music dictionary : Tf - Ti

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TFVafter Franz Trenner the cataloguer of music by Richard Strauss (1864-1949)
TGBabbrevation of Très grande bibliothèque (French: nickname of the Bibliothèque de France)
TGVabbrevation of train à grande vitesse (French: high-speed train)
THabbreviation of Technische Hochschule (German: technical high school)
Thaator that, the categorisation of the ten different sets of musical scales, with seven primary notes shown in ascending order and sequentially, so as to determine the total number of distinct Hindustani ragas. Some correspond to Western church modes, such as Kalyan (Lydian mode), Khammaj (Mixolydian mode) while others have no Western equivalent, such as Bhairav
Thaïlandais (m.), Thaïlandaise (m.)(French m./f.) Thai
thaïlandais (m.), thaïlandaise (f.)(French) Thai
Thaïlande(French f) Thailand
Thai music
Thanatos(Greek, 'death') Sigmund Freud's term for a subconscious desire for self-destruction, a secret longing to die, a death wish
Thap(Southern Thailand) a drum similar in shape to the Persian dumbek. It is used to signal changes in rhythm and is used in a supporting role for the southern nora dance. The drums are used in pairs, one low-pitched and the other high-pitched
Thatsee thaat
Thaviltwo-headed Indian drum
Thayambakaa solo chenda (drum) performance that is unique to Kerala, Southern India, where the player uses one hand and a stick in the other, rather than the more usual two sticks
Thé(French m.) tea
Theandricrelating to, or existing by, the union of divine and human operation in Christ, or the joint agency of the divine and human nature
Theater(German n.) theatre, playhouse, a fuss (familiar), a 'to-do' (familiar)
Theateranrecht(German n.) theatre subscription (purchasing tickets for a season)
Theaterbesucher(German m.) theatre goer
Theaterkarte(German f.) theatre ticket
Theaterkasse(German f.) box-office
Theatermantel(German m.) opera cloak
Theaterschneider(German m./f.) costumer (theatre, etc.)
Theater spielen(German) to act, to put on an act (familiar)
Theaterstück(German n.) a play
Theatertruppe(German f.) a theatre group, a theatre ensemble
Theaterveranstaltung(German f.) a theatrical event
Theaterverlag(German m.) publisher of works relating to the theatre (playbills, programmes, etc.)
Theatervorhang(German m.) theatre curtain
Theatervorstellung(German f.) theatrical performance
Theaterzettel(German m.) theatre programme
théâtral (s.), théâtraux (m. pl.)(French) theatrical
theatralisch(German) theatrical, theatrically
theatralisch vortragen(German) to rant
Theatrea building where acting takes place (the term may also be used for a cinema)
the world of acting that takes place in the theatre, or the world of acting in general
Théâtre(French m.) theatre, play-acting
faire du théâtre (French: to act)
Théâtre de l'Académie Royale de Musiquethe official theatrical building of the Académie Royale de Musique from 1821 until 1873, the principal venue of the Parisian opera (from 1822) and of ballet companies until its destruction by fire in 1873
Théâtre de la foire(French m., literally 'fairground theatre') a term applied both to the venues and to the material performed there in the great Paris fairs of the 16th-century. The entertainments were primitive, seldom based on more than popular tunes, but were the precursor of opéra-comique
Théâtre de l'Ambigu-Comique(French m.) one of the theatres of Paris (it was founded in 1769 and demolished in 1966) founded by Nicolas-Médard Audinot, formerly a comedian of the Opéra-Comique, which he had left to become a puppet-master at the Paris fairs. Audinot had already been a success in one of the sites of the Saint-Germain fair, where his large marionettes (called bamboches) were in vogue. He later added children trained in the theatrical arts and, in 1771, dispensed with the puppets replacing them all with child-performers
Théâtre de la Montansier(French m.) formerly the Palais Royal at Versailles
Théâtre de la Nation(French m.) the Grand Opera House
Théâtre de la République(French m.) Théâtre Français
Théâtre de l'Europesince 1990, the name of the Odéon, one of France's five so-called 'national theatres'
Théâtre de variétés(French m.) music hall
Théâtre du Vaudevilleone of the Parisian theatres officially approved by Napoleon, where vaudeville, short plays with a strong element of comic and satirical song, were produced. As the plays became more dramatic, with more consistent plots, they were more suitable for performance at the Comédie Française. After 1850, the vaudeville acquired an increasingly music-hall image and reverted to the loosely connected sketch with catchy couplets
Théâtre engagé(French m.) dramatic works composed for a political or sociological purpose
Théâtre Françaisor Comédie-Française, is the only state theatre in France. The theatre has also been known as the Théâtre Nautique and as the Théâtre de la République. The best-known playwright associated with the Comédie-Française is Molière. He was considered the patron of French actors; however, he died seven years before the birth of La Maison de Molière, as the Comédie-Française is often styled
Théâtre grecques antiques(French m.) ancient Greek theatre
Theatre in the roundany theatre in which the audience is seated on every, or almost every side of the stage
a performance taking place on an arena stage
Theatre of Dionysusthe outdoor theatre in Athens where Greek drama began as a part of religious rituals on the sloped side of the Acropolis in Athens
Theatre organa pipe organ or an electronic organ designed specifically for imitation of the orchestra. It took the place of the orchestra when installed in a movie theatre during the heyday of silent films. Most theatre organs were modeled after the style originally devised by Robert Hope-Jones, which he called a "unit orchestra". Such instruments were typically built to provide the greatest possible variety of timbres with the fewest possible pipes, and often had pianos and other percussion instruments built in, as well as a variety of sound effects. Theatre organs are usually identified at sight by their distinctive horseshoe-shaped console, which is not infrequently painted white with gold trim in original examples
Théâtre lyrique(French m.) opera-house
Theatricalfeature-length motion picture (colloquial)
of, or pertaining to, the theatre
Théâtrophone(French, 'the theatre phone') a telephonic distribution system that allowed the subscribers to listen to opera and theatre performances over the telephone lines. The théâtrophone evolved from a Clément Ader invention, which was first demonstrated in 1881, in Paris. Subsequently, in 1890, the invention was commercialized by Compagnie du Théâtrophone, which continued to operate till 1932
Theatrum instrumentorum seu Sciagraphia (1620)written by Michael Praetorius (1571-1621), whose real name was Michael Schultheiß, and published in Wolffenbüttel
Theatrum mundi(Latin) theatre of the world
the metaphor of theatrum mundi, or the world as stage, derives from classical sources such as Plato and Horace and from early Christian writers such as Saint Paul (Curtius, 138-44). While not a new concept, it was frequently employed by baroque thinkers to express an ordered world and the forces that threatened it. Throughout Europe, playwrights such as Molière and Shakespeare used the motif in their works to emphasize the close relationship between the stage and life
The Country Dance Booksee 'Country Dance Book, The'
Thé dansant(French m.) an afternoon entertainment at which there is dancing and tea is served
The Dancing Masteralso called 'Playford', The Dancing Master (first edition: The English Dancing Master) was a dancing manual containing the music and instructions for English country dances. It was published in several editions by John Playford (1623-1686) and his successors from 1651 until c.1728. Dances from The Dancing Master were re-published in arrangements by Cecil Sharp in the early 20th-century
The Devil and Daniel Webstera one-act folk opera (first performed in 1938) by Douglas Moore (1893-1969) is set in the 1840s in New Hampshire It begins with the neighbours of Cross Corners celebrating the marriage of Jabez and Mary Stone, when a guest appears carrying a mysterious black box under his arm. Are souls safe at this party? The opera is based on the a short story of the same name by Stephen Vincent Benét (1898-1943) a US poet and novelist
The East is Reda chinese folk song that permeates Luigi Nono's Per Bastiana--Tai-Yang Cheng with its pentatonic melody and intervallic structure
Theeyattua solo dance-drama performed in front of the Kalam or Dhooli Chitram (ritual drawing with coloured powders). It is enacted in some Bhagavathy temples of Thiruvalla, Kottayam, Thripunithura and neighbouring areas of Kerala
  • Theeyattu from which this extract has been taken
Thegna warrior who has sworn his loyalty to a lord in Anglo-Saxon society
The Gods (theatrical term)see 'gallery'
The Handssee 'Hands, The'
Théière(French f.) a teapot
Theil (s.), Theile (pl.)(German m.) or Teil, part, portion, section, movement (part of a larger work), volume (of a set of volumes), division(s) of the bar (measure), component part(s) (of a movement or piece)
theilen(German) see teilen, divided
Theilton (s.), Theiltöne (pl.)(German m.) or Teilton (s.), Teiltöne (pl.), upper partial, aliquot tone
The Internationale(L'Internationale in French) is the most famous socialist (and anarchist and Communist) song and one of the most widely recognized songs in the world. The original (French) words were written in 1870 by Eugène Pottier (1816-1887, later a member of the Paris Commune). Pierre Degeyter (1848-1932) set the poem to music in 1888. (It was originally intended to be sung to the tune of La Marseillaise)
Theke(German f.) a bar, a counter (in a shop, etc.)
Thekatheka is a fixed set of bols for a taal which cannot be changed. A tintaal theka would comprise 16 bols, just as jhaptaal theka comprise 10 bols and so on. Theka can be abstractly compared to the skeleton of the human body. Like the human skeleton, which provides strength and support, theka provides the rhythmic skeletal support for the music
  • Theka from which this extract has been taken
The Lost Chordsee 'Procter, Adelaide Ann'
Thema(German n., Dutch) theme, subject, musical theme
Thema in de fuga(Dutch) fugal subject
Thema und Variationen(German n.) theme and variations
Thematic cataloguethe classification of music under headings which include the opening notes of the composition and/or the notes of the main theme of the composition
Thematic compositionsee 'thematic development'
Thematic developmentor 'thematic composition', 'thematic transformation', the compositional process by which a theme is transformed by modifying its melodic outline, its harmony, or its rhythm
Thematic materialphrases and melodies that form the basis of the main and subsiduary themes in a musical work and that are extended and/or modified in the development section and return in the recapitulation
Thematic metamorphosis see 'metamorphosis of themes'
Thematic transformationsee 'thematic development' and 'transformation'
Thematic vowelin linguistics, a vowel attached to the end of an Indo-European root word to form a stem
thèmatique(French) thematic
thematische Arbeit(German f.) thematic transformation
thematisches Motiv(German n.) thematic motif
thematisch-motivische Arbeit(German f.) thematic-motivic transformation
thematisch materiaal(Dutch) thematic material
Thema und Variationen(German n.) theme and variations
Themetema (Italian), Thema (German), thème (French)
a central idea or statement that unifies and controls an entire literary work
a group of notes, also called a melody, that will form the basis of a work that includes the theme's repetition and/or development, as, for example, in sonata form
in musical analysis, a theme is termed the 'subject'
the cantus firmus against which counterpoint is written
the subject of a fugue
the tune, or subject, upon which variations are written
Thème(French m.) theme, subject, prose
Theme and variationsan extended work, sometimes in separate movements or sections, where the opening musical statement, called the 'theme', is subjected to development (variations)
see 'form'
I sometimes ponder on variation form and it seems to me it ought to be more restrained, purer. Composers in the old days used to keep strictly to the base of the theme, as their real subject. Beethoven varies the melody, harmony and rhythms so beautifully. But it seems to me that a great many moderns (including both of us) are more inclined - I don't know how to put it - to fuss about with the theme. We cling nervously to the melody, but we don't handle it freely, we don't really make anything new out of it, we merely overload it. And so the melody becomes quite unrecognizable.
Johannes Brahms (1833-1897) writing to Joseph Joachim (Dusseldorf, June l856)
Thème de jazz(French m.) strain (in jazz), melody (in jazz)
Theme groupa number of themes all in the same key that function as a unit within a section of a form, for example, in 'sonata-allegro' form
Theme musicthe theme music of a radio or television program is a piece that is written specifically for that show and usually played during the title sequence and/or end credits. If it is accompanied by lyrics, most often associated with the show, it is a theme song
Thème musical(French m.) strain, melody, (musical) theme
Theme songErkennungsmelodie (German f.), the song or number that encapsulates the essence of a musical or film and becomes most closely associated with it, for example 'The Windmills of Your Mind' (words & music by Alan & Marilyn Bergman & Michel Legrand) from the film The Thomas Crown Affair (1968)
The Messiahsee 'Messiah, The'
Theme tuneErkennungsmelodie (German f.), music that is used often as an introduction to a radio program, television program, video game or movie
Thème varié(French m.) a theme with variation, tema con variazioni
The Mother of Us Allan opera by Virgil Thomson to a libretto by Gertrude Stein. It chronicles the life of Susan B. Anthony, one of the major figures in the fight for women's suffrage in the United States. In fanciful style, it brings together characters, fictional and non-fictional, from different periods of American history. The opera premiered in 1947 at Columbia University’s Branders Matthews Hall
Themse(German f.) Thames
Thé musical (s.), Thés musicaux (pl.)(French m.) a musical tea-party, a social gathering at which music is performed and tea is served
The Music of Ireland (1903)one of the most remarkable collections of Irish music, published in the early years of the last century, The Music of Ireland (1903) was compiled and edited in Chicago by O'Neill (1848-1936), who resigned from the city's police force in 1905 following a distinguished career. That O'Neill collected and published 1,850 pieces is all the more remarkable because he was unable to write music which had to be transcribed by an assistant who could
Theocrasythe process by which aspects of two or more separate gods in mythology comingle or blend in the form of one deity
Theodicyin theological writings, this term refers to a defense of God's goodness or justice in the face of evil being allowed to exist or innocent creatures being allowed to suffer. The term theodicy comes from Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibnitz's Théodicée
Theogonyin mythology, an account of the gods' origins and their genealogy
Theologe(German m.) a theologian
Theologie(German f.) theology
Théologie(French f.) theology
Théologien(French m.) theologian
théologique(French) theological
Theomarchystrife or warfare among the gods
Theophanya visible (but not necessarily material) manifestation of a deity to a human person
Théorbe(French m.) theorbo, tiorba (Italian f., Spanish f.), Theorbe (German)
Theorbe(German f.) theorbo, tiorba (Italian f., Spanish f.), théorbe (French)
Theorbo(English from the Italian) tiorba (Italian f., Spanish f.), Theorbe (German), théorbe (French)
a large member of the lute family, in use from the sixteenth to eighteenth centuries, with an extended neck and two sets of strings, one set being fretted and fingered like those of the standard lute, the second, longer set of strings (called 'diapasons') being tuned to the diatonic scale and designed to be played unstopped (i.e. 'open')
Theorbenflugel(German m.) see Lautenclavicymbel
Théorème(French m.) a theorem
Theoretiker(German m.) a theorist
Theoretikon(Greek) a codex containing theories of the art of music
theoretisch(German) theoretical, theoretically
theoretische Studien(German f. pl.) theoretical studies
theoretisches Verstehen(German n.) theoretical understanding
Théoricien (m.), Théoricienne (f.)(French) a theorist
Theorie(German f.) theory
Théorie(French f.) theory
Théorie de la musique(French f.) music theory
Théorie de l'expression des emotions(French f.) theory of the expression of the emotions
see 'affections, doctrine of'
Théorie musicale(French f.) music theory
théorique(French) theoretical
théoriquement(French) theoretically
Theorythe theory of music is a description of the way we think about, or believe we should think about, music and about its notation, structure and performance. You do not need to know anything about music theory to enjoy listening to music but it is essential should you decide to take a more practical interest in the subject, for example, by learning to play a musical instrument, for, as Leonardo da Vinci, himself a fine performer on the lyra da braccio, said about painting, "You must not only believe what you see, you must also understand what you see", so it is with music: to listen properly, we must understand what we hear
theory has a number of distinct meanings in different fields of knowledge, depending on the context and their methodologies. In common usage, people use the word "theory" to signify "conjecture", "speculation", or "opinion." In this sense, "theories" are opposed to "facts" - parts of the world, or claims about the world, that are real or true regardless of what people think. In science, a theory is a proposed description, explanation, or model of the manner of interaction of a set of natural phenomena, capable of predicting future occurrences or observations of the same kind, and capable of being tested through experiment or otherwise falsified through empirical observation. It follows from this that for scientists "theory" and "fact" do not necessarily stand in opposition. For example, it is a fact that an apple dropped on earth has been observed to fall towards the center of the planet, and the theory which explains why the apple behaves so is the current theory of gravitation.
Theotechnythe introduction of gods or supernatural entities into a dramatic or literary work, especially to resolve situations
The Rake's Progresssee 'Rake's Progress, The'
Therapeut (m.), Therapeutin (f.)(German) therapist
thérapeutique(French) therapeutic
therapeutisch(German) therapeutic
Therapie(German f.) therapy
Thérapie(French f.) therapy
Theremin(English, Italian m.) thérémin (French m.), Ätherwellengeige (German f.), (Spanish m.)
Theremín(Spanish m.) also théremin or théreminvoxtheremin, theremin (English, Italian m.), thérémin (French m.), Ätherwellengeige (German f.)
Thérémin(French m., Italian m.) or theremine, theremin or thereminvox, Ätherwellengeige (German f.), (originally known as the aetherphone, etherophone, Thereminophone, termenvox and thereminvox) a type of electronic musical instrument invented in the 1920s by Franco-Russian physicist Leo (or Leon) Thérémin [born: Lev Sergeyevich Termen] (1896-1993) which is played without physically touching it. Fitted with two antennas (one vertical and one horizontal) that create an electro-magnetic field, the field's disturbance when the player's hands enter it, effect changes in pitch and volume. The left antenna controls the volume, and the right antenna controls the pitch
Theremin celloalso known as the 'Fingerboard Theremin', instead of strings, it has a flexible plastic film fingerboard which, when touched, produces a tone. As long as the finger remains depressed, a tone is sustained. The volume is controlled by a lever on the player's right and the tone color is controlled by knobs, and the sound is amplified by an external amplifier
Theremingerät(German n.) thérémin
Thereminvoxalternative name for the thérémin
Therianthropican adjectival reference to any mixture of human and animal traits together in a single description
Therianthroposisnoun form of therianthropic
The Ring Cyclesee 'Ring Cycle, The'
Therimorphicanother term for therianthropic
Theriomorphosisnoun form of theriomorphic
The River Bendone of the figures unique to, or traditionally associated with, square dancing
one of the big circle figures danced by all couples in one large circle facing the centre which are traditionally associated with square dancing
Thermalbad(German n.) thermal bath, thermal spa
Thermal paperpaper that is impregnated with a chemical that changes colour when exposed to heat. It is used in thermal printers and particularly in cheap, lightweight devices such as adding machines, cash registers, and credit card terminals
Thermalquelle(German f) thermal spring
thermique(French) thermal
Thermogenesisgeneration or production of heat, especially by physiological processes
Thermographya printing process in which raised print is created. A resin powder is applied to the surface of a freshly pulled print that only sticks to its wet printed ink. When heated this chemical combination swells and the printing on the finished sheet will be raised. It is used mostly with printed text such as stationary and business cards
Thermometer(English, German n.) a device for registering temperature
Thermomètre(French m.) thermometer
thermonucléaire(French) thermonuclear
Thermos(French m./f.) (Thermos) vacuum flask
Thermosfalsche(German f.) (Thermos) vacuum flask
Thermostat(French m., English, German m.) a device for controlling temperature (usually to hold the temperature maintained by a warming or cooling device to within a narrow range of a preset level)
thésauriser(French) to hoard
Thesaurus (s.), Thesauri (pl.)(Latin, from Greek) a repository of knowledge, a dictionary, an encyclopedia
These(German f.) thesis
Thèse(French f.) thesis
Thesis (Greek, Latin s.), These (Greek pl.), Theses (Latin pl.)(Greek, 'lowering') originally thesis was an unstressed syllable in metre. In this sense, in music, it would be an unaccented note. Its opposite is arsis which refers to a stressed syllable in meter and an accented note in music
Note: over time, many writers have reversed these meanings and we recommend that both words be understood and written with caution, or avoided completely
(Dutch) strong beat, down-beat, accented part of the bar
(Latin, in which case the plural is theses) an extended original work (as for example, an essay written up and submitted as part of the requirements for the awarding of advanced degrees, particularly Ph.D., D.Phil, etc.)
Thespis of Icaria(in Greek, Θέσπις) the founder of drama who won a prize for a tragedy in about 534 BC. Probably first playwright to introduce an actor (hypocrit), independent of the chorus, who delivered monologues and also engaged in dialogues with the leader of the chorus. Thespis is thought also to have introduced the use of pigments and masks by the performers. Horace describes Thespis taking his plays on wagons, with a chorus whose faces were stained with wine-lees. Actors are also called Thespians derived from Thespis
The Threepenny Operasee Dreigroschenoper, Die (German f.)
The Turkish Fivethe five pioneers of western classical music in Turkey, who were all born in the first decade of the 20th-century and they composed their finest music in the early years of the Republic of Turkey, during the presidencies of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and Ismet Inönü. The 'Turkish Five' composers are Ahmet Adnan Saygun, Ulvi Cemal Erkin, Cemal Resit Rey, Hasan Ferit Alnar and Necil Kazim Akses
The Weary Bluessee 'Weary Blues, The'
Theyyamalso known as kaliyattam, a ritual dance popular in north Kerala or the erstwhile Kolathunadu. Theyyam incorporates dance, mime and music and enshrines the rudiments of ancient tribal cultures which attached great importance to the worship of heroes and the spirits of ancestors
  • Theyyam from which this extract has been taken
Thiasosin ancient Greece, an organized group of women devoted to the worship of Aphrodite
Thickened linea term used in 'big band' arrangement for 'close harmony' particularly that within a section, for example, the trumpet parts
Thingwhile the althing was the closest organization the Icelandic Vikings had to a national government, the thing was the equivalent of the local or regional government (i.e., althings were huge gatherings dealing with matters affecting all of Iceland, while things were smaller, scattered gatherings dealing with matters affecting a town or community). At a thing, representatives from the local area gathered to vote on policy, hear complaints, settle disputes, and designate incorrigible individuals as outlaws
Thinlinea term used to describe hollow body electric guitars
Thiol(Greece) an alternative name for the 'violin'
Thiorbosynonymous with theorbo
Thirdterza (Italian), Terz (German), tierce (French), tercera (Spanish), tercer grado (Spanish), an interval comprising three diatonic degrees, or spanning two diatonic scale steps, for example, the interval C to E
Third fluteflauto traverso terzetto (Italian m.), Terzquerflöte (German f.), Terzflöte (German f.), flûte à (la) tierce (French f.), flûte tierce (French f.), a transverse flute in E flat, sounding a minor third higher than the concert flute
Third inversionfor example, the inversion of a seventh chord such that the seventh lies in the lowest 'root' position
see 'inversion'
Third person terza pesona (Italian), troisière personne (French), tercera persona (Spanish)
one of the three classes of pronouns, verb-forms, etc., where the person speaking is the 'first person', the person spoken to is the 'second person' and the person spoken of is the 'third person'
Third stream(English, Third-Stream German m.) a style of music that synthesizes characteristics and techniques of classical music and jazz, the term 'third stream' was coined in the 1950s by Gunther Schuller (b.1925) to describe this confluence
Third wallusually referred to as the "fourth wall", depending upon how a stagebuilder numbers the sides of the stage, the third or fourth wall is an imaginary barrier that separates the events on stage from the audience
Thirteenera stanza rhyming ABABABABCDDDC
Thirteenthan interval comprising thirteen diatonic degrees, or an octave and a sixth, i.e. a compound sixth
Thirteenth chorda seven-note chord built in thirds
Thirty-second note
demisemiquavera demisemiquaver, a note one thirty-second the time value of a whole note or semibreve
Thirty-second rest
demisemiquaver resta demisemiquaver rest, a rest one thirty-second the time value of a whole rest or semibreve rest
Thirty-two-bar formoften shortened to AABA, a musical form common in 'Tin Pan Alley' songs and later in popular music including rock and pop music, and jazz, though there were few instances of it in any type of popular music until the late 1910s when it went on to become the principal form in around 1925-1926. Section B is often called the 'middle eight', 'bridge' or 'release'
Thiruvathirakalifrom Kerala, in Southern India, a dance performed by women, in order to attain everlasting marital bliss, on Thiruvathira day in the Malayalam month of Dhanu (December- January)
ThMabbreviation of 'Master of Theology'
Thod-rngaalso called damaru, the thod-rnga is made from two human skulls. The drum is played by twisting it back and forth with one hand so that the small pellets at the ends of the strings strike the two drumheads
Tholppavakkoothu(literally meaning 'leather puppet play') a ritual art performed during the annual festivals in the Kaali temples of Palakkad district of Kerala, in Southern India
Thomoin Lesotho, a stringed instrument traditionally played by women
Thon(French m.) tuna (fish)
Thon-rammanaThai goblet drum with a usually decorated, ceramic body
Thorna letter representing a th- sound in the Anglo-Saxon alphabet and in Norse runes
(German Schledorn or Schwarzdorn, French Prunellier, Dutch Sleedoorn, European Species: Prunus spinosa) While only available in small pieces, Thorn is very tough and hard and turns well. It was a favorite for hedges and walking sticks
Thoroughbassfigured bass, continuo
ThPabbreviation of Tonhalte-Pedal (German n.: sostenuto pedal)
[entry provided by Mark Polesky]
Thrashsee 'thrashcore'
Thrashcoreor thrash, a fast and raw brand of hardcore punk music
Thrash metala subgenre of 'heavy metal' music, whose origins are generally traced to the late 1970s and early 1980s
Thread the Needleone of the figures unique to, or traditionally associated with, square dancing
Threetre (Italian), Drei (German), trois (French)
Three-accented octavesee 'octave'
Three-accent octavesee 'octave'
Three-chord songa song whose music is built around three chords that are played in a certain sequence. Perhaps the most prevalent type of three-chord song is the simple twelve bar blues used in blues and rock and roll. Typically, the three chords used are the chords on the tonic, subdominant, and dominant (scale degrees I, IV and V): in the key of C, these would be the C, F and G chords. Sometimes the V7 chord is used instead of V, for greater tension
Three Cornered-Hat, Theballet composed by Manuel de Falla (1876-1946) which is based on the 1874 novel El Sombrero de tres picos by Pedro Antonio de Alarcón (1833-1891)
Three-finger techniquesee 'Scruggs style'
Threefold deatha motif of the early Irish aideda in which a victim is killed by three different means in rapid succession, often wounding, drowning, and burning
Three-lined octavesee 'octave'
Three-line octavesee 'octave'
Three-part formsee 'ternary form'
Threepenny Opera, thesee Dreigroschenoper, Die (German f.)
Three stepthe Vienna waltz
three voices, forsee 'for three voices'
Threnody(from the Greek threnos, 'wailing' and oide, 'ode') a dirge, a song of lamentation, an elegy, a funereal song
Threshold of painas it relates to hearing, the threshold of pain is the sound pressure level (SPL) beyond which sound becomes unbearable for a human listener. This threshold varies only slightly with frequency. Prolonged exposure to sound pressure levels in excess of the threshold of pain can cause physical damage, potentially leading to hearing impairment
Thrice-accented octavesee octave
Thrice-marked octavean alternative name for the thrice-accented octave
Throat-singingexercised by a number of Central Asian tribes, throat singing is a peculiar vocal art with three basic vocalizing methods and at least four submethods that allow a singer to simultaneously sing with two, indeed, sometimes even with four voices. Other cultures have developed forms of throat-singing, including the Xosa of South Africa, other Siberian peoples, such as the Chukchi from the far north of Russia or the Ainu of Northern Japan and the Inuit of North America. Although khoomei (sometimes transliterated as xöömij, xomei or hoomi), the Tuvan word, is generally translated as 'throat-singing', Western musicians and researchers have also referred to the same phenomenon as 'overtone singing', 'biphonic' and 'diphonic singing' and 'harmonic singing'
Throaty (voice)a voice characterized by too much pharyngeal resonance and/or excessive pharyngeal tension
Thrombose(French f., German f.) a thrombosis (a blood clot)
Thron(German m.) throne
thronen(German) to sit in state
Thronfolge(German f.) succession
Thronfolger(German m.) heir to the throne
Through-composed(from the German, durchkomponiert) a form with no pre-established musical structure, for example, a song composed from begining to end without repetitions of any major sections, each verse having its own, unique melody. If the song is in sections (stanzas) and the music is repeated unchanged for each section (stanza), the form is then said to be strophic
Through-holealso spelled "thru-hole", a technology that uses Pin-through-hole (PTH) electronic components that are mounted on the printed circuit boards (PCB) by insertion into pre-drilled holes in the board and secured by soldering the pins to pads on the opposite side of the board
Through neckor 'thru neck', a guitar making design that uses a neck that actually runs right through the centre of the body
Thru-holesee 'through-hole'
Thrushfemale singer (colloquial)
Thrust stageanother term for an apron stage, one that extends out into the audience, so that the audience is seated on three sides of it
Thule(also Thula, Thyle, Thylee, Thile, Thila, Tile, Tila, Tilla, Tyle, or Tylen) in Classical sources, a place, usually an island. Ancient European descriptions and maps locate it either in the far north, often northern Great Britain, possibly the Orkneys or Shetland Islands, or Scandinavia, or, in the Late Middle Ages and Renaissance, in the west and north, often Iceland or Greenland. Another suggested location is Saaremaa in the Baltic Sea
  • Thule from which this extract has been taken
Thullala solo performance combining dance and the recitation of stories in verse. Staged during temple festivals, the performer explicates the verses through expressive gestures. The themes are mythological, and thullal was introduced in the 18th century by the renowned poet Kunchan Nambiar
  • Thullal from which this extract has been taken
Thumb holea finger hole in an wind instrument that uses the player's thumb
Thumb linein jazz, the term for 'tenor', a line played by the pianist's left thumb
Thumb pianosee kalimba, mbira, marimba, marimbula, sansa and sanza
Thumb picks"thimble"-like prosthetics, common among banjo players (those playing Scruggs style) but are relatively uncommon among guitarists. They are more common, however, in certain folk styles, particularly when more emphasis is desired for the bass line. In addition, and particularly 'bluegrass' banjo players also use fingerpicks
  • Plectrum which includes information about thumb and finger picks
Thumb pistonsjust below the keys of each organ manual are a number of small buttons. The numbered ones are pistons. The others have various functions and are reversibles. The thumb is used to press them which is how they got their name
Thumb positionthe high positions on the cello where the thumb moves away from the neck of the instrument and is used together with the finger tips to stop the string
on the double bass, when playing above the octave harmonic the thumb is used as a barre, so making it easier to press the string down for higher notes
Ryan Selberg writing on the Internet Cello Society pages says, "My teacher studied with Feuermann for a while, and related Feuermann's analogy about thumb position finger usage. When we walk, we walk heel to toe, or full-footed. But when we run, we use the balls of the feet, not the heel. The same applies to slower, vibrated passages versus rapid passages. I would add a further analogy. Playing on the fingertips for vibrato and shifting would be akin to a ballet dancer walking on point ALL the time. Having the finger on the pad also helps shifting, as you have a bit of resistance to control speed, distance and location. Think of shoveling snow, and the angle of the shovel. Holding it vertical is not the most efficient position for it"
Thumb rolla percussion technique, usually applied to a tambourine, and used whenever 'shaken' is not specified in the tambourine part. The roll is achieved by wetting the thumb of the dominant hand, holding the tambourine by the wooden frame in the other hand, and rubbing the thumb across the head of the tambourine along the edge of the wooden frame in a circular motion
Thumbwheela small wheel used on adjustable bridges (those usually found on archtop guitars or mandolins) to adjust the height of the bridge
Thumpa short-lived, specifically English term for a 'left-hand pizzicato', mentioned in John Playford's Musick's Recreation on the Viol (1682)
Thumrisee 'Hindustani classical song'
Thundercreated in 1990 by Donald Buchla, 'Thunder' was a touch-sensitive tactile 'keyboard', designed ergonomically to fit the hand and used by performers to control a variety of MIDI parameters
Thunder machinemachine à tonnerre (French: thunder machine, thunder sheet), machine pour le tonnerre (French: thunder machine), Donnerblech (German: thunder sheet), Donnermaschine (German: thunder machine), lastra del tuono (Italian: thunder sheet), macchina per il tuono (Italian: thunder machine), lamina metalica (Spanish: thunder sheet), máquina del trueno (Spanish: thunder machine)
any instrument used to create or imitate the sound of thunder, for example, a large drum or a large sheet of metal that is shaken
Thunder runlong channel, down which a cannonball is rolled to give a realistic thunder rumble effect, built into the roof of some older theatres, but mostly now unused (for safety reasons)
Thunder sheetmachine à tonnerre (French: thunder machine, thunder sheet), machine pour le tonnerre (French: thunder machine), Donnerblech (German: thunder sheet), Donnermaschine (German: thunder machine), lastra del tuono (Italian: thunder sheet), macchina per il tuono (Italian: thunder machine), lamina metalica (Spanish: thunder sheet), máquina del trueno (Spanish: thunder machine)
large suspended steel sheet with handles which produces a thunder-like rumble when shaken or beaten
Thunder sticksee 'bull roarer'
Thunderstoneany of various mineral concretions, such as a belemnite, formerly supposed to be thunderbolts
Thunfisch(German m.) tuna (fish)
Thürner(German m.) town musician
Thym(French m.) thyme (herb)
Thymian(German m.) thyme (herb)
Thyroïde(French f.) thyroid
Thyrsus (s.), Thyrsi (pl.)(Latin, from Greek) an emblematic staff tipped with a pine cone and wreathed with ivy or vine-leaves, carried by Dionysus and his votaries
Tithe seventh tone (or 'leading note' or 'leading tone') in a major scale
in 'fixed do' solfeggio, ti is always the note 'B'
a Chinese bamboo or wooden horizontal flute
(Danish, Norwegian) ten
Tía(Spanish f.) aunt, girl (familiar), woman (familiar)
Tía abuela(Spanish f.) great-aunt
Tiara(Latin, from Greek) a pointed hat encircled by three crowns worn by the Pope, a richly jewelled coronet or frontal worn by ladies on formal occasions
Tibetano (m.), Tibetana (f.)(Spanish) Tibetan
tibetano (m.), tibetana (f.)(Spanish) Tibetan
Tibetan opera
or, in Tibetan Ace Lhamo, dubbed a "living fossil" of Tibetan culture, Tibetan opera with its vivid facial masks, earthy dancing, unadorned singing and colourful costumes boasts a flourishing history of over 1400 years:
the Goinba schoolthe Goinba school, originating in Ngamring and Lhaze counties of Southwest China's Tibet Autonomous Region, features high-pitched and sonorous singing, mixed with songs and dances from the Doi area, and traditional acrobatics
the Gyanggar schoolthe Gyanggar school is popular in Rinbung, Gyangze, and Xigaze, and is characterized by an ancient, rugged, and solemn style derived from Lamaism
the Xangba schoolthe Xangba school from western Tibet combines the influence of local folklore and the Gyanggar School
the Gyormolung schoolthe Gyormolung school from the Shannan and Lhasa areas is the most recently established school. Specializing in singing, choreography, stunts, and comic effects, it is the most developed among the four schools and has formed a jubilant style with rich and colorful songs and dances. Today, Gyormolung troupes are active in different parts of Tibet and are even known in Sichuan Province's Garze region as well as the Southeast Asian countries of India and Bhutan
Tibia(Latin, German f.) ancient Roman wind instrument, consisting of two pipes, that was used in religious ceremonies, rituals and the theatre
(French m.) shin-bone
Tibia angusta(Latin) flute-stop of the organ
Tibia aperta(Latin) flute-stop of the organ
Tibiae pares(Latin) two flutes, one held in the right hand and the other in the left, which were played on by a single performer
Tibia obliqua(Latin) the flauto traverso
Tibia major(Latin) flute-stop of the organ, of 16 ft. tone, the pipes of which are stopped or covered
Tibia sylvestris(Latin) flute-stop of the organ
Tibia vulgaris(Latin) flute-stop of the organ
Tibia utricularis(Latin) a bagpipe, gaita (Spanish), cornamusa (Italian), cornemuse (French), Dudelsack (German)
Tibicen(Latin) a flute player or piper
Tibicina(Latin) a female flute player or piper
Tibieza(Spanish f.) tepidity, lack of enthusiasm (figurative)
tibio (m.), tibia (f.)(Spanish) tepid, lukewarm
la obra obtuvo una tibia acogida (Spanish: the play had a lukewarm reception)
Tiblea Catalan folk oboe or shawm
Tiburón(Spanish m.) shark
Ti bwa(Martinique and Guadeloupe) a pair of sticks, used by a second percussionist to play patterns on the side of the tanbou belè, single headed barrel drum with a goatskin head, laid on the ground and straddled by the drummer, who uses his heel to change the pitch. The drum with its two percussionists feature in chouval bwa
Tic(French m.) twitch (contraction), mannerism
Tic douloureux(French m.) an involuntary twitching of the facial muscles
Tick(German m.) a quirk (familiar)
einen Tick haben (German: to be crazy)
Ticket touttout is any person who solicits business or employment in an importune manner (generally equivalent to a 'solicitor' in American English, or a 'spruiker' in Australian English). A ticket tout is someone who engages in ticket resale for more than the face value of the ticket (though a ticket reseller is known as a 'scalper' rather than a 'solicitor' in North American and Australian parlance)
Tic nervioso(Spanish m.) a nervous twitch, habit (manic behaviour - figurative)
Tictac(Spanish m.) tick-tock, ticking (of a clock)
Tic-tac(French m.) ticking (of a clock)
Tidinita Saharawi instrument of hollowed ebony with a leather cover, similar to a four-stringed lute. It was originally used only by men and especially the iggawin (Mauritanian griot)
Tidskrift(Swedish) periodical, review
Tidsskrift(Danish, Norwegian) periodical, review
Tieligadura de prolongación (Spanish), fascia (Italian), Bindenbogen (German), liaison (French)
or 'bind', a sign, a curved line that joins two or more successive notes of the same pitch, indicating that those notes should be played or sung sustained, unbroken, through their total time value
the 'tie' mark came into use during the early part of the 16th-century. The mark used as a 'slur' came later, during the first half of the 17th-century, and initially only as a legato mark
tiède(French) lukewarm, mild
Tiédeur(French f.) lukewarmness, mildness
Tief(German n.) depression (meteorlogical)
tief(German) deep, low, profound, flat, deeply, profoundly, (sleep) soundly
tief Atem holen(German) to take a deep breath
Tiefbau(German m.) civil engineering
tief Cammerton(German m.) or Opera-ton (German m.), late 17th/early 18th century pitch at about a'=390Hz
Tiefe(German f.) depth
Tiefebene(German f.) a lowland plain
tiefe Lage(German f.) of the register of a voice or instrument, 'low'
tiefer(German) deeper, lower, below, flatter
tiefer Alt(German m.) (lower) contralto
tiefer Bass(German m.) a deep bass
tiefer Teller(German) a soup-plate
Tiefgarage(German f.) an underground car park
tiefgekühlt(German) (deep-)frozen
tiefgespannt(German) a drum slackened off to produce a lower-pitched sound
tiefgreifend(German) radical, radically
tiefgründig(German) profound (figurative)
tief Kammerton(German m.) see Kammerton
Tiefkühlfach(German n.) freezer compartment
Tiefkühlkost(German f.) frozen food
Tiefkühltruhe(German f.) a deep-freeze
Tiefland(German n.) lowlands
tief Luft holen(German) to take a deep breath
tieftönend(German) deep toned
Tiefpunkt(German m.) low (figurative)
tiefschürfend(German) profound (figurative)
tiefsinnig(German) profound (figurative), melancholy
Tiefstand(German m.) low (figurative)
Tiefsttemperatur(German f.) minimum temperature
Tiempo(Spanish m.) movement, tempo, time, temps (French)
(Spanish m.) time (epoch), period, age (epoch), season, weather, tense (linguistics)
tiempo bien aprovechado(Spanish) time well spent
Tiempo binario(Spanish m.) duple meter
Tiempo cómodo(Spanish m.) tempo comodo, convenient speed
Tiempo común(Spanish m.) common time, C
Tiempo cortado(Spanish m.) cut time, alla breve
Tiempo de abundancia (s.), Tiempos de abundancia (pl.)(Spanish m.) time of plenty
Tiempo débil(Spanish m.) weak beat, the unaccented part of the bar
Tiempo específico(Spanish m.) specific time-signature (for example, 3/4, 6/8, etc.)
Tiempo fuerte(Spanish m.) strong beat, the accented part of the bar
tien, le (m.), tienne, la (f.)(French) yours
Tienda(Spanish f.) shop, store
Tienda de antigüedades(Spanish f.) antique shop
Tienda de campaña(Spanish f.) tent
Tienda de trastos viejos(Spanish f.) junk shop
Tienda de ultramarinos(Spanish f.) grocer's (shop), grocery store
tiende(Danish, Dutch) tenth
tiene acento francés(Spanish) he has a French accent
tiene ahogos(Spanish) he gets out of breath
tiene alergia a la penicilina(Spanish) he's allergic to penicillin
¿tiene alguna?(Spanish) do you have any? do you have one?
tiene ... años(Spanish) he is ... years old
tiene arte para arreglar flores(Spanish) she has a flair for flower arranging, she has a gift for flower arranging
tiene mal aspecto(Spanish) she doesn't look well, it doesn't look nice (thing)
tiene ... metros de alto(Spanish) it is ... metres high
tiene ... metros de altura(Spanish) it is ... metres high
tiene ... metros de ancho(Spanish) it is ... metres wide
tiene mucha capacidad de aguante(Spanish) he is very long-suffering
tienen un aire(Spanish) they look a bit alike, they resemble one another
tiene que hacerlo todo a su antojo(Spanish) she has to do everything her own way
¿tienes alguna cita para mañana?(Spanish) have you any appointments for tomorrow?
tienes que abrirte a nuevas ideas(Spanish) you've got to be open to new ideas
tienes que poner el horno más alto(Spanish) you must turn the oven up
tiene un aire aristocrático(Spanish) she has an aristocratic air
tiene un horario muy flexible(Spanish) his hours are very flexible
tiene unos nervios de acero(Spanish) she's got nerves of steel
Tiens!(French) Hey there! Take this!
Tiento(Spanish m.) caution, tact, stick, steady, swig (familiar)
Tiento (s.), Tientos (pl.)(Spanish m., literally 'touch') a term derived from the Spanish tentar, meaning 'to try out', indicating a work that explores the capabilities of instrument for which it is written, originally the vihuela, and later keyboard instruments
the terms tiento (Spanish), obra (Spanish) and tento (Portuguese) are generic, used both for imitative and homophonic pieces, and closely approaching, in conception, the ricercare, fantasia (or phantasia), sin paso or toccata. This group may be subdivided into the following basic types:
falsasa slower-moving, quiet piece with suspensions and dissonance, similar to the Italian durezze e ligature
lleno (Spanish)
cheio or chão (Portuguese)
a piece which uses the same stops over the whole compass of the keyboard, identical stops being drawn for treble and bass
partido or medio registro
meio registo (Portuguese)
a piece which requires separate tone colour for each hand, this term being further qualified by alto/tiple/mano derecha for right hand or vajo/baxón/mano izquierda for left hand to indicate the voice carrying the solo
tiento de contrasa piece which contains long held pedal notes, over which the figuration unfolds, normally played as a lleno
batalha (Portuguese)
the first piece of this genre sets the pattern for others, including an imitative opening, homophonic sections, and lots of echo effects
Tientosflamenco style derived from tangos, although with a slower beat
tiepidoa variant of tepido
Tier(German n.) an animal
Tierarzt (m.), Tierärztin (f.)(German) veterinary surgeon
Tierce(French f.) the interval of a third
(of bells) the minor-third partial of a tuned bell
an organ stop (a 1 3/5 ft. mutation stop that sounds two octaves and a third above the written pitch) that sounds a seventeenth higher than the diapason
one of the Canonical Hours
Tiercé(French m.) place-betting (gambling)
Tierce coulée(French f.) or tercera ligada (Spanish), a French baroque ornament consisting of a slide of a third, that is from one principal note via an unaccented ornamental note to a second principal note a third away from the first
Tierce de picardisee 'Picardy third'
Tierce de picardiesee 'Picardy third'
Tierce majeure(French f.) major third
Tierce maxime(Latin) augmented third, and interval containing five semitones (half steps)
Tierce picardesee 'Picardy third'
Tierce pure(French f.) just third, equivalent to a frequency ratio of 5:4
Tierce pythagoricienne(French f.) the Pythagorean interval of two major tones or two just major seconds equivalent to a frequency interval given by the ratio 81:64
Tierceronextra vaulting ribs which form a fan shape with the main structural ribs and terminate on a ridge rib
Tiergarten(German m.) a zoo
tierisch(German) animal, bestial (figurative)
Tierkreis(German m.) the zodiac
Tierkreiszeichen(German n.) a sign of the zodiac
Tierkunde(German f.) zoology
tierno (m.), tierna (f.)(Spanish) tender, soft, fresh, young (person), affectionate, loving
Tierquäleriei(German f.) cruelty to animals
Tierra(Spanish f.) land, earth, world, country, soil, ground, earth (electricity)
Tierra adentro(Spanish) inland, interior (inland)
Tierra de nadie(Spanish f.) no-man's-land
Tierra natal(Spanish f.) homeland
Tierra trágame(Spanish f.) (figurative) I wish the ground would open up and swallow me
Tiers(French m.) a third (the fraction 1/3), a third party
tiers (m.), tierce (f.)(French) third
Tiers état(French m.) the commons in the French National Assembly before the French Revolution of 1789. The first two estates were the nobility and the clergy
Tiers-Monde(French m.) Third World
tieso (m.), tiesa (f.)(Spanish) stiff, rigid, upright, erect, starchy (familiar), full of oneself (familiar), in good shape (figurative)
Tiesto(Spanish m.) flowerpot
Tifs(French m. pl.) hair (familiar)
TIFFacronym for 'Tagged Image File Format', a file format for exchanging bitmapped images (usually scans) between applications
TIGabbrevation of travaux d'intérêt général (French: community service)
Tige(French f.) stem (of a plant), stalk (of a plant), shaft (metal)
Tige de vibrato(French f.) whammy bar
Tige métallique(French f.) metal rod
Tige métallique aussi recourbée(French f.) metal rod that is bent
Tigliosee 'lime'
Tignasse(French f.) a mop of hair
Tigre (m.), Tigresse (f.)(French m.) tiger (m.), tigress (f.)
tigré(French) striped, tabby (cat)
Tihaiin Indian music, any thrice-repeated phrase ending on the sum (i.e. the first beat of a rhythm cycle)
Tijd(Dutch) time
Tijdgenoten(Dutch) contemporaries
Tijdsaanduiding(Dutch) time signature
Tijdschrift(Dutch) periodical
Tilakscaste-marks on the forehead
Tilapäinen etumerkki(Finnish) accidental
Tilde(Spanish) (~), the diacritic mark found in Spanish loan words, indicating a /y/ sound added to a consonant (for example, in Spanish, doña). In Portuguese loan words, the tilde indicates nasalized vowels (for example, in Portuguese, São Paolo). The earlier Spanish usage is found in some English words of Spanish origin, for example duenna. The mark represents the second n written on top of the first
(Spanish m.) signo de equivalencia, equivalence sign (~)
tilfojelse(Danish) addition
tilgen(German) to pay off (a debt), to delete, to wipe out (figurative)
til gennemsyn(Norwegian) on approval
Tiliasee 'lime'
TilinkóHungarian shepherd's pipe, about 70-80 cm long, and made from willow bark, wood or metal. It has neither fingerholes nor duct. Sounds are made with the tongue and with a finger opening and closing the bottom of the pipe. Its use, today, is restricted to the Csángós of Moldova
Tillaeg(Danish) appendix, supplement
Tillaegg(Norwegian) appendix, supplement
Tillägg(Swedish) supplement, appendix [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
Tillbehör(Swedish) accompaniment
Tillegg(Norwegian) appendix, supplement
Tilleul(French m.) (lime-)tree, (linden-)tree, lime tea (infusion)
see 'lime'
tillfälligt Förtecken(Swedish) accidental
tillökad(Swedish) enlarged [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
tillökning(Swedish) addition [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
till påseende(Swedish) on approval [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
till salu(Swedish) on sale [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
TilpoTibetan hand bell
Timb.abbreviation of timballes
Timba(Cuba) described as being like salsa on steroids, this newest Cuban genre incorporates influences from Brazilian music, R&B, hip-hop and salsa. Though related to salsa, timba has its own characteristics and history, and is intimately tied to the life and culture of Cuba, and especially Havana. Timba is to Havana what tango is to Buenos Aires, or pagode to Rio de Janeiro
Timbal(Spanish m.) kettledrum, timpani, timbale (French)
Timbaladaa rhythmic percussion style from the northern part of Brazil
Timbale(French f.) kettledrum, timpani
(French) goblet, (metal) tumbler, double serving dish
Timbale chromatique(French f.) chromatic kettledrum
Timbale chromatique mécanique(French f.) mechanically tuned chromatic kettledrum
Timbale mécanique(French f.) mechanically tuned kettledrum
Timbalero (m.), Timbarlera (f.)(Spanish) the musician who plays the timbales, a kettle drummer
Timbales(French f. pl., German pl.) kettledrums, tympani
(Spanish m., German pl., from the French timbale, literally 'kettledrum') a Cuban percussion instrument, the direct descendant of the European tympani, consisting of a pair of stand-mounted, shallow, tunable drums, with thin single heads, tuned to different pitches, with a very powerful 'cutting' sound and played with two sticks with some timekeeping strokes made with the hand on the lower drum. They are paired as 13" and 14" or 14" and 15" in diameter, the larger is called the hembra and the smaller macho. They were initially used exclusively by the charangas interpreting danzón, they became part of the Latin orchestra in the 1940s and are now a mainstay and signature sound of many Afro-Latin styles. Timbales are almost always mounted on a stand with a pair of cowbells. The timbale player will tend to mostly use the cowbells and play pailia (on the side of the drum) during a song, until the timbale solo, where the drum sound can easily cut through the whole band
Timbales afinados(Spanish m. pl.) tuned kettledrums
Timbales afinados manualmente(Spanish m. pl.) manually-tuned kettledrums
Timbales cubaines(French f. pl.) timbales
Timbales latino-americani(Italian) timbales
Timbalier(French m.) a player of the kettle-drums
Timbalitosa smaller version of the timbales, tuned at higher pitches, and often added to the timbales to make up a set of four
Timballes(French f. pl.) kettle-drums, timpani
Timballo(Italian m.) a kettle-drum, timpani
Timbaloneslarger version of timbales, typically found in charangas
Timba songo layéan Afro-Cuban musical style
Timbila(Mozambique) plural of mbila, xylophones with resonators
xylophone orchestra with up to thirty instruments are a feature of the Chopi people. The instruments are named:
double basschinzumana
these xylophones are tuned according to an equiheptatonic scale in which the tonic is the first note of the soprano
Timbral nuancessensibility to, awareness of, or ability to express delicate shadings of the tone quality distinctive of a particular singing voice or musical instrument
Timbre(English, French m., Spanish m., German n.) also timber (from the French, timbre). Sounds may be generally characterized by pitch, loudness, and quality. Sound 'quality' or 'timbre' describes those characteristics of sound which allow the ear to distinguish different sounds that have the same pitch and loudness. Timbre is then a general term for the distinguishable characteristics of a note. Timbre is mainly determined by the harmonic content of a sound, by the dynamic characteristics of the sound such as vibrato and by the attack-decay envelope of the sound. Some investigators report that it takes a duration of about 60 ms to recognize the timbre of a note, and that any note shorter than about 4 ms is perceived as an atonal click. It is suggested that it takes about a 4 dB change in mid or high harmonics to be perceived as a change in timbre, whereas about 10 dB of change in one of the lower harmonics is required
Robert Erickson (Sound Structure in Music, p.6) gives a table of subjective experiences and related physical phenomena based on J.F. Schouten's five attributes (The Perception of Timbre):
tonal character, usually pitchedperiodic sound
noisy, with or without some tonal character, including rustle noisenoise, including random pulses characterised by the rustle time (the mean interval between pulses)
colourationspectral envelope
beginning/endingphysical rise and decay time
colouration glide or formant glidechange of spectral envelope
microintonationsmall change (one up and down) in frequency
vibratofrequency modulation
tremoloamplitude modulation
final soundsuffix
Timbre(French m.) a clapperless bell, or a bar of metal used for musical purposes
(French m.) the cat-gut snare stretched across the lower head of a side-drum
(French m.) the well-known airs to which the authors of vaudevilles set newly written words
(French m., Spanish m.) or timbre-poste (French), (postage) stamp, fiscal stamp
(Spanish m.) door-bell
timbré(French) crazy (familiar)
Timbre de alarma(Spanish m.) alarm bell
TimbrelLatvian tambourine with jingles
Timbre-post(French m.) (postage) stamp
timbrer(French) to accent, to stamp (put a stamp on a letter, etc.)
Timbres, jeu de(French m.) glockenspiel
Timbres à clavier(French m. pl.) keyed glockenspiel
Timbrístico(Portuguese) timbre, tone-colour
Timbro(Italian m.) timbre, tone-colour
Timetempo (Italian), Takt (German), mesure (French)
a word used to mean 'in the rhythm of', for example, march time meaning 'in the rhythm of a march'
see 'simple time', 'compound time'
Time as beforeor speed as before, tempo primo (Italian), erste Bewegung (German), mouvement précédent (French)
Time bracket notationor 'time brackets', a term used by the American composer John Cage (1912-1992), where a instrumentalist is assigned a part which contains mostly single notes and chance-distributed time brackets indicating the period of time (as measured by a stopwatch) within which the notes are to be played. A performer might begin to play, say, at any time between 0'00 and 1'00 and end somewhere between 0'30 and 1'30
Time bracketssee 'time bracket notation'
Timed segmentsunmetered music which in measured in minutes and seconds, not beats
Time, duplesee 'duple time'
Time, firstsee 'first time'
Time, insee 'in time'
Timelines: music
Time-pointin music a time-point (point in time) is the beginning of a sound, rather than its duration
Time scales in music
in music, Curtis Roads distinguishes nine time scales of music:
infiniteliterally infinite, such as the length of sine waves in classical Fourier analysis
supramonths, years, decades, and centuries; everything above the level of macro
macro"overall musical architecture or form" or the level of the individual piece; minutes, hours, or even days
meso"divisions of form" including movements, sections, phrases; seconds and minutes
sound object(Schaeffer 1959, 1977) "a basic unit of musical structure" and a generalization of note (Xenakis' ministructural time scale); fraction of a second to several seconds
micro"sound particles" (see granular synthesis) down to the threshold of audible perception; thousands to millionths of seconds
samplesample (music), measured as are samples in millionths of a second or microseconds
subsamplechanges "too brief to properly recorded or perceived", billionths of a second, nanosecond, or less
infinitesimalliterally "infinitely brief" such as delta functions
Time, secondsee 'second time'
Time signaturein the US called 'meter signature', a symbol placed at the left side of the staff indicating the meter of the composition
beats per bar (measure)simple
time signature
time signature
minim (half note) 6
dotted minim (dotted half note)
crotchet (quarter note)6
dotted crotchet (dotted quarter note)
quaver (eighth note)6
dotted quaver (dotted eighth note)
minim (half note) 9
dotted minim (dotted half note)
crotchet (quarter note) 9
dotted crotchet (dotted quarter note)
quaver (eighth note) 9
dotted quaver (dotted eighth note)
if a piece is so quick that the feeling is of one beat in a bar, then the triple meter (usually 3/2 or 3/8) is compound (i.e. may be divided into three)
minim (half note)12
dotted minim (dotted half note)
crotchet (quarter note)12
dotted crotchet (dotted quarter note)
quaver (eighth note)12
dotted quaver (dotted eighth note)
Time-Space notationsee 'proportional notation'
Time step
Time stretchingthe process of changing the speed or duration of an audio signal without affecting its pitch
Time, the samesee 'same time, the'
Time Unit Box Systemor TUBS, a simple system for notating events that happen over a period of time. This system is mostly used for notating rhythms in music. The notation consists of one or more rows of boxes; each box represents a fixed unit of time. Blank boxes indicate that nothing happens during that interval, while a mark in a box indicates that an event occurs at the start of that time interval
Time valuethe length of time a particular note is to be held
timide(French) timid
Timidezza(Italian f.) timidity
Timidité(French f.) timidity
timido(Italian) timid, hesitant, fearful
Timilaa type of drum associated particularly with Panchavadyam performances
Timore(Italian m.) timidity, fear
timoré(French) timorous
timorosamente(Italian) timidly, fearfully
timoroso(Italian) timid, fearful, hesitant
Timp., timpabbreviation of timpani
Timpanetto(Italian m.) a small drum or timbrel
Timpani(Italian m. pl.) kettle drums, timbales (French), Pauken (German)
(Italian m. pl., English) kettle-drums, a set of tuned drums
timpani must have some way to hold the head at different tensions so you can play specific pitches. Some drums have a ratchet on the pedal (Ringer Timpani ), some drums have a hydraulic cylinder, some have a post with a ball bearing clutch that locks onto it (some Premiere timpani), but MOST timpani are Balanced Action. William F. Ludwig invented the balanced action timpani in the early twentieth century. This mechanism can be described very simply: the pedal is placed mechanically in between a spring and the timpani head - when the tension of the spring is matched to the tension of the head, the pedal is balanced and the pitch of the drum will stay where you set it.
Timpani coperti(Italian m. pl.) muffled kettle-drums
Timpanista player of the kettle-drums or timpani
Timpanista(Italian m./f.) timpanist
Timpano(Spanish m., Italian m.) eardrum, tympanon (French), tympan (French)
Tímpano(Portuguese m., Spanish m.) kettle-drum, timpani (in the plural form), timps (abbreviation)
Timpano (s.), Timpani (pl.)(Italian m.) kettle-drum, timbrel, tabor
Timpano a macchina(Italian m.) machine timpano
Timpano cromatico(Italian m.) chromatic timpano
Timpanonsee tympanon
Timpano pedale(Italian m.) pedal timpano
Timpanu(Corsica) a triangle
Timplea small guitar with 12 metal strings used in Spain, Colombia, Puerto Rico and other Spanish-speaking countries, also known as guitarrillo
'Tinashort for 'concertina'
TindéAlgerian drum played by a group of women
TineA tuning fork is made up of a handle and two tines (the parts that vibrate when a tuning fork is struck)
Tinnitus (aurium)(Latin) tinnitus can be described as "ringing" ears and other head noises that are perceived in the absence of any external noise source. It is estimated that 1 out of every 5 people experience some degree of tinnitus. Hearing loss, hyperacusis, recruitment, FMS, and balance problems may or may not be present in conjunction with tinnitus
tinnitus is classified into two forms: objective and subjective
objective tinnitusthe rarer form, consists of head noises audible to other people in addition to the sufferer. The noises are usually caused by vascular anomalies, repetitive muscle contractions, or inner ear structural defects. The sounds are heard by the sufferer and are generally external to the auditory system. This form of tinnitus means that an examiner can hear the sound heard by the sufferer by using a stethoscope. Benign causes, such as noise from TMJ, openings of the eustachian tubes, or repetitive muscle contractions may be the cause of objective tinnitus. The sufferer might hear the pulsatile flow of the carotid artery or the continuous hum of normal venous outflow through the jugular vein when in a quiet setting. It can also be an early sign of increased intracranial pressure and is often overshadowed by other neurologic abnormalities. The sounds may arise from a turbulant flow through compressed venous structures at the base of the brain
subjective tinnitusthis form of tinnitus may occur anywhere in the auditory system and is much less understood, with the causes being many and open to debate. Anything from the ear canal to the brain may be involved. The sounds can range from a metallic ringing, buzzing, blowing, roaring, or sometimes similar to a claanging, popping, or nonrhythmic beating. It can be accompanied by audiometric evidence of deafness which occurs in association with both conductive and sensorineural hearing loss. Other conditions and syndromes which may have tinnitus in conjunction with the condition or syndrom, are otosclerosis, Menier's syndrome, and cochlear or auditory neve lesions
Tin Pan Alleythe name given to the collection of New York City-centered music publishers and songwriters who dominated the popular music of the United States of America in the late 19th century and the early 20th-century. The equivalent area in Great Britain was Denmark Street, London
Tin sandwichsee 'harmonica'
Tinta term, similar in meaning to chroma, suggested by Mieczyslaw Kolinski Consonance and Dissonance (Ethnomusicology, Vol. 6, No. 2. (May, 1962), p66) for the quality that is identical in octave tones but distinct in other tones' relations
He writes: "For example, all Gs have an identical tint; the same is the case with all As, all Bs etc. However G, A and B represent different tints. As a matter of fact, the Western tone system consists of a series of twelve different tints."
Tintamarre(French m.) a great noise accompanied by confusion, a din
Tinte(German f.) ink
tintement(French) tinkling, chiming, jingling, ringing (sound)
Tintenfisch(German m.) squid
Tintenstift(German m.) or Kopierstift (German m.), indelible pencil
tinter(French) to tinkle, to chime, to ring, to jingle (keys)
Tintiddlea word coined by the American illustrator and humorist Gelett Burgess (1866-1951), for an esprit de l'escalier, a witty remark or telling retort which comes to mind only after the occasion for its use has passed
tintinnare(Italian) to tinkle, to chime
Tintinnabolo(Italian m.) small bell, sacring bell
Tintinnabulo(Italian m.) small bell, sacring bell
Tintinnabulum (s.), Tintinnabuli (pl.)(Latin) small bell, sacring bell
Tintinnabuli(Latin) the composer Arvo Pärt (b.1935) refers to his current style as tintinnabuli which can be defined as the application of various inversions of a certain chord. While its original meaning evokes the pealing of bells, the bells' complex but rich sonorous mass of overtones, the gradual unfolding of patterns implicit in the sound itself, and the idea of a sound that is simultaneously static and in flux, Pärt explains the term, "as an area I sometimes wander into when I am searching for answers - in my life, my music, my work. In my dark hours, I have the certain feeling that everything outside this one thing has no meaning. The complex and many-faceted only confuses me, and I must search for unity. What is it, this one thing, and how do I find my way to it? Traces of this perfect thing appear in many guises - and everything that is unimportant falls away. Tintinnabulation is like this. . . . The three notes of a triad are like bells. And that is why I call it tintinnabulation". More specifically, tintinnabulation involves the predominance of a single triad in one or more voices. In a four-voice context, it is likely that two of the voices will sound only notes of a single triad, while the other two voices move in a step-wise fashion. This triad is, in most cases, the tonal centre of the piece from which Pärt rarely departs
tintinnamento(Italian) tinkling
tintinnio(Italian) tintillation, jingling, tingling of a bell
tintinno(Latin) tintillation, jingling, tingling of a bell
Tinto(Italian m.) colour, expression
tintoteinté(Italian) gebeizt (German), teinté (French), stained, coloured
Tintsin printing, mechanical shading in line areas, normally available in 5% steps from 5% to 95%
Tin whistlean end blown wind instrument with six holes, originally made from tin but now more usually made of steel
see 'penny whistle'
Tinyapre-Hispanic Mexican resonating box with 5 strings
tio(Swedish) ten
TiompánIrish hammered dulcimer
tionde(Swedish) tenth
Tiorba(Italian f., Spanish f.) theorbo, Theorbe (German), théorbe (French)
Tipthe very end of the bow away from the frog where the player placed his or her hand
TípicaSpanish term for typical or traditional
a term specifically used in orquesta típica and música típica
term used to describe traditional, folkloric or 'classic' sound, instrumentation or approach to playing an instrument or style
Típico(Panama) the general name of the native dance styles of the central provinces
Tipigrafo(Italian m.) printer
Tipik segaa genre of Mauritian music
Tiplea small stringed instrument of Spanish origin, derived from the guitar family, and used in Cuba's música campesina as well as other types of Latin American music with Spanish roots. It usually has four double or triple sets of strings. (There are eight to twelve strings tuned to four different pitches.) The tiple is made of wood-usually pine, cedar, or walnut. Tiple players strum chords as rhythmic accompaniments for songs or melodies played by other instruments
Tiple, Hawaiiansee Hawaiian tiple
Tipo(Italian m., Spanish m.) type, style
Tipo di musica jazz(Italian m.) jazz style, for example, 'bebop'
tippen(German) to type (familiar), to touch
tippen auf(German) to bet on (familiar), to touch something
Tippfehler(German m.) a typing error (familiar)
Tippingor double-tonguing, an articulation for quick notes played on the transverse flute, in which the tongue moves against the roof of the mouth
Tippschein(German m.) a lottery coupon, a pools coupon, a betting slip
tipptopp(German) immaculate, immaculately (familiar)
Tip-tap(Italian m.) tap dance
Tique(French f.) tick (insect)
Tir(French m.) shooting (sport), firing (the act of shooting), fire
Tiracorda(Italian f.) tensioner
Tirada aparte(Spanish) offprint
Tirade(French f.) a soliloquy
(French f.) also tirata (Italian) or coulade, a quick succession of notes of equal length, ascending or descending by degrees, which bridge two notes an interval of a fifth or more apart
Tirage(French m.) printing (photographs, etc.), circulation (of a magazine), edition (of a book), draw (of a lottery), draught (of a chimney)
Tirage à part(French m.) offprint
Tirage au sort(French m.) drawing lots
tiraillé entre(French) torn between
Tiraillement(French m.) gnawing pain, conflict
tirailler(French) to pull at, to pull away at, to plague
Tirailleur(French m.) a skirmisher, a sharp-shooter
tirait la langue(French) his tongue was handing out, he was dying of thirst
Tir à l'arc(French f.) archery
Tirana (s.), Tiranas (pl.)from the 18th-century, a syncopated Spanish song-dance from Andalusia, usually in 6/8 time
tirando(Italian) drawing, dragging, pulling, en tirant - referring to the down-bow on the violin
a classical guitar technique, in which the finger hits nothing after plucking the string as opposed to apoyando in which the finger that plucks the string rests on the next string afterwards
tirando por lo alto(Spanish) at the most
Tirannaa Spanish air or song, accompanied by a guitar
Tirant(French m.) tracker on an organ
Tirant (d'une corde)(French m.) gauge (of a string), a measure of a string's thickness
Tirante(Italian m.) tracker
tirare(Italian) to draw - referring to the down-bow on the violin
(Italian) to draw out - on the organ, referring to the pulling of a stop
Tirasse(French) pedals which draw down the bass keys of the manual in organs without pedal stops
Tirata(Italian) tirade
tirato(Italian) pulled, drawn (referring to the down-bow on the violin)
(Italian) pulled, drawn (on the organ, referring to an organ stop)
Tira-tutti(Italian) or tira-tutto, a combination draw-stop or pedal which throws out all the stops of an organ, thus making available the full power of the instrument
tiré(French m.) drawn, pulled - referring to the down-bow on the violin
(French) drawn, pulled - on the organ, referring to an organ stop
Tire-bouchon(French m.) a cork-screw
tiré de(French) taken, derived from
tire hacia abajo(Spanish) to pull down, to pull downwards
Tirelire(French f.) a money-box
tirer(French) to pull, to tow, to tug, to stick out (tongue), to draw (conclusions, etc.) to fire, to shoort, to print (a photograph, etc.)
(French) to draw, to pull - referring to the down-bow on the violin
(French) to draw out, to pull out - on the organ, referring to the pulling of a stop
(French) in viol playing, to pull the bow (which using the under-hand hold is the weaker bow stroke)
tirer à blanc(French) to shoot blanks
tirer à ... copies(French) to print ... copies
tirer à la courte paille(French) to draw straws
tirer ... à l'écart(French) to pull ... aside
tirer à ... numéros(French) to print ... issues
tirer à sa fin(French) to be drawing to a close, to be nearly over
tirer au clair(French) to clarify
tirer au flanc(French) to shirk (familiar), to skive (familiar)
tirer (...) au sort(French) to draw lots (for ...)
tirer à vue(French) to shoot on sight
tirer ... d'affaire(French) to help ... out, to pull ... through
tirer de(French) to take out of, to get out of, to extract from, to derive from (pleasure, etc.), to shoot, to fire
tirer ... de ...(French) to get ... out of ...
tirer ... de côté(French) to pull ... aside
tirer ... de l'erreur(French) to disabuse ...
tirer ... d'embarras(French) to help ... out of a predicament
tirer ... de la misère(French) to rescue ... from poverty
tirer ... de sa rêverie(French) to wake ... from his daydreams, to wake someone from her daydreams
tirer ... de son travail(French) to drag someone away from his work, to drag someone away from her work
tirer ... du doute(French) to dispel ...'s doubts
tirer ... du lit(French) to drag ... out of bed
tirer ... d'une situation(French) to get ... out of a situation
tirer ... du prison(French) to get ... out of prison
tirer ... du sommeil(French) to wake ...
tirer en l'air(French) to fire into the air (gun, etc.)
tirer la laugue(French) to stick out one's tongue, to put out one's tongue, to have a rough time of it, to be green with envy
tirer la jambe(French) to drag one's feet, to limp
tirer la patte(French) to hobble along
tirer le jus(French) to juice
tirer les cartes à ...(French) to read ...'s cards
tirer les rois(French) to cut the Twelfth night cake
tirer le verrou(French) to bolt
tirer parti de(French) to take advantage of
tirer profit de(French) to profit from
tirer sans sommation(French) to shoot without warning
tirer ses prix(French) to sell at rock bottom prices
tirer sur(French) to pull at, to pull on, to verge on, to shoot at, to criticise, to puff at (cigarette), to take a drag of (cigarette)
tirer sur la corde(French) to push one's luck (colloquial)
tirer sur la ficelle(French) to push one's luck (colloquial)
tirer sur l'épargne(French) to draw on one's savings
tirer sur les rênes(French) to pull on the reins
tirer un auteur à soi(French) to translate an author to suit oneself
tirer un bord(French) (nautical) to tack
tirer une bordée(French) to go on a spree
tirer une conclusion(French) to draw a conclusion
tirer un plan(French) to draw a plan (for example, of a building)
tirer un texte à soi(French) to translate a text to suit oneself
Tiret(French m.) a mordent, a dash (-)
Tireur(French m.) a gunman
Tireur d'élite(French m.) a marksman
Tireur isolé(French m.) a sniper
Tir forain(French m.) a shooting gallery
Tiring-housean enclosed area in an Elizabethan theatre where the actors awaited their cue to go on stage, changed their costumes, and stored stage props. The term is an abbreviation of "attiring house" or "attiring room." This structure was located at the back of the stage and opened out onto the stage from two or more doors in the frons scenae
Tiro(Italian m.) slide casing
Tiroir(French m.) a drawer
Tiroir-caisse(French m.) a till (for keeping cash in a shop, bank, etc.)
Tirol(German n.) the Tyrol
Tisane(French f., from Greek) herb-tea, any herbal infusion
Tisch(German m.) a table, a (writing) desk
nach Tisch (German: after the meal)
Tischbuch(German n., literally 'table book') parts written in different directions on facing pages, so to enable reading by performers standing around a table
Tischdecke(German f.) table-cloth
Tischgebet(German n.) grace (a prayer said before a meal)
Tischharfe(German f.) German table zither that can be both plucked and bowed
Tischler(German m.) a joiner (wood-worker), a cabinet-maker
Tischrede(German f.) after-dinner speech
Tischtennis(German n.) table tennis
Tischtuch(German n.) table-cloth
TishouChinese clappers
Tisi galoppante(Italian) galloping consumption (i.e. tuberculosis)
Tison(French m.) an ember
Tisonnier(French m.) a poker
Tissage(French m.) weaving
tisser(French) to weave
Tisserand(French m.) a weaver
Tissu(French m.) fabric, material, tissue (biological)
tissu de, un(French) web of, a (figurative)
Tssue papera lightweight, light crêped paper. Tissue can be made both from virgin and recycled paper pulp
Tissu-éponge(French m.) (Terry) towelling, face-cloth
Tissu extensible(French m.) stretch fabric
Titel(German m.) caption, cover, heading, lettering, style, title (of a book, piece of music ,etc.), title design
Titel-(German prefix) titular
Titelanwärter(German m.) challenger for the title, aspiring champion
titelauflagen Ausgabe(German f.) editions or impressions having merely a new title page
Titelaufnahme(German) description
Titelbild(German n.) cover design, frontispiece
Titelblatt(German n.) cover, title page
Titelei(German f.) (in typography) preliminaries
Titelentwurf(German m.) title design
Titelhalter(German m.) titleholder
Titelinhaber(German m.) titleholder
Titelkampf(German m.) title bout
Titelkopf(German m.) heading
Titelkupfer(German n.) frontispiece
Titelrolle(German f.) (in the theatre, etc.) namepart, title part, title role
Titelsong(German m.) title song
Titelthema(German n,) subject title
Titelverteidiger(German m.) defending champion
Titelzeile(German m.) headline
Tite Streetduring the late 1800s, a loose community established itself in and around Tite Street, London, that revolved around Edward Godwin, architect of Bedford Park, and the actress Ellen Terry
'Tit-ferthe Louisiana French name for a triangle, a simple instrument often used to provide rhythm in a Cajun band. 'tit derives from the French word petit meaning little while fer means iron in French. A traditional 'tit-fer is made from a tine of an old-fashioned hay rake, fabricated and tempered by a blacksmith to produce its musical quality. It is also seen as t-fer, ti-fer, or tee fer with or without capitals or apostrophes
Tithethe tenth part of produce from the land and of other income, collected to support a parish priest and maintain his services
Title rolethe lead part in a movie or other production for an actor that is named after the title of the film
Titre(French m.) title
titré(French) titled (bearing a title)
titrer(French) to give as a headline (in a newspaper)
titubante(Italian) hesitant
tituber(French) to stagger
Titulaire(French m./f.) holder (of a licence, permit, etc.)
titulariser(French) to give tenure to
Ti-tzeChinese transverse bamboo flute
Tivra swarain Indian music, a sharpened note