music dictionary : V - Vh

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V., v.abbreviation of vide (Italian: see), via (Italian: street), Violine (German: violin, violino (Italian: violin), violon (French), voce (Italian: voice), voci (Italian: voices), volta (Italian: turn, time), volti (Italian: turn, turn over), versus (Latin: against), Verzeichnis (German: catalogue, index), verse, voice, vice (Latin: in place of), vel (Latin: or), version, vespers, volume, vocative (grammar), von (German: of - in names)
abbreviation of 'Venerable' (clerical title), 'Very' (in titles), 'Vicar' (clerical title), 'Viscount' (title), 'Viscountess' (title)
V(Latin) Roman numeral for five (5)
V(in electricity) symbol for volt
Vabbreviation of 'versicle'
v abbreviation of verso (Latin)
v, vvabbreviation of 'voice', 'voices'
v.abbreviation of versus (Latin)
v., vv.abbreviation of 'verse', 'verses'
V1abbreviation of violino primo (Italian: first violin)
V2abbreviation of violino secondo (Italian: second violin)
va(Italian) 'go on', 'goes on', literally 'continues' or 'it continues'
vaabbreviation of viola (Italian: viola - alto (French))
Vaor va, abbreviation of viola
Vacance(French f.) vacancy (for a position, job, etc.), unencumbered, vacant
Vacance de pouvoir(French f.) power vacuum (politics)
Vacances(French f. pl.) holiday(s), vacation
Vacances à thème(French f. pl.) special interest holiday(s)
Vacances de Nöel(French f. pl.) Christmas holiday(s)
Vacancier (m.), Vacancière (f.)(French) a holiday-maker
vacant (m.), vacante (f.)(French) vacant, unoccupied
Vacarme(French m.) uproar, din, racket, hullabaloo, pandemonium
Vacarme de klaxons(French m.) the blearing of hooters
Vacataire(French f.) a temporary replacement, a stand-in, a lecturer on a temporary contract
Vacation(French f.) session, sitting, fee (honorarium)
vaccilando(Italian) wavering, uncertain, irregular in tempo
Vaccin(French m.) vaccine, vaccination, inoculation
vacciner(French) to vaccinate
Vaccination(English, French f.) inoculation with a vaccine to imunize against a disease (originally, cowpox virus to protect against smallpox)
Vaceto(Italian) quick (a term, rarely used)
Vache(French f.) a cow
vache(French) nasty (bad - familiar)
vachement(French) damned (very - familiar), a hell of a lot (of food, of rain, etc.)
Vacher (m.), Vachère (f.)(French) cowhand (m.), cowgirl (f.)
Vacherie(French f.) nastiness (familiar), nasty thing (familiar), dirty trick (familiar), nasty remark (familiar), bitchy comment (familiar)
(French f.) rubbish, junk, useless thing, nasty illness
(French f.) cowshed, byre
Vachette(French f.) young cow, calfskin
vacillando(Italian) see vacillant
vacillant (m.), vacillante (f.)unsteady (legs, hands), shaky (legs, hands, memory), wobbly (legs), flickering (flame), wavering (mind, reason, courage), indecisive (personality)
(French) in music, to play in a hesitant manner, to play in an irregular time
on a stringed instrument, vibrato
Vacillation(French f.) unsteadiness, shakiness, flickering (flame), wavering (mind, reason)
Vacillement(French m.) swaying, wobbling, faltering, wavering, flickering
vaciller(French) to shake (voice), to sway, to wobble, to flicker (a light), to falter (figurative), to totter, to reel, to stagger, to sway (to and fro), to fail (reason, intelligence), to be shaky (memory, health), to be failing (memory, health)
va-comme-je-te-pousse, à la(French) in a slap-dash manner, any old how, any old way
va crescendo(Italian) go on increasing the tone
Vacuité(French f.) vacuity, emptiness (intellectual, spiritual), vacuousness
Vacuna antitetánica(Spanish f.) tetanus vaccination
Vacunáoin rumba guaguancó, a thrust made by the male depicting sexual capture of the female
Vade(Spanish m.) folder
Vade mecum(Latin, 'go with me') a constant companion, a handbook, a pocket book, a manual that may be carried about as a ready reference, vade-mecum (French m.)
Vadiin Indian music, the dominant note of a raga
va diminuendo(Italian) go on decreasing the tone
Vadrouille(French f.) a ramble, a jaunt
vadrouiller(French) to wander about (familiar), to rove around, to rove about, to knock about (familiar), to loaf about (familiar)
Va-et-vient(French) to-ings and fro-ings (motion), comings and goings (person), a fuss, a commotion
port à va-et-vient (French m.: swing door)
Vagabond (m.), Vagabonde (f.)(French) vagrant (pejorative), wanderer (especially an idle one)
vagabonder(French) to wander
Vaganova, Agrippina (1879-1951)the greatest Russian teacher of her day, she was a graduate of the St. Petersburg Imperial Ballet School, where she studied under Ivanov, Vazem, Gerdt, Legat and others. She was accepted into the corps de ballet of the Maryinski Theatre in 1897 and became a ballerina in 1915. She left the stage in 1917 to devote herself to teaching. In 1921 she became a teacher at the Leningrad State Ballet School (formerly the Imperial Ballet School, St. Petersburg) and began developing the instructional system that later became known to the world as the Vaganova system. In 1934 she became head of the Leningrad Choreographic Technicum and published her textbook Fundamentals of the Classic Dance. Vaganova's method has become the basic method of the entire Soviet choreographic school and it is still being developed by Vaganova's followers
Vagans(Italian) the fifth part in a five-part vocal work, whatever the voice
Vagantenstrophe(German f.) common meter, common metre, ballad metre
[entry by Michael Zapf]
Vagantes(Latin pl.) wandering ecclesiastics, medieval clerics who wandered from place to place, clerici vagantes, gyrovagi
vagarya caprice, a whim
Vagbabbreviation of Viola da gamba (German: viola da gamba - viole de gambe (French))
vage(German) vague, vaguely, intangible, indecipherable
Vaghezza(Italian f.) longing
(Italian f.) grace, charm
vagierender Akkord(German m.) Schoenberg, in his Structural Functions of Harmony, describes the Trstan chord as a "wandering chord [vagierender Akkord]... it can come from anywhere."
vagir(French) to cry
vago(Italian) vague, rambling, uncertain tempo or expression
Vagrant harmonyassociated with Schoenberg's theory of harmony, vagrant chords have an indefinite or multiple function which is important in developing an enlargement of tonal relationships
Vague(French m.) vagueness
Vague(French f.) a wave
Vague de fond(French f.) ground swell
Vague de froid(French f.) cold spell
Vague de chaleur(French f.) hot spell
vague(English, French) uncertain, ill-defined, inexact in thought
vaguement(French) vaguely
vähennetty Intervalli(Finnish) diminished interval
Vaidyaspractitioners of Ayurveda system or indigenous medicine
vaihtoehtoinen esitystapa(Finnish) ossia
vaillamment(French) bravely
vaillant (m.), vaillante (f.)(French) brave, healthy (vigorous)
vain (m.), vaine (f.)(French) vain
vaincre(French) to defeat, to overcome
Vaincu (m.), Vaincue (f.)(French) the loser (in sport)
Vainqueur(French m.) the victor, the winner (in sport)
Vaishnavaa votary of the cult of Vishnu
Vaishyasmembers of the third (cultivator and mercantile) class among Hindus
Vaisseau(French m.) a ship, a vessel (blood vessel)
Vaisseau spatial(French m.) a space-ship
Vaisselle(French f.) the crockery, the dishes (as in wash the dishes)
faire la vaisselle (French: do the washing-up, wash the dishes)
produit pour la vaisselle (French: washing-up liquid)
Vajilla de plata(Spamish f.) plate (silverware)
Vakisoavaa poetic call and response style of singing from Madagascar
Vakuum(German n.) a vacuum
Vakuumröhre(German f.) vacuum tube
Vakuumsauger(German m.) vacuum suction device
vakuumverpackt(German) vacuum-packed
Vakuumverpackung(German f.) vacuum packaging
Val(French m.) a valley
valable(French) valid, worthwhile (quality)
Valanga(Italian f.) avalanche
Valce(Italian) waltz
Vale(Latin) farewell
Valet(French m.) the personal attendant of a gentleman, the jack (in cards)
Valet de chambre(French m.) manservant, a groom of the bed-chamber (usually a position of some honour in a royal or noble household)
Valet de ferme(French m.) a farm-hand
valete(Latin) farewell!
Valeur(French f. literally 'importance' or 'weight') worth (merit), value, length or duration of a note or rest
Valeur (d'une note)(French f.) note value
Valeurs(French f. pl.) stocks and shares
Vali(Turkish, from Arabic) the civil governor of a Turkish province
valid(French) fit (person), valid (ticket)
valid.abbreviation of 'validation', 'validate'
valider(French) to validate
Valide trombonea hybrid trombone with both valves and a slide, first produced in the early 20th-century
Validité(French f.) validity
Valiha(Madagascar) a steel-strung tube-shaped bamboo zither, now used purely in a secular way, but that was closely associated historically with religious ceremonies
Valise(French f.) a suitcase, a case, a leather travelling-case (now usually soft without a rigid framework)
Vallée(French f.) a valley
Vallenato(Spanish, literally 'from the valley') together with cumbia (or cumbe), guasca from the interior and carrilera from the Andean region, vallenato, from the northern coast, constitutes one of the important native musical styles of Colombia. The roots of vallenato lie with the music of the Wayuu Indians of the Güajira peninsula of Northern Colombia, in fusion with diverse African and Caribbean influences. With the adoption of the accordion, introduced in Colombia by Northern European merchants and colonizers during the early 19th-century, vallenato acquired its current form as music for the transmission of folk and love stories, a music for celebration and serenades, in the traditions of the Spanish troubadours. The songs are normally sung to the traditional backing of European accordion, African-style caja, or bongo drum, and Native Indian bamboo guacharaca percussion
vallenato consists of four 'airs':
sonmournful and slow, in 2/4 time
paseoa variation on the son but with a wider range of tempo, in 2/4 time
puyaconsidered the oldest of the 'air' and similar to the merengue, in 6/8 time
merengueoften confused with a Dominican genre with the same name, like the puya it has a narrative style and was often used to play décimas, a ten-line format with internal rhymes brought by the Spanish to Colombia, in the 16th-century. Also in 6/8 time
Vallon(French m.) a small valley
vallonné(French) undulating
Vallum(Latin) a wall or rampart erected by the Romans for defensive purposes
Valmikifirst of Sanskrit poets and author of the Hindu epic, Ramayana
valnabbreviation of 'valuation'
valoir(French) to be worth, to apply
valoir ...(French) to be worth ...
valoir la peine(French) to be worth it (i.e. to be worth the effort)
valoir le coup(French) to be worth it (i.e. to be worth the effort)
valoir mieux(French) to be better, to be more valuable
Valor(Spanish m.) value of a note or rest
Valore(Italian m. literally 'importance' or 'weight') value, length or duration of a note or rest, worth, merit, valour (courage)
valoriser(French) to add value to
Valorizationin literary criticism, the privileging of one key aspect of a literary text or one particular process as the focus of literary analysis
valorizzare(Italian) to use to advantage, increase the value of
valoroso(Italian) valiant
Vals(Spanish m.) waltz
an Argentinean tango style, the tango version of waltz. Unlike Tango Argentino and Milonga, there are no stopping figure
the Peruvian vals criollo style of music
see 'Creole waltz'
Vals criollo(Spanish m., 'Creole waltz') although derived from the Viennese waltz, it feels quite different. The Peruvian dance, the vals criollo, has a dry, restrained sound, and keeps a certain distance from its romantic subject. The songs, with their slightly off-beat accents, pull back and push on the regular meter. The vals criollo is not by origin an Afro-Peruvian music but black performers are among the leading interpreters of the genre. The addition of the cajón to the traditional instrumentation of two guitars served also to give the vals an Afro-Peruvian dimension
Valse(French f.) a simple triple time dance derived from the old German Ländler
the dance generally has an introduction, a number of different melodies, before finishing with a coda; harmonically, the dance has one strong chord on the first beat, with two weaker chords on the second and third beat, this pattern repeated from bar to bar
(French) waltz
Valse, Ladescribed as un poème choréographique (a choreographic poem), originally written for piano, followed by a version for two pianos and finally an orchestral score, this work was written by Maurice Ravel (1875-1937) between February 1919 and 1920 and premiered in Paris on 12 Dec. 1920
  • La Valse from which this information has been taken
Valse l'americaine(French f.) first composed in 1866 by the Societe' Academique des Profeseurs de danse de Paris
Valse chantée(French f.) waltz-song
Valse de bravoure(French f.) an instrumental waltz that is brilliant and showy in style
Valse de deux temps(French f.) a quick waltz in which the dancers make two steps in each measure
Valse de l'oiseau(French f.) a waltz in imitation of the warbling of a bird
Valse de salon(French f.) a piano piece in waltz time
Valse-Impromptu (S.213)a waltz for solo piano composed by Franz Liszt in the key of A-flat major
Valse java(French f.) see Java-valse
Valse manouche(French f.) Gipsy waltz
Valse musette(French f.) musette waltz (a waltz performed in the bal musette style)
see bal musette
Valses nobles et sentimentalesa suite of waltzes composed by French composer Maurice Ravel (1875-1937). The piano version was published in 1911, and an orchestral version was published in 1912
valser(French) to waltz
Valses chilotesChilean dance from the Quellón region that combines Spanish music and dance forms with waltzes and aboriginal Chilean music and dance
Valse Triste (Op. 44)(French f., literally 'Sad Waltz') a waltz written by Jean Sibelius, originally composed in 1903 for strings as part of one of the incidental mususic to the play Kuolema (Death) by Arvid Järnefelt
Valse viennoise(French f.) Viennese waltz
Vals peruano(Spanish m., literally Peruvian waltz) the name given to the vals criollo outside Peru
Valuevalore (Italian), Geltung (German), Wert (German), Werth (German), valeur (French)
duration of a note or rest, usually expressed in terms of some other note or rest, for example, the semibreve (whole note)
this term is better given its full name, 'time value'
Valve(English, French f.) macchina (Italian f.), Ventilmaschine (German f.), mécanisme du piston (French m.), mecanismo del pistón (Spanish m.)
valves on brass instruments are mechanical devices that alter the tube length by a fixed amount in order to change the pitch while playing. The first valves were invented in Germany about 1814; subsequently, valve designs have been altered and refined in many different ways. The normal valve order today lowers the pitch a whole tone (first valve), a semitone (second valve), and a minor third (third valve). In the course of valve development, other sequences were also used
on brass instruments there are two common types of valve, 'piston' and 'rotary'
Valve soundor tube sound, the sound often associated with music amplified by a valve amplifier, although this association is not strict. The valve sound is often described by proponents as being "warm", "rich", "relaxed", and so on, in contrast to a so-called transistor sound that is sometimes said to be "clinical", "faster" or even "harsh" and "brittle". Both audio enthusiasts and some musicians with amplified instruments have a strong interest in these properties
Valve tremolomany notes on the trumpet can be played in several different valve combinations each with its characteristic tone quality. By alternating between valve combinations on the same note a tremolo effect can be produced
Valve trumpettromba a pistoni (Italian f.), Ventiltrompete (German f.), trompette à pistons (French f.), trompeta de pistones (Spanish f.)
Valvola(Italian f.) pallet, valve (on an organ)
Válvula (s.), Válvulas (pl.)(Spanish f.) pallet, valve (on an organ), valve (on a brass instrument)
Válvula rotativa(Spanish f.) or válvula rotatoria (Spanish f.), rotary valve (on a brass instrument), cilindro rotativo (Italian m.), Drehventil (German n.), Zylinderventil (German n.), cylindre à rotation (French m.)
Válvula rotatoria(Spanish f.) or válvula rotativa (Spanish f.), rotary valve (on a brass instrument), cilindro rotativo (Italian m.), Drehventil (German n.), Zylinderventil (German n.), cylindre à rotation (French m.)
Valzer(Italian m.) waltz
vamos adonde quieras(Spanish) we'll go wherever you want
vamos a hacer la prueba(Spanish) let's try
Vampsee 'vamping'
Vampingor 'vamp', extemporising a simple accompaniment often 'by ear', without a written score
Vampire(English, French m.) a person who preys ruthlessly on others, a ghost or reanimated corpse that sucks the blood of sleeping people
Van(English, French m.) a vehicle used to carry goods, equipment, etc.
V & Aacronym for 'Victoria and Albert Museum' (based in South Kensington, London, England)
Vanc.abbreviation of 'Vancouver' (Canadian city)
Vandale(French m./f.) a vandal
Vandalisme(French m.) vandalism (the unwarranted destruction of the property of others or of the community)
V & Macronym for Virgin and Martyr
Vanguardia(Spanish m.) avant-garde
vanguardia, de(Spanish) avant-garde
van het blad spelen(Dutch) play at sight, sightread
van het blad zingen(Dutch) sing at sight, sightsing
Vanilla poda black beanlike plant, the flavour of which is used in the making of sweet dishes
Vanille(French f., German f.) vanilla (aromatic spice)
Vanilleeis(German n.) vanilla ice cream
Vanillesauce(German f.) custard
Vanillesoße(German f.) custard
vanitas vanitatum, et omnia vanitas(Latin) vanity of vanities, and all is vanity
Vanité(French f.) vanity
vaniteux (m.), vaniteuse (f.)(French) vain, conceited
Vanlig feleNorwegian fiddle
Vanne(French f.) a sluice gate, a joke (familiar)
Vantail (s.), Vantaux (pl.)(French m.) a door a flap
Vantard (m.), Vantarde (f.)(French) a boaster
vantard (m.), vantarde (f.)(French) boastful
vantardise(French f.) boastfulness, a boast (the act of boasting)
vanter(French) to praise
Va-nu-pieds(French m./f.) a vagabond, a beggar (a person who goes barefoot)
Vapeur(French m.) steamer (a boat)
(French f.) steam (rising from boiling water), vapour (mist, etc.)
Vaporetto (s.), Vaporetti (pl.)(Italian) a motorised waterbus employed in the Venetian lagoon
vaporeux (m.), vaporeuse (f.)(French) hazy, filmy (light), flimsy
Vaporateur(French m.) a spray
vaporiser(French) to spray
va presso(Italian) goes up to
vaquer à(French) to attend to
VARacronym of Votre Altesse Royale (French: Your Royal Highness)
Var.abbreviation of 'variation', 'variable', variant', 'various', 'variety'
Vara(Spanish f.) pole, rod, staff, mace
(Spanish f.) slide (on a trombone), pompa mobile a coulisse (Italian f.), pompa a tiro (Italian f.), Zug (German m.), coulisse (French f.)
(Spanish f.) a switch, a birch brush used with the bass drum
va rallentando(Italian) go on dragging the time, continue to drag the time
Varapolo(Spanish m.) long pole
Varappe(French f.) rock climbing
Vareuse(French f.) a tunic (of a uniform), a reefer-jacket, a loose sailor's jersey
Vargan(Russia) or drymba, a jew's harp in which on end of the lamella is fixed to the middle of a metal frame and the other is bent at a right angle
  • Vargan from which this information has been taken
variabel(German) variable, protean
Variable(English, German f.) something that is changeable, something subject to variation, a parameter
variable(English, French) changeable, subject to variation
variable Besetzung(Italian f.) alternative scoring
Variable Bit Rateor 'VBR', specifies the sound quality level but allows the bit rate to fluctuate. During complex passages, VBR uses a higher-than-average bit rate but during simple passages uses a lower-than-average bit rate. The result is that VBR produces an overall higher, more consistent sound quality compared to Constant Bit Rate (CBR)
Variable meterscharacteristic of a composition that has a free metrical organisation, including oscillatory, variations in meter in consecutive bars (measures), for example, a bar of 3/4 followed by a bar of 4/4, then followed by another bar of 3/4, and then a bar of 4/4 and so on
variable Metren(German pl.) variable meters
Variable pedal"The use of half pedal and flutter pedal is very effective in creating a variety of tonal colours. The pedal remember is a colouring device, it is not a sustaining device. People learn it as a sustain device and most teachers do not teach that it is used to give shades and colours to your tonal palette. Just like an artist has a variety of shades of reds, blues and yellows, a pianist can use the pedal to create these tones. Now this only works on an acoustic piano, not a digital keyboard because the digital instrument even if it is slightly depressed tells the computer to "sustain notes". Half and flutter pedal can only be done on a real instrument. By lifting up the dampers a touch part of the string vibrates, or possibly 2 out of the 3 strings in the upper register and 1 out of 2 strings vibrate and sustains in the middle. This type of pedaling is very effective for all music! I tend to flutter pedal a lot in scale and running passages. I would never hold the pedal down because the sound would blur, but using half pedal catches some tones and allows for a touch of harmonic colour while maintaining clarity in the passage work."
[Source provided by Charles Whiman:]
Variable syllablea syllable which can be either long or short, stressed or unstressed, depending upon context
Variación(Spanish f.) variation
Varia lectio (s.), Variae lectiones (pl.)(Latin) a variant reading
variamente(Italian) differently, variously (for example, in a varied, free performing style)
variamento(Italian) differently, variously (for example, in a varied, free performing style)
Variante(French f., Italian f., Spanish f., German f.) variant, variation
(French f., Italian f., Spanish f., German f.) an alternative, optional reading, ossia
variatasee variato
variatamento(Italian) in a different way, differently, variously
Variatie(Dutch) variant, variation
Variatie-vorm(Dutch) variation form
Variatie theater(Dutch) music theatre
variatim(Latin) in various ways
Variation(English, French f., German f.) the departure from the norm of some parameter or its extent
in dance, a solo dance in a classic ballet
in music, where it is a characteristic of variation-form, a theme in a changed or elaborated form
Variation (s.), Variationen (pl.)(German f.) variation
Variational formsee 'variation-form'
Variationen(German pl.) variations
Variation-formor variational form, a composition form in which variously modified re-statements of an initially introduced theme are presented in sequence, one after another
variation-forms fall into a number of historical categories and can be characterised as being structured, in which case sections and phrases in the theme are preserved in the variations, or free, in which case basic relationships of sections and phrases in the theme are disregarded:
Renaissance and Baroquestructured'constant-melody' variation based on a popular song, dance, or some other pre-existing tune
Renaissance and Baroquestructuredcantus firmus variations based on pre-existing plainchant and chorales
Baroquestructuredthe basso ostinato variation, as, for example, 'ground bass', chaconne or passacaglia
Baroquestructuredthe 'fixed harmony' variation, as, for example, that on the folia or romanesca
eighteenth and nineteenth centuriesstructuredthe 'ornamental melodic outline' variation, using borrowed themes including dance pieces, popular songs and operatic excerpts
nineteenth centurystructuredthe 'character' or 'characteristic' variation, where composers used instrumental works (such as suites and sonatas) and instrumentally conceived themes from members of their own circle
nineteenth centurystructuredthe basso ostinato variation
late nineteenth and early twentieth centuriesfreethe free 'fantasia' variation, which might used borrowed themes, including folk songs
twentieth centurystructuredthe 'serial' variation, where the 'tone-row' provides the thematic material
Variationsplural of variation, variazioni (Italian), Variationen (German), doubles (French), variations (French)
Variationsläuten(German n.) or Wechselläuten (German), change ringing
Variationswerk(German n.) theme and variations, variations on a theme
variato (m.), variata (f.)(Italian) varied, diversified, with variations
Variazione (s.), Variazioni (pl.)(Italian f.) variation
Variazione del suono(Italian f.) sound modification
Varicelle(French f.) chicken-pox
Varices(French f. pl.) vaicose veins
varié(French) varied (colours, etc.), various (divers), changed, diversified, with variations
Variedade de jazz(Portuguese) jazz style
varier(French) to vary
varieren(German) to vary
Varietà(Italian f.) variety, vaudeville, musical hall
Variete(German n.) vaudeville, music-hall
Variété(French f.) variety, vaudeville, musical hall
Variétés(French f. pl.) popular music, variety (spectacle)
Varietetheater(German n.) variety theatre (where vaudeville, music-hall, etc. is performed)
Varietevorstellung(German f.) variety performance, variety show
Variety showa show with a variety of acts, often including music and comedy skits, especially on television
Varighed(Danish) duration
Varilla(Spanish f.) stick, rod (of metal)
Variole(French f.) smallpox
Variorum(Latin) (an edition of a text) in which are recorded the notes of previous commentators or the conjectures of previous editors. The term is a shortened version of the phrase cum notis variorum (Latin: 'with the notes of various people')
var. lect.abbreviation of varia lectio (Latin: a variant reading)
varn.abbreviation of 'varnish'
Varnaliterally 'color', one of the four divisions of the Hindu society (i.e. Brahman, Kshatriya, Vaishya and Shudra) based on hereditary occupations
Varnashramfour-fold divisions of Hindu society
VarnishLack (German m.), vernis (French m.), vernice (Italian f.), resinous solution used to give a hard shiny transparent coating
Varnishingas a figure of speech, to elaborate (generally pejorative, hence 'the unvarnish truth' means 'the unembellished fact or facts')
the process of applying thin layers of a varnish to a painting or wood to enhance its appearance or to protect its surface
in printing, to apply oil, synthetic, spirit, cellulose or water varnish to printed matter by hand or machine to enhance its appearance or increase its durability
Varsoviana (Italian f.) varsovienne
Varsovienne(French f.) a dance originally from Warsaw, popular in ballrooms in the mid 19th-century, with features of both the mazurka and polka, in 3/4 time with a moderate tempo, characterised by a strong accent on the first beat of every second bar
vaterländisch(German) pertaining to the Fatherland, i.e. patriotic
Vasco(Spanish m.) Basque (person)
Vascongado(Spanish) Basque
Vasculum(Latin) an air-tight case used by botanists for transporting newly-collected material
Vase(French m., German f.) vase (for flowers)
(French f.) silt, mud
Vase de nuit(French) a chamber-pot
vaseux (m.), vaseuse (f.)(French) woolly (confused - familiar), hazy
Vasistas(French m.) a fanlight, a hinged panel (in a door or window)
vaskisoitin(Finnish) brass (referring to the brass instruments of the orchestra)
Vástago(Spanish m.) stem (part of a note)
vaste(French) vast, huge
VATacronym of 'Value Added Tax' (a sales tax)
Vat.abbreviation of 'Vatican' (the city state in Rome, the seat of the Roman Catholic Church)
Vater(German m.) father
Vaterland(German n.) fatherland
väterlich(German) paternal, fatherly
väterlicherseits(German) on one's side, on the father's side
Vaterschaft(German f.) fatherhood, paternity (legal)
Vaterunser(German n.) Lord's Prayer
Vati(German m.) daddy (familiar)
Vat. Lib.abbreviation of 'Vatican Library'
vaud.abbreviation of vaudeville
Vaudeville(English, French m., German n.) originally satirical Parisian street songs which, during the reign of Louis XIV (1638-1715), and taking on more topical songs, found themselves incorporated into comedies performed at Paris fairs. Later, vaudeville became a simple form of operétta with its accent on light comedy. In America, the association between vaudeville and comedy led to the term being applied to 'variety shows'. While it was common for burlesque stars to graduate into vaudeville, vaudevillians considered it a fatal disgrace to appear in burlesque, insisting that only those who were "washed up" would stoop so low. However, many a vaudeville veteran hit the burlesque wheels during dry spells, appearing under an assumed name
the word vaudeville comes, possibly, from voix de ville (literally 'street song'), although others have suggested it is a contracted form of the phrase chanson du Vau de Vire a reference to the name given to the songs of Olivier Basselin (c.1400-c.1450) who lived in the valley of Vire, in Normandy
vau-l'eau, à(French) downhill
Vaultan arched ceiling or roof of stone or brick, sometimes imitated in wood or plaster
Vaultinga roof constructed in the form of a arched bays
Vaulting baythe basic structural unit of a vaulted roof, consisting of a rectangle transected by the vaulting ribs
Vaulting riba diagonal arched rib which supports the cell of a vault
Vaulting springerthe supporting masonry for the base of a vaulting rib
Vaurien (m.), Vaurienne (f.)(French) a good-for-nothing, a wastrel
Vautour(French m.) a vulture
¡vaya una alhaja de hija que tiene!(Spanish) a fine daughter she's got! (ironic)
VBSystematisch-thematisches Werkverzeichnis catalogue of the works of Joseph Martin Kraus (1756-1792) by Bertil H. van Boer jr.
Valentini Bakfark Opera Omnia catalogue of works by Balint Bakfark (1507-1576) prepared by István Homolya & Daniel Benkö
V-bridgeon a piano, an inverted "V" in shape, the V-bridge is cast as an integral part of the piano plate, is then ground, filed and scraped to the proper smooth shape. The strings cross the V-bridge near the tuning-pins and are held in firm contact by the pressure or bearing-bar
Vcabbreviation of Violoncello (German: cello - violoncelle (French))
vc . vc.abbreviation of violoncello
Vcor vc., abbreviation of violoncello
VCAabbreviation of 'voltage-controlled amplifier'
Vceabbreviation of 'Venice' (North-Eastern Italian City)
VCFabbreviation of 'voltage-controlled filter'
v. Chr.abbreviation of vor Christus (German: before Christ, BC)
Vcl.abbreviation of violincello
vcle(s)abbreviation of 'versicle(s)'
Vclloabbreviation of violoncello
VCOabbreviation of 'voltage-controlled oscillator'
VCRacronym of 'video-cassette recorder'
Vcrabbreviation of 'Vancouver' (Canadian city)
vcsabbreviation of 'voices'
VCS-3in 1968 a collaboration between composers Peter Zinovieff, Tristam Cary and technician David Cockerell led to London's first large electronic music concert and the twofold formation of EMS (Electronic Music Studio) and EMS Ltd., a synthesizer manufacturing company. In 1969, EMS Ltd. developed the VCS-3, called the 'Putney' in the United States, a portable synthesizer that contained a pin-matrix patching board and a joystick for realtime control
  • The VCS-3 from which this information has been taken
Vdabbreviation of Usted (Spanish: you)
v.d.abbreviation of 'various dates', 'vapour density'
VdG.abbreviated form of viola da gamba
VEabbreviation of Vostra Eccellenza (Italian: Your Excellency), Votre Éminence (French: Your Eminence), Vuestra Excelencia (Spanish: Your Excellency)
as in VE-Day (Victory in Europe) (8th May 1945)
veabbreviation of veuve (French: widow)
véase más arriba(Spanish) see above
Veau (s.), Veaux (pl.)(French m.) a calf, veal, calfskin (leather)
VEB(formerly, in East Germany) acronym of Volkseignener Betrieb (German: People's Concern, state-owned company)
Vecchia canzone(Italian f.) old song, oldie (old song)
vecka(Swedish) week
vécu(French) true, real
the term, in this sense meaning 'as lived', is given to a work of fiction that gives the impression that the writer has really experienced the events or emotions described
ved.abbreviation of vedova (Italian: widow)
Vedantaa system of philosophy springing from the Upanishads
Vedasmost ancient Hindu scriptures, composed of hymns to various deities. There are four collections of theses hymns, known as Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda and Atharveda
Vedette(French f.) a small passenger boat
(French f.) a 'star', a leading actor or actress on stage or screen
Vedic Sanskritan a Old Indic language. It is the language of the Vedas, the oldest shruti texts of Hinduism, compiled over the period of the mid 2nd to mid 1st millennium BC. It is an archaic form of Sanskrit, an early descendant of Proto-Indo-Iranian. It is closely related to Avestan, the oldest preserved Iranian language. Vedic Sanskrit is the oldest attested language of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European family
vedlagt(Danish) added
Veduta (s.), Vedute (pl.)(Italian f.) in art, a painting of an identifiable place or scene
Veduta a volo d'uccello(Italian f.) bird's eye view
Vedutista (s.), Vedutisti (pl.)(Italian) in art, an artist noted particularly for his (or her) depiction of real places or scenes (for example, Giovanni Antonio Canal (1697-1768) better known as Canaletto, famous for his landscapes of Venice, and the Roman vedutista Giovanni Paolo Pannini (1691-1765), both of whom trained as theatre set painters, and whose vedute sought to appease the need by visitors for painted "postcards" depicting the Italian environs)
veemente(Italian) vehement, forcible
Veemenza(Italian f.) vehemence, force
Veenasee vina
Veepalso 'veepee', 'VP', vice president (colloquial)
veertien(Dutch) fourteen
veertiendaags(Dutch) fortnightly
veertig(Dutch) forty
V-Effektabbreviation of Verfremdungseffekt (German: an effect of strangeness and unfamiliarity)
Vegana person that eats no animal flesh or animal by-products whatsoever
Vegetación(Spanish f.) vegetation
Vegetación alpina(Spanish f.) Alpine vegetation
Végétal (s.), Végétaux (pl.)(French m.) a plant
végétal (s.), végétaux (pl.)(French) plant
Végétalien (m.), Végétalienne (f.)(French) a vegan
Vegetariana person that only eats vegetables and dairy products (and possibly eggs)
Végétarien (m.), Végétarienne (f.)(French) a vegetarian
végétarien (m.), végétarienne (f.)(French) vegetarian
Vegetarier (m.), Vegetarieren (f.)(German) vegetarian
vegetarisch(German) vegetarian
Vegetation(English, German f.) plant life, non-specific plants
Végétation(French f.) vegetation
Végétations(French f. pl.) adenoids (medicine)
Vegetationsdämon(German m., 'plant-spirit') a deity or spirit in mythology or in animism that represents (or is directly equivalent to) the vitality of domestic crops and/or native vegetation
végéter(French) to vegetate
Véhémence(French f.) vehemence
véhément (m.), véhémente (f.)(French) vehement
Vehementlycon violenza (Italian), heftig (German), fortement (French)
Vehiclea means of conveyance or transport
in literature, vehicle extends to mean the method by which an author accomplishes her purpose
in music, vehicle extends to mean the means by which a performer might attempt to advance their career
Véhicule(French m.) a vehicle
véhicular(French) to convey
Vehmgericht(German n.) Vehmic court
Vehmic courtVehmgericht or the Vehm, a secret tribunal of Westphalia active during the later Middle Ages
Veilin a voice, a tone that is either intentionally or, through faulty production, obscured, i.e. not clear and bell-like, and that is said to have a 'veil' or to be 'veiled'
Veilchen(German n.) violet
Veiledsee 'veil'
Veiling glarethe reduction in contrast of an optical image caused by superposition of scattered light
Veille(French f.) wakefulness
(la) veille au soir(French f.) (the) previous evening
Veille (de), la(French f.) the day before
Veiledpartly concealed, velato (Italian), verschleiert (German), voilé (French)
Veiled threata partly concealed or implied threat
Veiled tonea tone that is soft, sweet and often dark, having very little brilliancy
on early woodwind instruments, the cross- (or forked-) fingered notes always have a matted, veiled tone quality, noticeably different from the stronger open-fingered ones
with reference to speech, the phrase 'veiled tone' is often associated with bitterness or grief
Veille de Noël, la(French f.) Christmas Eve
Veillée des armes(French) the vigil spent by an aspirant knight alone in a chapel the night before he is to receive the accolade
(French) an ordeal preliminary to the bestowal of some privilege
Veillée(French f.) evening, evening gathering, vigil, wake
veiller(French) to stay up, to stay awake, to watch over
veiller à(French) to attend to
veiller sur(French) to watch over
Veilleur de nuit(French m.) a night-watchman
Veilleuse(French f.) a night-light, a sanctuary light, a chafing dish heated by a small spirit-lamp, a sidelight (car), a pilot-light (of a gas burner)
Veinard (m.), Veinarde (f.)(French f.) lucky devil (familiar)
Veine(French f.) a vein (anatomy, botany), a vein (geology)
(French f.) luck (familiar)
veinte(Spanish) twenty
Vejiga(Spanish f.) bladder
vejrtrækningstegn(Danish) breath mark
Vel(Dutch) vellum, drum-head
Velakalia spectacular martial dance performed by men in some of the temples of southern Kerala, India
  • Velakali from which this extract has been taken
Velarin linguistics, any velar sound involves the soft palate or velum - especially when the tongue touches against the soft palate
Velare(Italian) to dampen, to choke (the sound)
Velaric ingressivesee 'lingual ingressive'
Velas delisLatvian washboard
velato (m), velata (f.)(Italian) misty, veiled (a term particularly associated with the voice)
Velcrovelours croché (French), fastener consisting of two strips of fabric which cling when pressed together
Veld-kreet(Dutch) hunting call
Veldt(old Dutch) or veld (modern Dutch), unenclosed country or open pastureland in South Africa
Veletaballroom dance in triple time
Véliplanchiste(French m./f.) a windsurfer
Vella bumgassee 'devil drum'
Vellum(from the Latin for "wool" or "pelt") a sort of parchment, a material for the pages of a book or codex, characterized by its thin, smooth, durable properties. Originally, the material was made from pig skin, but modern vellum is usually made out of cotton. The term can also refer to a manuscript or book written on such material
smooth writing-paper imitating vellum
  • Vellum from which the first extract has been taken
vellutato (m.), Vellutata (f.)(Italian) velvety, as soft and delicate as velvet
Vélo(French m.) a bicycle, a bike, cycling (activity)
Vélodrome(French m.) a cycle-racing track
Véloce (French)(French) fast, swift, quick, nimble
veloce(Italian) fast, swift, quick, nimble
a marking used sometimes to indicated a passage that should be performed somewhat quicker than the, until then, prevailing tempo
velocemente(Italian) swiftly, quickly, nimbly
Velocidade(Portuguese) pace, speed
velocissimamente(Italian) very nimble, very fast
velocissimo(Italian) very nimble, very fast
Velocità(Italian f.) velocity, swiftness, nimbleness
Velocità del nastro(Italian f.) tape speed
Velocityvelocità (Italian), Geläufigkeit (German), vélocité (French)
'velocity' is the MIDI way of determining how hard a note is pressed on the keyboard controller, measured with a number from 0-127
Velocity markalso called 'tempo mark', a musical sign that indicates a particular speed, or change of speed, for example accel., rit., etc.
see 'tempo mark'
Vélomoteur(French m.) a moped
VelorioIn Venezuela, as in other Latin American countries, velorios are held as wakes for the dead. Those, however, are not the same as the velorios for the saints. The music for the latter differs by geographic region. In the plains, it is largely Spanish in origin, played with string instruments; along the central coast, it is more African, and the fulías, the associated songs, are played on tamboras and accompanied by minor percussion such as maracas and idiophones. There is no dancing during the velorios. The music at the velorios stops periodically to permit the recitation of décimas, a traditional ten-line Spanish verse form kept alive by oral traditionalists recognized for their cultural role and unique abilities in keeping alive this specialized folkloric art
Veloura fabric similar to velvet, a soft material of short pile, used for tracksuits and other sports wear items and made popular in the 1970s
Velours(French m.) velvet
(French) a fabric resembling velvet or plush used for dressmaking and for furnishings
Velours crochésee 'Velcro'
Velours côtelé(French m.) or velours à côtes, corduroy
Veloute(Anglicised French) a basic sauce or a soup based on a veloute sauce
Vélouté(French m.) smoothness
velouté(French) velvety, smooth
(French) in cooking, smooth and creamy in consistency
(French) in cooking, a sauce made of white roux and veal or chicken stock
velu(French) hairy
Velvetclosely woven fabric with a thick short pile on one side, soft and rich to the touch
Velveteencotton fabric with a pile like velvet
Venabbreviation of Venite (Latin)
Ven.abbreviation of 'Venerable' (clerical title), 'Venetian', 'Venezuela', 'Venezuelan', 'Venice'
ven.abbreviation of vendredi (French: Friday), 'veneer', venerdi (Italian: Friday)
¡ven acá!(Spanish) come here!
Venaison(French f.) venison
venalis(Latin) on sale
Venatura(Italian f.), Jahresring (German m.), pore (de bois) (French m.), gli anelli annuali (Italian), grain, pattern of lines of fibre in wood
vendanger(French) to pick the grapes
Vendanges(French f. pl.) the grape harvest
Vendangeur (m.), Vendangeuse (f.)(French) grape-picker
Vendetta(Italian f.) vengeance
a hereditary blood-feud particularly in Corsica and southern Italy
in Albania the vendetta is deeply rooted in tradition, governed by a code of rules, known as the Kanun of Lek Dukagjini. In medieval times, the Albanian bishops would occasionally proclaim 'God's truce', and vendettas were forbidden on days of church festivals
Vendeur (m.), Vendeuse (f.)(French) a shop assistant, a shop-girl (f.), a salesman (m), saleswoman (f.), the vendor (in law), the seller (in law)
Venditore ambulante(Italian) hawker (someone who sells things door to door)
vendre aux enchères(French) sell by auction
Vendredi(French m.) Friday
Vendredi saint(French m.) Good Friday (the Friday before Easter Sunday)
vendre la mèche(French) to let the cat out of the bag
Vene(German f.) vein
Veneera thin wood or plastic laminate used in the construction of guitars, pianos, harpsichords, spinets, etc. The thin layer is glued onto a less decorative, or less expensive wood in order to make the exterior more decorative
Venedig(German n.) Venice
vénéneux (m.), vénéneuse (f.)(French) poisonous
vénérable(French) venerable
vénérer(French) to revere
Venetian ceremonial musicVenetian processions and ceremonies of the 16th- and 17th-centuries featured trombe, trombe d'argento, trombe squarciate, tromboni and pifferi. The trombe d'argento were ceremonial silver trumpets belonging to the Doge, the pifferi were an assemblage of shawms, the cornetti were high pitched wooden trumpets with fingerholes, the tromboni were trmbones, while the trombe squarciate (used in Monteverdi's so-called Mass of Thanksgiving for Deliverance from the Plague), on the basis of etymology, iconography, chroniclers' accounts and archival documents, are believed to be mid-length straight trumpets. The 1631 Mass was one element of the Venetian State's elaborate ceremony for the foundation of Santa Maria della Salute, Baldassare Longhena's new church to be built as a thanksgiving that the dreadful plague that had afflicted Venice during 1630 had finally abated. Ironically, the Venetians - always masters of propaganda and self-glorification - were not free from the plague at all. The Doge who presided over the Mass died the next day
Venetian pitch
several pitch standards were employed in 16th-century Europe, particularly in Italy and Germany. The German standards are discussed in the dictionary entry entitled 'Bach Pitch'. In Venice and Northern Italy there were three pitch standards:
mezzo puntoa'=465/460 Hz.used mainly as an instrumental pitch (German equivalent: CammerThon, associated with court entertainments including dinners)
tutto puntoa'=440/430 Hz.probably a compromise between mezzo punto and chorista
choristaa'=415/408 or 390/380 Hz.used for performances involving voices (German equivalent: ChorThon, pitch associated with the performance of music in church)
Venetian polychoral stylea type of music of the late Renaissance and early Baroque eras which involved spatially separate choirs singing in alternation (that is, antiphonally). It represented a major stylistic shift from the prevailing polyphonic writing of the middle Renaissance, and was one of the major stylistic developments which led directly to the formation of what we now know as the Baroque style. A commonly encountered term for the separated choirs is cori spezzati
see cori spezzati
Venetiansor galligaskins or, in Italian, grechesca, wide, very loose breeches (so-called because similar garments had been imported from Venice, and before that from Greece)
Venetian schoolin music history, the Venetian School is a term used to describe the composers working in Venice from about 1550 to around 1610; it also describes the music they produced. The Venetian polychoral compositions of the late 16th century were among the most famous musical events in Europe, and their influence on musical practice in other countries was enormous. The innovations introduced by the Venetian school, along with the contemporary development of monody and opera in Florence, together define the end of the musical Renaissance and the beginning of the musical Baroque.
Venetian swella device fitted to some organs, harpsichords and fortepianos where a set of louvres lie above the source of the sound, on a harpsichord or piano above the sound-board, on an organ in front of the pipework. By mechanically opening or closing the louvres, the player is able to increase or diminish the sound at will
Venez donc...(French) Come and...
venez faire(French) come and do
Veneziana(Italian) Venetian, the Venetian style
venezianische Schule(German f.) Venetian school
Venezuelan drums
mina, tambor grande, cumaco, or burroregion of Barloventovery large wooden drums with a skin on one end, laid along the ground and sometimes propped up by crossed bars at one end. The principal player mounts the drum like a rider to strike the skin end with a beater, while one or more players beat the side of the drum with wooden sticks called palos or laures
curbataregion of Barloventoa smaller, upright, drum used to accompany the mina
tamborasalong the central coastsmaller drums with skin on both ends whose name echoes that of the double-headed drum typical of merengue ensembles in the Dominican Republic. They are used to play fulias for velorios to honour a saint or the Cross
redondos or culo 'e puyaalong the central coastsmaller drums with skin on both ends, less common, and are held between the legs while standing. Similar drums are used in other coastal areas outside Barlovento
cumacothe region of Litoralthis drum has a skin that is nailed to its frame rather than affixed with pegs and wedges. It is laid flat on the ground, but is also mounted by a principal player, who uses his bare hands on the skin, while other players strike the sides with sticks
pipasthe coastal town of Naiguatabarrel-shaped drums
chimbangueles conical drums that are hung from the player's shoulder and played by one hand with a stick
quitiplásalong the coasta set of short bamboo tubes, of African origin, held one in each hand and struck first against the ground in turn, then against each another, producing the three-part sound for which it is named
Venezuelan music
Vengeance(English, French f.) to punish someone for a wrong done to oneself, revenge
Vengeance duetsa popular device especially favoured by 19th-century Italian composers, to end a scene in rousing style. Verdi wrote particularly fine examples in Macbeth, Ora di morte, in Rigoletto, Si vendetta, and in Otello, Si, pel ciel
venger(French) to avenge
Vengeur (m.), Vengeresse (f.)(French) an avenger
vengeur (m.), vengeresse (f.)(French) vengeful
venía de una familia de músicos(Spanish) he came from a musical family
Venin(French m.) venom
venimeux (m.), venimeuse (f.)(French) poisonous, venomous
venir(French) to come
venir à(French) to come up to, reach, happen to
venir à bout de(French) to manage to, to succeed in
venir à bout de souffle(French) to get through, to overcome
venir au monde(French) to come into the world
venir avec plaisir(French) to be glad to come
venir chercher(French) to call for, to come get
venir como agua de mayo(Spanish) to be just what someone needs, to be just what someone needed, to be just what the doctor ordered (figurative), to be a real godsend
venir de(French) to come from, to have just done (something)
venir de faire(French) to have just done
venire(Latin) be sold
venir faire(French) to come to do
venir par (la côte)(French) to come along (the coast), to come by (the coast)
venirse abajo(Spanish) to fall down (building), to go to pieces (person), to fall through (project)
Veni Sancte Spiritus(Latin, literally 'come, holy spirit') the sequence recited during Pentecost
Venite(Latin, literally 'come') Psalm 94, the opening chant or the first canticle of Matins
¡ven para acá!(Spanish) come over here!
Vent(French m.) wind
il fait du vent (French: it is windy)
Venta(Spanish f.) sale
Ventana abuhardillada(Spanish f.) dormer window
ventana de tejado(Spanish f.) dormer window
Vente(French f.) sale
Vente aux enchères(French f.) an auction
Vente du charité(French f.)a (charity) bazaar
venti(Italian) twenty
ventiel(Dutch) a piston (valve)
Ventil(German n.) (piston) valve (as found on brass instruments), rotary values (on French horns), pistone (Italian m., Spanish m.), Pumpventil (German n.), cylindre (French m.), piston (French m.), pistón (Spanish m.)
(German n.) valve, pallet (on an organ)
Ventilateur(French m.) fan, ventilator
(French m.) the wind reservoir or bellows in a barrel organ, etc.
Ventilator(English, German m.) the free circulation of air in a room, building, etc.
(English, German m.) used in Richard Strauss (1864-1949) scores to mean 'wind machine', a device that uses the friction between wooden or card paddles and cloth or silk to mimic the sound of the wind
Ventilatoren(German m. pl., literally 'fan', 'air blower') the modern replacement for the bellows, electronically operated, they maintain an even supply of air to the pipes
Ventilbasun(Swedish) valve trombone, trombón de pistones (Spanish m.), trombone a cilindri (Italian m.), trombón de llaves (Spanish m.), valve trombone, Ventilposaune (German f.), trombone à pistons (French m.)
Ventil, Corno(Italian m.) valve horn
Ventile(Italian) a valve
ventiler(French) to ventilate
Ventile, Trombone(Italian f.) valve trombone
Ventilhorn(German n.) valve horn
Ventilinstrument (s.), Ventilinstrumente (pl.)(German n.) valve instrument
Ventilkornett(German n.) valve cornet
ventilloses Horn(German n., literally 'valveless horn') natural horn
Ventilmaschine(German f.) valve (mechanism found on some brass instruments), macchina (Italian f.), mécanisme du piston (French m.), mecanismo del pistón (Spanish m.)
Ventilposaune(German f.) valve trombone, trombón de pistones (Spanish m.), trombone a cilindri (Italian m.), trombón de llaves (Spanish m.), trombone à pistons (French m.)
Ventiltrompete(German f.) valve trumpet, tromba a pistoni (Italian f.), trompette à pistons (French f.), trompeta de pistones (Spanish f.)
Vento(Italian m.) wind
Vento de madeira(Portuguese) woodwind
Vento di legno(Italian m.) woodwind
Ventouse(French f.) suction pad, a plunger
Ventre(French m.) the belly, the stomach, the womb
ventre à terre(French) at full gallop, at full speed
Ventriloque(French m./f.) a ventriloquist
Ventriloquist(from Latin) or, less common, engastrimyth (from ancient Greek), a performer who projects the voice into a wooden dummy
the Greek term was originally applied to the the art or gift of prophecy by supernatural means involving seers or soothsayers who acted as channels through which voices said to come from beyond the grave would communicate with the living
ventru(French) pot-bellied
Vents(French m. pl.) wind instruments
Vents de bois(French m. pl.) woodwinds
Venusee bansuri
Venue(French f.) coming, the scene of any real or imaginary event, an appointed place (for a concert, performance, sports event, etc.)
venusto(Italian) beautiful, comely, elegant, graceful, sweetly, pretty, gracefully
Vêpres(French f.) vespers, evening prayers
Ver(French m.) a worm, a maggot, woodworm
Ver.abbreviation of Verein (German: association or company)
ver.abbreviation of 'verse', 'version', verification, verify
verabreden(German) to arrange
Verabredung(German f.) an arrangement, an appointment
verabreichen(German) to administer
verabscheuen(German) to detest, to loathe
verabschieden(German) to say goodbye to, to retire, to pass (a law)
verachten(German) to despise
verachtenswert(German) contemptible
verächtlich(German) contemptuous, contemptuously, contemptible
Verachtung(German f.) contempt
Veracruzan indigenous dance from Mexico that originated during the beginning of the colonial period. Its origin lies with the slaves brought to the land of the Totonacas to work on the Spanish-owned sugar cane plantations. Legend tells of a story when one of the strongest slaves was bitten by a serpent. His mother, along with her other sons, performed a magical and ritualistic ceremony in which they eliminated and neutralized the harm the serpent had caused. The Totonacas adapted such rituals to produce the Veracruz which is danced in the states of Oaxaca, Puebla and Veracruz
vera effigies(Latin) the true likeness (of a person), an accurate portrait
verallgemeinern(German) to generalize
Verallgemeinerung(German f.) a generalization
veralten(German) to become obsolete
veraltet(German) obsolete
Veranda(German f.) a veranda
Verandering(Dutch) alteration
veränderlich(German) changeable, variable (mathematics)
verändern(German) to change
verandert(German) revised
Veränderung(German f.) change
Veränderungen(German f. pl.) 'changes', variations, synonymous with Variationen
in the early 19th century, pianos were often fitted with a number of different devices for producing special sound effects. These Veränderungen (modifiers) might be operated by hand stops, knee levers, or pedals
Veränderungswunsch(German m.) a request for change
Verandah(from Portuguese) vérandah (French), an open gallery with a roof supported by pillars offering protection from the sun and rain along the front and, sometimes, along the sides of a house
verängstigt(German) frightened, scared
verankern(German) to anchor
Veranlagung(German f.) a disposition, a tendency, a bent (artistic, musical)
veranlassen(German) to arrange for, to institute
... veranlassen (zu)(German) to prompt ... (to)
Veranlassung(German f.) reason
auf meine Veranlassung (German: at my suggestion, on my orders)
veranschaulichen(German) to illustrate
veranschlagen(German) to estimate
veranstalten(German) to organize, to hold, to give (a party), to make (a noise)
Veranstalter(German m.) promoter, organizer
Veranstaltung(German f.) an event
Veranstaltungstitel(German m.) name of show
Ver à soie(French m.) a silkworm
verantworten(German) to take responsibility for
verantwortlich(German) responsible
verantwortlich machen(German) to hold responsible
Verantwortung(German f.) responsibility
verantwortungsbewußt(German) responsible, responsibly
verantwortungslos(German) irresponsible, irresponsibly
verantwortungsvoll(German) responsible
verarbeiten(German) to use, to process (technical), to digest (also figurative)
verarbeiten zu(German) to make into
verärgern(German) to annoy
verarmt(German) impoverished
veräußern(German) to sell
Verb(English, German n.) a part of speech, a word that "does" the subject's action in a sentence or shows a state of being or equation. For instance, "He sang to her." The word sang is the verb. Typically verbs can appear in various tenses (like past, present, or future), in various aspects (complete or not complete), in different voices (such as active, passive, or aorist) and in different moods (indicative, imperative, subjunctive, jussive, conditional). Many languages use one form of a verb for singular subjects and a different form for plural subjects
verb.abbreviation of verbesserte (German: improved, corrected, revised)
verbal(English, French) spoken, pertaining to speech
(German) verbal, verbally
Verbal nouna noun that comes from a verb
Verband(German m.) an association, a unit (military), a bandage, a dressing (wound)
Verbandszeug(German n.) a first-aid kit
verbannen(German) to exile, to banish (figurative)
Verbannung(German f.) exile
verbarrikadieren(German) a barricade
Verbatim(Latin) exactly as said, word for word
(Latin) (a report, etc.) in the exact words as originally spoken
Verbe(French m.) a verb (grammar)
verbeißento suppress
ich konnte mir kaum das Lachen verbeißen (German: I could hardly keep a straight face)
verbergen(German) to hide
verbessern(German) to improve, to correct
verbesserte(German) improved, corrected, revised
Verbesserung(German f.) an improvement, a correction
verbeterd(Dutch) corrected, improved
verb. et lit.abbreviation of verbatim et literatim (Latin: word for word and letter for letter)
Verbeugen nach Vorstellungsende(German n.) curtain call
Verbeugung(German f.) a bow (an incline of the head or upper body)
verbeulen(German) to dent
verbiegen(German) to bend
verbieten(German) to forbid, to prohibit, to ban
verbilligen(German) to reduce (in price)
verbilligt(German) reduced (in price)
verbinden(German) to connect, to join, to combine, to associate, to bandage, to dress (a wound)
... die Augen verbinden (German: to blindfold ...)
... verbunden sein (German: to be obliged to ...) (figurative)
Verbindingsboog(Dutch) a tie, a slur, a bind
verbindlich(German) friendly, binding
Verbindlichkeit(German f.) friendliness
Verbindlichkeiten(German f. pl.) obligations, liabilities (debts)
Verbindung (s.), Verbindungen (pl.)(German f.) a connection, a combination, a contact, an association, a binding, a union, a conjunction, a joint, a coupling
chemiche Verbindung (German: a chemical compound)
in Verbindung stehen in Verbindung setzen (German: to be in touch)
in Verbindung sich in Verbindung setzen (German: to get in touch)
Verbindungen haben(German) to have connections
Verbindungsmann(German m.) (a person who acts as) an intermediary
Verbindungsröhre(German f.) connector
Verbindungsschraube(German f.) connector
Verbindungsstück(German n.) coupler
Verbindungstür(German f.) connecting door
Verbindungszeichen(German n.) a slur, a bind
verbissen(German) grim, grimly, dogged, doggedly
verbittern(German) to make bitter
verbittert(German) amareggiato (Italian), bitter, embittered, erbittert (German), aigri (French)
Verbitterung(German f.) bitterness
verblassen(German) to fade
Verbleib(German m.) whereabouts
verbleiben(German) to remain
verbleichen(German) to fade
verbleit(German) leaded (petrol)
verblüffen(German) to amaze, to astound
Verblüffung(German f.) amazement
verblühen(German) to wither, to fade
verbluten(German) to bleed to death
verborgen(German) hidden
verborgen(German) to lend
Verbot(German n.) a ban
verboten(German) forbidden, prohibited
'Rauchen verboten' (German: 'no smoking')
verbotenes Buch(German n., literally 'banned book') book on the Index (of Prohibited Books)
Verbrauch(German m.) consumption
verbrauchen(German) to use, to consume, to use up, to exhaust
Verbraucher(German m.) a consumer
verbraucht(German) worn, stale (air)
Verbrechen(German n.) a crime
verbrechen(German) to perpetrate (familiar)
verbrecher(German m.) a criminal
verbrecherisch(German) criminal
verbreiten(German) to spread
verbreitern(German) broaden, widen
verbreiternd(German) broadening, widening, largando
verbreitet(German) widespread
Verbreitung(German f.) spread, spreading
verbrennen(German) to burn, to cremate
Verbrennung(German f.) a burning, a cremation, a burn (wound)
verbringen(German) to spend
verbrühen(German) to scald
verbuchen(German) to enter, to notch up (figurative)
Verbündete (m.), Verbündeter (f.)(German) an ally
Verbunkos(from the German, Werbung, literally 'enlistment') late 18th-century Hungarian dance, with military connotations (for example when recruiting), performed to the music of gypsy bands, also written as verbounko, verbunko, verbunkas, werbunkos, werbunkosch or verbunkoche and employed to attract recruits to the army. Like the sectional form found in the csárdás, the verbunkos too is formed of two or more sections, some slow (lassú), others fast (friss). Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Weber, Schubert, Berlioz and Brahams all used verbunkos music in their compositions
verbürgen(German) to guarantee
verbüßen(German) to serve (sentence)
Verdacht(German m.) a suspicion
im Verdacht haben (German: to suspect)
in Verdacht haben (German: to suspect)
verdächtig(German) suspicious, suspiciously
verdächtigen(German) to suspect
Verdächtigte (m.), Verdächtigter (f.)(German) a suspect
verdammen(German) to condemn, to damn (religion)
Verdammnis(German f.) damnation
verdammt(German) damned
verdammt!(German) damn!
verdampfen(German) to evaporate
verdanken(German) to owe
verdâtre(French) greenish
verdauen(German) to digest
verdaulich(German) digestible
Verdauung(German f.) digestion
Verde antico(Italian) a greenish variety of ornamental marble, consisting mainly of serpentine
Verdeck(German n.) a hood, the top deck (of a ship)
verdecken(German) to cover, to hide, to conceal
verdeckt(German) hidden
verdeckte Octaven(German) hidden octaves
verdeckte Oktavparallelen(German) hidden octaves
verdeckte Quinten(German) hidden fifths
verdeckte Quintparallelen(German) hidden fifths
verderben(German) to spoil, to go bad, to ruin, to corrupt (morals)
Verderben(German n.) ruin
verderblich(German) perishable, pernicious
Ver de terre(French m.) an earthworm
verdeutlichen(German) to make clear
Verdialesone of the flamenco styles that belong to the Málaga fandangos group
a typical Spanish folk dance from Málaga
Verdi baritonea 'dramatic baritone' or, in German, Kavalierbariton, all terms used to describe a baritone with the power and extension at the top of the voice necessary to sing Verdi's baritone roles. Most of these roles, especially like Di Luna in Il Trovatore, have a cruelly high tessitura, often a minor third or more above other composers' baritone roles. True Verdi baritones who have the upper tones whilst still retaining a dark & rich baritone timbre are extremely rare
verdichten(German) to compress
Verdict(English, French m.) the decision of a jury in a trial, or of a critic about a work of art, etc.
verdienen(German) to earn, to deserve (figurative)
Verdiener(German m.) a wage-earner
Verdienst(German m.) earnings
(German n) merit
verdient(German) well-deserved, of outstanding merit (a person)
verdientermaßen(German) deservedly
Verdigrisa green or greenish-blue poisonous pigment resulting from the action of acetic acid on copper and consisting of one or more basic copper acetates
a green or bluish patina formed on copper, brass, or bronze surfaces exposed to the atmosphere for long periods of time
verdir(French) to turn green
Verdi tuningIn 1988 the Schiller Institute initiated a campaign to return to the so-called "Verdi tuning" in the world of classical music, so-called because it was Italian composer Giuseppe Verdi who originally waged a battle to stop the arbitrary rising of the pitch to which orchestras are tuned although in Verdi's letters to his publisher Ricordi in which he discussed performances of his opera Otello, he requested a tuning of a'=437Hz
The "Verdi tuning" promoted by The Schiller Institute is one where middle C (c') = 256Hz, (which is identical to Sauveur's Philosophical Pitch which is 28 Hz) which, depending on the temperament employed, sets at in the region of a'=432Hz, as opposed to the common practice today of tuning a' in the range 440Hz to 450+Hz
ver documento anexo(Spanish) see attached document
verdoppeln(German) to double, to redouble (effort) (figurative)
verdoppelt(German) doubled
Verdoppelung(German f.) doubling of notes or parts, duplication
verdorben(German) spoilt, ruined, upset, corrupt (morally), depraved
verdorren(German) to wither
verdoyant (m.), verdoyante (f.)(French) green, verdant
verdrägen(German) to force out, to displace (figurative), to repress (psychiatry)
verdrehen(German) to twist, to roll (eyes), to distort (figurative)
verdreht(German) crazy (familiar)
verdreifachen(German) to treble, to triple
verdreschen(German) to thrash (familiar)
verdrießlich(German) morose, morosely
verdrücken(German) to crumple, to polish off (to eat everything)
Verdruss(German m.) annoyance
verdunkeln(German) to darken, to black out (a room)
Verdunk[e]lung(German f.) a black-out
verdünnen(German) to dilute
verdünnend(German) diluendo (Italian), fading away, dying away, diminishing in loudness, growing softer until the sound is extinct, thinning out, weakening, auflösend (German), en diluant (French)
verdunsten(German) to evaporate
verdunstend(German) evaporating, evaporandosi (Italian), en s'évaporant (French)
Verdunstung(German f.) evaporation
Verdure(French f.) greenery
(French f.) a work of art (particularly tapestry) portraying mainly trees and foliage
verdursten(German) to die of thirst
verdutzt(German) baffled
verebbend(German) dying away, disappearing, perdendosi (Italian), sich verlierend (German), en se perdant (French)
veredeln(German) to refine, to graft (horticulture)
vereenvoudigd(Dutch) toned down, softened
verehren(German) to revere, to worship (religious), to admire, to give
Verehrer (m.), Verehrerin (f.)(German) an admirer
Verehrung(German f.) veneration, worship, admiration
vereidigen(German) to swear in
Verein(German m.) association, society, club (sporting)
vereinbar(German) compatible
vereinbaren(German) to arrange
nicht zu vereinbaren (German: incompatible)
Vereinbarung(German f.) agreement
vereinen(German) to unite
vereinfachen(German) to simplify
vereinfacht(German) simplified
Verein für musikalische Privataufführungen(German m., literally ' Society for Private Musical Performances') an organisation founded in Vienna in the Autumn of 1918 by Arnold Schoenberg with the intention of making carefully rehearsed and comprehensible performances of modern music available to genuinely interested members of the musical public. In the three years between February 1919 and 5 December 1921 (when the Verein had to cease its activities due to Austrian hyperinflation), the organisation gave 353 performances of 154 works in a total of 117 concerts. A successor Society under the aegis of Alexander von Zemlinsky, with Schoenberg as Honorary President and Heinrich Jalowetz and Viktor Ullmann among the Vortragsmeister (German m.: performance directors), operated in Prague from April 1922 to May 1924
vereinheitlichen(German) to standardize
vereinigen(German) to unite, to merge (businesses)
Vereinigte Staaten [von Amerika](German) United States [of America]
Vereinigung(German f.) a union, an organization
vereinsamt(German) lonely
vereint, vereinigt(German) non-divisi, unison
vereinzelt(German) isolated, occasionally
vereist(German) frozen, icy (road)
vereiteln(German) to foil, to thwart
vereitert(German) septic
verenden(German) to die
verengen(German) to restrict
Verenining(Dutch) society
vererben(German) to leave (for example, in a will), to pass on (figurative, biological)
Vererbung(German f.) heredity
véreux (m.), véreuse (f.)(French) maggoty, wormy, shady (dishonest - figurative)
verewigen(German) to immortalize
verf.abbreviation of Verfasser (German: author)
verfahren(German) to proceed
(German) muddled
verfahren mit(German) to deal with
Verfahren(German n.) a procedure, a process (techin cal), proceedings (legal)
Verfall(German m.) decay, dilapidation, decline (heath, figurative), expiry (of time)
verfallen(German) to decay, to decline (person), to expire (period of time)
... verfallen sein (German: to be under the spell of someone or something, to be addicted to (alcohol, drugs, etc.)
verfallen in(German) to lapse into
verfallen auf(German) to hit on (an idea), to hit upon (an idea)
verfälschen(German) to falsify, to adulterate (wine, etc.)
verfänglich(German) awkward
verfassen(German) to write, to draw up (a jury), to draft (a document, speech, etc.)
Verfasser(German m.) composer, writer, author
Verfassung(German f.) constitution (political), state
verfaulen(German) to rot, to decay
verfechten(German) to advocate
verfehlen(German) to miss
verfeindet sein(German) to be enemies
verfeinern(German) to refine, to improve
verfilmen(German) to film
verfilzt(German) matted
verfliegen(German) to evaporate, to fly (time)
verfliegen(German) to evaporate, to fly (time)
verfließen(German) to become blurred
verflixt!(German) damn!
verfluchen(German) to curse
verflucht(German) damned (familiar)
verflucht!(German) damn!
verflüssigen(German) to liquefy
verfolgen(German) to pursue. to follow, to pester, to persecute (political, religious, etc.)
strafrechtlich verfolgen (German: to prosecute)
Verfolger(German m.) a pursuer
Verfolgung(German f.) a pursuit, a persecution
verfrachten(German) to ship
Verfremdungseffekt(German m., in English 'alienation effect') or V-Effekt, an effect of strangeness or unfamiliarity in a theatrical production, a term coined by the German poet, playwright, and theatre director Berthold Brecht (1898-1956)
verfrüht(German) a premature
verfügbar(German) a available
verfügen(German) to order, to decree (judicial)
verfügen über(German) to have at one's disposal
Verfügung(German f.) an order, a decree (judicial)
jdm zur Verfügung stehen (German: to be at someone's disposal)
jdm zur Verfügung stellen (German: to place at someone's disposal)
verführen(German) to seduce, to tempt
Verführer(German m.) a seducer
verführerisch(German) seductive, tempting
Verführung(German f.) a seduction, a temptation
Verga(Italian f.) a switch, a birch brush used with the bass drum
vergammelt(German) rotten, decayed, scruffy (person)
vergangen(German) past, last
Vergangenheit(German f.) the past, past tense (grammar)
vergänlich(German) transitory
vergasen(German) to gas
Vergaser(German m.) a carburettor
Verge(French f.) a switch, a birch brush used with the bass drum
vergeben(German) to award (prize), to give away, to forgive
vergebens(German) in vain
vergeblich(German) futile, vain, in vain
Vergebung(German f.) forgiveness
vergehen(German) to pass
vergehen vor(German) to nearly die of
Vergehen(German n.) an offence
vergeigen(German) to play a wrong note, etc.
vergelten(German) to repay
Vergeltung(German f.) retaliation, revenge
Vergeltungsmaßnahme(German f.) a reprisal
Verger(French m.) orchard
vergessen(German) to forget, to leave behind
Vergessenheit(German f.) oblivion
in Vergessenheit geraten (German: to be forgotten)
vergeßlich(German) forgetful
Vergeßlichkeit(German f.) forgetfulness
Vergette(French f.) tracker on an organ
vergeuden(German) to waste, to squander
vergewaltig/en(German) to rape
Vergewaltigung(German f.) rape
vergießen(German) to spill, to shed (tears, blood, etc.)
vergiften(German) to poison
Vergiftung(German f.) a poisoning
Vergißmeinnicht(German n.) a forget-me-not
vergittert(German) barred
verglacé(French) icy
Verglas(French m., German) a thin coating of ice, a glass frost, black ice
verglasen(German) to glaze
Vergleich(German m.) a comparison, a settlement (legal)
vergleichbar(German) comparable
vergleiche(German) or vgl., compare (in English the equivalent abbreviation is cf.)
vergleichen (mit)(German) to compare (with), to compare (to)
vergleichende Musikwissenschaft(German f.) ethnomusicology, music ethnology
vergleichsweise(German) comparatively
Vergnügen(German n.) pleasure, fun
viel Vergnügen! (German: have a good time!)
vergnüglich(German) enjoyable
vergnügt(German) pleasant, contented, cheerful, cheery, pleasantly, cheerfully, happy, happily, enjoyable
Vergnügungen(German f. pl.) entertainments
vergogne, sanssee sans vergogne
vergolden(German) to gild, to gold-plate
vergönnen(German) to grant
vergöttern(German) to idolize
vergraben(German) to bury
vergriffen(German) out of print
vergrößern(German) to enlarge, to magnify (a lens), to increase, to extend, to expand (a firm), to augment
Vergrößerung(German f.) magnification, increase, expansion, enlargement (photograph), augmentation
Vergrößerungsglas(German n.) a magnifying glass
Vergrösserung(German f.) augmentation
Vergrößerung(German f.) augmentation
Vergrößerungskanon(German m.) canon in augmentation
vergrösstes Intervall(German m.) an augmented interval
Vergünstigung(German f.) privilege
vergüten(German) to pay for
Vergütung(German f.) remuneration, reimbursement
Verhaal(Dutch) story
verhaften(German) to arrest
Verhaftung(German f.) an arrest
verhalend(Dutch) in a declamatory manner
Verhaler(Dutch) narrator (e.g. in an oratorio)
verhallen(German) to die away, to decrease in tone, to diminish
verhallend(German) dying away, decreasing in tone
Verhalten(German n.) behaviour, conduct
verhalten(German) restrained, held back, sustained
Verhältnis(German n.) relationship, affair (love), ratio (mathematics), proportion (mathematics)
(German) 'relationship' or 'proportion', one of three processes identified in post 17th-century instrumental compositional practice, the other two being Ordnung ('order' or 'organisation') and Zusammenhang ('connection' or 'continuity')
Verhältnisse(German n. pl.) circumstances
über seine Verhältnisse leben (German: to live beyond one's means)
verhältnismäßig(German) comparatively, relatively
Verhandelingen(Dutch) proceedings
verhandeln(German f.) to discuss, to try (a case), to negotiate
verhandeln gegen(German f.) to try (a case)
Verhandlung(German f.) a trial
Verhandlungen(German f. pl.) proceedings, negotiations
verhängen(German) to cover, to impose (figurative)
Verhängnis(German n.) fate, doom
verhängnisvoll(German) fatal, disastrous
verharmlosen(German) to play down
verharren(German) to remain
verhärten(German) to harden
verhaßt(German) hated
verhätscheln(German) to spoil, to pamper
verhauen(German) to beat (familiar), to make a mess of (test, examination, audition, interview, etc.)
verheerend(German) devastating, terrible (familiar)
Verheffing (van de stem)(Dutch) elevation (of the voice)
verheerend(German) devastating, terrible (familiar)
verhehlen(German) to conceal
verheilen(German) to heal
verheimlichen(German) to keep secret
verheiratet(German) married
verherrlichen(German) to glorify
verhexen(German) to bewitch
verhindern(German) to prevent
verhindert sein(German) to be unable to come
Verhinderung(German f.) prevention
Verhoging(Dutch) augmentation, alteration
verhöhnen(German) to deride
Verhör(German n.) an interrogation
ins Verhör nehmen (German: to interrogate)
verhören(German) to interrogate
verhüllen(German) to cover, to disguise (figurative)
verhüllend(German) euphemistic, euphemistically
verhungern(German) to starve
verhüten(German) to prevent
Verhütung(German f.) prevention
Verhütungsmittel(German n.) a contraceptive
verhutzelt(German) wizened
véridique(French) truthful
Vérification(French f.) a check, checking, verification (the discovering of the truth about or correctness of something)
vérifier(French) to check, to verify, to audit (accounts), to confirm
Verilayrustic ballad, a roundelay
Verisimilitude(from the Latin veri similis, 'like the truth') the trait of seeming truthful or appearing to be real
Vérisme(French m.) verismo, realism
Verismo(German m., from the Italian m., literally 'realism') the tendency, particularly in late 19th-century Italian opera, to use strongly realistic subjects, what Tonio, in the prologue to Pagliacci, called squarcio di vita, the 'slice of life', as, for example, in the operas of Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924), Pietro Mascagni (1863-1945) and Ruggero Leoncavallo (1857-1919). The term is applied also to the realism and objectivity found particularly in expressionist painting
véritable(French) true, real (authentique)
véritablement(French) really
Vérité (s.), Vérités(French f.) truth, trueness to life
(French f.) realism in film or television work giving the result the feeling of a documentary (hence cinéma-vérité)
La vérité sort de la bouche des enfants.(French) Out of the mouths of babes.
verjagen(German) to chase away
Verjuicethe juice of green or unripened fruits such as grapes and (more commonly) crab apples; a popular ingredient in medieval cookery which often replaced vinegar
verjüngen(German) to rejuvenate
Verk(Swedish) work
verkalkt(German) senile (familiar)
verkastet(German) moulded
Verkauf(German m.) a sale
zum Verkauf (German: for sale)
verkaufen(German) to sell
zu verkaufen (German: for sale)
Verkäufer (m.), Verkäuferin (f.)(German) a seller, a shop assistant
Verkaufsabteilung(German f.) or Vertriebsabteilung (German f.), sales department
Verkehr(German m.) traffic, contact, intercourse
aus dem Verkehr ziehen (German: to take out of circulation)
verkehren(German) to operate, to run (bus, train), to associate, to mix, to visit, to frequent (a bar, etc.)
brieflich verkehren (German: to correspond)
ins Gegenteil verkehren (German: to turn round)
verkehren mit(German) to associate with, to mix with
verkehren in einem Lokal(German) to frequent a restaurant
Verkehrsampel(German f.) traffic lights
Verkehrsbüro(German n.) or Verkehrsverein, a tourist office
Verkehrsfunk(German m.) [radio] traffic information
Verkehrsunfall(German m.) a road accident
Verkehrsverein(German m.) or Verkehrsbüro, a tourist office
Verkehrszeichen(German n.) a traffic sign
verkehrt(German) wrong, wrongly
verkehrtherum(German) the wrong way round, inside out
Verkehrung(German f.) contrary motion (as regards imitation)
verkennen(German) to misjudge
verklagen (auf)(German) to sue (for)
Verklaring(Dutch) commentary
verklärt (m.), verklärte (f.), verklärtes (n.)(German) transfigured, glorified
verkleiden(German) to disguise, to line (something with something)
Verkleidung(German f.) a disguise, a fancy dress, a lining
verkleinern(German) to reduce (in size)
Verkleinerung(German f.) a reduction, a diminution
Verkleinerungsform(German f.) the diminutive (grammar, etc.)
Verkleinerungskanon(German m.) canon in diminution
verkleining(Dutch) diminution
verklemmt(German) jammed, inhibited (psychologically)
verklingend lassen(German) let die away
verklingen lassen(German) let die away
verknittern(German) to crumple
verknüpfen(German) to knot together, to connect, to link, to combine
verkommen(German) to be neglected, to go to the bad, to decay, to fall into disrepair (building), to become run-down (area), to go bad
neglected, depraved, dilapidated (building), run-down (area)
verkörpern(German) to embody, to personify
Verkörperung(German f.) an embodiment, a personification
verkraften(German) to cope with
verkrampft(German) tense (figurative)
verkrümmt(German) crooked, bent
verkrüppelt(German) crippled, deformed
Verkühlung(German f,) a chill
verkümmern(German) to waste away, to wither away
verkümmert(German) stunted
verkünden(German) to announce, to pronounce (judgement)
verkündigen(German) to announce, to preach
verkürzen(German) to shorten, to reduce, to diminish, to cut short, to while away (the time)
Verkürzung(German f.) diminution
Verl.abbreviation of Verlag (German: publisher)
Verlaagde kwint(Dutch) flattened fifth
verladen(German) to load
Verlag(German m.) publisher, publishing house, publishing firm
verlager der erstausgabe(German) publisher of first edition
Verlag und Druck(German, literally 'published and printed') a phrase found sometimes as a prefix to the name of a printing house on German made printed cards
verlag von ...(German) published by ...
verlangen(German) to ask for, to demand, to charge
am Telefon verlangt werden (German: to be wanted on the telephone)
Verlangen(German n.) a desire, a request
auf Verlangen (German: on demand)
Verlangend(German) longingly
verlängerbar(German) renewable
verlängerd(German) stretching out, prolonging, prolungando, en prolongeant
verlängern(German) to continue, to extend, to lengthen, to elongate, to prolong, to renew, to thin down (cooking), to eke out
verlängert(German) elongated, protracted, lengthened, extended, eked out, thinned down (cooking)
Verlängerung(German f.) an extension, a renewal, a prolongation, an elongation, a lengthening, a protraction
Verlängerungskabel(German n.) an extension cable
Verlängerungspunkt(German m.) augmentation dot
Verlängerungsschnur(German f.) an extension cord
Verlängerungsstück(German n.) continuation
Verlängerungszeichen(German n.) fermata
verlangsamen(German) to decelerate, to slacken
sich verlangsamen (German: to slow down)
verlängsamt(German) slower, rallentato
Verlangsamung(German f.) deceleration, reterdation, slow-down
Verlassen(German n.) abandonment, leaving
verlassen(German) to leave, to desert, to abandon, to check out, to ditch, to evacuate, to fail, to flee, to jack up, to leave, to quit, to relinquish, to forsake
(German) deserted, derelict, desolate, friendless, outgoing, lonely, lonesome, forlorn
verlassenen Kinder, die(German pl.) waifs and strays
Verlassenheit(German f.) desolation, abandonment, desertion, loneliness, forlorness
verläßlich(German) reliable
Verlauf(German m.) course
im Verlauf (German: in the course of)
verlaufen(German) to run, to go, to melt
gut verlaufen (German: to go [off] well)
verleben(German) to spend
verlegen(German) to move, to postpone, to bring forward, to mislay, to block, to lay (carpet, etc.), to publish
(German) embarrassed
nie verlegen um (German: never at a loss for)
Verlegenheit(German f.) an embarrassment
Verleger(German m.) a publisher
Verleih(German m.) distribution, distributors, hire, hire service, rental, rental service
Verleihen(German n.) lending, renting, hiring, bestowing, conferring, imparting
verleihen(German) to lend, to loan, to hire out, to rent out, to award, to confer, to bestow, to give (figurative), to impart, to distribute
Verleiher (m.), Verleiherin (f.)(German) bestower, renter, loaner, lender, grantor, hirer, distributor
verleiten(German) to induce, to tempt
verleiten zu(German) to tempt to
Verlengde mordent(Dutch) extended mordent
verlernen(German) to forget
verlesen(German) to read out
ich habe mich verlesen (German: I misread it)
verlesen(German) to sort out
verletzen(German) to injure, to hurt, to infringe, to violate
verletzend(German) hurtful, wounding
verletzlich(German) vulnerable
Verletzte (m.), Verlezter (f.)(German) an injured person, a casualty
Verletzung(German f.) an infringement, a violation
verleugnen(German) to deny, to disown
verleumden(German) to slander, to libel
verleumderisch(German) slanderous, libellous
Verleumdung(German f.) a slander, a libel
verliebt(German) loved, in a tender manner, lovingly
verliebt sein (German: to be in love)
verlieren(German) to lose, to shed
Verlierer(German m.) a loser
verlierend(German) losing itself, dying away, extinguishing
verlobt sein(German) to be engaged
Verlobte(German f.) a fiancée
Verlobter(German m.) a fiancé
Verlobung(German f.) an engagement
Verlobungsring(German m.) an engagement ring
verlocken(German) to tempt
verlockend(German) tempting
Verlockung(German f.) a temptation
verlogen(German) lying
verloren(German) lost
verlorenes Ei (s.), verlorene Eier (pl.)(German n.) poached egg
verlorenes Buch(German n.) lost book
verlorengehen(German) to get lost
verlöschend(German) extinguishing, dying away, estinguendosi (Italian), en s'éteignant (French)
verlosen(German) to raffle
Verlosung(German f.) a raffle, a draw
verlöten(German) to solder
verlötet(German) soldered
verlottert(German) run-down, scruffy (person), dissolute (morally)
Ver luisant(French m.) a glow-worm
Verlust(German m.) loss
vermachen(German) to leave, to bequeath
Vermächtnis(German n.) a legacy
Vermählung(German f.) marriage
vermeerderd(Dutch) enlarged, increased
vermehren(German) to increase, to propagate (plants)
vermehrend(German) getting louder, accrescendo (Italian), zunehmend (German), en accroissant (French), for example, by augmenting tone and force
(German) augmenting, aumentando (Italian), steigernd (German), zunehmend (German), en augmentant (French), increasing (an alternative to crescendo)
vermehrt(German) enlarged, increased
vermeiden(German) to avoid
vermeil (m.), vermeille (f.)(French) bright red
vermeintlich(German) supposed, supposedly
Vermerk(German m.) a note
vermerken(German) to note [down]
übel vermerken (German: to take amiss)
vermessen(German) to measure, to survey (land)
(German) presumptuous
Vermessenheit(German f.) presumption
Vermessung(German f.) a measurement, a survey (land)
Vermicelles(French m. pl.) vermicelli
Vermicelli(Italian, literally 'little worms') the smallest variety of pasta
vermieten(German) to let, to rent [out], to hire out (boat, car, etc.)
zu vermieten (German: to let, for hire)
Vermieter(German m.) a landlord
Vermieterin(German f.) a landlady
verminderd akkoord(Dutch) diminished chord
verminderde drieklank(Dutch) diminished triad
verminderd interval(Dutch) diminished interval
verminderd septiem akkoord(Dutch) diminished seventh chord
vermindern(German) to reduce, to lessen, to diminish
vermindernd(German) diminishing, decreasing, gradually softer, dying away, diminishing in loudness, diminuendo (Italian), decrescendo (Italian), sminuendo (Italian), en diminuant (French)
vermindert(German) diminished (interval)
verminderte Prime(German f.) diminished prime, diminished unison
some musical theorists do not accept this as a 'proper' interval because the 'upper note' actually lies lower the root
verminderte Dezime(German f.) diminished tenth
verminderte Duodezime(German f.) diminished twelfth
verminderte None(German f.) diminished ninth
verminderte Octave(German f.) diminished octave
verminderte Quarte(German f.) diminished fourth
verminderte Quinte(German f.) diminished fifth
verminderter Akkord(German m.) diminished chord
verminderter Dreiklang(German m.) diminished triad
verminderter Septakkord(German m.) diminished seventh chord
verminderte Sekunde(German f.) diminished second
verminderte Septime(German f.) diminished seventh
verminderte Sexte(German f.) diminished sixth
vermindertes Intervall(German n.) diminished interval
Verminderte Skala (s.), verminderte Skalen (pl.)(German f.) diminished scales
verminderte Terz(German f.) diminished third
verminderte Tredezime(German f.) diminished thirteenth, flat thirteenth
verminderte Undezime(German f.) diminished eleventh
Verminderung(German f.) a reduction, a decrease
Vermine(French f.) vermin
vermischen(German) to mix
vermissen(German) to miss
vermißt(German) a missing
Vermißte(r)(German m.) a missing person, a missing soldier
vermitteln(German) to mediate, to arrange, to find (to obtain, to get), to place (workers), to impart (wisdom), to convey (an impression)
vermittels(German) by means of
Vermittler(German m.) agent, mediator, broker, go-between, intermediary, moderator
Vermittlung(German f.) an arrangement, an agency, an exchange (telephone), a mediation
Vermögen(German n.) a fortune
vermögen (zu)(German) to be able (to)
vermögend(German) wealthy
vermoulu(French) wormeaten
vermuten(German) to suspect, to presume
vermutlich(German) probable, presumably
Vermutung(German f.) a supposition, a suspicion, a conjecture
vern.abbreviation of 'vernacular'
vernachlässigen(German) to neglect
Vernachlässigung(German f.) neglect
Vernacular(from Latin vernaculus, 'native' or 'indigenous') the standard native language of a country or locality, the everyday language spoken by a people as distinguished from the literary
historically, the language of the people, rather than Latin, the official language of the Catholic Church - for example, the vernacular in France is French, the vernacular in Wales is Welsh
in literature, the writer's own native language
Vernacularista term used to describe a 20th century composition approach making use of popular music forms such as jazz or theatre
Vernacular literatureliterature written in the vernacular - the speech of the "common people"
Vernaculo(Italian m.) vernacular
vernáculo(Spanish) vernacular
Vernacciaor 'Vernage', a strong sweet Italian wine
vernehmbar(German) perceptible
vernehmen(German) to hear, to perceive, to question, to examine (judicial)
Vernehmung(German f.) questioning
Verneigung(German f.) a bow
verneinen(German) to answer in the negative, to reject
verneinend(German) negative
Verneinung(German f.) a negative answer
verni(French) lucky
Vernice(Italian f.), vernis (French m.), Lack (German m.), varnish, resinous solution used to give a hard shiny transparent coating
vernichten(German) to destroy, to exterminate
vernichtend(German) devastating, crushing (defeat)
vernichtende Kritik(German f.) excoriation, slating (severe criticism)
Vernichtung(German f.) destruction, extermination
Vernichtungslager(German n.) an extermination camp
vernir(French) to varnish
Vernis(French m.) Lack (German m.), vernice (Italian f.), varnish, resinous solution used to give a hard shiny transparent coating
(French m.) glaze (on pottery)
Vernis à ongles(French m.) nail polish, nail varnish
Vernissage(French) in art, the application of a temporary coat of varnish to a painting
the 'private view' or preview at an exhibition (usually of works of art)
vernisser(French) to glaze
Vernunft(German f.) reason
Vernunft annehmen(German) to see reason
vernünftig(German) reasonable, sensible, decent, sensibly, properly (familiar)
Veröffentlichen(German) to publication
veröffentlicht(German) published
Veröffentlichung(German f.) a publication
Veröffentlichungsvermerk(German m.) publication note
Veron, Louis Desiré
a French opera manager and publisher. Veron originally made his fortune from patent medicines. In 1829 he founded the journal Revue de Paris, and from 1838 to 1852 was owner and director of the Constitutionnel, in which he published Eugene Sue's novel based on the legend of the Wandering Jew. It was also during Veron's direction and at his suggestion that Sainte-Beuve contributed the Causeries du lundi, an early example of the regular newspaper column. He is largely known to history for his direction, from 1831-1835, of the Paris Opera
verordnen(German) to prescribe
Verordnung(German f.) a prescription, a decree (legal, judicial)
verpachten(German) to lease [out]
verpacken(German) to pack, to wrap
Verpackung(German f.) packaging, wrapping
verpassen(German) to miss, to give
verpfänden(German) to pawn
verpflanzen(German) to transplant (seedling, etc.)
verpflegen(German) to feed
Verpflegung(German f.) board, food
Unterkunft und Verpflegung (German: board and lodging)
verpflichten(German) to oblige, to engage, to sign (a footballer, etc.)
... verpflichtet sein(German) be indebted to ...
Verpflichtung(German f.) an obligation, a commitment
verpfuschen(German) to make a mess of
verpönt sein(German) to be frowned upon
verprügeln(German) to beat up, to thrash
Verputz(German m.) plaster
verputzen(German) to plaster, to polish off (a meal)
Verrat(German m.) betrayal, treachery
verraten(German) to betray, to give away, to tell (familiar)
Verräter(German m.) a traitor
verräterisch(German) treacherous, revealing (figurative)
verräuchert(German) smoky
verrauscht(German) noisy
Verre(French m.) a glass
verrechnen(German) to settle, to clear (cheque)
Verrechnungsscheck(German m.) a crossed cheque
Verre de contact(French m.) a contact lens
Verre dépoli(French m.) frosted glass
verregnet(German) spoilt by rain, rainy (day), wet (day)
Verre grossissant(French m.) a magnifying glass
Verre églomisé (s.), Verres églomisés (pl.)(French) named for the 18th-century French decorator and art-dealer Jean-Baptiste Glomi (1711-1786), a glass decorating process rediscovered around 1760 consisting of the application of a pattern cut out of gold leaf fixed witha geletin adhesive, which is then secured by the application of a thin over-layer of fused powdered glass. The technique dates back to pre-Roman eras
verreisen(German) to go away
verreißen(German) to pan (familiar), to slate
verreist sein(German) to be away
verrenken(German) to dislocate
Verrerie(French f.) glassware
verrichten(German) to perform, to do, to say
Verrichtenung(German f.) a task
verriegeln(German) to bolt
Verrière(French f.) a glass-roof, a glass wall
verringern(German) to reduce
verringernd(German) diminishing, softening, assottigliando (Italian), en amenuisant (French)
Verringerung(German f.) a reduction, a decrease
verrissen(German) blurred
Verrophonea musical instrument, invented in 1983, by Reckert, in which open-ended glass tubes are arranged in various sizes (usually in a chromatic scale, arranged from large to small, like the pipes of a pipe organ). The sound is made by rubbing one end of one or more of the glass tubes. The tubes are close together so that chords can be played by rubbing more than one at the same time
  • Verrophone from which this extract has been taken
verrosten(German) to rust
verrostet(German) rusty
Verrou(French m.) a bolt
sous les verrous (French: behind bars)
verrouiller(French) to bolt
verrücken(German) to move
verrückt(German) crazy, mad
Verrückte (m.), Verrückter (f.)(German) a lunatic
Verrücktheit(German f.) madness, folly
verrückt machen(German) to drive crazy
verrückt werden(German) to go crazy
Verrue(French f.) a wart
Verruf(German m.) disrepute
verrufen(German) disreputable
verrühren(German) to mix
verrunzelt(German) wrinkled
verrutschen(German) to slip
Vers(French m.) a line
les vers (French: verse)
(French m.) a troubadour song with five to ten verses and one or two tornadas, shorter concluding, often dedicatory, verses
a song in Old Provencal almost indistinguishable from the chanson, but vers is the older term
(French m.) in poetry, a metrical line, or a specific number of these metrical lines (i.e. a verse)
(German m.) verse, line, strophe, stanza
vers(French) towards, about (time)
vers.abbreviation of 'version'
versagen(German) to fail
Versagen(German n.) a failure
Versager(German m.) a failure
versalzen(German) to put too much salt in, to put too much salt on, to spoil (figurative)
versammeln(German) to assemble
Versammlung(German f.) an assembly, a meeting
Versand(German m.) a dispatch
Versandabteilung(German m.) forwarding department
Versandhaus(German n.) a mail-order firm
Versant(French m.) a slope, a side
versatile(French) fickle
Versatz(German m.) offset, mismatch
Versatzstück(German n.) set piece
versäumen(German) to miss, to lose (time), to neglect
Versäumnis(German n.) an omission
verschaffen(German) to get
verschämt(German) bashful, bashfully
verschandeln(German) to spoil
verschärfen(German) to intensify, to tighten (control), to increase (speed), to aggravate (situation, position)
verschenken(German) to give away
verscheuchen(German) to shoo, to chase away
verschicken(German) to send, to dispatch (a package, etc.)
verschieben(German) to move, to put off, to postpone, to traffic in
Verschiebung(German f.) delay, shift, postponement
Verschiebungspedal(German n.) a mechanism on a fortepiano that moves the hammers to the right so that they strike fewer strings (undepressed: tre corde, slightly pressed: due corde, fully depressed: una corda
(German n.) the soft pedal
verschieden (s.), vershiedene (pl.)(German) different, various
die verschiedensten Farben (German: a whole variety of colours)
das ist verschieden (German: it varies, differently)
verschiedenes(German) some things, various things
verschieden groß(German) of different sizes
verschieden lang(German) of different lengths
verschiedenartig(German) diverse
Verschiedenheit(German f.) difference, diversity
verschiedentlich(German) several times
verschijnen(Dutch) appear, come out (as of a publication)
verschimmeln(German) to go mouldy
verschimmelt(German) mouldy
verschlafen(German) to oversleep, to sleep through (the day), to miss (train, etc.)
noch verschlafen (German: still half asleep)
Verschlag(German m.) a shed
verschlagen(German) to lose
(German) sly, slyly
... die Sprache verschlagen (German: to leave ... speechless)
... den Atem verschlagen (German: to take ... breath away)
nach ... verschlagen werden (German: to end up in ... (a place))
verschlechtern(German) to make worse
Verschlechterung(German f.) a deterioration
verschleiern(German) to veil, to hide (figurative)
Verschleiß(German m.) wear and tear, consumption
verschleißen(German) to wear out
verschleiert(German) veiled, husky
verschleppen(German) to carry off, to abduct, to spread, to neglect (health), to delay
verschleppend(German) dragging, trascicando, trainando, strascinando
verschleudern (German) to sell at a loss, to squander
verschließen(German) to close, to lock, to lock up
verschlimmern(German) to make worse, to aggravate (situation, position)
Verschlimmerung(German f.) a deterioration
verschlingen(German) to intertwine, to devour, to swallow (figurative)
verschlissen(German) worn
verschlossen(German) reserved
Verschlossenheit(German f.) a reserve
verschlucken(German) to swallow
Verschluß(German m.) a fastener, a clasp, a catch (window, case, etc.), a top (bottle), a seal (airtight), a shutter (photography)
unter Verschluß (German: under lock and key)
verschlüsselt(German) coded
verschmähen(German) to spurn
verschmelzen(German) to fuse
verschmerzen(German) to get over
verschmutzen(German) to soil, to pollute (air), to get dirty
Verschmutzung(German f.) pollution
verschneit(German) snow-covered
verschnörkelt(German) ornate
verschnüren(German) to tie up
verschoben(German) postponed
verschollen(German) missing
verschonen(German) to spare
verschönern(German) to brighten up, to improve (to make better)
verschossen(German) faded
verschrammt(German) scratched
verschränken(German) to cross
verschreiben(German) to prescribe
verschrien(German) notorious
verschroben(German) eccentric
verschrotten(German) to scrap
Verschulden(German n.) a fault
verschulden(German) to be to blame for
verschuldet sein(German) to be in debt
verschütten(German) to spill, to bury
verschweigen(German) to conceal, to hide
verschwenden(German) to waste
verschwenderisch(German) extravagant, extravagantly, lavish, lavishly
Verschwendung(German f.) extravagance, waste
verschwiegen(German) discreet, secluded
Verschwiegenheit(German f.) discretion
verschwimmen(German) to become blurred
Verschwinden(German n.) a disappearance
verschwinden(German) to disappear
verschwindend(German, literally 'dying away') dying away, fading away, morendo
verschwommen(German) blurred
das verschwommene Bild (German: a blurred image)
Verschwörung(German f.) a conspiracy
verschwundenes Buch(German n.) missing book
Vers de société(French pl.) light verse on topics of interest to polite society, often intended for public performance, and it is typically thought to be marked by wit, eloquence, and graceful diction
Versesolo passage from the Gradual that precedes the respond or response sung by the choir or congregation
in poetry or song, a verse is a group of lines which constitutes a single unit, where there are several verses in a single text, usually although not necessarily with a common rhyme scheme, rhythm (meter) and number of poetic lines and feet to each verse in a particular text
in popular songs, a verse is the section of the song in which different sets of words are sung to the same repeated melody, which contrasts with a chorus where the words and melody are both repeated
a specially composed introduction to a ballad, often played or sung in a free rhythm (i.e. rubato)
Verse-anthemor 'verse anthem', an Anglican devotional composition for solo voices with a choral refrain, the verse anthem is similar to the Catholic motet. The 'full anthem' is for full choir without soloists
Verseau, le(French m.) Aquarius (astrology)
versé dans(French) versed in
verse en un aprieto(Spanish) be in a tight spot
Versehen(German n.) an oversight, a slip (mistake)
aus Versehen (German: by mistake)
versehen(German) to perform, to hold (position), to keep (household)
versehen mit(German) to provide with
versehentlich(German) by mistake
Versehrte (m.), Versehrter (f.)(German) a disabled person
Versement(French m.) a payment
versenden(German) to send [out]
versengen(German) to singe, to scorch
versenken(German) to sink
Verse paragrapha division of poetry indicated normally by adding an extra line-space above and below the section to set it off from other parts of the poem. Unlike a stanza, in which the division of poetry corresponds to repeated elements of rhyme or other poetic structure, and in which each stanza must be identical in length and form to that of other stanzas, verse paragraphs end and begin according to divisions of sense and subject-matter. They are much like prose paragraphs in an essay, in which each paragraph deals with a single topic or idea, and a new paragraph division indicates that a new topic or idea is to be explored. Like paragraphs in a prose essay (and unlike stanzas), verse paragraphs can vary in length within an individual poetic work
verser(French) to pour, to shed, to overturn, to pay
Verse servicea choral service in which verses are introduced
versessen (auf)(German) keen (on)
Verset(French m.) a versicle, a religious verse
a short prelude or interlude for organ, often replacing a sung verse in, for example, a hymn or psalm
Versette(German) short pieces for organ, intended as preludes, interludes or postludes
Versetto(Italian) a stanza, a strophe, a versicle
certain organ interludes in the Roman Catholic Church
versetzen(German) to transpose (music, etc.), to move, to transfer, to move up (in school), to pawn, to sell, to reply
jdn versetzen (German: to stand someone up)
jdm einen Stoß versetzen (German: to give someone a push)
jdm einen Schreck versetzen (German: to give someone a fright)
jdm in Angst versetzen (German: to frighten someone)
jdm in Erstaunen versetzen (German: to astonish someone)
Versetzung(German f.) transposition
Versetzungszeichen(German n.) accidental, for example, sharp, flat and natural signs
verseuchen(German) to contaminate
Verseuchung(German f.) contamination
versichern(German) to insure, to affirm
Versicherung(German f.) insurance, assurance
Versiclein Western Christian rites, a phrase or sentence from Scripture sung by the officiant (marked Vers.) and answered by the choir and/or congregation (marked Resp.)
Versiculo(Spanish m.) verse, versicle
Versie(Dutch) version
versiegeln(German) to seal
versiegeltes Buch(German n.) closed book
versiegen(German) to dry up
Versiering(Dutch) embellishment
Versieringen(Dutch) graces, ornaments
Versieringenstonen(Dutch) grace notes
versiert(German) experienced
Versificación(Spanish f.) versification
versificar(Spanish) to versify, to write verse
Versificationthe technical and practical aspect of writing poetry, another name for prosody
the metrical adaptation of something (for example, of a prose text)
Versikel(German) a versicle
versilbert(German) silver-plated
versinken(German) to sink
in Gedanken versunken (German: lost in thought)
Version(English, German f., French f.) something a little different from others of the same type, adaptation (a written work that has been recast in a new form), translation (a written communication in a second language having the same meaning as the written communication in a first language), an interpretation of a matter from a particular viewpoint
Versión(Spanish f.) version
Versione(Italian f.) version
Versione originale(Italian f.) original version, Urtext
Version original(French f.) original version, Urtext
Versi sciolti(Italian blank verse
Vers libre (s.), Vers libres (pl.)(French m.) free verse, verse consisting of unrhymed lines of irregular length arranged according to no regular pattern
'free verse' should not be confused with 'blank verse'
Versmass(German n.) or Versmaß, a metre
Verso(Latin m., literally 'reverse') the left hand page of a double page of a book, or the reverse of a folio, abbreviated as v. (the front of a folio is recto or r.)
(Italian m.) verse, line
(Spanish m.) verse, poem, left-hand page
(French m.) back (of the page)
Verso blanco(Spanish m.) blank verse
Verso eroico(Italian m.) heroic verse
versöhnen(German) to reconcile
versöhnlich(German) conciliatory
Versöhnung(German f.) a reconciliation
verso il pont.see verso il ponticello
verso il ponticello(Italian) abbreviated to verso il pont., meaning towards the bridge (i.e. an effect partway towards sul ponticello, generally abbreviated to sub pont.), a direction to the violas used by Leonard Bernstein in the second movement of his Chichester Psalms [definition supplied by Bram Wayman]
Verso libre(Spanish m.) free verse
versorgen(German) to provide, to supply, to provide for, to look after, to keep (house)
versorgen mit(German) to supply with
Versorgung(German f.) provision, supply, care
Verso sciolto(Italian m.) in music, free and unrestricted (i.e. informal), lighthearted in tone
see versi sciolti
verspätet(German) late, delayed (train, arrival, etc.), belated (thanks, good-wishes, etc.), belatedly
Verspätung(German f.) retardation, delay, lateness
Verspätung haben(German) to be late
versperren(German) to block, to bar (the way)
verspielen(German) to gamble away
verspielt(German) playful, playfully
verspotten(German) to mock, to ridicule
versprechen(German) to promise
Versprechen(German n.) a promise
Versprecher(German m.) or falsche Zungenschlag (German m.), a slip of the tongue
Versprechungen(German f. pl.) promises
verspüren(German) to feel
Verst(from Russian versta) a Russian mile, equivalent to about 2/3 of a standard British mile
verstaatlichen(German) to nationalize
Verstaatlichung(German f.) nationalization
Verstand(German m.) mind, reason
den Verstand verlieren (German: to go out of one's mind)
verstandesmäßig(German) rational, rationally
verständig(German) sensible, sensibly, intelligent, intelligently
verständigen(German) to notify, to inform
Verständigung(German f.) notification, communication, agreement
verständlich(German) comprehensible, comprehensibly, clear, clearly, understandable
verständlicherweise(German) understandably
Verständnis(German n.) an understanding
verständnislos(German) uncomprehending, uncomprehendingly
verständnisvoll(German) understanding, understandingly
verstärken(German) to strengthen, to reinforce (strengthen), to intensify, to increase, to amplify (sound)
verstärkend(German) rinforzando (Italian), rafforzando (Italian), strengthening, en reforçant (French)
Verstärker(German m.) amplifier (often shortened to 'amp')
verstärkt(German) strengthened, sforzando (Italian), rinforzato (Italian), rinforzando, renforcé (French)
Verstärkung(German f.) reinforcement, increase, amplification, reinforcements, bracing, brace
verstaubt(German) dusty
verstauchen(German) to sprain
verstauen(German) to stow
Versteck(German n.) a hiding-place
Versteck spielen (German: to play hide-and-seek)
verstecken(German) vt hide
versteckt(German) hidden, secret, furtive, furtively
Verstehen(German n.) understanding
verstehen(German) to understand, to know
falsch verstehen (German: to misunderstand)
versteifen(German) to stiffen
versteigern(German) to auction
Versteigerung(German f.) an auction
versteinert(German) fossilized
verstellbar(German) adjustable
verstellen(German) to adjust, to block, to disguise
Verstellung(German f.) a pretence
verstemd(Dutch) out of tune
Verstemming(Dutch) mistuning
versteuern(German) to pay tax on
verstiegen(German) extravagant (figurative)
verstimmen(German) to detune
verstimmt(German) out of tune, mistuned
(German) depressed, disgruntled, upset
Verstimmung(German f.) scordatura
(German f.) ill-humour, upset
verstockt(German) stubborn, stubbornly
verstohlen(German) furtive, furtively
verstreichen(German) to elapse
verstopfen(German) to plug, to block
verstopft(German) blocked, constipated (person)
Verstopfung(German f.) a blockage, constipation (medical)
verstorben(German) late, deceased
Verstorbene (m.), Verstorbener (f.)(German) the deceased (person)
verstört(German) bewildered
Verstoß(German m.) an infringement
verstoßen(German) to disown
verstoßen gegen(German) to contravene, to infringe, to offend against
verstreichen(German) to spread, to pass
verstreuen(German) to scatter
verstümmeln(German) to mutilate, to garble (text)
verstummen(German) to fall silent, to cease (speaking, etc.)
Versusee conductus
Versuch(German m.) an attempt, an experiment
'Versuch', theabbreviation of Versuch einer Anweisung die Flöte traversiere zu spielen (Berlin, 1752) by Johann Joachim Quantz (1697-1773) and also of Versuch über die wahre Art das Clavier zu spielen (Berlin, 1753) by Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (1714-1788) both important sources of information about performance practice in the mid-18th century
versuchen(German) to try
Versuchskaninchen(German n.) a guinea-pig (figurative)
versuchsweise(German) as an experiment
versucht sein (zu)(German) to be tempted (to)
Versuchung(German f.) temptation
Versus(German m., Latin) verse, against
Vert(French m.) green
vert (m.), verte (f.)(French) green, sprightly
vert.abbreviation of 'vertical'
vertagen(German) to adjourn, to postpone
vertaling(Dutch) translation
Vertatur(Latin) turn over (a page)
vertauschen(German) to exchange, to mix up
Verte(Latin) turn over (a page)
Vertèbre(French f.) vertebra
verteidigen(German) to defend
Verteidiger(German m.) a defender, defence counsel (legal)
Verteidigung(German f.) defence
verteilen(German) to distribute, to allocate, to hand out, to spread
verteilt(German) divided
Verteilung(German f.) a distribution, an allocation
vertelling(Dutch) story
vertement(French) sharply
vertentis anni(Latin) current (in the sense of now)
vertheilt(German) divided
vertical (m.), verticale (f.)(French) vertical
Verticale(French f.) the vertical
verticalement(French) vertically
Vertical intervalsynonymous with 'harmonic interval'
Vertically strunga reference to the stringing on pianofortes, à cordes verticales (French), a corde verticale (Italian), geradsaitig (German), a cuerdas vericales (Spanish)
vertiefen(German) to deepen
vertieft sein in(German) to be engrossed in
Vertiefung(German f.) a hollow, a depression
Vertige(French m.) dizziness, vertigo
Vertiges(French m. pl.) dizzy spells
vertigineux (m.), vertigineuse (f.)(French) dizzy, staggering (very great)
Vertigo(Latin) giddiness, dizziness (induced in some poeple by heights)
vertikal(German) vertical, vertically
vertilgen(German) to exterminate, to kill [off], to demolish (a meal - familiar)
vertippt, ich hab' mich(German) I have made a typo (a typing mistake)
(German) Greg Crowell, writing to the Yahoo clavichord list, explained the meaning of 'typo' to a baffled German correspondent, by recounting a short anecdote about a German teenager he once taught. Upon playing a wrong note, she exclaimed, O! Ich hab' mich vertippt! ("Oh! I made a typo!")
Vertolker(Dutch) interpreter
Vertolking(Dutch) interpretation
vertonen(German) to set to music
Vertrag(German m.) a contract, a treaty
vertragen(German) to tolerate, to stand, to take (criticism, space, etc.)
(German) worn
vertragend(Dutch) slackening pace, slowing
vertraglich(German) contractual
verträglich(German) good-natured, digestible
Vertrauen(German n.) trust, confidence
im Vertrauen (German: in confidence)
vertrauen(German) to trust (someone or something)
Vertrauen zu(German) confidence in
Vertrauensmann(German m.) a representative, a spokesman
vertrauensvoll(German) trusting, trustingly
vertrauenswürdig(German) trustworthy
vertraulich(German) confidential, confidentially, familiar, familiarly
vertraut(German) intimate, familiar (to be known)
Vertraute(German m.) a confidant, a confidante, a familiar
vertraute Freund(German m.) a familiar friend, a particular friend
Vertrautheit(German f.) intimacy, familiarity
vertreite Umgang(German m.) intimacy
vertreiben(German) to drive away, to drive out (a devil), to sell (in business)
Vertreibung(German f.) expulsion
vertreten(German) to represent, to stand in for, to deputize for, to support, to hold (an opinion)
Vertreter(German m.) a representative, a deputy, a locum (medical), a supporter, an advocate
Vertretung(German f.) representation, deputy, locum, agency
Vertrieb(German m.) a sale
Vertriebene (m.), Vertriebener (f.)(German) a displaced person
Vertriebsabteilung(German f.) or Verkaufsabteilung (German f.), sales department
vertrocknen(German) to dry up
Vertu(French f.) virtue
vertueux (m.), vertueuse (f.)(French) virtuous
vertun(German) to waste
vertuschen(German) to hush up
verüben(German) to commit
verunglimpfen(German) to denigrate
verunglücken(German) to be involved in an accident, to go wrong (familiar)
tödlich verunglücken (German: to be killed in an accident)
verunreinigen(German) to pollute, to contaminate, to soil
verunstalten(German) to disfigure
veruntreuen(German) to embezzle
Veruntreuung(German f.) embezzlement
verursachen(German) to cause
verurteilen(German) to condemn, to convict (judicial), to sentence
verurteilen wegen(German) to convict of
verurteilen zum Tode(German) to sentence to death
Verurteilung(German f.) condemnation, conviction (judicial)
Vervaina medicinal plant of the verbena family, slightly bitter in taste
Verve(French f.) spirit, wit, energy, vigour, enthusiasm (particularly intellectual vigour displayed in works of art, literature, etc.)
Verveine(French f.) verbena
ver verwijderde toonaarden(Dutch) distant keys
vervielfachen(German) to multiply
vervielfältigen(German) to duplicate
Vervielfältigung(German f.) duplication
vervielfältigungs Recht(German n.) the right to make copies
vervollkommnen(German) to perfect, to better, to touch up, to improve
Vervollkommnung(German f.) elaboration, improvement, perfection
vervollkommnungsfähig(German) perfectable
Vervollkommnungsfähigkeit(German f.) perfectability
vervollständigen(German) to complete
verwachsen(German) to close, to grow together, to become overgrown (garden), to heal up, to unite
(German) deformed, crooked, humpbacked, hunchbacked
Verwachsung(German f.) accretion, coalescence, deformation, adhesion
verwackeln(German) to blur, to shake
verwackelt(German) blurred, shaky (image)
verwackelte Bild(German n.) unstable picture (for example, on a television screen)
verwahren(German) to keep, to put away
verwahrlost(German) neglected, dilapidated (house), depraved
Verwahrung(German f.) keeping
in Verwahrung nehmen (German: to take into safe keeping)
verwaist(German) orphaned
verwalten(German) to administer, to manage, to govern (a territory)
Verwalter(German m.) an administrator, a manager
Verwaltung(German f.) administration, management, government
Verwaltungseingang(German m.) office entrance
verwandeln(German) to transform, to change
verwandeln in(German) to change into
Verwandlung(German f.) a transformation
verwandt(German) related
(German) related (keys), relative (keys), etc.
Verwandte (m.), Verwandter (f.)(German) a relative (person)
verwandte Tonarten(German f. pl.) related keys, relative keys
verwandt mit(German) related to
Verwandtschaft(German f.) relationship, relatives (people)
Verwandtschaftsbeziehung(German f.) relationship
verwarnen(German) to warn, to caution
Verwarnung(German f.) a warning, a caution
verwaschen(German) washed out, faded
verwechseln(German) to mix up, to confuse, to mistake
verwechseln mit(German) to mistake for
Verwechslung(German f.) change, inversion, mutation (pertaining to key, note, etc.), a mix-up, confusion, a mistake
verwegen(German) audacious, audaciously
Verwehung(German f.) a [snow-]drift
verweichlicht(German) soft (figurative)
verweigern(German) to refuse (someone something)
Verweigerung(German f.) a refusal
verweilen(German) to stay
verweilend(German) delaying, retarding the time, rallentando
Verweis(German m.) a reference, a reprimand
Verweis auf(German m.) a reference to
verweisen(German ) to refer, to reprimand
von der Schule verweisen (German: expel (from school))
verweisen an(German) to refer to
verweisen auf(German) to refer to
verwelken(German) to wilt
verwenden(German) to use, to spend (time, effort)
Verwendung(German f.) a use
verwerfen(German) to reject
verwerflich(German) reprehensible
Verwerfung(German f.) transposing
verwerten(German) to utilize, to use, to exploit (commercially)
Verwertung(German f.) utilization, exploitation
verwesen(German) to decompose
verwickeln(German) to involve
verwickeln in(German) to involve in
verwickelt(German) complicated
verwildert(German) wild, overgrown (garden), unkempt (appearance)
verwinden(German) to get over (figurative)
Verwirbelung(German f.) turbulence
verwirken(German) to forfeit
verwirklichen(German) to realize
verwirren(German) to tangle up, to confuse (figurative)
verwirrt(German) confused
Verwirrung(German f.) confusion
verwischen(German) to smudge
verwittert(German) weathered, weather-beaten (look)
verwitwet(German) widowed
verwöhnen(German) to spoil
verwöhnt(German) spoilt, discriminating
verworren(German) confused
verwundbar(German) vulnerable
verwunden(German) to wound
verwunderlich(German) surprising
verwundern(German) to surprise
Verwunderung(German f.) a surprise
Verwundete(German m.) wounded soldier
die Verwundeten (German pl.: the wounded)
Verwundung(German f.) a wound
verwünschen(German) to curse
verwünscht(German) confounded
verwüsten(German) to devastate, to ravage
Verwüstung(German f.) devastation
Veryassai (Italian), molto (Italian), sehr (German), très (French)
Very fastmolto allegro (Italian), prestissimo (Italian), sehr schnell (German), très vite (French)
Very loudfortissimo (Italian), sehr stark (German), très fort (French)
Very Nervous SystemDavid Rokeby, in Toronto in the late 1980s, began work on developing the 'Very Nervous System', a video-based system that could track a performer's movements. In Rokeby's words, "Because the computer is purely logical, the language of interaction should strive to be intuitive. Because the computer removes you from your body, the body should be strongly engaged ..."
Very rapid, Very rapidlyvelocissimo (Italian), sehr rasch (German), très rapide (French)
Very Rev.abbreviation of 'Very Reverend' (clerical title)
Very slowlygrave (Italian), lento (Italian), largo (Italian), sehr langsam (German), très lentement (French)
Very softmolto piano (Italian), pianissimo (Italian), sehr sanft (German), sehr zart (German), très doux (French)
verzägen(German) to lose heart
verzameld(Dutch) collected
Verzameling(Dutch) collection, series
verzärteln(German) to mollycoddle
verzaubern(German) to bewitch, to enchant (figurative)
verzaubern in(German) to turn into
Verzehr(German m.) consumption
verzehren(German) to eat, to use up
Verzeichen(German n.) an accidental
verzeichnen(German) to list, to register
Verzeichnis (s.), Verzeichnisse (pl.)(German n.) an index, a table, a list, a catalogue
verzeihen(German) to forgive
Verzeihung(German f.) forgiveness
um Verzeihung bitten (German: to apologize)
Verzeihung!(German) sorry!, excuse me!
verzerren(German) to distort, to contort (face), to pull (muscle)
Verzerrer(German m.) distortion device
Verzerrung(German f.) distortion
Verzerung(German f.) florid embellishments
Verzicht(German m.) a renunciation
Verzicht auf(German m.) a renunciation of
verzichten(German) to do without
verzichten auf(German) to give up, to renounce (rights, etc.)
verziehen(German) to pull out of shape, to spoil, to move [away]
das Gesicht verziehen (German: pull a face)
verzieren(German) to decorate, to ornament, to embellish
verzierte Melodie(German f.) ornamented melody, embellished melody, figured melody
verziert(German) embellished, decorated, ornamented, florid, adorned, adornato (Italian), orné (French)
Verzierung (s.), Verzierungen (pl.)(German f.) an embellishment, a flourish, a decoration, an ornament, a grace note
verzinsen(German) to pay interest on
verzögern(German) to delay, to slow down, to retard
verzögernd(German) retarding, delaying, ritardando, en retardant
verzögert(German) retarded, delayed, ritardato, retardé
Verzögerung(German f.) a delay, a retardation
verzollen(German) to pay duty on
verzückt(German) ecstatic, ecstatically
Verzückung(German f.) rapture, ecstasy
Verzug(German m.) a delay
in Verzug (German: in arrears)
verzweifeln (German) to despair
verzweifelt(German) desperate, desperately
verzweifelt sein(German) to be in despair, to be desperate
Verzweiflung(German f.) despair, desperation
verzweiflungsvoll(German) full of despair
verzweigen(German) to branch [out]
verzwickt(German) tricky (familiar)
Vésicule biliaire(French f.) the gall-bladder
Vesper(German f.) or Abendgottesdienst (German m.), vespers
Vesperae(Latin) vespers
vespéral (m.), vespérale (f.)(French) of the evening
Vespero(Italian m. pl.) vespers
Vespers(Latin, literally 'evening') vespero (Italian m. pl.), vespro (Italian m. pl.), Abendgottesdienst (German m.), vêspres (French f. pl.), the seventh service of the Divine Office, usually performed at twilight, consisting of several responsories and psalms which are sung
Vespertinea reference to something happening in the evening or at nightfall
Vêspres(French f. pl.) vespers
Vespro(Italian m. pl.) vespers
Vessel flutea generic term for instruments working as Helmholtz resonators, e.g. the ocarina
Vessel rattlea rattle made of a container containing small pebbles, sand, etc., that strikes the container's inside surface when the vessel is shaken
Vessel whistlea generic term used for vessel-shaped instruments working as whistles
Vessie(French f.) the bladder
Vestapol (tuning)an alternative name for 'Open D' tuning (low to high): D-A-d-f#-a-d'
Veste(French f.) jacket
Veste de sport(French f.) sports jacket
Vest frottoiralternative name for the frottoir
Vestiaire(French m.) a cloakroom, a changing-room (for sport)
Vestibule(French m.) a hall (entrance hall)
Vestibulo(Spanish m.) foyer (for example, of a theatre)
vestido a la última(Spanish) dressed in the latest fashion
Vestige(French m.) a relic, a vestige (trace)
Vestigium (s.), Vestigia (pl.)(Latin) a trace, a mark left by something no longer in existence
Vestmentsthe ceremonial clothing of the clergy
Veston(French m.) a jacket
Vestrya room for the storage of sacred vessels, liturgical books and priestly vestments; and where the clergy don their cermonial attire; also known as a sacristy
Vêtement(French m.) an article of clothing
Vêtements(French m. pl.) clothes
Vétéran(French m.) a veteran
Vétérinaire(French m./f.) a veterinary surgeon (a vet)
Vétille(French f.) a trifle
Veto(Latin) I forbid
(English, French m., German n., from Latin) a prohibition, the right to impose a prohibition
Vetter(German m.) a cousin
Vetternwirtschaft(German f.) nepotism
vêtu (de)(French) dressed (in)
vétuste(French) dilapidated
Veuf (m.), Veuve (f.)(French) widower (m.), widow (f.)
veuf (m.), veuve (f.)(French) widowed
veuillez(French) please
veule(French) feeble
Veuze(Breton) a French bagpipe, also known as the veze, and occasionally as the cornemuse Nantaise
Ve Vebamboo buzzers from the highland regions of Vietnam that have become common in dance music and similar to other instruments found in many regions of Southeast Asia, the Philippines, and Indonesia
vexant (m.), vexante (f.)(French) upsetting
Vexata quaestio (s.), Vexatae quaestiones(Latin) a disputed question, a point which has not yet been finally settled
Vexation(French f.) humiliation
vexer(French) to upset, to hurt
Vexillologythe scholarly study of flags
Vez (s.), Veces (pl.)(Spanish) time, occasion, fois (French)
Vezesee veuze
vezzosamente(Italian) tenderly, softly, graceful, pleasing, gracefully, pleasingly
vezzoso(Italian) graceful, sweet, tender
v.f.abbreviation of 'very fair', 'very fine', version française (French: French version - film dubbed into French)
vfyabbreviation of 'verify'
VGabbreviation of Votre Grâce (French: Your Grace), Votre Grandeur (French: Your Highness), 'very good'
v.g.abbreviation of verbigracia (Spanish: for example), verbi gratia (Latin: for example), 'very good'
Vg.abbreviation of 'Virgin'
Vgeloum(Chios, Greece) an alternative name for the 'violin'
Vgiali(Greece) an alternative name for the 'violin'
Vgihtzides(Greece) an alternative name for 'fiddlers'
vgl.abbreviation for vergleiche (German: compare, cf.)
VHFabbreviation of 'very high frequency'