c.1595-1656)
Styrian accordionalso called Steirische Harmonika, an Austrian button accordion with the buttons set in rows which can vary from three to five. Some instruments include a "drone" bass button that produces the same note on press and draw
Styrienne(French f.) a slow air in 2/4 time, often in a minor key, and with each verse concluding with a yodel