music dictionary : T - Tb

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Tafter Ernst Tanzberger the cataloguer of music by Jean Sibelius (1865-1957)
indicating the Georg Phillip Telemann (1681-1767) catalogues prepared by Kassel, Werner Menke or Martin Ruhnke
Tabbreviation of 'tenor' (voice)
t abbreviation of 'tenor' (instrument)
T., t.abbreviation for 'tenor', Tenor (German), ténor (French), as, for example, in Soprano, Alto, Tenor, Bass, the four voices in a choir
abbreviation for tasto, tempo, Takt (German m., Swedish, Danish: bar (UK), measure (US)), 'toe' (in organ music), tenore (Italian: tenor), tutti (Italian: all) and tre (Italian m., Danish, Norwegian, Swedish: three)
taaa French 'time-name'
Taal(or tal) just as the 'note' is the basis of the melodic component of music, the bol (meaning 'speech' or 'syllables') is the foundation for taal (meaning 'palm of the hand') a fixed time cycle or metre in Indian music, built from uneven groupings of beats. Vocal and instrumental bols sound very similar. The most common tabla bols are dha, dhi/dhin, ti/tin, ra, ki, ta, na, tin and te. Different schools of percussion may pronounce the same bol differently. Several bols structured in a specific manner and arranged in sub-divisions are called thekas
Taalamfrom southern India, a pair of small cymbals
  • Talam from which this extract has been taken
Taamaasee tama
Taanin the Hindustani classical music tradition, referring to musical notes rendered with speed weaving different patterns
Taan pradhanmusic that features taans
Taan samrata title awarded to musicians who excel in the rendering of taans
Taaraba musical genre popular in Tanzania and Kenya that uses instruments from all the cultures with a historical presence in East Africa, including East Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa and the Middle East and Europe and rose to prominence in 1928
  • Taarab from which this extract has been taken
TaarijaNorth African tambourine
TAB(English, German f.) TAB or tablature is a method of writing down music played on guitar or bass. Instead of using symbols like in standard musical notation, it uses ordinary ASCII characters and numbers, making it ideal for places like the internet where anybody with any computer can link up, copy a TAB file, and read it
Tab' (s.), Tubu' (pl.)(Arabic) as defined by Louis Soret, the tab' is "the melodic mode, which influences the melodies, developments, therapeutic properties, character, and expression of the nawba (turn), as well as the occasions and hours of the day when it is to be performed"
Taba(Spanish f.) ankle-bone, jacks (game)
Tabac(French m.) tobacco, tabacconist;s shop
tabac(French) buff
Tabacalera(Spanish f.) tobacconist
tabacalero(Spanish) tobacco
Tabaco (Spanish m.) tobacco, cigarettes, snuff (powdered tobacco)
Tabac à priser(French m.) snuff
Tabaccaio (m.), Tabacca (f.)(Italian) tobacconist
Tabaccheria(Italian f.) tobacconist's (shop)
Tabacco(Italian m.) tobacco
Tabachaniotiko (s.), Tabachaniotika (pl)songs which are part of the Cretan musical tradition, which includes rebétika and the music of the Café-aman. All three merge Greek and Turkish elements, an outcome of the Greek-Turkish cultural syncretism in Crete during the period of Ottoman domination. According to Chaniá musicians, the tabachaniotika probably arose in Crete in the towns of Chaniá and Rethymnon around the middle of 19th-century. It was then the typical musical repertory of the so-called turkokritikoí, Muslim Cretans. It developed mainly after the immigration of Smyrna's refugees in 1922, as did the more widespread rebétika
Tabaco(Spanish m.) tobacco, cigarettes, snuff
Tabak(German m.) tabacco
Tabalalarge Mauritanian camel-skin drum
tabalear(Spanish) to drum (with one's fingers)
Taballosynonymous with timballo
Tabanka(Santiago, Cape Verde) a repetitive musical style, with horns, drums, and cornets, played by women who use plastic sheets, bags, and bottles, beating their thighs, their legs, to provide percussion lines based on African rhythms
Tabarda short sleeveless outer tunic emblazoned with a coat of arms, often worn by a knight over his armour or by a herald
a loose jacket of heavy material, sleeved or sleeveless, worn outdoors as by peasants in the Middle Ages
tabasser(French) to beat up (familiar)
Tabatière à musique(French f.) musical box
Tabel(Danish, Dutch) table, chart, graph
Tabell(Swedish) table [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
Tabella(Italian f.) table, list
tabellarisch darstellen(German) to tabulate
Tabelle(German f., Norwegian) table, chart, graph, (sport) league table
Taberna(Spanish f.) bar
Tabernacolo(Italian m.) tabernacle
Tabernero(Spanish m.) barman, landlord
Tabernáculo(Spanish m.) tabernacle
Tabique(Spanish m.) (thin) wall
Tabl(Arabic) drum
Tabla(Spanish f.) plank, slab (rock), shelf, pleat (in a garment), list, index, table (mathematical)
(English, German f., Spanish f.) or tablaa, Indian drums, generally used in pairs, the smaller, wooden, higher-pitched one is called the tabla, sidda, dayan or dahina while the other, the larger, earthenware or copper bass drum, is called bayan (meaning 'left side') or dagga. The smaller drum is played with the fingers and palm of the right hand, the larger with the fingers, palm and wrist of the left. Both have a head made from two layers of goat skin and rest on cloth covered plant fibre bundles called chutta
hourglass-shaped Egyptian and Middle Eastern drum, also called darbuka or dumbak
Tabla(Spanish f.) table, belly of a stringed instrument
Tablado(Spanish m.) platform, stage (in a theatre)
Tablahalternative name for the darbukkah, a vase-shaped hand-drum
Tablao, Tablaos(Spanish) a flamenco bar (place where flamenco shows are held)
Tabla periódica(Spanish f.) periodic table (chemistry)
Tablas reales(Spanish backgammon
Tabla tarangit consists of a number of tabla dayans tuned to different notes of the scale. Complete melodies are played by striking the appropriate dayans
Tablatur(German f.) the rules and regulations for the poetry and song of the Meistersingers
see 'tablature'
Tablatura(Spanish, Portuguese) tablature
Tablatur-Buch (1650)prepared by the German composer Samuel Scheidt (1587-1654), the Tabulatur-Buch hundert geistlicher Lieder und Psalmen contains harmonized accompaniments for 100 sacred songs and psalms, pointing to the growing practice of congregational singing in Lutheran churches
Tablaturethe signs and characters used for musical notation generally
(English, French) a notational system that uses letters, figures and other symbols to indicate how a piece might be performed, for instance by showing the position of a player's fingers on a representation of the strings of a cittern, guitar, viol or lute, or by showing the fingerings on a flageolet, as in Thomas Greeting's Pleasant Companion or new lessons and instructions for the flageolet (London, 1672?) or on a musette de cour, as published in Harmonie Universelle by Mersenne and employed by Borjon thirty-six years later. Claude Gervaise (fl. c.1540-1560), a French composer who was associated with the renowned printer Pierre Attaingnant, is known to have produced, in an instruction manual for the viol (1548, now lost), the first viol tablature in France. There were also tablature-based notation systems for keyboard instruments. Elias Ammerbach (c.1530-1597) developed a keyboard tablature, which was specifically adapted for organ. His method became known as the 'new German organ tablature' and involved letter notation for the pitches with rhythmic symbols placed above. Tablature notation survives today in the TAB notation used by guitarists and in the drum tablature in use for drums
vihuela tabulature is different in principle from keyboard or harp tablatures. The Spanish composer Alonzo Mudarra proposed a form of tabulature that could be used by all three and an example of Mudarra's system may be found a single piece appendiced to his book for the vihuela entitled Tres Libros de Musica en Cifras
French and Italian lute tablatures, the latter generally used in Italy, Spain, southern France and southern Germany, consist of a system of lines that represent the courses of the lute. German tablature was devised in such a way that every available note was allocated a different letter or symbol and thus did not require placement on a system of lines. Each line or course in French and Italian tablature represents a pitch and, although the precise frequency of pitch intended is not fixed, it is the intervals between the courses that yield a particular pattern of pitches recognised as certain lute tunings. Virtually all music written for the lute before c.1620 was intended for a lute tuned in vieil Ton or Renaissance-G tuning (from the lowest to the highest the interval sequence of perfect 4th-perfect 4th-major 3rd-perfect 4th-perfect 4th). The frets along the fingerboard, which are spaced a semitone (half step) apart, are represented in the notation by a consecutive sequence of letters or numbers depending on the type of tablature. The rhythm of the notes indicated is given by placing flags or mensural notes in the spaces above the stave
Tablature, Italianfigured bass was formerly known as 'Italian Tablature'
Tablatuur(Dutch) tablature
Tabl baladia large double-sided bass drum, used at weddings and similarly festive events, mostly for the accompaniment of dance
Table(French f.) table, index
(English) or table d'harmonie (French f.), Decke (German f.), table (French f.), tavola armonica (Italian), the table, belly or top of a stringed instrument
Tableau (s.), Tableaux (pl.)(French m.) a picture, a painting, a board, a chart, a list
(French m.) an effect caused by freezing the action on stage often at the climax of a dramatic scene or a dénoument. In late 18th- and early 19th-century France these were called tableau général although the effect features in German theatre of the same period
Tableau d'affichage(French m.) notice-board
Tableau de bord(French m.) dashboard (of a car)
Tableau de distribution(French m.) switchboard
Tableau d'ensemble(French m.) a general picture, a general survey (of a subject, etc.)
Tableau (noir)(French m.) a blackboard
Tableau vivant(French m.) a representation of a scene or incident, or of a well-known painting or statue, by a group of silent and motionless persons
Table belltable bells of silver have been made since the sixteenth century, varying in style with the taste of the times
Table-bookmusic printed in such a way that the performers could sit around a table and read their own various parts, popular in the Renaissance Parts set out this way lie along each of the four edges of the page
Table de nuit(French f.) bedside table
Table de matières(French f.) table of contents
Table d'harmonie(French f.) sound-board, table or belly of a string instrument, tavola armonica (Italian f.), Decke (German f.)
(French f.) a table, or diagram, of chords, intervals, etc.
Table d'harmonie flottante(French f.) floating-soundboard
Table d'hôte(French f.) a fixed meal served at a standard price (as opposed to à la carte)
Table d'instrument(French f.) sound-board, table or belly of a string instrument
Table formata primarily English format used for music printed to be read by performers sitting around a table
Table musicsee Tafelmusik
Tablero(Spanish m.) board
Tablero de mandos(Spanish m.) dashboard
Table roulante(French f.) (tea-)trolley
tabler sur(French) to count on
Tableta(Spanish f.) tablet, (chocolate-)bar
Table tomba tomb set above ground level in a box-like structure; also known as a tomb chest
Tablett(German n.) tray
Tablette(German f.) tablet
Tablette(French f.) shelf
Tablette de chocolat(French f.) bar of chocolate
Tablier(French m.) an apron, a platform, a shutter (on a shop)
Tablilla(Spanish f.) small board
Tabloïd(French m.) tabloid (a small-format newspaper)
tabloïd (m.), tabloïde (f.)(French) tabloid
Tablón(Spanish m.) plank
Tablón de anuncios(Spanish m.) notice board, bulletin board
Tabmagtabloid-style TV magazine show (colloquial)
TAB notationsee 'TAB'
Taboo(Polynesia-Tonga) forbidden, prohibited to certain people, the imposition of arbitrary restrictions, arbitrary restrictions (on behaviour, language, etc.)
Tabor(English, German f.) a small rope-tensioned drum played in conjunction with a three-holed pipe of the recorder family by one player
the "English Country" tabor, is the most common size of the English tabor, about 4-5" high and 10" diameter. This is the shape shown in Praetorius' Syntagma Musicum (1617: although the precise measurements cannot be determined) which he describes as being used "by the English". Historically, tabors of many different dimensions were used by the English - although none as large as the tambourin - and that is still true today
Taboreta small tabor (drum)
a low stool in the shape of a drum, a simple seat without a back or arms
a frame, usually round, for stretching out cloth while it is being embroidered
Taborinea small, shallow drum like a tabor
Tabor pipea three-holed pipe usually played with one hand while the other beats a small drum called a tabor
Tabou(French m.) taboo
tabou(French) taboo
Ta bouche!(French) Shut up! Shut your trap! (familiar)
Tabouret(French m.) small drum, tabor
(French m.) a low stool without back or arms
Tabouret de piano(French m.) piano stool
Tabourine(French) a small, shallow drum like a tabor
Tabretbedon or bedon de basque, a small tabor (drum) with cymbals placed round the hoop (and struck with the fingers)
Tabsthe curtains separating the stage from the audience
Tab seamstabs or small notches may be cut into one side of the bell during its construction to strengthen the seam at the flare. These tabs are alternately bent upwards and downwards and linked to the opposite straight side of the bell's edge. The tab pattern often remains visible after the bell is soldered and polished; however, plating usually makes the tabs invisible
Tabu(German n.) taboo
Tabù(Italian m.) taboo
Tabú(Spanish m.) taboo
tabu(German) taboo
tabù(Italian) taboo
Tabula(Latin) a display document made by attaching a parchment sheet, or several sewn together, to a wooden board or frame
tabular(Spanish) to tabulate
Tabula rasa(Latin, 'erased tablet') a mind wholly ignorant of a specific subject and ready to absorb information about it. The term was used in Enlightenment philosophy for the idea that humanity is born completely innocent, without any initial predispositions, attitudes, or beliefs
Tabulateur(French m.) tabulator
Tabulatur(German f.) tablatur
Tabulatura(Italian f., Spanish f.) tablature
Taburete(Spanish m.) stool
Taburete para pianista(Spanish m.) music stool for the piano
TabWikia wiki site devoted to the collection of sheet music for guitar, bass guitar and drums. All posts and edits are original contributions from its members. The "Tab" in the title refers to the use of tablature for the purpose of displaying musical notes for stringed instruments, such as the guitar and bass
  • TabWiki from which this extract has been taken
tacaño(Spanish) mean
Tacaoralso tocaor, the Iberian term for a flamenco guitarist
Tacca(Italian f.) a notich, quality (figurative)
taccagno(Italian) stingy (familiar)
Taccheggio(Italian m.) shoplifting
Tacchino(Italian m.) a turkey (bird)
Taccia(Italian f.) a bad reputation
tacciono(Italian) are silent
Tacco(Italian m.) a heel
Taccuino(Italian m.) a notebook
tace(Italian) to be silent
tacere(Italian) to be silent, to say nothing, to say nothing about, is silent
Tacet (s.), Tacent (pl.)(Latin, literally 'it is silent') in common usage it is written in a player's part to indicate a movement in which he or she does not play
Tacet al fine(Latin) (remaining) silent to the end
Tache(French f.) a mark, a spot, a stain
Tâche(French f.) a task, a job
Tache de rousseur(French f.) freckle
tacher(French) to stain
tâcher de(French) to try to
tâcher de faire(French) to try to do
tacheté(French) spotted
Tachimetro(Italian m.) speedometer
Tachisme(French) or art autre, action painting, the production of a work of art by spilling, pouring or smearing the pigment on to the picture-surface
Tachometer(German n. or m.) speedometer
Tachtarismata(Greek) melodies of simple words sung by a mother while bouncing her child on her knees in time to the music
tachtig(Dutch) eighty
Tachygraphyancient shorthand, the shorthand system used by the ancient Greeks and Romans
abbreviated medieval writing, the abbreviated cursive writing used in medieval times for Latin and Greek
Tachypnoeaabnormally rapid breathing
taci(Italian) be silent!
taciasi(Italian) be silent!
Tacita(Spanish f.) small cup
tacite(French) tacit
tácito(Spanish) tacit
tacito(Italian) silent, tacit (approval)
taciturne(French) taciturn (of a person who is reserved or quiet)
taciturno(Italian) taciturn (of a person who is reserved or quiet)
(Spanish) taciturn (of a person who is reserved or quiet), miserable (sad)
Taco(Spanish m.) plug, heel (Latin America), cue (billiards, etc.), book (of tickets), mess (figurative), filled tortilla (Mexico)
Tacógrafo(Spanish m.) tachograph
Tacón(Spanish m.) a flamenco term, the heel of a shoe (in Latin America: taco)
Taconeo(Spanish) a stomping dance often performed to flamenco accompaniment
Tact(German m.) synonymous with Takt
Tactart(German) or Taktart, time-species, meter (i.e. duple, triple, etc.)
Tactfest(German) or Taktfest, steadiness in keeping time
Tactileof or pertaining to the sense of touch
Tactile imageryverbal description that evokes the sense of touch
Tactique(French f.) tactics
tactique(French) tactical
Tactlinie(German) or Taktlinie, a bar-line
tactmässig(German) or taktmässig, in time, tempo commodo
Tactschläger(German) or Taktschläger, a time-beater
Tactstock(German) or Taktstock, a bâton, for beating time
Tactstrich(German) or Taktstrich, a bar-line
Tactuallyby touch
Tactus(English, German m.) a metrical unit comprising both a downbeat and an upbeat
a Renaissance term for a beat (usually the semibrevis), a division of a bar (or measure). At the end of the 15th-century, the Italian musical theorist Franchinus Gaffurius (1451-1522) commented that the tactus is equal to the pulse of a man who is breathing quietly - presumably about 72 beats per minute
a Renaissance term for a fret on the lute or clavichord
an improvisational organ composition
Fraisse (1982) proposed that listeners have a preference to hear a tactus in the range of between 500 and 700 ms. This represents the preferred range for tapping in time to music. When the tempo is slowed, listeners tend to tap to a subdivision of the former beat; conversely, when the tempo is increased, listeners tend to omit beats so the tactus remains within this preferred range
Tactzeichen(German) or Taktzeichen, time signature
Tadel(German m.) reprimand, censure, black mark (in school)
tadellos(German) impeccable, impeccably
tadeln(German) to reprimand, to censure
tabelnswert(German) reprehensible
Tadgudjaggery prepared from the juice of palmyra fruit
Taegum(Korean) also called by its proper noun chottae, a large transverse bamboo flute, A thin membrane of bamboo or reed covers the hole between the mouthhole and the fingerholes, and vibrates when the instrument is blown
  • Taegum from which this information has been taken
Taejaenga Korean string instrument with fifteen strings. To play it, the left-hand presses a string while the right-hand plucks it
T'aep'yeongso(Korean) also called taepyongso, saenap, hojok, nallari or hoga, a conical-shaped, high-pitched loud wind instrument usually made of citron or yellow mulberry wood
T'aep'yongso(Korean) see taepyeongso
Tafano(Italian m.) a horsefly
Tafel(German f.) table, plate (picture), slab, board, plaque, slate, blackboard, bar (of chocolate)
Tafelklavier(German n.) virginals, spinet, square piano
Tafelmusik(German f.) table-music, the performance of which might accompany or follow a meal (for example, catches, glees, etc.), musical entertainment
tafeln(German) to feast
Tafelschwamm(German m.) chalkboard eraser
Täfelung(German f.) panelling
Tafferuglio(Italian m.) a scuffle
Tagin jazz, a term for a coda, or for a short concluding section (which might be repeated indefinitely)
(German m.) day
Taganing(Sumatra, Indonesia) a set of fine tuned drums from Toba
tagaus, tagein(German) dayin, day out
Tagebuch(German n.) diary
tagelang(German) for days
Tagelied(German n.) see Minnelied
tagen(German) to meet, to sit
Tagesanbruch(German m.) daybreak
Tagesausflug(German m.) day trip
Tagesdecke(German f.) bedspread
Tageskarte(German f.) day ticket, menu of the day
Tageslicht(German n.) day light
Tagesmutter(German f.) child-minder
Tagesordnung(German f.) agenda
Tagesrückfahrkarte(German f.) a day return ticket
Tagestemperatur(German f.) daytime temperature
Tageszeit(German f.) time of day
Tageszeitung(German f.) daily newspaper
Tag für Tag(German) day by day
Taglia(Italian f.) ransom, reward, height, size
Tagliacarte(Italian m.) a paperknife
Tagli addizionali(Italian m. pl.) ledger line, leger line
Tagliando(Italian m.) a coupon
tagliare(Italian) to cut, to cut across, to cut off (interrupt), to cut out, to carve (meat), to mow (grass)
täglich(German) daily
tagliente(Italian) sharp (blade, knife, etc.)
Taglio(Italian m.) omitted section, a cut, a cutting (from a plant), a length (of cloth, etc.), an edge (of a blade)
Taglio addizionale(Italian m.) leger line [addition suggested by Giovanni Andreani]
Tagliola(Italian f.) a trap
taglio radiale(Italian) débité sur maille(French), nach dem Spiegel geschnitten (German), quarter-cut, wood cut in a radial direction to form a wedge, rather like cutting a slice of cake
tagliuzzare(Italian) to cut into small pieces
Tagou m'bar(Senegal) a traditional Wolof warm-up rhythm
tags(German) by day
tags darauf(German) the day after
tagsüber(German) during the day
tags zuvor(German) the day before
tagtäglich(German) daily, every single day
Tagtraum(German m.) day-dream
Tag um Tag(German) day after day
Tagundnachtgleiche(German f.) equinox
Tagung(German f.) meeting, conference
Tahdin heikko isku(Finnish) weak beat
Tahdin vahva isku(Finnish) strong beat
Tahi(Finnish) measure, bar
Tahidust(Berbers, Morocco) group dance for men from the Middle Atlas region of Morocco
Tahinia strong flavoured sesame seed paste
Tahitahitiny Malagasy flutes made of wood, gourd or bamboo
Tahtiosoitus(Finnish) time signature
Tahtiviiva(Finnish) bar line
Taie d'oreiller(French f.) a pillowcase
Taiga(Russian) a Siberian pine-forest
Taiko(Japanese, literally 'great drum') general term for drums
Tailsee 'note'
Tailgatein jazz, a style of trombone playing that combines counterpoint and bass roles, common in traditional jazz
TailgutHängelsaite (German f.), Anhängesaite (German f.), attache cordier (French f.), reggi-cordiera (Italian m.)
there are two ways to tie tail gut, depending on the type of tailpiece you are using. The first, like a modern tailpiece, has the tailgut which exits the end of the tailpiece and curves over the saddle and around the end pin. The second method uses two holes which pass through the and the gut passes from the top of the tailpiece, through to the bottom, and then over the saddle and around the end pin. Tailgut is usually sold by a diameter thickness. Violins and violas use gut that is from 1.90mm to 2.20mm thick. Cellos use a gut around 3mm thick and a violone / double bass should use a gut about 5mm thick. The thickness that you choose depends on the qualities you are looking for. A thicker gut will be more stable and stretch less than a thinner gut, but it may not allow as much vibration in the tailpiece as the instrument needs to sound its best. One of the advantages to the use of real gut over synthetic gut is that the flexibility of the tailgut can be changed simply by changing the diameter of the gut and this can have a radical effect on the tone and response of the instrument.
taillader(French) to gash, to slash
Taille(French f.) waist, height, size
(French f.) cutting, pruning, cut
(French f.) used to describe a tenor range lying between basse and haute-contre and featuring in the operas of Lully and Rameau. The range is subdivided into haute-taille, also called première, and basse-taille, also called concordant, this latter being equivalent to a baritone
(French f.) viola
(German f.) waist
Taille-crayon(French m.) pencil-sharpener
Taille de hautbois(French f.) tenor oboe
(French) before 1660, tenor shawm
Taille d'épargne(French f.) in art, champlevé enamel work, enamel work in which the metal ground is engraved or hollowed out (the hollows being filled with opaque enamel)
Taille de violon(French f.) viola
Taille douce(French f.) in art, engraving on a metal plate (for example, copper-plate engraving), a work of art produced by this process
tailler(French) to cut, to prune (a tree), to sharpen (a pencil), to cut out (a pattern, etc.)
tailler une bavette(French) to have a chat
Taille-Trombone(French) tenor trombone
Tailleur(French m.) tailor, lady's suit (that is, a woman's tailor-made costume)
tailliert(German) fitted
Taillis(French m.) a corpse
TailpieceSaitenhalter (German m.), cordier (French m.), cordiera (Italian f.), cordal (Spanish m.), a piece of metal or wood at the lower end of a stringed instrument to which the strings are attached
on guitars without bridge pins, the strings are commonly anchored to a tailpiece. This normally mounts to the end block and pulls the strings down towards the top after passing across the bridge
Tail-rhyme(in French rime couée, in Latin rhythmus caudatus) also called caudate rhyme, a unit of verse in which a short line, followed by a longer line or section of longer lines, rhymes with a preceding short line
T'ai p'ing hsiao(China) or t'ai p'ing xiao, duct flute
T'ai p'ing xiaosee t'ai p'ing hsiao
taire(French) to say nothing
taisez-vois!(French) keep quiet!
Taiwanese hip hopa form of 'hip hop' music that emerged from the "underground" scene in Taiwan to become more mainstream during the 1990s and 2000s
Tajwid(Arabic) the rhythmic chanting of the Koran, is not considered music by Muslims, though to a non-Muslim ear it sounds musical. There is no direct prohibition of, or endorsement of, music in the Koran
Tak(Indonesia) Javanese high-pitched drum
Takaia royal dance of the Dagbamba chiefs and princes. It is performed on festive occasions such as the annual Damba festival, political rallies, and durbar of chiefs. Danced only by men, takai movements involve pivot turns, torso swings, and stamping to the rhythm of the lunna and gungon, the only drums that are used in this dance
Takare(Mozambique) one string fiddle
Take a little Peakone of the two-couple figures danced in a circle of four people traditionally associated with square dancing
TakebueJapanese bamboo transverse flute
Take it outin jazz, a signal from the band leader to play the out chorus (out head)
Takht(Arabic) a traditional Arab ensemble typically made up of one player of each of the primary instruments (qanun, 'ud, nay, kaman, and riqq)
Taksim(Asia Minor) instrumental improvisations, a musical genre from the Ottoman empire
see gazel
Takt(German m.) tact
(German m., Swedish, Danish) bar (measure), time, beat, rhythm
in German, when describing the time signature of a piece, one might write 3/4-Takt, 6/8-Takt, etc. meaning '3/4 time', '6/8 time', etc.
Taktaccent(German m.) bar accent
Taktakzent(German m.) bar accent
Taktangabe(German f.) time signature
Taktangivelse(Danish) time signature
Taktart(German f., Swedish, Danish) time-species, meter (i.e. duple, triple, etc.)
Taktartssignatur(Swedish) time signature
Takte pro Minute(German) beats per minute (as with a metronome mark)
taktfest(German) in steady time
Taktfestigkeit(German f.) steadiness in keeping time
[corrected by Esther Dubielzig]
Taktgefühl(German n.) tact
Taktglied(German n.) member of a bar
takthalten(German) to hold or beat time, to keep time
taktieren(German) to beat time
Taktik(German f.) tactics
taktiren(German, older spelling) to beat time
taktisch(German) tactical, tactically
Taktlinie(German f.) barline
taktlos(German) tactless, tactlessly
Taktlosigkeit(German f.) tactlessness
taktmässig(German) in time, tempo commodo
Taktmesser(German n.) a metronome
Taktnote(German f., literally 'bar-note') semibreve
Taktnumerierung(German f.) bar-numbering
Taktpause(German f., literally 'bar-rest') a whole bar rest
Taktschlag(German m.) beat
taktschlagen(German) to beat time
Taktslag(Swedish, Danish, Norwegian) beat [entry provided by Lars Hallvig]
Taktstock (s.), Taktstöcke (pl.)(German m.) conductor's bâton
Taktstreck(Swedish) bar line
Taktstreg(Danish) bar line
Taktstrich(German m.) bar line, bar (as in the sense 'barring' in music)
Taktsystem(German n.) metrical scheme or system
Taktteil(German m.) part of a bar, particularly guter Taktteil, the accented part of a bar, and schlechter Taktteil, the unaccented part of a bar
Takttheil(German m.) part of a bar, particularly guter Takttheil, the accented part of a bar, and schlechter Takttheil, the unaccented part of a bar
Taktwechsel(German m.) time change
taktvoll(German) tactful, tactfully
Taktvorzeichnung(German f.) time signature
Taktzeichen(German n.) time signature
Ta-kularge Chinese barrel drum played with one or two sticks
Tal(German n.) valley
Tal(Swedish) speech
Talsee taal
Talasee taal
Indian bells
Talabalacco(Italian) a species of Moorish drum
Talabarder(French m.) also soner or bombarder, a player of the bombarde
Talamsee taalam
Talar(German m.) robe, a gown (University)
Talc(French m.) talcum powder
Talco(Italian m., Spanish m.) talcum powder
Talcum powderor talc, magnesium silicate formed as soft flat plates, used as a lubricator
Tale(Danish, Norwegian) speech
tale(Italian) such, such a
il tale giorno (Italian: on such and such a day)
un tale (Italian: someone)
Taleaa rhythmic pattern, longer than a motive, that is unvaryingly repeated in an isorhythmic tenor, although so long as the rhythmic proportions remain unaltered, the talea may be augmented (notes replaced by notes of longer time value) or diminished (notes replaced by notes of shorter time value)
Talemponga small kettle gong which gives its name to a Minangkabau ensemble comprising four or five talempong, other gongs and drums
Talent(French m., German n.) talent
talentiert(German) talented
Talento(Italian m., Spanish m.) talent
talentoso(Spanish) talented
talentueux (m.), talentueuse (f.)(French) talented
tale padre tale figlio(Italian) like father like son
tele quale(Italian) just like, such as, just as
Talg(German m.) tallow, suet (cooking)
Talismano(Italian m.) a talisman
Taljanka(Russian) the 1-row box accordion
Talking bluesoriginally a style of rhythmic speech or near-speech where the melody is free but the rhythm is strict, it is also a music genre or technique developed in the blues in the early 20th-century from influences including African music, British folk song, and the music-hall stage. It consisted of a repetitive guitar, utilizing the same three chord pattern as blues, as well as a large portion of folk music and even punk, ska, "pop", and "rock", sometimes accompanied by a melodic line with rhythmic, rhyming speaking over it
Talking drum(English, German f.) or 'squeeze drum', part of a family of hourglass shaped pressure drums; in the Yoruba language of west Africa, these include gan gan (the smallest member of this drum family) or dun dun (the largest of the talking drums.) The drum heads at either end of the drum's wooden body are made from hide, fish-skin or other membranes which are wrapped around a wooden hoop. Leather cords or thongs run the length of the drum's body and are wrapped around both hoops; when these cords are squeezed under the player's arm, the drum heads tighten, changing the instrument's pitch
Talking postcarda type of novelty postcard that played a message or short tune as a record. They were known by many other names including 'Gramophone cards' and 'Singing cards'. Invented in Berlin in 1903, talking postcards would take on many different forms. Max Thomas would patent this idea a year later. His single sided disks had a hole punched through them and the card as well so it could be played on a gramophone. They were made of celluloid in order to be less brittle than traditional shellac records. This also made them transparent so the printed image on the card show through. While this idea was patented in the United States in 1907 they are not known to have been used until cards from the Federal Novelty Importing Company of New York showed up in 1915. The American talking postcards were opaque and were usually stapled to the card. The French Pathe Company also came out with a variation, the Phonal-Postal, in which the sender could record a short message with the aid of a specially sold device. Most of these cards play at 78rpm but as speed format changed only a few publishers continued to make cards at 45 and 33rpm
Tallavamusic of the Albanian Roma that is greatly influenced by the sounds of the Middle East. Drums and the daf are essential to its performance. In addition to its correct name (tallava), some refer to it by the names given to the Albanian Roma people themselves, such as hashkali, magjup, cigan, jevg, harrixhi, and so on
Tall chordssee 'extended tertian sonorities'
Tallo(Spanish m.) stem (part of a note)
Talloncino(Italian m.) a coupon
Tallone(Italian m.) a heel
(Italian m.) the nut (heel or frog) of a violin bow, talone (French m.), hausse (French f.), Frosch (German m.), talón (Spanish m.)
talmente(Italian) so
Talmudcompilation of Jewish oral teachings, assembled in written form in the early centuries of the Christian era
Ta-lolarge Chinese brass gong
Taloche(French f.) a slap (familiar)
Talon(French m.) heel, (cheque) stub
(French m.) the nut (heel or frog) of a violin, viola, etc. bow, tallone (Italian m.), Frosch (German m.), hausse (French f.), tálon (Spanish m.)
(French m.) Zäpfchen (German n.) Plättchen (German n.), bouton (French m.), nocetta (Italian f.), on a violin, etc., the small semicircular extension (called the button) of the back that provides extra gluing surface for the crucial neck joint, and is neglected when measuring the length of the back. Occasionally a half-circle of ebony surrounds the button, either to restore material lost in resetting the neck of an old instrument, or to imitate that effect
Talón(Spanish m.) heel
(Spanish m.) the nut (heel or frog) of a violin, viola, etc. bow, talone (French m.), Frosch (German m.), tallone (Italian m.), hausse (French f.)
heel as in 'the heel of a shoe' is tacón (Spanish m.)
talonant(French) pressing on
talonner(French) to follow hard on the heels of
Talpa(Italian f.) a mole
Talsperre(German f.) a dam
Talus(French m.) an embankment, a sloping mound of fallen debris at the foot of a cliff or precipice
talvolta(Italian) sometimes
Tam(Vietnam) a guitar-like instrument with 3 silk strings
Tama(Nepal) or taamaa, bells attached to the collars of dogs herding yak
  • Tama from which this information has been taken
TamaWest African talking drum
(West Africa) the name of a male erotic dance
Tamaleframe drum from Ghana
TamaniWest African talking drum
Tamasha(Hindi, from Arabic) an entertainment, a public function
(more generally) fuss and bother, a commotion
Tamb.abbreviation of 'tambourine'
Tambal(Romanian) cymbalum
(Dominica) a frame drum used in jing ping
Tambal mare(Romanian, literally 'great cymbalum') in the 1870s, a concert cymbalum, comparable in pitch range (and weight) to a small piano - but still played in the normal way with beaters - was first developed in Hungary by József Schunda. It stands on four legs, has many more strings, and the later models had a damping pedal. Prior to this, the player damped the strings by using his coat sleeves. This instrument eventually found its way to other parts of the Austro-Hungarian empire including Romania
Tambinor serdu, a three-hole, side blown flute of the Fulani people of the Futa Djalon region of Guinea, West Africa
Tamboer(Dutch) a term used generally for a string drum, for example, tambourin à corde
Tamboerijn(Dutch) timbrel, tambourin with jingles
Tamboo bamboo(tamboo comes from the French tambour meaning 'drum') bamboo drumming sticks which could be tuned and upon which traditional and distinctive rhythms, formerly performed on steel pans, was able to continue at a time when the use of steel pans was forbidden by the colonial authorities. At the beginning of the twentieth-century, drums and tamboo bamboos were again allowed, with restrictions, during Carnival time. During the 1930s biscuit tins were included as rhythm instruments in the tamboo bamboo bands. In 1938 tamboo bamboo were finally replaced with steel bands
Tambor(Spanish m.) drum
(Spanish m.) drummer
in flamenco guitar technique, a drum-like effect achieved by pulling the sixth string of a guitar downward so that it rests against the fifth string on the treble side. The resultant sound is similar to that of a snare drum when playing a rasgueado
in classical guitar technique, the technique where many or all of the strings are played at once by hitting them (usually near the bridge) with the side of the (outstretched) thumb
(Uruguay) the candombe drum
(Basque) also called atabal or atabalero. Uniquely to the Basque tradition, pipes and tabors can be performed in ensembles as well as by soloists. Two txistularis can play duets. A four-member ensemble consists of two txistularis and two specialists: one plays a type of bass pipe (no tabor), while the other plays with two sticks on a type of small field drum (approx. 6" x 12.5") called variously a tambor, atabal or atabalero
(Spanish m.) cylinder, barrel, brake drum (tambor del freno), embroidery frame
(Spanish m.) eardrum
(Spanish m.) large tub, giant size pack, capstan
  • Tambor from which this information has been taken
TamboraDominican drum used in the merengue style played with a stick that strikes one head and the wooden sheel of the drum while the hand plays the opposite head
large Colombian two-headed bass drum
see 'Venezuelan drums'
Tambor árabe(Spanish m.) darabukka
Tamborazoa large drum, popular during the Mexican revolution, that is the heartbeat of Duranguense music
Tambor chicosee candombé
Tambor de acero(Spanish m.) steel drum
Tambor de Basilea(Spanish m.) Basler drum
Tambor de madera(Spanish m.) log drum, split drum
Tambores(Portuguese m. pl., Spanish m. pl.) drums
the three drums of candombé , which together are called cuerda, are the tambor piano (large, melody), tambor chico (small, marks the tempo) and tambor repique (medium, improvisation)
an even larger drum, called bajo or bombo (very large, accents the fourth beat), once common, is now rarely used
Tambores araráa set of four or five drums used in African religious rites from tribal groups in the region of today's countries of Togo and Ghana
Tambores abacuáfour corner-shaped drums associated with a religious sect in Central Africa
Tambores con charchillosPeruvian drums with vibrating cactus spines underneath
Tambores del freno(Spanish m.) brake drums
Tambores yukadrums of Congolese origin
Tambor grandesee 'Venezuelan drums'
Tambor grave(Portuguese) bass drum
Tamboril(Spanish m.) double-headed rope tension drum, with a fine cord, called a bordón, in contact with the lower skin which is free to vibrate as the drum is struck. It is played with a single porra (stick) and often accompanies a three-hole pipe
(Catalan) also called tun-tun or arratza, this tabor measures 10"x10". The pipe is called a txistu and the player is called a txistulari (in Navarre, a chunchunerua). In the Basque Country, as in Provençe, the txistulari is the most frequently-encountered folk musician
(Catalonian) also tambor or tambori, the smallest of all the tabors, measuring only 3" x 3". The shell can be made of wood or metal, and the stick is short. The pipe-and-tabor player in Catalonia is part of a unique cobla dance band, consisting of 10-11 players, which plays chiefly the Sardana, a local round dance. He plays an introduction on the pipe (called variously a flabiol, flaviol or flubiol), then hits the drum and proceeds to provide the beat for the dance, which can last anywhere from 5 to 45 minutes. While the dancing proceeds, he will occasionally double the melody or even play solos on the pipe. There is little subtlety involved in tamboril playing (the beat is a constant crotchet-quaver-quaver (quarter-eighth-eighth) though it must of course be steady, since it keeps the beat for the band. It is held by a strap that goes through two hoops mounted on the shell. The strap is then placed around the neck and stretched by the forearm, which pushes against the drum, pulling the strap taut
  • Tamboril from which this information has been taken
tamborilear(Spanish) to drum, to play the drum, to drum with one's fingers
Tamborileo(Spanish m.) drumming
Tamborilero (m.), Timborilera (f.)(Spanish) drummer
Tamborim (s.), Tamborins (pl.)essentially a small hand held frame drum struck with a small stick or mallet, they are played in samba bateria where, being quite high in pitch, the tamborims, playing similar rhythms to the agogo bells, give punch and shape to the samba, while the surdos and the caixas provide a continuous rhythm. Two different pitches are achieved on the tamborim by pressing the fingers of the hand which is holding the drum, into the skin from the inside. This raises the tension and therefore the pitch for the higher note. The stick can be single-ended, or branch into multiple ends, each stick type producing a different sound. The tamborim section usually has its own director
(Portuguese m.) tambourine
Tamborin de Béarna string drum
Tamboritoa popular Panamanian folk dance danced by men and women in costume. The tamborito is led by a cantalante, a female lead singer, who is backed by a clapping chorus (the estribillo) that sings four-line stanzas of copla (a lyrical form related to Spanish poetry), as well as three drums
Tambor mayor(Spanish m.) drum major
Tambor militar(Spanish m.) military snare drum, field drum
Tamboroa drum from Mozambique
Tambor piano(Spanish m.) see candombé
Tambor repique(Spanish m.) see candombé
Tambor tenor(Spanish m.) caisse roulante
Tambour(French m., German m.) a drum, a drummer, a revolving door, an embroidery-frame consisting of one hoop fitting inside another
Tambourasee tambura
Tambour à cordes(French m.) also called Löwenebrull in German, rugghio di leone in Italian and 'string drum' in English, a cylindrical friction drum through which a cord is drawn to produce a 'roaring' sound
Tambour à friction(French m.) friction drum
Tambour arabesee darabukka
Tambour basque(French m.) tambourine
Tambour bongo(French m.) bongo
Tambour d'acier(French m.) steel drum
Tambour de basque(French m.) or tambourin basque, tambourine
Tambour de bois(French m.) log drum, slit drum
Tambour de cadre(French m.) frame drum
Tambour d'empire(French m.) Basler drum
Tambour de provence(French m.) tabor
Tambour en bois(French m.) wood drum
Tambouret(French) tambourine
Tambourin(French m.) a tabor
a two-headed drum with a long body, with one of the heads having a snare
a dance piece played over a rhythmic open 5th drone bass such as would be produced when playing to a string drum, for example, the tambourin de Béarn
[entry corrected by Peter Walker]
a Provençal dance
(German, French m.) a tambourine
Tambourin à cordes(French m.) a string drum
Tambourinaire(French) the player who performs at the same time on both pipe (which is called a galoubet) and tabor. There is an extensive folk literature as well as many compositions written for the tambourinaire. Henri Tomasi's Tombeau de Mireille..., is often performed on piccolo and snare drum, but was actually written for a 13-year-old tambourinaire. The 18th-century Paris Opera orchestra had a permanent position for a tambourinaire, due to the large number of pastoral scenes which were included in the operas (also for entertainment at intermission, when possible). This tradition followed well into the 19th-century
Tambourin à main(French m.) frame drum
tambourinant(French) drumming
Tambourin basque(French m.) or tambour de basque, tambourine
Tambourin de Béarn(French m.) also called tanburia, salterio, ttun-ttun, txun-txun, found infrequently along the border of France & Spain. This is a tabor only in the sense that it is struck rhythmically with a stick. The instrument actually resembles a psaltery or lyre, having 3 - 6 strings - tuned to the tonic and dominant - stretched over a resonating box, something like a guitar or ukelele without a fingerboard
Tambourin de Provencesee tambourin provençale
Tambourinetambourin basque (French), tambour de basque (French), baskische Trommel (German), Schellentrommel (German), Tambourin (German), tamburo basco or tamborino (Italian), pandereta (Spanish)
a percussion instrument consisting of a shallow wooden hoop (sometime fitted with small cymbals called 'jingles' or 'jangles') with or without a parchment covering which is struck with the heel of the hand, the whole hand or the finger tips or maybe struck against the player's side or in an orchestral setting with any other beater
tambouriner (sur)(French) to drum (on)
Tambourineur(French) a tambourine player
Tambourin provençale(French m.) the largest of all the tabors, standing 24-30" high, and with a diameter of 14-16". The skins are thin calf on the snare side (which is the side that is struck) and goat on the other. The stick, or massetto, can be up to 16" long is made of three different materials glued together. A thin wooden shank ends with a tip made of ivory or bone. The butt end is made of hard wood and is shaped like an egg. The tambourin should ideally be tuned to the dominant of the key of the musical piece being played. Instruction books stress that it should not sound like a military drum. The sound should instead evoke that made by the evening locust (Fr. cigale), the loosely-tensioned snare providing the "buzz" of the locust. The rhythms played can be quite complex, especially considering the fact that the player is playing the pipe - with different rhythms, of course - at the same time
Tambour majordrum major
Tambour militaire(French m., literally 'military drum') frame-drum, side-drum, Rahmentrommel, tamburo militare
Tambour petit(French m.) piccolo snare drum
Tambour roulant(French m.) a drum of greater length but similar diameter to that of the standard side-drum
Tambours de frein(French m. pl.) brake drums
Tambour sur cadre(French m.) tambourine with jingles
Tambourstab(German m.) drum major's baton
Tambú(Curaçao) sometimes called the 'Curaçao blues' or 'Antillean blues', tambú is considered the predecessor of tumba. It was known as barí on Bonaire. Tambú was originally a syncretic form of Afro-Curaçoan religion, similar to Cuban santeria and Brazilian condomblé and traditionally was sung mostly by women
Tambur(English, German m.) or tanbur. The word tambur comes from the Arabic tunbur, and it is widely believed that this comes from the Sumerian word pantur, a semispherical stringed instrument with a long stem. Another view is that it comes from the words (tabla, tabl, tabil, tabul etc.) for percussion instruments that have been used since the very earliest times. There is mention in the Hittite civilisation of a stringed instrument called a tibula. It is generally agreed that this was in all probability a long-stemmed stringed instrument. Texts from those times reveal that it was used to accaompany the spoken word and dancing. All of this inevitably leads one to the opinion that the roots of the instrument go back to Hittite and Sumerian times. The word tambur was later used in Iran and central Asia for pear-bodied long-stemmed instruments more closely resembling the baglama. Some instruments today played by the Turks of Asia are called tambura, or dombra etc. Today the tambur, described by European travellers (such as Charles Fonton and Toderini) as a visible reflection of the Turkish musical system with its fret links on the stem, is probably the only instrument solely used in Turkey. The instrument was carried to Europe by migrants, and it is known that it was used in the 12th and 13th centuries before being abandoned
Tamburaoriginally from Iran, where it is called the pandore, the tambura is an accompanying drone instrument from India. it is a large lute played held upright, with 4-6 strings that are stroked rather than plucked
five-string Egyptian lyre, also known as tamburah
long-necked fretted lute from Bulgaria, Croatia and other European countries. The Bulgarian tambura comes in two styles: eight-string (four pairs) and four-string (two pairs), played with a plectrum. The Croatian tambura, often called by the diminutive tamburica or tamburitza, is of several types, with anything from three to four strings. The basic forms are samica (three double strings), bisernica (two double strings and two single strings; four notes), prim (one double string and three single strings; four notes), bas-prim or brac (two double strings and two single strings; four notes), celovic (two double strings and two single strings; four notes), celo (four strings), bas or berda (four strings), and bugarija or kontra (one double string and three single strings; four notes). The names of the instruments and method of playing them depends on the tuning of the strings
an alternative name for the tampura or drone lute
Tamburaccio(Italian) a large drum, a tabor
Tamburahsee tambura
Tamburasiperformers on the tambura
Tambur-cümbüssee cümbüs
Tamburello(Italian m.) frame drum
(Italian m.) tambourine with jingles from southern Italy
Tamburello basco(Italian m.) tambourine, timbrel
Tamburello provenzale(Italian m.) tabor
Tamburetto(Italian m.) frame drum
(Italian m.) tambourine with jingles from southern Italy
Tamburicasee tamburitza
Tamburin(German n.) tambourine
Tamburino(Italian m.) tambourine, a drummer
Tamburino basco(Italian m.) tambourine
Tamburin ohne Schellen(German n.) tambourine without jingles
Tamburino senza cibali(Italian m.) tambourine without jingles
(Croatia) also tambura, tamburica or tamburizza, a family of fretted, steel-stringed lutes, the basic forms of which are:
samicathree double stringsthree notes
bisernicatwo double strings and two single stringsfour notes
in an orchestra with three bisernica, the middle bisernica line was sometimes called kontrasica. Musicians from the region of Srijem called the first bisernica, prim or prima, and the second bisernica, tercprim or tercprima
primone double string and three single stringsfour notes
two double strings and two single stringsfour notes
like the bisernica, the bracevi (plural of brac, were also used in sections. The musicians from Srijem call the first brac basprim and the second brac tercbasprim or a basprimterc
celovictwo double strings and two single stringsfour notes
celofour stringsfour notes
the various celo-instruments, include the celovic, the celo-brac and the celo
one double string and three single stringsfour notes
in an orchestra, the bugarija is used for accompaniment. The musicians from Srijem call this instrument kontra
four stringsfour notes
the names and method of playing depend on the tuning of the strings, some of which may be tuned unisonically. Thus, a four-string instrument could have two double courses (tuned g-d, except for the celovic and the third bisernica which are tuned to c-g, but treated as transposing instruments) or have two single strings plus a double course (in which course the standard tuning is g-d-a, again with some instruments tuned differently and treated as transposing instruments)
Tamburitza musictamburitza (tamburica, diminutive of tambura) music is a form of folk music that involves the Croatian lute and related string instruments. It became popular in the 1800s, and small bands began to form, paralleling similar developments in Russia, Italy and the Ukraine. The main themes of tamburitza songs are the common themes of love and happy village life. Tamburitza music is primarily associated with the northern, Pannonian part of the country
Tamburitza orchestratamburasi (tambura musicians) began to form themselves into ensembles in the early 19th-century. Although it is believed that Hungarian Roma were the first to play tamburitza instruments in ensembles, modelled on their famous violin ensembles, the first known ensemble is that of Pajo Kolaric, formed in the Slavonian (eastern Croatian) city of Osijek in 1847. Kolaric's ensemble of six urban tradesmen played a repertoire much like that performed today, Croatian folk songs and kolos (circle dances), folk songs and dances from neighbouring peoples, light classical songs and instrumental pieces, and popular music of the day. A tamburitza orchestra can have various formats, from a tercet to a large orchestra. Modern tamburitza orchestras are composed of instruments that are fretted like guitars and arranged in the standard Sremski/Srijemski tuning system: the small lead prima or bisernica, the alto brac or basprim, the tenor celo, the chordal bugarija or kontra, and the large fretted bas or berde. It is not unusual to find other instruments in a tamburitza orchestra; violin and accordion are most common, but some modern groups also include electric instruments and drums
  • Tambura which includes a considerable amount of information about Tamburitza ensembles
Tamburo(Italian m., German m.) (side-)drum
Tamburo a corde(Italian m.) string drum
Tamburo a cornice(Italian m.) frame drum
Tamburo africano(Italian m.) djembe
Tamburo a frizione(Italian m.) friction drum
Tamburo alto(Italian m.) small drum
Tamburo a mano(Italian m.) hand drum
Tamburo arabo(Italian m.) darabukka
Tamburo basco(Italian m.) tambourine
Tamburo d'accaio(Italian m.) steel drum
Tamburo di Basilea(Italian m.) Basler drum
Tamburo di ferro(Italian m.) steel drum
Tamburo di freno(Italian m.) brake drum
Tamburo di latta(Italian m.) steel drum
Tamburo di legno(Italian m.) wood drum
Tamburo di legno a fessura(Italian m.) slit drum
Tamburo grande(Italian m.) or gran tamburo, bass drum
Tamburo grosso(Italian m.) or gran tamburo, bass drum
Tamburo militaire(Italian m.) snare drum, side drum, frame drum, Rahmentrommel, tambour militaire
Tamburone(Italian) a large, bass drum, cassa granda
Tamburo piccolo(Italian m.) piccolo side drum, piccolo snare drum
Tamburo proventiale(Italian m.) tabor
Tamburo rullante(Italian m.) field drum, tenor drum
Tambuticaplucked lute from Yugoslavia
Tamigi(Italian m.) the Thames
Tamila frame drum from Sri Lanka
Tamis(French m.) a sieve
Tamise(French f.) the river Thames
tamisé(French) subdued (lighting)
tamiser(French) to sieve
tamizar(Spanish) to sieve, to filter (light), to screen (selection)
Tammorasee tammorra
Tammorraor tammora, large Italian tambourine with the drum head made of dried sheep or goat skin
Tammorriatasouthern Italian traditional songs and dances accompanied by the tammorra tambourine
Tammurriatesee tammorriata
Tampiona plug for upper end of an organ pipe
Tampo(Portuguese) table, belly (of a stringed instrument)
tampoco(Spanish) nor, neither, either, not ... either
Tampon(French m.) a plug (cork, etc. for a bottle), a wad, a pad, a stamp (postage), a buffer (train)
(French m.) a drumstick
Tampón(Spanish m.) an inkpad
tamponare(Italian) to crash into, to plug
Tampone(Italian m.) a plug, a tampon (medical), a buffer (of a train, etc.)
tamponner(French) to crash into, to stamp (a letter), to dab, to plug (a hole in a wall)
TampuraIndian drone lute, also called tambura
Tam-tam(Italian m., English, German n., French m.) or 'tamtam', the tam-tam is a relatively flat disc and, unlike the gong, has no knob in the centre. Apart from this it has no definite pitch, unlike a gong which does, although the pitch of different sized tam-tams does vary
  • Tam-tam from which the extract above has been taken
  • Gong
(French m., Spanish m.) tom-tom
Tamunangue, Elan Afro-Venezuelan rural music and dance style from the state of Lara in honour of San Antonio de Padua (also called 'black Anthony'), played on drums, cuatros and quintos
Tamureor, more properly, 'ori Tahiti (literally 'Tahitian dance'), a dance from Micronesia
tan(Spanish) such, such as, as ... as, so ... (that)
Tana(Italian f.) a den
Tanacsee hrvatski tanac
Tánaiste(Irish) the title given to the deputy Prime Minister of the Republic of Ireland
Tanbansee paiban
Tanbou belèfrom Martinique, a single headed barrel drum with a goatskin head, laid on the ground and straddled by the drummer, who uses his heel to change the pitch. The ti bwa are a pair of sticks, used by a second percussionist to play patterns on the side of the drum. Both the transverse-heel drumming and the stick accompaniment are of Central African derivation, and are found elsewhere in former French colonial territories
Tanboura long-neck fretted lute, this venerable instrument dates back thousands of years, though the instrument in its current form is estimated to be approximately two thousand years old. Its consecration, however, dates back to the 11th century. Consecration is the most appropriate word here, since the great charismatic saint Shah Khoshin, who lived in Lorestan, adopted it for the first time to accompany the hymns at prayer gatherings. From that date forward, the tanbour has remained in Kurdistan and Lorestan and in the tradition of the "Devotees of Truth". A sacred instrument, it is played only with the intention of devotion, whether in a ritualized context or not. Nour Ali (Ostad) Elahi played a tanbour with five strings instead of three (actually three rows of strings), the frets of which were arranged differently, no longer in chromatic order as on a European guitar, but in such fashion as to produce the three-quarter tones of eastern scales
Tanburalso pandura, tanboura, tambora, mandore, pandore, bandora and bandoer, a general term for various long-necked fretted lutes of the Middle East and Central Asia
Tanda(Spanish f.) batch, lot, series, course, shift (period of work)
Tandariola(Spanish f., Mexico) noise
Tändelei(German) badinage, playfulness
Tändelnd(German) playfully, in a playful manner
Tandem(French m.) a bicycle for two, a duo (figurative)
Tándem(Spanish m.) a team of two
tandencial(Spanish) tangential
tandis que(French) while
tañer(Spanish) to play (music)
tañer campanas(Spanish) to toll bells, to ring bells
Tanfo(Italian m.) stench
Tang(German m.) seaweed
(English) a projecting point or prong on a chisel, file, knife, etc., that fits into a handle, shaft, etc.
(English) a distinctively sharp taste, flavor, or odour, such as that of orange juice
Tangage(French m.) pitching
Tangent(English, from the Latin, tangere, to touch) a part of a clavichord key that touches the string when the key is pressed down
Tangente(Italian f., German f.) a tangent
(German f.) bypass
tangente(Italian) tangent
Tangente (s.), Tangenten (pl.)(Italian f., German f., French f., from the Latin, tangere, to touch) tangent, a part of a clavichord key that touches the string when the key is pressed down
Tangentenflügel(German m.) a piano where the sound is produced not by hammers but by metal tangents strike the strings to produce a sound. However, unlike clavichords, where the key and tangent are at opposite ends of a lever, the action of this instrument uses an intermediate lever to launch the tangent into the string while lifting dampers from the strings, a method similar, but much simpler, to ones used for hammer struck pianos. The tangent piano achieved some success in the latter part of the 18th-century, even if its influence was short-lived and was soon replaced by the fortepiano. Some examples include knee-levers, which controls the dampers, and a moveable action, which enables the tangents to strike a single string instead of both
Tangent pianoTangentenflügel
tangere(Latin) to touch, to strike
tangibile(Italian) tangible
Tango(Spanish m., Italian m., German m.) also called tango Argentino, the Argentinean samba, a passionate musical style, originating in the streets and brothels of Buenos Aires, Argentina and associated particularly with the compadritos, former gauchos now fallen upon hard times after being forced from the Pampa into the poorest suburban areas of the capital, Buenos Aires. The relationship between the compadritos and the African-Argentine population in the Buenos Aires suburbs gave birth to the tango dance, which started as a result of the compadritos' mockery of the black people's dances with an important difference: the blacks danced separated and the compadritos danced embraced. Diverse historians affirm that the word tango derives from the name (in the slang of the black people) of their dancing places, known as tambos and, later, tangos. It is widely accepted that the new choreography was taken to the brothels by the compadritos before tango music as such really existed. Eventually, music was created to fit this dance, and it is not strange that the rural milonga and the habanera, both in fashion at the time, influenced it. Adaptations to the new dance, combining elements of the rural milonga of the gauchos, the habanera of the European immigrants, and the African-Argentine dances in the melting pot that was Buenos Aires, created a mixture called tango. Tango can be vocal or instrumental with the bandoneón and violin playing a leading role, marked by strong syncopation and dotted rhythmic figures, in simple duple (2/4) time
between 1920 and 1955/6, a period called guardia nueva, three different types of tango appeared
tango milonga, tango de corte milonga, milonga urbanaSebastián Piana was the pioneer of the tango milonga with his Milonga Sentimental, composed in 1931, to lyrics by Homero Manzi. A lot of tango milongas were performed in fast tempos, heavily marking the accents, giving them a solid rhythmic character. This could explain a popular confusion where the tango milonga is described as being a "tango in a fast tempo" despite the existence of the slow tango milonga
tango romanzaEnrique Delfino (1895-1967) pioneered the tango romanza, when together with Juan Carlos Cobián, he composed Sans souci, whose essential features consisted in it being melodic and musically refined and that the lyric should tells a story, with a beginning, a development and an ending, generally dramatic
tango canciónIn 1920, Enrique Delfino created the musical pattern for tango canción, by reducing the structure of the instrumental tangos from three sections to two sections, and wrote Milonguita (Esthercita) together with the lyricist and playwright Samuel Linnig
Tango Argentino(Spanish m.) see tango
Tango canción(Spanish m.) see tango
Tango criollo(Spanish m.) an alternative name for the tango
Tango de corte milonga(Spanish m.) see tango
Tango flamenco(Spanish m.) the only non-dramatic variety of the older flamenco genres, festive in style, with a faster rhythm, unrelated to the Argentinean tango
Tango milonga(Spanish m.) see tango
Tango musictraditionally played by an orquesta típica, which often includes violin, piano, guitar, flute, and especially bandoneón. Tango has long been a major part of the music of Argentina
  • Tango from which this extract has been taken
Tango nuevo(Spanish m.) a fusion of jazz and tango
Tango Rapanui(Easter Island) a local tango style characterized by a simple guitar accompaniment instead of the frenetic bandoneón
Tango romanza(Spanish m.) see tango
Tangosa flamenco canté closely related in form and feeling to the rumba. It is often performed as a finale to a tientos
Tangu(China) or tanggu, a barrel-shaped double headed drum used in folk instrumental ensembles and in the accompaniment of traditional theatre
  • Tangu from which this extract has been taken
tanguer(French) to pitch
Tanguillosfestive and joyful flamenco style derived from tangos, found in Cádiz
Tanguista(Spanish f.) cabaret girl
Tañido(Spanish m.) sound (play an instrument), toll (ring a bell), ringing
Tanière(French f.) a den
Tanist(from the Irish) the successor apparent to a Celtic chief
Tankaa genre of Japanese poetry similar to the haiku. A tanka consists of thirty-one syllables arranged in five lines. The lines contain five / seven / five / seven / seven syllables. Also known as the waka or uta, it originated in the seventh century AD and it is regarded as the classic, ancient Japanese poetic form
tanken(German) to fill up (with petrol), to refuel
Tanko bushiJapanese coal miner's dance. The song tells of a miner, working in the mines and thinking of home in the mountains. The movements mimic those of the miner digging coal, carrying the sacks of coal, holding the head light, and pushing the coal carts
Tankstelle(German f.) petrol station
Tankwart(German m.) petrol pump attendant
Tanne(German f.) a fir (tree)
tanné(French) tanned, weather-beaten
Tannebaum(German m.) a fir tree, a Christmas tree
Tannenzpfen(German m.) fire cone
tanner(French) to tan
Tannerinan electronic instrument named after Paul Tanner, who originated its use in the 1950s. Dr. Tanner's instrument was formerly called an 'electro-theremin'. The Tannerin produces a pure sine wave, variable over three or four octaves. It is played by sliding a knob along the length of the instrument, starting and stopping the tone with a contact switch located on the pitch knob and operated by one's forefinger. The Tannerin has fixed reference points on a dummy keyboard so the musician knows exactly where notes can be found. This instrument features on the Beach Boys' Good Vibrations
Tanpuraa drone instrument, it resembles a sitar except it has no frets. It has four strings tuned to the tonic. The word tanpura (tanpoora) is common in the north, but in southern India it is called tambura, thamboora, thambura or tamboora. The tanpura is known for its very rich sound. There are three main performance styles; the miraj style, the tanjore style and the small instrumental version sometimes called tamburi
Tanso(Korea) an end-blown flute held vertically and in which the player directs the breath onto a flue notch cut into the front edge. It is used as a solo instrument, as well as in chamber music styles and for vocal accompaniment
  • Tanso from which this information has been taken
Tansya bitter medicinal herb whose juice was traditionally extracted from the young leaves, mixed with eggs, and baked as a "tansy cake" (or simply a "tansy"). These cakes were thought to purify the body and were often eaten after Lent to counteract the effects of fasting fare
tant(French) as much, so much
Tantán(Spanish m.) tom-tom, tam-tam
Tan tana cylindrical hand drum from Brazil that is used in small samba and pagode ensembles. It imitates the big surdo which is played by the famous samba baterias (percussion ensembles), but due to its smaller size the tan tan is not as loud as a surdo and so it is played rarely in big samba schools. The tan tan is played in a sitting or standing position by one hand beating the drum head whilst the other hand taps the metal or wood body of the drum
tant bien que mal(French) more or less well, moderately
tant de(French) so much (quantity), so many (number)
Tante(French f., German f.) aunt
tantear(Spanish) to estimate, to guess, to size up, to feel, to try out (figurative), to put to the test (figurative)
Tanteo(Spanish m.) estimate, guess, reckoning, rough estimate, sizing up, trial, test, sounding
tante quante(Italian) as many as
tant et plus de(French) ever so much, many
Tantiemen(German pl.) royalties
tantino(Italian) a very little
un tantino (Italian: a little, a little bit)
tanti quanti(Italian) as many as
tant mieux(French) fine, all the better, so much the better, good, great
Tanto(Spanish m.) point, so much, a certain amount
tanto(Spanish) so much, so many, odd (for example, fifty odd), so long, so often,
(Italian) so much, too much, for example, allegro non tanto meaning 'allegro, but not too much'
(Italian) so long, so many, as much, as many, a lot, in any case, so
tanto es así que ...(Spanish) so much so that ...
tanto l'uno come l'altro(Italian) both
tanto papeleo me tiene amargada(Spanish) I'm fed up with all this red tape
tanto quanto(Italian) as much as, so much as
tantôt(French) sometimes, this afternoon
tant pis(French) too bad (with the implication that it can't be helped), so much the worse
tant que(French) as long as, as much as
Tant qu'il y a de la vie il y a de l'espoir(French) Never say die
Tantra(Sanskrit) one of the class of Buddhist works of a magical or mystical nature
Tantum ergoa hymn of the Roman Catholic Church sung at the Benediction
the title is taken from the opening words Tantum ergo sacramentum Veneremur cernui (Latin: Bending low let us revere so great a sacrament)
Tant va la cruche à l'eau qu'à la fin elle se casse.(French) Enough is enough.
Tan xian pai zi qu(Chinese) a popular style of narrative music of the Beijing region
Tanz (s.), Tänze (pl.)(German m.) dance
Tanzanian hip hop
Tanzboden(German m.) dancefloor
tanzen(German) to dance
Tänzer (m.), Tänzerin (f.)(German) dancer, ballerina
Tanzkastagnetten(German f. pl.) hand castanets
Tanzkapelle(German f.) a dance band
Tanzkunst(German f.) the art of dancing, Ausdruckstanz
Tanzlied(German n.) dance-song
Tanzlokal(German n.) dance-hall
Tanzkomponist(German m.) composer of dances, for example Strauß, Labitzky and Lanner
Tanzmusik(German f.) dance music
Tanzorchester(German n.) dance orchestra
Tanztheater(German n.) a term applied from the 1970s to describe a form of modern expressive dance with its roots in Ausdruchstanz, which looked to everyday movements to express personal experiences, and which gained popularity in the 1920s. One of the outstanding exponents of Tanztheater is the German choreographer Pina Bausch and her company Tanztheater Wuppertal Pina Bausch
Tanzveranstaltung(German f.) a dance (a social function)
Taogusmall hand-held barrel drum with two beaters attached to the drum by cords
Taoiseach(Irish, literally 'chieftain') the title given to the Prime Minister of the Republic of Ireland
Tapused before the introduction of pedal mechanisms, a T-shaped handle that allowed the player to speedily adjust the pitch of a hand-tuned kettledrum
to select or name (colloquial)
see 'tap dance'
Tapa(Spanish f.) top, lid, cap, stopper (bottle), cover (book), heelplate (shoe), head (figurative), appetizer (culinary)
Tapa armónica(Spanish f.) sound board
Tapabocas(Spanish m.) scarf, muffler
Tapadera(Spanish f.) cover, lid, cover (person), front (person)
tapado(Spanish) covered, with the lid on, wrapped, wrapped up, obstructed, clogged, concealed, hidden
Tapage(French m.) a din
tapageur (m.), tapageuse (f.)(French) rowdy, flashy
Tapanor tupan, Bulgarian and Macedonian double-headed barrel drum, 50 to 60 cm in diameter, rope strung that is struck with a beater (kiyak) on one side and a thin stick (osier) on the other. A similar drum is called davul in Turkey
tapar(Spanish) to cover, to put the lid on, put the top on, to wrap up, to obstruct, to block, to hide, to cover up for somebody
tapar los oídos(Spanish) to put one's fingers in one's ears
Taparrabos(Spanish m.) loincloth, bathing trunks (familar)
Tap danceor 'tap', a dance form in which the performer taps out rhythms and patterns with his or her heels and toes while wearing special shoes with small metal plates called 'taps' affixed to the underside of the heel and toe
James McIntyre (d. 1937) and Tom Heath (d. 1938) created the tramp clown characterization in 1874. They portrayed African Americans made homeless by the Civil War. They based their characters on blackface minstrel clowns which is the origin of the white mouth used by tramp clowns. They studied African American culture while attempting to accurately portray it. McIntyre is credited with introducing an African American dance called the 'Buck and Wing' to the American stage, which dance later became known as tap dancing
Tape(French f.) a slap
tape-à-l'oeil(French) flashy, rowdy
Tape decksee 'tape machine'
Tape loopa continuous loop of tape which produces an 'everlasting' sound effect when played, used for when any long sound is needed (for example, rain or wind) without having to repeat continuously a short effect
Tape marka special character or coding, an attached piece of reflective material, or other device that indicates the physical end of recording on a magnetic tape, also known as 'destination warning mark' or 'end-of-tape mark'
a special character that divides a file of magnetic tape into sections, usually followed by a record with data describing the particular section of the file, also known as 'control mark.'
Tape musica form of music which began soon after tape recording was invented, as people could now create sounds that were for the first time identical with each performance. Users of this new technology began to develop a new musical ethic around the idea of the created artificial sound; as now music no longer had to be related to live performance of instruments, but now, the recording itself is the performance. Musique concrète made extensive use of magnetic tape, so much that the terms "tape music" and "musique concrete" were sometimes used interchangeably, though, strictly speaking, they are not necessarily the same thing
Tape needlea special, heavy duty needle with a palm-fitting handle, for sewing with tape
taper(French) to bang, to slap (a child), to touch for money (to try to borrow money), to type (on a typewriter), to beat down (the sun)
taper à la machine(French) to type (on a typewriter)
taper dans(French) to dig into
Tape recorderalso called 'tape deck', 'cassette deck' or 'tape machine', any device that records a fluctuating signal by moving a strip of magnetic tape across a tape head, which is a strong electromagnet
taper sur(French) to thump, to knock (to criticise)
Tapete(German f.) wallpaper
Tapetenwechsel(German m.) change of scene (familiar)
tapezieren(German) to paper, to wallpaper
tapfer(German) brave, bravely
Tapferkeit(German f.) bravery
Taphonomythe study of decaying organisms over time and how, if they do, they become fossilised
Tapiezierer(German m.) a paperhanger, a decorator
tapi(French) crouching
Tapis(French m.) a carpet, a rug, baize (on a card table)
sur le tapis (French: under discussion, the subject of conversation)
Tapis-brosse(French m.) a doormat
Tapis de bain(French m.) a bath mat
Tapis du sol(French m.) a groundsheet
Tapis roulant(French m.) a conveyor belt
tapisser(French) to (wall)paper, to cover
tapisser de(French) to cover with
Tapisserie(French f.) a tapestry, wallpaper
Tapissier (m.), Tapissière(French) an interior decorator, an upholsterer
Tap khayala blend of khayal and tappa
Tapotement(French m.) percussion, striking with the edge of the hand (for example, as a part of giving a massage)
tapoter(French) to tap, to pat
Tappa(Italian f.) a stop, a stage (of a journey)
Tappadeveloped from the folk of songs of camel drivers of Punjab, it is now a semi-art music developed in Punjab, created by Shori Mian - and later evolved into an intricate semi-classical style with bol and taan interwoven
tappare(Italian) to plug, to cork (a bottle)
tappare la bocca a ...(Italian) to shut ... up
Tapparella(Italian f.) (roller) blind (familiar)
tappato(Italian) stopped
Tapped harmonicsrelated to 'tapping', where the fret hand acts as a barre, while the harmonic is tapped with the other hand
this technique, like tapping itself, was popularized by Eddie van Halen. Tapped harmonics are an extension of the tapping technique. The note is fretted as usual, but instead of striking the string, the string is tapped at one of the frets listed in the natural harmonic list. Do not hold the string down with the tapping hand, just bounce the finger lightly on and off the fret. This technique can be extended by fretting a note, then tapping relative to the fretted note
[taken from the Naruto forum Tabs, chords and sheet music]
tappen(German) to walk hesitantly, to grope
tappen nach(German) to grope for
Tappeto(Italian m.) a carpet, a rug
tappezzare(Italian) to paper, to cover
Tappezzeria(Italian f.) tapestry, wallpaper, upholstery
Tappezziere(Italian m.) an upholsterer
Tappingor 'two-hand hammer-on', a playing technique (generally associated with electric guitar playing, though the technique can be performed on any string instrument) executed by using the fingers of the picking hand to tap the strings against the fingerboard, sounding notes. Stanley Jordan is a jazz guitarist with a spectacular technique involving tapping on the fretboard with both hands at once, capable of playing multiple simultaneous lines and sounding more like a pianist than a guitar player. Despite the popularity of the Stick and other paraphernalia designed to facilitate two-handed tapping, Jordan remains the foremost exponent of the technique as the basis for personal musical expression, rather than just a special effect
  • Tapping from which some of this extract has been taken
Tapping bellsterm applied in medieval England to the playing of cymbala (bells) by striking them with two mallets
Tappo(Italian m.) a plug, a cork, a short person (familiar)
Taqâsîmor taqsim, solo improvisation in Arab music, a non-metric improvisational fergah. Each nuba contains one taqsim played, by tradition, in a maqam, or mode, which differs from the maqam of the rest of the nuba
Taquin (m.), Taquine (f.)(French) a tease, a teaser
taquin (m.), taquine (f.)(French) fond of teasing
taquiner(French) to tease
Taquinerie(s)(French f. (pl.)) teasing
Taqsimsee taqâsîm
Taquilla(Spanish f.) box-office
Târthe târ and its smaller cousin, the setâr, have been the main stringed instruments of Persian music for many centuries. Its present form was developed in 18th-century and has been the choice of Persian classical masters since. It has a double-bowl body of mulberry wood with a lambskin face. The fingerboard has 28 frets and the three double strings are played with a plectrum. Târ in Persian means 'string' while setâr means "3-strings" (though today it is customarily made with 4 strings), whereas sitâr (their Indian cousin) means '30-strings'. The târ is struck with a brass plectrum, whereas the setâr is played with the index finger
Tarlarge Egyptian frame drum or tamborine
Tarabthe Arabic equivalent of flamenco's duende, the intense connection between audience and performer in an ideal musical performance
tarabiscoté(French) overelaborate
Taraboukasee toumbeleki
TarabuAfrican musical style popular along the East African coast
Tarabukaa different name for the darbuka
TarafRomanian Roma string band that include fiddles, cimbaloms, accordions and a double bass. Dances associated with tarafs include brâu, geamparale, sârba and hora. The fiddle leads the music, with the cimbalom and double bass accompanying it
Taraf de Haïdouksa troupe of Romanian Roma musicians, from the town of Clejani, the most prominent such group in Romania in the post-Communist Era
TaragotRomanian folk shawm
TaralilaMalagasy hexagonal concertina
TarambukaBulgarian & Kosovar Albanian clay drum, similar to the darbuka, often used as rhythmic accompaniment to the tambura
Taranaa Hindustani classical music idiom using musical syllables based on Persian and Arabic phonemes
Tarantasflamenco style from Almería, derived from the Andalusian fandango
Tarantella (dance)(Italian) or tarantola dance, a folk dance in 6/8 time from Taranto, Southern Italy, with shifts between major and minor keys, which gets faster and faster and is supposed to cure the result of a poisonous bite from the tarantula spider (Lycosa tarantula). As an instrumental piece it can be in 6/8 or 3/8 time and is played in a fast and furious manner
the Spanish-born physician Don Francisco Xavier Cid published Tarantismo observado en Espana, con que se prueba el de la pulla dudado de algunos, y tratado de otros de Fabuloso: Y memorias para escribir la Historia del insecto llamada Tarántula, efectos de su veneno en el cuerpo humano, y curacion por la música con el modo de obrar de esta, y su aplicacion como remedio á varias enfermedades (Madrid 1787), a medical and psychological assessment of the phenomenon of the Tarantola or Tarantella dance, a trance like ecstatic dance. The origin of this dance is found in a therapeutic ritual, carried out to fend off the effects of being bitten by the tarantola, the wolf-spider. Popular belief was that the bite of this spider caused a disease called 'tarantismo', which led to a period of melancholy and ultimately death. The only way to avoid death was a frenzied, uncontrollable dance, set to music, and called the 'tarantella'. Over time the music associated with this has become more stylised, using guitars, violins, and tambourines. Cid, an eminent physician in Toledo, studies the phenomenon in depth, beginning with the natural history of the 'tarantola', with extensive reference to classical natural historians, contemporary reports, and scientific study, and includes a survey of existing literature on the subject. The following chapters deal with the effect of music on those afflicted, before studying in detail thirty-five individual case, with medical reports and contemporary assessments. In his conclusion Cid accepts the curative power of music and ends with a chapter on the philosophy of music.Tarantismo had its origin in Puglia, but apparently spread all over Europe, at the end of the eighteenth century it reappeared in Spain with renewed force.The two engraved plates of music show six different varieties of Tarantelas and one Tarantela piece for guitar
Tarantelle(French, German) tarantella
Tarantola(Italian f.) tarantula (mildly poisonous spider)
Tarantolatithe percussion-based healing ritual of which the tarantella forms a part
Tarantosan eastern Andalusian flamenco style, related to the tarantas
Tarboukaa pot-like drum from North Africa
Tarantula(Italian) a kind of large spider found in Apulia and other Mediterranean regions, the bite of which is mildly poisonous and was believed to cause a hysterical malady characterized by involuntary dancing. Named because is was formerly associated with the city of Taranto
tararear(Spanish) to hum
Tarareo(Spanish m.) humming, fredonnement (French)
Tarboosh(Arabic) a Moslem cap of red felt with the tassel at the top, a fez
tarchiato(Italian) stocky
tard(French) late
tardamente(Italian) slowly
tardando(Italian) retarding, lingering, gradually slowing, en retardant
[corrected by Lars Hellvig]
tardante(Italian) gradually slowing
[corrected by Lars Hellvig]
tardantemente(Italian) gradually slowing
tardare(Italian) to be late, to delay
tardato(Italian) gradually slowed
tarder(French) to be a long time coming, to take a long time, to delay
tarder à faire(French) to take a long time doing, to delay doing
tardi(Italian) late
tardif (m.), tardive (f.)(French) late, belated (apologies, etc.)
tardivo(Italian) late, retarded (person)
tardo (m.), tarda (f.)(Italian) slow, lingering, dragging, late (against the beat)
Tare(French f.) a defect
taré(French) cretin
Tarentela(Spanish f.) tarantella
Tarentelle(German, French f.) tarantella
Targa(Italian f.) plate, numberplate (of a car, etc.)
Target notessynonymous with 'guide tones'
Targette(French f.) bolt
Targhetta(Italian f.) doorplate
Tarif(French m., German m.) the tariff, the fare (taxi, train, etc.), the rate
tarifaire(French) tariff
Tariffa(Italian f.) rate, tarif
Tarifs posteux(French m. pl.) postage, postal rates
Tarjeta(Spanish f.) card
Tarjeta de crédito(Spanish f.) credit card
Tarjeta postal(Spanish f.) postcard
TarkaAndean wooden duct flute, used for religious ceremonies and dances
Tarkka jäljittely(Finnish) canon
tarlarsi(Italian) to get worm-eaten
Tarlo(Italian m.) woodworm
Tarma(Italian f.) moth
tarmarsi(Italian) to be moth-eaten
tarnen(German) to disguise, to camouflage
Tarnishingalso called 'mirroring', a form of age deterioration on a photograph manifesting as a metallic sheen within its darker values. Processing residue or silver, migrating out from the image can form a very noticeable surface crust that takes on various colours. Though found in almost all silver bromide images and developed out prints, it can occur on any silver based images that use an organic emulsion
Tarnmikrofon(German n.) hidden microphone
Tarn thap luc(Vietnamese, literally '36') Vietnamese version of the hammered dulcimer, now found throughout Asia. The hammered dulcimer was introduced to southern China during the Ming dynasty (1368-1644) and made its way from there to Vietnam
Tarnung(German f.) disguise, camouflage
Tarocco(Italian m.) tarot
Tárogató(Hungary) a Hungarian shawm, a double-reed instrument made of wood. It was used by the military as a signaling and guiding device. It was a favorite of Rákóczi's freedom fighters (1703-1711). For this reason it is believed that the name tárogató is of kuruc origin
Tarolin the samba bateria, the tarol is a smaller snare drum, with a sound and size equivalent to the so-called meia caixa (half snare). It also features in maracatu nação (also known as maracatu de baque virado) an Afro-Brazilian performance genre
Tarole(French f., Italian f., German f.) piccolo snare drum
Taro patchor 'Open G' tuning, where on a guitar the strings are tuned (from low to high): D-G-D-G-B-D
Tarotaa Catalan folk oboe, pitched lower than the gralla in C
tarpare(Italian) to clip
TarrañolasGalician castanets that can be made out of wood, slate, stone or pork ribs
Tarsia(Italian) inlaid work in wood, bone, ivory and mother-of-pearl, intarsiatura
Tarsusthe part of the foot of a vertebrate between the metatarsus and the leg - in human beings the bones of the ankle and heel collectively
tartagliare(Italian) to stutter
tartamudear(Spanish) to stammer
Tartamudeo(Spanish m.) stammer
tartamudeo(Spanish) stammering
Tartana pattern of bands of colour crisscrossing at right angles. These patterns first appeared on woven cloth in the British Isles. This design is most often associated with Scotland and specific patterns have become associated with specific clans and thus the place they come from. The term 'plaid' is used exclusively in North America to describe tartan patterns
Tartaro(Italian m.) tartar
tartaro(Italian) tartar
Tartaruga(Italian f.) a tortoise, a turtle, tortoiseshell
Tartary Dogwood(German Hartriegel, Dutch Rode Kornoelje, European Species: Cornus sanguinea, American Species: C. florida: Average Weight: 50 pounds per cubic foot) The hard rods of this bush or tree were used for meat spits, warp beaters, and needles. American Dogwood is similar
Tarte(French f.) a tart, an open pie
tarte(French) stupid (familiar), ugly (familiar)
Tartina(Italian f.) canapé
Tartine(French f.) a slice of bread
Tartine beurrée(French f., literally 'buttered bread') a slice of bread and butter
tartiner(French) to spread
Tartini tonestwo waves of similar amplitude produce interference beats if the frequency difference is small, and Tartini tones if the difference is larger. This effect was described in 1754 by the noted violinist and composer Giuseppi Tartini (1692-1770) who was unaware that the German organist and musical theorist Georg Andreas Sorge (1703-1778) had noted the same phenomenon nine years previously (1745)
Tartoelten(German) dragon shawms with double reed mouthpiece mounted at the tail end. The conical metal tubing is wound around like a spiral within the dragon's body thus explaining the short size of this low sounding instrument
Tartre(French m.) fur (in a kettle, etc.), calcium deposit, tartar (dentistry)
Tartufo(Italian m.) a truffle
Tas(French m.) a pile, a heap
des tas de or un tas de (French: lots of (familar))
Tasa(Spanish f.) valuation, fixed price, rate
tasar(Spanish) to fix a price for, to ration (to limit), to value (evaluate)
Tasavireinen(Finnish) equal temperament
Tasca(Italian f.) a pocket
tascabile(Italian) pocket
Tascapane(Italian m.) a haversack
Tasche(German f.) a bag, a pocket
Taschenbuch(German n.) a paper-back (book)
Taschendieb(German m.) a pickpocket
Taschengeige(German f.) pocket-fiddle, kit, pochette (Italian, French), a small three-stringed violin
Taschengeld(German n.) pocket-money
Taschenlampe(German f.) a torch, a flashlight
Taschenmesser(German n.) a penknife
Taschenpartitur(German f.) a musical score not primarily intended for performance use, with the notation and/or text reduced in size, i.e. a pocket or study score
Taschentuch(German n.) a handkerchief
Taschino(Italian m.) breast pocket
Tas-de-charge(French m.) the lower courses of ribs of a Gothic ribbed roof
Tasis(ancient Greek) pitch
Taskiouinesee taskiwin
TaskiwinMoroccan warrior's dance. The body is shaken rhythmically and stopped suddenly with perfectly-timed stamping of the feet
Tassa(Italian f.) tax, fee, duty
Tassametro(Italian m.) a taximeter
tassare(Italian) to tax
tassativo(Italian) peremptory
Tasse(French f., German f.) cup
Tasse à thé(French f.) a cup of tea
Tasse de thé(French f.) tea-cup
Tassello(Italian m.) a wedge, a gusset
tasser(French) to pack, to squeeze, to pack (earth), to pack down (earth)
Tasseau(French m.) Klotz (German m.), tassello (Italian m.), small pieces of wood (block) glued between the belly and back to strengthen members of the violin and viol family
Tassello(Italian m.) Klotz (German m.), tasseau (French m.), small pieces of wood (block) glued between the belly and back to strengthen members of the violin and viol family
Tassi(Italian m.) a taxi
Tassista(Italian m./f.) a taxi-driver
Tassle kicksee salti del fiocco
Tasso(Italian m.) yew (botanical), badger (animal), rate (business)
Tasso, Torquato
an Italian poet of the 16th century. The most important events in Tasso's biography during the following four years are the publication of the Aminta in 1573 and the completion of the Gerusalemme Liberata in 1574. The Aminta is a pastoral drama of very simple plot, but of exquisite lyrical charm. It appeared at the critical moment when modern music, under Palestrina's impulse, was becoming the main art of Italy. The honeyed melodies and sensuous melancholy of Aminta exactly suited and interpreted the spirit of its age. It may be regarded as the most decisively important of Tasso's compositions, for its influence, in opera and cantata, was felt through two successive centuries
Tasta(Italian f.) frets, for example, those carved on the neck of a lute
Tastame(Italian) the keys or keyboard of a piano, organ, etc.
tastare(Italian) to feel, to sound
tastare il terreno(Italian) to feel one's way (figurative)
tastato(Italian) fretted, mit Bünden versehen (German), avec sillets (French)
Tastatur(German f.) the keys or keyboard of a piano, organ, etc.
Tastatura(Italian) the keys or keyboard of a piano, organ, etc., a finger-board
tastbar(German) palpable
Tastesee 'aesthetic judgment'
(German f.) a (musical) note (for example, as in eine Taste anschlagen (German: to strike a note)
Taste (s.), Tasten (pl.)(German f.) key (as on a keyboard), push-button
taste anschlagen, eine(German) to strike a note
tasten(German) to feel, to grope, to key in (information)
Tastenbratt(German) keyboard of a piano, etc.
tastend(German) tentative, tentatively
Tasteninstrument (s.), Tasteninstrumente (pl.)(German n.) keyboard instrument
tasten nach(German) to feel for, to grope for
Tastenvirtuose(German m.) piano virtuoso
Tastiera(Italian f.) keys (as on a keyboard), keyboard
(Italian f.) Griffbrett (German n.), touche (French f.), fingerboard, neck (of a lute), fretboard
Tastiera per luce(Italian f.) clavier à lumieres
Tastinitastini or split frets are used by lute players for those tempered notes that require different locations for different strings
Tasto (s.), Tasti (pl.)(Italian m., literally 'touch') key(s) (as on a keyboard), fingerboard (on a stringed instrument), touch
(Italian m.) fret, Bund (German m.), sillet (French m.)
Tasto solo(Italian, literally 'one key alone') a performer's marking, especially used in compositions that use continuo, indicating that a note in the bass part should be performed without the addition of harmony, except possibly the addition of the octave (for example, at an organ point)
Tat(German f.) action, deed, crime
tatenlos(German) passively
Täter (m.), Täterin (f.)(German) culprit, offender
tâter(French) to feel, to sound out (figurative)
tâter de(French) to try out
tätig(German) active, actively
tätig sein(German) work
Tätigkeit(German f.) activity, an action, work, a job
tatillon (m.), tatillonne (f.)(French) finicky
Tatkraft(German f.) energy
tätlich(German) physical, physically
Tätlichkeiten(German f. pl.) violence
tätlich werden(German) to become violent
Tâtonnements(French m. pl.) trial and error
tâtonner(French) to grope about
Tatort(German m.) the scene of the crime
Tatouage(French m.) a tattoo
tatouer(French) to tattoo
tätowieren(German) to tattoo
Tätowierung(German f.) tattooing, tattoo (image)
Tatsache(German f.) a fact
Tatsachenbericht(German m.) a documentary
tatsächlich(German) actual, actually
tätscheln(German) to pat
Tatsiaa Greek-Cypriot traditional dance, performed with a sieve (tatsia in the Cypriot dialect)
Tatterdemaliona person wearing ragged or tattered clothing, a ragamuffin
Tattica(Italian f. pl.) tactics
tattico(Italian) tactical
Tattinghandmade lace fashioned by looping and knotting a single strand of heavy-duty thread on a small hand shuttle, the act or art of making such lace
Tatto(Italian) the touch, touch (sense), tact
aver tatto (Italian: to be tactful)
Tattoomusic played by bugles and drums
Tatuaggio(Italian m.) a tattoo (design)
tatuare(Italian) to tattoo
Tatumalso called 'temporal atom', the shortest duration in a notated musical work (or MIDI performance) that can be used as a divisor for all other durations. For example, if all nominal durations in a work are divisible into semiquaver (sixteenth) durations, and the semiquaver (sixteenth) duration is the largest such divisor, the semiquaver (sixteenth) value is deemed the tatum for the work. The term tatum was coined at the Center for New Music and Audio Technologies at the University of California, Berkeley in 2000, and was named to evoke the rapid-fire piano playing of jazz keyboardist, Art Tatum jnr. (1909-1956)
Tatze(German f.) a paw
Tau(German m.) dew
(German n.) rope
taub(German) deaf, numb, empty (nut), worthless
Taube(German f.) a pigeon, a dove, a Turtle-dove
Taubenschlag(German m.) a pigeon-loft
Taubheit(German f.) deafness, numbness
taubstumm(German) deaf and dumb
tauchen(German) to dip, to plunge, to duck (under), to appear
Taucher(German m.) a diver
Taucheranzug(German m.) a diving-suit
Taudis(French m.) a hovel
tauen(German) to melt, to thaw
Taufbecken(German n.) a font (in a church)
Taufe(German f.) a christening, a baptism
taufen(German) to christen, to baptise
Taufkapelle(German f.) the baptistry
Taufpate(German m.) godfather
Taufstein(German m.) a font (in a church)
Taugenichts(German m.) good-for-nothing
tauglich(German) suitable, fit (for the army)
Tauglichkeit(German f.) suitability, fitness
Tauko(Finnish) rest
Taule(French f.) a prison (familiar)
Taumel(German m.) a daze
taumeln(German) to stagger
Tau'olunga(Tonga) a dance derived from the ula, that may be considered comparable with some of the Hawaiian hula or Tahitian 'aparima dances
  • Tau'olunga from which this information has been taken
Taupe(French f.) a mole
Taupinière(French f.) a molehill
Taureau (s.), Taureaux (pl.)(French m.) a bull
Tausch(German m.) exchange, swap
tauschen(German) to exchange, to barter
täuschen(German) deceive, fool, betray
täuschend(German) deceptive, striking
Täuschgeschäft(German n.) exchange
Täuschhandel(German m.) baretr, exchange
Täuschung(German) deception, mistake, delusion
Tausend(German n.) thousand
tausend(German) one thousand, a thousand
Täusendfüsser(German m.) a centipede
tausendjährig(German) lasting a thosand years, millenary
Tausendstel(German n.) thousandth
Tautropfen(German m.) a dewdrop
Tauwetter(German n.) a thaw
Taux(French m.) rate
Tauzeihen(German n.) a tug of war
Taverna(Italian f.) a tavern, an inn
Taverne(French f.) a tavern
Tavilthe main percussion instrument for accompanying the nadaswaram. It is a double-headed barrel-shaped drum which is hollowed out of a solid block of wood. The skins that form the two drumheads are attached to hoops fastened by interwoven leather straps. The pitch is adjusted by tightening the skin using a leather band that passes round the middle of the barrel over the braces. The right head is played with the fingers of the right hand capped with hardened rice paste caps whilst the left head is played with a thick stick. Rings made of the same material as the caps are also worn on the knuckles of the right hand. The right head is stretched tight but is not tuned to any particular pitch
Tavla repertoirein Crete, rizitika songs performed in convivial occasions, mainly wedding banquets
Tavle(Danish) plate (illustration in a book), table, chart
Tavola(Italian f.) a table, a plate (illustration in a book), a plank, a slab, a tablet, an index, an illustration
Tavola armonica(Italian f.) Decke (German f.), table d'harmonie (French f.), top, table or belly of a string instrument, soundboard
Tavola calda(Italian f.) a snackbar
Tavolaccio(Italian m.) a plank-bed
Tavola comune(Italian f.) table d'hôte
Tavola da frizione(Italian f.) friction board
Tavola da giuoco(Italian f.) a gaming table
Tavola da pranzo(Italian f.) a dining table
Tavola pitagorica(Italian f.) a multiplication table
Tavola real(Italian f.) backgammon (game)
Tavolata(Italian f.) a table spread for dinner, the guests round the table, table (in these senses)
Tavolato(Italian m.) wainscotting, boarding, wooden floor
Tavoletta (s.), Tavolette (pl.)(Italian f.) small table, tablet, bull-roarer (short for tavoletta sibilante)
Tavoletta sibilante(Italian f.) bull roarer
Tavoliere(Italian m.) chess-board, draught-board, backbammon-board, card-table
Tavolino(Italian m.) a small table, desk
Tavolino da notte(Italian m.) bed-side table, night table
Tavolo(Italian m.) table
Tavolo da toletta(Italian m.) dressing table
Tavolo da stiro(Italian m.) an ironingboard
Tavolo di missaggio(Italian m.) mixing board
Tavolozza(Italian f.) a palette
Tawaifhistorically, a tawaif was a courtesan who catered to the Muslim nobility of South Asia, particularly during the Mughal era. They were skilled singers (North Indian classical music), dancers (usually Kathak), and poets (Urdu poetry). They were generally highly educated and refined. High-class tawaifs could often pick and choose between the best of their suitors
Tawak-tawak(Brunei) gongs
TawareMozambican term for drums
Tawa-tawa gongBalinese gong
Taxa de amostra(Portuguese) sample rate
Taxe(French f., German f.) a tax, a charge
(German f.) a taxi
Taxe sur la valeur ajoutée(French f.) value added tax, VAT (TVA in French)
taxer(French) to tax, to fix the price of
taxer ... de(French) to accuse ... of
Taxi(French m., German n.) taxi(-cab), a cab
(French m.) taxi-driver (familiar)
taxieren(German) to estimate, to value, to size up
Taxifahrer(German m.) taxi driver
Taximi (s.), Taximia (pl.)(Greek, from the Turkish taksim) improvised instrumental introductions, familiar in Turkish music, that set the mode (dromos) of the song that follows it. The dromoi were many, for example, minoré, rasti, houzam, ousak, niaventi, etc., and their names often borrowed from the Turkish makam system
Taxiphone(French m.) a pay phone
Taxistand(German m.) a taxi rank
Tayaw(Myanmar) a bowed instrument similar to the Western violin
Täydentävä intervalli(Finnish) complementary interval
Ta'ziyehs(Persian) ta'ziyehs were usually written in the form of poetry and were chanted in carefully selected Persian musical keys. Most of the poetry was very unsophisticated consisting mainly of dialogue between the individuals enacting a particular story. It is noteworthy that the role of women was played by men who chanted in a soprano voice emulating women's voice. At the height of ta'ziyeh, when audiences included dignitaries and foreign delegations, Amir Kabir, the able prime minister of Nasser-edin Shah, commissioned Reza Esfahani, a well known poet of the period, to compose some ten ta'ziyehs. These were to be simple enough to be understandable by the masses while sufficiently sophisticated not to bore an educated public
Tazza(Italian f.) a cup, a mug, a shallow ornamented bowl supported on a foot
Tb.abbreviation of 'tuba'
Tballarge North African double-headed side drum
Tbel (s.), Tbola (pl.)or t'bel, see tbal
Tbn.abbreviation of 'trombone'