music dictionary : Vi - Vl

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Via(Latin) way
via(Italian) 'away!', remove
(Latin) by way of ..., by the route which passes through ...
Via crusis(Latin, literally 'the way of the cross') also called Stations of the Cross, Via dolorosa or The Way of the Cross, a devotion performed in succession in front of each of the fourteen representations of episodes in the Passion of Christ
Via dolorosa(Latin literally 'the way of sorrow') an alternative name for the Via crucis
viajar en avión(Spanish) to fly
Via media(Latin) a middle way, a middle course
via sordino (s.), via sordini (pl.)(Italian) remove mute
Viaticum(Latin) the Eucharist administered to a person in danger of death
vibabbreviation of 'vibraphone'
Vib.abbreviation of 'vibraphone', Vibraphon (German), vibraphone (French)
Vibesa colloquial term for 'vibraphone'
Vibhag(literally 'division') in Indian classical music, the rhythmic element taal is composed of smaller subdivisions, called vibhag. Thus the Dadra taal of 6 matras has a 3+3 vibhag pattern (that is, each vibhag having three matras), while the Dhamar taal of 14 matras has a 5+2+3+4 vibhag pattern
Vibración(Spanish f.) vibration
(Spanish f.) rolling, trilling (linguistics)
Vibraciones internas(Italian f. pl.) internal vibrations
Vibraciones por segundo(Spanish vibrations per second, cycles per second, Hz
Vibrafon(German n.) vibraphone
Vibrafono(Italian m.) vibraphone
Vibráfono(Spanish m.) vibraphone
Vibraharpsynonymous with 'vibraphone'
vibrant (m.), vibrante (f.)(French) vibrating, with an agitated tone, a tremulous quivering touch, full tonal resonance
vibrante(Italian) vibrating, with an agitated tone
Vibraphon(German n.) vibraphone
Vibraphone(English, French m.) also called 'vibes' or 'vibraharp', a marimba with metal bars and tuned resonators that are fitted with caps that electrically open and close to produced a pulsed vibrato-like sound. It is played with soft beaters and its range is F3 to F6 (notated at pitch). Many vibraphones have a damper pedal that stops or starts the sound
vibrare(Italian) to vibrate
Vibraslap(English, German n.) a percussion instrument designed to imitate the sound of a donkey jawbone or quijada. It is formed of a sprung steel rod, bent into shape, with an open wedge-shaped wooden box on one end and a wooden ball on the other. The box contains a number of loosely fastened rivets in the centre, and when the player strikes the wooden ball or the box itself, the rivets vibrate to produce a sound similar to that of the 'jawbone'
Vibrate(Italian) a strong vibrating full quality of tone, resonant
Vibrati(Italian) vibrated [suggested by Weed]
Vibration(English, French f.) when something oscillates about a static position it can be said to vibrate. The vibration of a speaker diaphragm produces sound, but usually vibration is undesirable. Common examples of unwanted vibration are the movement of a building near a railway line when a train passes, or the vibration of the floor caused by a washing machine or spin dryer. Floor vibration can be reduced with vibration isolators; however there is often a penalty to pay in the form of a slight increase in the machinery vibration and its consequent deterioration. Musical instruments are generators of vibrations, whether those be of a string, a column or air or of a sounding body, hollow or solid. The human ear is sensitive to vibrations in the range 16 Hz. to several thousand Hz., where 1 Hz. is a unit of frequency equal to 1 cycle per second. On the piano, the lowest A has a frequency of 27.5 Hz., while the highest C vibrates as 4,224 Hz.
Richard Carte's Instructions (for the Flute) (1845) provides a list of "the chief ornaments" of this period in England. He describes the 'vibration' thus: "This ornament consists also in the wavering of a note, but differs from the tremolo by its greater delicacy, and its being produced on the Flute by waving or shaking the finger over certain of its holes It gives a beautiful effect to sustained notes. ... This grace is generally introduced at the discretion of the Performer, but it is sometimes directed by the Composer."
Vibration musette(French f.) an accordion tuning with one reed tuned precisely to the note and supplemented by two other reeds tuned slightly above and below it, giving the instrument a plaintive, quavering sound
Vibrations par seconde(French f.) vibrations per second, Hz
Vibratissimo(Italian) extremely vibrating and tremulous
Vibrato(German n., Italian from vibrare, literally 'shaken') playing or singing in a tremulous manner, primarily to add lustre to the tone, vibré (French), vibriert (German), Bebung (German f.)
vibrato on the modern violin is discussed at some length on the AllExperts website. We offer a paraphrase below:
arm vibratothe wrist is kept straight and the arm is used to produce the vibrato. It is most useful for students who have trouble producing the wrist vibrato due to lack of dexterity in the wrist and/or fingers, and is also good for passages where an aggressive and very wide vibrato is desired. It is not much used
finger vibratoproduced keeping the elbow stationary and the wrist fairly straight, using mostly the finger to produce the vibrato. This technique is desirable in passages where just a slight change in pitch is desired, but like the arm vibrato (see above) it is not much used
wrist vibratothe technique of choice, both for students and professionals, wrist vibrato is best because it is versatile, easy to do, and doesn't go to extremes like the finger and arm types. A word of caution: many students, in their beginner and intermediate stages, make the mistake of bending the wrist back and forth, while keeping the finger stationary, in trying to produce the vibrato. The finger and wrist should move as one unit toward and away from the player's body. Keep in mind that the main point of vibrato is to vibrate the tone BELOW the true pitch, not above it or both above/below it...therefore, a vibrating note should sound normal, then a little flat (no more than a quarter-tone), then normal, then flat, etc. all in rapid succession - never sharp
[some clarification provided by Steven Hemmy]
see 'shake' (and particularly 'close shake')
see flattement
on a wind-instrument the effect may be produced either with the throat or the diaphragm such that pitch varies about a mean at the pitch required
in singing, there are two forms of vibrato - one is a tremulous effect caused by very rapid partial interruptions of the sound, while the other is a variation in intensity or accent. The most pleasing vibrato is a 'quick vibrato', but more often it is unpleasant and is a serious vocal problem. In the latter case, it is also called tremolo, 'knock', 'bleat' or more bluntly, 'wobble'
guitarists use true vibrato, either as finger vibrato similar to that produced by movement of the left hand on the violin and other stringed instruments, or by using the so-called 'tremolo arm' or 'vibrato arm' provided on many electric guitars. However, in common with all other musicians, all guitarists from classical to rock use the term 'vibrato' generally to describe finger vibrato
Vibrato flottant(French m.) 'floating tremolo', a mechanical device on an electric guitar
Vibrato systemsee 'tremolo system'
Vibrato unitan effects unit used to modify the sound of an electric guitar by producing a regular variation in the amplitude of the sound. In all other contexts this effect is known as tremolo rather than vibrato
Vibrazione(Italian f.) vibration, tremulousness, wave
vibré(French) vibrated, vibrato (Italian), vibriert (German)
vibrer(French) to vibrate
Vibrieren(German n.) vibration
vibrieren(German) to vibrate
vibriert(German) vibrated, vibrato (Italian), vibré (French)
Vicara priest employed as a substitute for a parish rector of for a member of a religious house, monastic, cathedral or collegiate, which had appropriated the revenue for the position
Vicaragethe endowment for a vicar
Vicar choral (s.), Vicars choral (pl.)a member of the clergy who performed the office in a cathedral of collegiate church in the absence of the prebendaries
Vice(Latin) in place of, in succession to
Vice anglais(French m.) homosexuality
Vicenda(Italian f.) change, alternation
vicendevole(Italian) interchangeable, changeably, alternately, by turns
vicendevolemente(Italian) interchangeable, changeably, alternately, by turns
Vicetiple(Spanish f.) chorus-girl, choriste (French)
Vice versa(Latin) contrariwise, conversely, the relationship being transposed (for example, the order being reversed)
Vichitra vinaa stringed instrument like the rudra vina except it has no frets. The instrument has four main strings, three drone and rhythm strings and eleven to thirteen resonating strings. The strings are plucked with a plectrum placed on the index or middle finger of the right hand
Vichysoissea chilled soup made from potato and leek
vicinissime(Italian) nearby
vicino(Italian) near
Victoria(Spanish f.) victory, win
Victoria aplastante(Spanish f.) landslide victory
Victorian periodthe period of British literature in the late nineteenth century. The date of the period is often given as 1837-1901, the years Queen Victoria ruled the expanding British Empire
Victor ludorum (m.), Victrix ludorum (f.)(Latin) the winner of the games, the person who takes first place in an athletics contest
Vicuña(Spanish) one of two wild South American camelids, along with the guanaco, which live in the high alpineous areas of the Andes. The fine silky wool of this animal is used to weave a highly quality fabric
  • Vicuña from which some of this information has been taken
Vidvideo (colloquial)
Vidathe usual term for a brief prose biography, written in Occitan, of a troubadour or trobairitz
VidalitaArgentine country dance
Vide(French m.) emptyness, void, gap, vacuum
vide(French) 'empty', as in corde à vide which means 'open string'
vide(Latin) or v., see, refer to (for further information)
vide is used as a mark in the score to show where a cut is to be made - the cut begins where Vi, sometimes followed by a long hypen (-), is marked and ends at the point where de is marked, so the performer skips, without a break, from the begining to the end of the cut and continues on from there
Videlicet(Latin) that is to say, namely (often introducing a more precise explanation of something already stated in more general terms)
videlicet is a contraction of videre licet (Latin: it is permitted to see) and is often contracted still further to viz. in which the z represents the medieval mark of contraction
used in text to indicate examples
vidéo(French) video
Vidéocassette(French f.) videotape
Video digitiseror video digitizer, a device that converts video, film or animation into a digital format that can be displayed using a computer
Videographythe recording of a performance by means of video camera and videotape
Video musical(Spanish m.) music video
Video scannera system, incorporating a closed-circuit video camera and television or monitor, for inspecting the interior of inaccessible areas
Vidéothèque(French f.) video library
Vide-poche(French m.) a small bedside table designed to accommodate the contents of one's pockets when retiring for the night
vider(French) empty, gut (fish), throw out (familiar)
vider les lieux(French) vacate the premises
Videur(French m.) bouncer
Vide ut supra(Latin) see the above
vidi(Italian) see
vidimus(Latin, literally 'we have seen') a copy of a document attested as authentic by some competent authority
vido(Italian) open as in 'open string'
Vidualof or pertaining to the state of a widow, widowed
Vidurathe low-born but 'wise one' in the Mahabharata honoured by Sri Krishna
Vie(French f.) life, lifetime
Vie amoureuse(French f.) love-life, the history of a person's sexual encounters
Vie aux champs(French f.) country life
Vie chère(French) high cost of living
Vie de Bohême (la)(French f.) the unconventional and uninhibited life supposed to be led by artists and writers (from the title of Henry Murger's 1848 novel Scènes de la Vie de Bohême)
Vie de boudoir(French f.) spending one's time in regular attendance on ladies in their boudoirs
Vie de cocagne(French f.) life of pleasure
Vie familiale(French f.) family life, especially as it might be thought to limit or restrict the development of artistic or literary talent
Vieillard(French m.) old man
Vieille(French f.) old woman
Vieille fille(French f.) spinster (pejorative)
Vieillesse(French f.) old age
vieillir(French) grow old, age, become old-fashioned (word, idea)
Vieillissement(French m.) ageing
vieil Tonalso known as 'Renaissance-G tuning', the pattern of notional pitches designated for each course of the lute or, more accurately, the intervals between them, that comprise the tuning most frequently in use during the period 1540-1630. Tjose intervals read from the lowest to the high string or course of strings was: perfect 4th-perfect 4th-major 3rd-perfect 4th-perfect 4th. Where pitch is given in relation to another instrument, it appears that the lute was most often conceived as being in 'G' (i.e. the treble and 6th courses were at the pitch g' and G respectively), though where it appears with the voice the pitch is less often fixed, and just as frequenty appears to be in 'A'
  • Glossaries from which some of this information has been taken
¡viejo asqueroso!(Spanish) you dirty old man!
Viel(German) old name for a member of the violin species
viel(German) much, many, great
viel aufhaben(German) have a lot of homework, be open
viel Aufhebens machen(German) make a great fuss
viel Aufhebens machen von(German) make a great fuss about
viel bewegter(German) much more lively
viel Bogen(German) a lot of bow
viel Bogenwechsel(German) frequent bow changes
viel Bogen wechseln(German) frequent bow changes
vielchörig(German) for several choirs
Viele(Megisti, Greece) an alternative name for the 'violin'
viele(German) much, many, great
Vièle(French f.) fiddle, viella (Italian, Spanish), Fiedel (German), Fidel (German), vielle (French), violon rustique (French)
vieles(German) much, many, great
vielfacher Contrapunkt(German m.) polymorphous counterpoint
Vielfältigkeit(German f.) variety
viel kleiner(German) much smaller
Viella(Italian f., Spanish f.) fiddle, Fiedel (German), Fidel (German), vielle (French), violon rustique (French)
Vielle(French f.) a Medieval bowed stringed instrument of the upper classes, the precursor of the viol
(French f.) fiddle, viella (Italian, Spanish), Fiedel (German), Fidel (German), vièle (French), violon rustique (French)
abbreviation of vielle à roue
Vielle à roue(French f., literally 'wheeled vielle') hurdy-gurdy, ghironda (Italian), Drehleier (German), Radleier (German), Leier (German)
Vielleur (m.), Vielleuse (f.)(French) hurdy-gurdy player
viel näher und stärker(German) much nearer and stronger
vielstimmig(German) in several parts, polyphonic
Vielstimmung(German f.) polyphony
Vielstimmigkeit(German f.) polyphony
viel zu tun haben(German) to have a lot to do
Vie manquée(French f.) a misdirected life, a life spent in a profession or vocation other than the one in which the greatest success might have been achieved
Vienna valvesee 'double piston valve'
Viennese hornthe tubing of the Viennese horn is 55% conical and narrower than the most commonly used double horn in F/Bb. The so-called F crook is not a fixed part of the Viennese horn but is detachable. Other tunings are used especially for natural horn parts. The three valves are Viennese valves (twin-piston valves) and are operated by the 2nd, 3rd and 4th fingers of the left hand. In contrast to the Vienna horn the double horn in F/Bb has rotary valves with an optional additional stopping valve. The higher pitch that results from stopping on the Viennese horn is not compensated for by a stopping valve but by playing the note a half tone lower. By placing his hand in the bell the player can make very subtle adjustments to the intonation. This intonation check is also what produces the typically soft and romantic sound of the French horn. Intonation can also be controlled by means of the embouchure (altering lip tension)
Viennese oboethis instrument has a small bulb at the top near the reed, rather like an English horn (cor anglais). The fingering system is different from the instrument commonly used elsewhere. Although very difficult to play soloistically, it has a very beautiful sound
Viennese pianoVienna was home to some of the finest early 19th-century piano makers, inventive, sophisticated and adventurous. Many of the technical advancements, action, tonal variety and ideas about tone colour are central to our being able to understand the canvas upon which composers like Beethoven and Schubert worked. The pianos of the period 1810 to 1825 have tonal brilliance, lightness and clarity and the colours change as one moves from bass to treble and when one employs one of the possible pedal effects, or combinations
effecthow producedresult
dampingraises the dampersproduces an after-ring and blending, also for an increase in volume
moderatora strip of cloth is inserted between the hammers and the stringsgives the tone a 'velvet' effect
bassoona roll of parchment covered with silk is lowered onto the bass stringsgives a buzzing reed or snare-drum effect
the bassoon is coupled to the moderator. The moderator can play alone, but the bassoon always engages the moderator. This softens and makes musically more acceptable what otherwise might be a rather amusing sound effect
una cordahammers move sideways so that they strike only one of a pair or of a triplet of stringsproduces a thinner more silvery tone
Viennese waltzin contemporary ballroom dance, the fast version of the waltz
Viennese school
informal groupings of composers who wrote to a common style and were often related through being pupils and teachers
'Classical' or 'First' Viennese Schoolincludes Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809), Franz Schubert (1797-1828) and others
20th Century or 'Second' Viennese Schoolincludes Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951), Alban Berg (1885-1935), Anton Webern (1883-1945) and others writing in the dodecaphonic style
Viens donc...(French) Come on and...
Viento(Spanish m.) wind (particularly meaning 'wind instruments')
Viento áspero(Spanish m.) harsh wind
Viento-madera(Spanish m.) woodwind instruments
Viento-metal(Spanish m.) brass instruments
Vientos alisios(Spanish trade winds
vier(German, Dutch) four
Vierachteltakt(German m.) 4/8 time
vierde(Dutch) fourth
vierde-toons Toonladder(Dutch) quarter-tone scale
vierdoppelter Contrapunkt(German m.) quadruple counterpoint
Viereckwelle(German f.) square wave
vierenzestigste Noot
hemidemisemiquaver(Dutch) a hemidemisemiquaver (sixty-fourth note), a note one sixty-fourth the time value of a whole note or semibreve
vierenzestigste Rust
hemidemisemiquaver rest(Dutch) a hemidemisemiquaver rest (sixty-fourth rest), a rest one sixty-fourth the time value of a whole rest or semibreve rest
vierfach(German) fourfold
vierfüssig(German) 4ft., applied to organs, etc.
Vierge(French f.) virgin
vierge(French) virgin, blank (tape, page)
Viergesang(German) a song for four voices
viergestrichene Octave(German f.) the four-line, or four-accented, octave
viergestrichene Oktave(German f.) the four-line, or four-accented, octave
Vierhalbetakt(German m.) 4/2 time
vierhändig(German) for four hands (applied to keyboard duets)
Vierklang(German m., literally 'four notes') a chord of the seventh
Vierklank(Dutch) four-note chord, a chord of the seventh
vierkwarts Maat(Dutch) quadruple meter, quadruple time, 4/4 time
Vier-Noten-Akkorde(German f.) four-note chord
Vierspiel(German) quartet, for four performers
vierstimmig(German) for four voices or parts, a quattro voci (Italian), für vier Stimmen (German), à quatre voix (French), a cuatro voces (Spanish)
vierstimmige Harmonie(German f.) four-part harmony
vierstimmiger Satz(German m.) four-part harmony
Vierstück(German) quartet, a composition for four performers
vierte, viertes, viertem, vierten(German) fourth
vierteilig(German) in four parts
Viertel(German f.) a fourth portion, a quarter
crotchet(German f.) a crotchet (quarter note), a note one quarter the time value of a whole note or semibreve
crotchet(German f.) a crotchet (quarter note), a note one quarter the time value of a whole note or semibreve, noire (French f.)
crotchet rest orcrotchet rest(German f.) a crotchet rest (quarter rest), a rest one quarter the time value of a whole note rest or semibreve rest, pausa di semiminima (Italian f.), soupir (French m.), silencio de negra (Spanish f.), pausa de negra (Spanish f.), silencio de semiminima (Spanish m.), pausa de semiminima (Spanish f.)
viertel taktieren(German) beat quarters, beat crotchets
Viertelton(German m.) quarter tone
Vierteltonmusik(German f.) quarter-tone music
Viertelton-Musik(German f.) quarter-tone music
hemidemisemiquaver(German f.) a hemidemisemiquaver (sixty-fourth note), a note one sixty-fourth the time value of a whole note or semibreve, quadruple croche (French)
hemidemisemiquaver(German f.) a hemidemisemiquaver (sixty-fourth note), a note one sixty-fourth the time value of a whole note or semibreve, quadruple croche (French)
Vierundsechzigstel Pause
hemidemisemiquaver rest(German f.) a hemidemisemiquaver (sixty-fourth rest), a rest one sixty-fourth the time value of a whole note rest or semibreve rest, seizième de soupir (French)
Viervierteltakt(German m.) 4/4 time
vierwöchige Kündigungsfrist(German f.) a month's notice
vierzehn(German) fourteen
vierzig(German) forty
Vierzweiteltakt(German m.) 4/2 time
vietato(Italian) forbidden, prohibited
Vietnamese scalethe Vietnamese scale has 9 notes (5 drawn from Chinese system plus 4 addition notes added by the Vietnamese themselves) which have the following approximate correspondence to the western major scale
The notes y (mi) and phan (ti) should be diminished by a quarter tone
Vie tranquille(French f.) life of ease, the 'life of Riley'
Vieux(French m.) old man
vieux (m.), vieille (f.)(French) old
Vieux garçon(French m.) bachelor
vieux jeu(French) 'old hat', out of fashion, not up-to-date
vieux marcheur(French m.) an old reprobate, a man who despite his advanced age spends his time in pursuit of women
Vieux quartiers de la ville(French m. pl.) old quarter, old part of the town
View-carda postcard that depicts any type of view whether it is of a landscape or of buildings. These cards can be sorted by geographical location if they are labeled with such information
vif (m.), vive (f.)(French) brisk, fast, lively, spirited, keen (imagination)
Vigilante(Spanish) a member of a self-appointed committee for the maintenance of law and order
viginti(Latin) twenty
Vignette (s.), Vignettes (pl.)(French f.) in literature, a short composition showing considerable skill, especially such a composition designed with little or no plot or larger narrative structure. Often vignettes are descriptive or evocative in their nature
(French f.) in art, a drawing, engraving or photograph not enclosed by a border, the edges of which are softened so as to blend imperceptibly into the background
in printing, this term usually refers to a single dot pattern that may start at 50% dot and gradually decrease to say 5% in a smooth graduation
(French f.) generally, a representation in miniature, a brief sketch (of a scene or character) on the stage
the term means 'little vine' and was originally applied to designs of vine leaves, loosely reminiscent of the vinework in medieval manuscripts, used as a decoration in a printed book, and transferred to other designs used for the same purpose
Vigore(Italian m.) vigour
vigorosamente(Italian) vigorously, with energy
vigoroso(Italian) strong, vigorous, energetic
Vigorous, Vigorouslycon brio (Italian), vigoroso (Italian), kräftig (German), mit Kraft (German), vigoureux (French m.), vigoureuse (French f.), vigoureusement (French)
vigoureusement(French) vigorously
vigoureux (m.), vigoureuse (f.)(French) vigorous
Vigueur(French f.) vigour
Vihjenuotit(Finnish) cue notes
Vihuela(Spanish f., German f.) plucked instrument of the Renaissance with a guitar-shaped body, twelve strings tuned like those on the lute, that was confined almost exclusively to Spain, where it was generally associated with the aristocracy. Towards the end of the 16th-century the vihuela was largely replaced by the guitar, which with the addition of a fifth string had acquired new artistic possibilities. The modification is traditionally attributed to the Spanish poet and musician Vicente Espinel (1551-1624)
or Mexican vihuela, an instrument of the guitar family popular in parts of Spanish America, similar but unrelated to the Spanish Renaissance vihuela, that includes a belly for added resonance and five single courses of strings. Standard tuning: A-D-G-B-E, where the ADG are tuned one octave above a guitar
Vihuela d'arco(Spanish f.) in its early years, the 'viol' was referred to as the vihuela d'arco (literally, bowed vihuela), for example in the Trattado de Glosas by Diego Ortiz, pub. Rome (1553)
Vihuela de arco(Spanish f.) vihuela d'arco
Vihuela de mano(Spanish f.) twelve-string (six course) vihuela played with fingers. Standard tunings: G-C-F-A-D-G or C-F-Bb-A-D-G
Vihuela de plectro(Spanish f.) a vihuela played with a plectrum
Vihuela de pueblo(Spanish f.) eight-string (four course) vihuela
Viiri(Finnish) flag (part of a note symbol)
Viiva(Finnish) line (on a staff)
vijf(Dutch) five
vijf-achtste Maat(Dutch) 5/8 time
vijfde(Dutch) fifth
vijf-kwarts Maat(Dutch) 5/4 time
vijftien(Dutch) fifteen
vijftig(Dutch) fifty
Vijulin(Slovenian) fiddle, violin
Viking(Old Norse vikingr, 'pirate') technically, in its most exclusive sense, a viking is a pirate, any individual that goes i-viking (plundering) regardless of the buccaneer's ethnicity. Historically, Irishmen, Anglo-Saxons, Franks, Bretons, and Slavs all joined in viking raids at various points, and chroniclers called them all vikings during their attacks. In its most common usage, the word viking applies to the pale-skinned North Germanic tribes between the years 550 AD and 1052 AD who inhabited modern Scandinavia (i.e., Denmark, Sweden, and Norway). These tribes eventually settled in Iceland and the Faroese islands and they conquered or raided large portions of England, Ireland, Scotland, and Normandy. The resulting ethnographic mixtures are often called Viking cultures (with a capital V- to indicate the scholar is referring to the larger race rather than pirates alone). The Old Norse and North Germanic languages that the Viking cultures spoke developed into modern Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, Icelandic, and Faroese
Vilambitin Hindustani music, meaning 'slow tempo'
Vilayet(Turkish, from Arabic) a Turkish province ruled by a Vali (a Turkish civil governor)
villageois (m.), villageoise (f.)(French) rustic
Villanáta(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) any kinde of Country song, gigge, or dance. Also a Country tricke or clownish part. Also a kind of Country water grewell for the poore
Villancets(Spain) one of the names given to Christmas songs in Catalonia
Villancico(from the Spanish villano, a peasant or inhabitant of a small village in medieval Spain) a poetic and musical form indigenous and unique to Iberia, which developed a recognizably distinct identity by the middle of the 15th-century. It is a close relative of the Italian ballata and the French virelai. While always popular as secular music, already the villancicos of the 15th-century treated religious themes in their texts, alongside those dealing with amorous, pastoral, historical, or jocular themes. In the same way that the madrigal and motet gradually evolved from popular Renaissance music into sanctioned Church music, so the villancico naturally assumed an essentially religious function towards the end of the 16th-century. Today it is most associated with the services and processions of Christmas (the Spanish equivalent of the French chant de Noël)
Villancico negrillooften employing call-and-response, the villancico negrillo incorporates African elements, both musical and textual, into the ancient Hispanic song-form, the villancico. One surviving example of this particular form, Los coflades de la estleya, was written by the Spanish-Bolivian composer Juan de Araujo (1644-1712), one of the giants of the South American Baroque
Villanèlla(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) a pretty Country-lasse, a handsome or yongue Country-wench, a yongue Sheepheardesse, a Milkemaide. Also any Country dance, gig, roundelay, song, ballad, dance or hornpipe, such as Country wenches sing
Villanella(Italian f., Spanish f.) also villanesca, canzone villanesca alla napolitana, canzone villanesche or canzone napolitana, an uncomplicated Neapolitan madrigal from the 16th-century in which each stanza is set to a repeated musical line, commonly featuring consecutive fifths, as for example those by Gian Domenico del Giovane da Nola (c.1510-1592). Towards the end of the 16th-century, the villanella became more madrigal-like and finally became virtually indistinguishable from the canzonetta
Villanelle(French f.) derived from the Italian villanella, sixteenth-century pastoral poems or songs. Many published works mistakenly claim that the strict modern form of the villanelle originated with the medieval troubadours, but in fact medieval and Renaissance villanelles were simple ballad-like songs with no fixed form or length. Such songs were associated with the country and were thought to be sung by farmers and shepherds, in contrast to the more complex madrigals associated with sophisticated city and court life
a poetic form which entered English-language poetry in the late 1800s from the imitation of French models. A villanelle has only two rhyme sounds. The first and third lines of the first stanza are rhyming refrains that alternate as the third line in each successive stanza and form a couplet at the close. A villanelle is nineteen lines long, consisting of five tercets and one concluding quatrain
  • Villanelle from which parts of the first and second entry have been taken
Villanesca(Italian f.) see villanella
villanesco(Italian) agreste (Italian, Spanish), campestre (Italian), rural, rustic, pastoral, ländlich (German), champêtre (French)
villano(Spanish) rustic
Villano rifatto(Italian m.) an upstart, nouveau riche
villareccio(Italian) rustic, rural
Ville(French f.) a town, a city
Ville d'eaux(French f.) a spa
villeggiatura(Italian) living in a country house, a holiday spent in the country
Ville lumière(French f.) the 'City of Light', Paris (France)
Ville radieuse(French f.) a town designed so as to trap the sun, a concept due to the French architect Le Corbusier
Villino(Italian m.) a small elegant house in the country or in a small park in a town
Villota(Italian, Spanish) the Paduan and Venetian form of the villanella, that flourished from the early 16th-century, and was typically written for four voices
Villotta (s.), Villotte (pl.)see villota
Viloncello(Italian m.) violoncello
Viloncello(Spanish m.) violoncello
Vin(French m.) wine
Vina(English, German f.) in Sanskrit, a stringed instrument is generically referred to as a vina. The ancient texts are replete with countless descriptions of vinas of every sort and fashion. They have traditionally been broken down into two categories, tat and vitat. These mean plucked and unplucked respectively. The tat class of Indian stringed instruments are all either plucked or hammered. These include such various instruments as hammered dulcimers, lutes and harps. The vitat is a class of stringed instruments which are bowed. This class appears to be quite old, yet these instruments, until the last few centuries, did not occupy a place in Indian classical music
Vinaigrette(French f.) a smelling-bottle, a small bottle or box designed for holding aromatic or pungent salts (i.e. smelling-salts)
(French f.) a salad dressing made from good quality olive oil and vinegar
Vinata (s.), Vinate (pl.)(Italian f.) a drinking song
Vin blanc(French m.) white wine
vincendo la propria emozione(Italian) overcoming his own emotion
Vincenti, Giacomo
(d. 1619)
a Venetian bookseller and music printer. He also spelled his name Vincenci and Vincenzi. He started printing in 1583. His partner was Ricciardo Amadino, and between 1583 and 1586 they printed about 20 books a year, mostly editions of music. Although their official partnership ended in 1586 they continued to use the same typefaces, collaborated on some editions, and held joint copyrights in others. In 1587 Vincenti published Luca Marenzio's Fourth Book of Madrigals, with the composer's dedication
vincere(Italian) to win
Vinculum (s.), Vincula (pl.)(Latin) a bond of union
(Latin) in mathematics, a line drawn over two or more terms to indicate that they are subject to the same operation - as if they were enclosed in brackets
Vincy masthe local name for Carnival the biggest holiday on the Caribbean island of Saint Vincent. Festivities include calypso, soca and steelpan performances, many of them in large, competitive formats
Vin de table(French m.) a table wine (a wine of inferior quality suitable for drinking with a meal)
Vin d'honneur(French m.) a reception in honour of a distinguished guest whose health is drunk particular on his or her arrival or departure
Vin du pays(French m.) local wine, wine produced in the neighbourhood
Vinegar Valentinean insulting valentine first published by John McLaughin's New York publishing house in 1858. They were often sent anonymously to someone who was disliked
Vineryalso known as vinework, another term for filigree work in medieval manuscripts
Vinetta(Italian) diminutive of vinata
Vineworkalso known as vinery, another term for filigree work in medieval manuscripts
Vingeroefening(Dutch) finger exercise
vingerzetting(Dutch) fingering
vingt(French) twenty
Vingt-et-un(French) a card game whose target is a score of 21, or as close as possible to 21, without exceeding the target (the word 'pontoon' is a corruption of vingt-et-un)
vingt et unième(French) twenty-first
Vinilo(Spanish m.) vinyl (record), vinyle (French)
Vin mousseux(French m.) a sparkling, frothy wine
vino a ayudarme(Spanish) she came to help me out
Vin ordinaire(French m.) a non-vintage table wine suitable for drinking with a meal
Vin rosé(French m.) a wine of a pinkish colour
Vin rouge(French m.) a red wine
vint(Catalan) twenty
vint e dois(Catalan) twenty-one
Viola family of stringed instruments (pardessus de viole, treble, alto, tenor, division bass, Lyra viol, baryton (with sympathetic strings), consort bass and violone) featuring an arched belly, a flat back, sloping shoulders, light construction, deep ribs, sometimes C sound holes, a fretted fingerboard and usually six strings, tuned, like the guitar, in fourths with a third in the middle, which is played on the lap or between the legs (hence the term 'da gamba', of the leg, although this term is generally applied only to the bass member of the family, i.e. viola da gamba). The two exceptions to the 'six-string' rule are the French baroque solo bass which has seven strings and the pardessus which has five strings. The outcurved bow is held with the hand placed underneath the stick, with one or two fingers touching and tensioning the bow hair. The viol first appeared in Europe in the late 15th century and subsequently became one of the most popular Renaissance and Baroque instruments. Viols were heard primarily in ensemble, or consort, music. Later, in the hands of a number of remarkable French players the instrument gained a solo repertoire the rival of any string instrument of the same period
size/modeltunings (bottom to top)
pardessus de viole(g) c' e'a' d'' g''
treble viold g c' e' a' d''
alto violc f a d' g' (c'')
tenor viol(G) c f a d' g'
lyra violvariable
division bassD G c e a d'
bass viol(AA) D G c e a d'
violone (da gamba)GG C F A d g
violone del contrabassoDD GG C E A d
viol.abbreviation of violino
Viola(Spanish f.) in Argentina, the guitar
(Italian f., English, German f., Spanish f., German f., Portuguese f.) Bratsche (German), alto (French), the alto member of the violin instrument, alto (French)
(Spanish m./f.) the player of the viola, altiste (French)
(Portuguese f.) a five-course guitar
some dictionaries describe it as the tenor of the violin family, although the tenor violin is a completely different instrument, more like a small cello
a viol, for example 'viola da gamba'
Viola all'inglese (s.), Violi all'inglesi (pl.)(Italian f.) or viola inglese, an Italian term for the viol
musicologist Robert King has suggested that term may refer to the viola d'amore. It is specified in a number of works by Vivalid including two concertos RV579 and RV555 and an oratorio Juditha triumphans RV644
Viola alta(Italian f.) see 'Ritter-viola'
Viola amarantina(Portugal f.) a guitar, from Oporto but is also made and played in Braga, with 5 pairs of metal strings and a sound hole shaped in the form of two hearts
[information corrected by Cláudio Duarte]
Viola angelica(Italian f.) English violetta (a member of the viol family)
Viola anglois(Italian f.) probably a six-string viola d'amore
Viola bastarda(Italian f.) continental equivalent of the English division viol, the viola bastarda is a small bass viol of the 16th- and 17th-centuries
Viola beiroa(Portugal f.) also called bandurra, a highly ornamented traditional guitar from the district of Castelo Branco
[information corrected by Cláudio Duarte]
Viola braguesa(Portugal f.) a guitar with 5 pairs of metal strings, that comes from the northwest, especially Braga after which it is named
[information corrected by Cláudio Duarte]
Viola caipira(Portuguese f.) in Brazil, a ten-string (five courses, double strung) guitar
[information corrected by Cláudio Duarte]
Viola campaniça(Portugal f.) originating from Beja, the largest of the Portuguese guitars. Its uniquely rustic sound is produced from five groups of double strings, made of steel and brass
[information corrected by Cláudio Duarte]
Viola clef
viola or alto C clef
also called the alto clef, a 'so-called' C clef
Viola da Braccio(German f.) viola da braccio
Viola da braccio(Italian f., Viola da Braccio German f.) a family of bowed stringed instruments, the modern violin is a member, that originated in the early Renaissance, and developed alongside the viola da gamba family, eventually overshadowing the later in popularity due to its brighter, louder, more lively tone
Viola da gamba(English, Italian) viole de gambe (French), bajo de viola (Spanish, specifically the bass viol)
(English, Italian f., Spanish f., Viola da Gamba or Viola da Gambe (German f.)) a term applied mainly to the bass member of the viol family. Originally an instrument with six strings, a lower seventh string was added by French players
Viola da gambain the organ, a string stop
Viola da Gambe(German f.) viola da gamba
Viola d'amore(Italian f., Viola d'Amore (German f.)) a large gut-strung viola-sized bowed string instrument with no frets, and metal sympathetic strings running under the fingerboard and through the bridge
Viola da spalla(Italian f.) a large viola, called da spalla, because it was designed to be held across the chest of the player, suspended from a strap over the right shoulder. The earliest mention is in the theorist and composer Johann Mattheson's Das neu eröffnete Orchestra (1713). The viola da spalla had been used during the 17th century by wandering musicians and Mattheson commented, 'because of its clear and more piercing tone quality, the viola da spalla is especially suited for accompaniment. Other instruments lack its quality of expression." The instrument is also praised in the Musikalisches Lexicon, written by the organist Johann Gottfried Wagner. The four strings were tuned like a modern viola, c g d' a'
Viola da terra(Portuguese f.) a viola from S. Miguel, Açores
[information corrected by Cláudio Duarte]
Viola de amor(Spanish f.) viola d'amore, viole d'amour (French), the player of the viola d'amore
Viola de Arame(Portuguese f.) from Madeira and like the Portuguese guitar, it has five strings which are plucked with the fingers, but its shape, longer and narrower, is more that of the Spanish guitar than of the Portuguese instrument of the same name, although traditionally the sound holes are cut in the shape of two small hearts
[information corrected by Cláudio Duarte]
Viola de mäo(Portuguese f.) or viola, a five-course guitar
Viola de roda(Spanish f.) one of many Spanish names for the hurdy gurdy or zanfoña
Viola de rueda(Spanish f.) one of many Spanish names for the hurdy gurdy or zanfoña
Viola di bardone(Italian f.) see 'barytone'
Viola di fagotto(Italian f.) see 'tenor violin'
Viola di pardone(Italian f.) of which, so the story goes, baryton, the corrupt form of the Italian, is the name by which this instrument is generally known today
Violagambista(Spanish m./f.) a performer on the viola da gamba
Viola inglese(Italian f.) see viola all'inglese
Violão(Portuguese m.) the viola or French six-string guitar was brought to Portugal in the 19th-century. The word is used in Brazil generally for any type of acoustic guitar
[information corrected by Cláudio Duarte]
Viola prima(Italian f.) the first viola
Viola pomposa(Italian f.) see 'tenor violin'
Violaspiel(German n.) viol playing
Viola, tenora rare member of the violin family lying in size between the standard viola and the violoncello, also called the 'tenor violin'
Viola tenore(German f.) tenor viol
Viola terciera(Portuguese f.) viola with sets of 15 ad 18 metal strings from Terceira, Açores
[information corrected by Cláudio Duarte]
Viola toeira(Portugal f.) a larger version of the viola braguesa from Oporto
[information corrected by Cláudio Duarte]
Viola triple(Spanish f.) dessus de viole
Viol consortthe innovation of the first set of viols, around 1495, is attributed to Isabella d'Este, a noblewoman active in the humanist movement. The idea was to create string instruments paralleling the different ranges of the human voice. This had already been accomplished with wind instruments, but they were considered less noble than string instruments, and the manor of playing inappropriate for female aristocrats. The soft yet sonorous sound of the viols made them especially fitting for the performance of the contrapuntal vocal music popular at that time
in the first existing viol tutor, Regola Rubertina (1542), Sylvestro di Ganassi devotes a major part of his treatise to instrument size and proportion, and tunings, for sets of viols. Ganassi addresses his work to the noble gentleman. It was essential for him to be well rounded in the arts, and adept in music, as this was integral to the humanist concept of a 'Renaissance' man
though viol consorts had existed in England already since the court of Henry VIII, the tradition of consort playing as an amateur activity did not become widespread until after 1600. Until then noblemen passed their time learning instruments, but mostly playing solo literature, while consort playing was reserved for professional musicians. Once this tradition became popular with English society, it is remarkable how they held on to it long after it had died out in Italy and the rest of the European continent. The Italian dance and polyphonic madrigal genres were embraced for decades thereafter and transformed by the English composers into the distinctly English fantasy, and dance, eventually mixing and uniting the two genres into the consort suites
Viole(French f.) viol, viola (as in viole d'amour)
Violectraelectric string instrument that combine a distinctive sound with an excellence in design and construction in a dynamic range of spray finishes. Using a unique piezo bridge system, developed in 1995 with Ashworth Electronics, of Cornwall, the sound is produced by directly sensing the interaction of string tension over the wooden frame. With the advance of string technology Violectra can offer players the choice between 3 string, 4 string, 5 string, 6 string, 7 string & possibly 8 string models with many exciting new combinations of octave violin, octave viola, bass violin, & bass viola tunings and higher E string options for viola and cello
Viole da gambe(French f.) viola da gamba
Viole d'amour(French f.) viola d'amore
Viole de gambe amplifiée(French f.) a viola da gamba fitted with a pick-up
Viole di bordonesee baryton
Viole d'Orpheé(French f.) viol d'Orpheé, a stringed instrument described in Michel Corrette's 1781 treatise: La Viole d'Orphée (Orpheus' Viol). It is believed to be derived from the baroque seven-stringed bass viol but fitted with metal strings
Viol eléctriquesee viole de gambe amplifiée
Violen(German pl.) viols
Violenfamilie(German f.) viol family
violentamente(Italian) violently, with force
violento(Italian) violent, vehement, boisterous
Violenza(Italian f.) violence, force, vehemence
Violetta(Italian f.) 17th- and 18th-century term for the viola, although earlier violetta may have referred to an early, three stringed violin
in Praetorius' Syntagma musicum (1619), the term was used to mean treble viol
Violetta all'inglesea six-string viol, made in England
Violetta marine(Italian f.) or 'English violet', said to be invented sometime before 1732 by Pietro Castrucci (1679-1752), leader of Handel's opera orchestra, this bowed string instrument fitted with sympathetic strings, appears, from a contemporary eye-witness, to be very like a viola d'amore. It had seven principal and fourteen sympathetic strings. Leopold Mozart mentioned it in his Versuch, and a pair of obbligato parts inscribed violette marine per gli Signori Castrucci occur in the hero's sleep aria in Handel's Orlando, a part for one instrument is included in Sosarme, and the same instrument may have been the violetta used in Deborah and Ezio
Violett, englischessee englisches Violett
ViolíGreek term for violin
Violinviolino (Italian), Geige (German), Violine (German), violon (French)
violinthe smallest commonly used member of the violin family (described below)
Violín(Spanish m.) violin
Violina(Slovenia) violin, fiddle
Violínain an organ, a metal flue stop with a stringy timbre, usually at 4 ft. pitch
Violínataa piece for violin
a piece that imitates the violin style but that is written for another instrument
Violin, baroquesee 'baroque violin'
Violinbogen(German m.) violin bow, fiddle bow
Violin clef
G clefa clef sign that shows the position of G on the staff, for example, the French violin clef (where the G clef is on the bottom liner of the staff) or the treble clef (where the G clef is on the second line of the staff)
because the French violin clef is now obsolete, the term more commonly applies today to the treble clef, chiave di violino (Italian f.), chiave di Sol3 (Italian f.), Violinschlüssel (German m.), G-Schlüssel (German m.), clef de sol (French f.), clé de sol (French f.), clef de violon (French f.), clé de violon (French f.), clave de sol (Spanish f.)
Violín concertino(Spanish) the leader of an orchestra, chef d'attaque (French)
Violín diapasona diapason organ stop with a stringy tone quality
Violine(German f.) violin
(German) an organ stop of 8 ft., 4 ft. and 2 ft. pitch
Violín eléctrico(Spanish m.) electric violin
Violinenkonzert(German n.) violin concerto
Violinfamilie(German f.) violin family
Violin family
a family of bowed stringed instruments and their tuning
violino piccoloc', g', d'', a''
violino (Italian)
Geige (German)
Violine (German)
violon (French)
g, d', a', e''
second violinslightly larger violin: g, d', a', e''
viola (Italian)
Bratsche (German)
alto (French)
c g d' a'
tenor violinplayed down like a violoncello now rare: G, d, a, e'
violoncello piccolosmall five stringed cello: C, G, d, a, e'
violoncello (Italian)
Violoncell (German)
violoncelle (French)
also called 'cello: C, G, d, a
double bassEE, AA, D, G (part written an octave higher than sounding pitch)
the family features are an arched belly, arched back, shallow ribs, commonly four strings tuned in fifths, unfretted fingerboard, right-angled shoulders and F sound holes. The smaller members (down to viola) are played under the chin, the larger members played between the legs, with the bow (originally out-curved but now in-curved) held with the hand lying above the stick. Some double-bass players retain the under-hand bowing associated with the viol family
although the violin is not native to the Indian subcontinent, it has become so popular that it must be mentioned. There appears to be no difference in construction between the Indian violin and its Western counterpart - however, the technique is quite different. The most refined technique is to be found in South Indian music. Instead of holding the instrument under the chin, the musician props it between the shoulder and the foot. This gives a stability which cannot be matched by either north Indian nor occidental techniques. North Indian technique, though not nearly as refined, is still impressive
An old lady comes up to Jascha Heifetz after a concert with the words "Your violin sounded wonderful this evening". Holding the instrument up to his ear, Heifetz replies, "I don't hear anything."
Violiningsee 'volume swells'
Violinist(English, German m.) violin player, violinist
Violinista(Italian m./f., Spanish m./f.) violinist
Violiniste(French m./f.) violinist
Violinistin(German f.) female violin player
Violinist's crampsee 'focal hand dystonia'
Violinkasten(German m.) violin case, fiddle case
Violinkonzert(German n.) violin concerto
Violino(Italian m., Portuguese) violin
Violin octetor 'new violin octet', based on a new approach to the design of violins promoted by the leading American violin maker Carleen Hutchins of Montclair, New Jersey, USA, the 'violin octet' is formed of treble, soprano, mezzo, alto, tenor, baritone, bass and contrabass violins. The ensemble includes an instrument she named the 'Small Bass Violin', which resembles the Sous-Basse and was likewise intended to be tuned G-D-A-E. However, since double bass players were not at that time at home with the fifths tuning, Hutchins decided on the high fourths tuning A-D-G-C
Violino di ferro(Italian m.) nail-violin, Nagelgeige (German), violon de fer (French)
Violino di fila(Italian m.) ripieno violinist
Violino in tromba marina(Italian m.) the name of an instrument associated with the Pietà in Venice and used particularly in a number of works by Vivaldi. Evidence suggests that it was a violin with three strings (the top e" was missing) and was fitted with a trompette or tromba marina bridge
Violino piccolo(Italian m.) a member of the violin family, tuned an octave above the viola
Violino pochetto(Italian m.) a small violin
Violino pomposa(Italian m.) a viola to which an extra top string tuned to e'' has been added, the whole instrument tuned an octave higher than a viola pomposa
Violino primo(Italian m.) first violin
Violino principale(Italian m.) leader of the orchestra, chef d'attaque, the leader of a string quartet
Violino ripieno(Italian m.) a violin part used for the purpose of filling in and strengthening the tutti in a concerto, etc.
Violino secondo(Italian m.) second violin
Violinsaite(German f.) violin string, fiddle string
G clef(German m.) violin clef, treble clef, chiave di violino (Italian f.), chiave di Sol3 (Italian f.), G-Schlüssel (German m.), clef de sol (French f.), clé de sol (French f.), clef de violon (French f.), clé de violon (French f.), clave de sol (Spanish f.)
Violinsteg(German) violin-bridge
Violinvirtuose(German m.) violin virtuoso
G clef(German m.) a clef sign that shows the position of G on the staff, for example, the French violin clef (where the G clef is on the bottom liner of the staff) or the treble clef (where the G clef is on the second line of the staff)
Violinske citre(Slovenia) violin zither
Violin ukesee ukelin
Violin zitherin 1925 a German patent was issued to the Clemens Neuber Company for a bowed psaltery which also included a set of strings arranged in chords, so that one could play the melody on the bowed psaltery strings, and strum accompaniment with the other hand. These are usually called violin zithers
Violist(English, German m.) viola player
Violista(Italian m./f.) viola player, violist
Violistin(German f.) female viola player
Violitzides(Greece) an alternative name for 'fiddlers'
Violon(French m.) violin
(German) or Violone, the double bass
an 8ft. or 16ft. organ stop
Violón(Spanish m.) double bass
(Spanish m./f.) double bass player, double bassist
Violin alto(French m.) viola
Violon-alto(French) the French violinist and viola d'amore player Chrétien Urhan (1790-1845) performed on a five-string violon-alto tuned c-g-d'-a'-e"
Violoncelista(Spanish m./f.) or violonchelista, cellist, violoncelliste (French)
Violoncell(German) violoncello
an organ stop of small scale and crisp tone
Violoncelle(French m.) violoncello
an organ stop of small scale and crisp tone
Violoncellguitarresee guitarre d'amour
Violoncellist (m.), Violoncellistin (f.)(German) violoncellist, cellist
Violoncellista(Italian m./f.) cellist
Violoncelliste(French m./f.) cellist
Violoncello(English, Italian m., German n.) violoncello (Italian), Violoncell (German), violoncelle (French), the bass member of the violin family, often shortened to cello
an organ stop of small scale and crisp tone
Violoncello piccolo(Italian m.) also called 'viola pomposa' or 'viola di fagotto', small, five-stringed 'cello, tuned C G d a e'
Violoncello piccolo da spalla(Italian m.) a violoncello piccolo played on the shoulder, like a viola, rather than down, like a cello
Violoncellospiel(German n.) violoncello playing, cello playing
Violoncelo(Spanish m., Portuguese m.) or violonchelo, violoncello or 'cello, violoncelle (French)
Violonchelista(Spanish m./f.) or violoncelista, cellist, violoncelliste (French)
Violonchelo(Spanish m.) or violoncelo, violoncello or 'cello
(Spanish m./f.) cellist
Violon de fer(French m.) violino di ferro (Italian), nail-violin, Nagelgeige (German)
Violon de file(French m.) ripieno violinist
Violon de Hardanger(French m.) Hardanger fiddle, Haardingfele (Italian), Hardanger Fiedel (German)
Violonethe double-bass viol, which is the ancestor of the double-bass
however, Athanasius Kircher (1602-1680) in his important musicological work Musurgia Universalis (1650) described the violone as the bass instrument of the violin family and gave the tuning of the double bass (violone) as G-D-A-E (two octaves below the violin)
a non-imitative string-tone organ stop made of metal and found in the pedal division at 16' pitch or, more rarely, 32'
the name has also been applied to an open wood stop, of much smaller scale than the diapason, on the pedals of an organ, the pipes of which are a little wider at the top than at the bottom, and furnished with ears and beard at the mouth. The tone is crisp and resonant, like that of the double-bass, but the speaking is a little slow
Violoneux(Breton) alternatively, sonnou de violon or violonser, a violinist
Violono(Italian) the double bass
the name has also been applied to an open wood stop, of much smaller scale than the diapason, on the pedals of an organ, the pipes of which are a little wider at the top than at the bottom, and furnished with ears and beard at the mouth. The tone is crisp and resonant, like that of the double-bass, but the speaking is a little slow
Violon rustique(French m.) fiddle, viella (Italian, Spanish), Fiedel (German), Fidel (German), vièle (French), vielle (French)
Violonser(Breton) alternatively, sonnou de violon or violoneux, a violinist
violons seuls(French) violins alone
Violon-tenor(French m.) in 1833, Dubois produced a violon-tenor with body length of 43.5 cm and a total length of 71 cm, tuned it an octave lower than a violin, and played it on his knee in the vertical position
Violotta(Italian f.) invented by mathematician, physicist and instrument maker Dr. Alfred Stelzner (1852-1906), the four-stringed violotta, tuned in fifths one octave below the violin, fills a void in the range between viola and cello. With its body length, about 40 cm, a violist can play it with ordinary technique. It ribs are much deeper than they are in a viola (45 mm at the top of the body, 60 mm at the "C" bouts and 51 mm at the button) and its string length is a little greater. It was meant to be played like a violin, the player reading treble clef, and sounding an octave lower than its treble-clef notation
Viool(Dutch) violin, fiddle
G clef(Dutch) a clef sign that shows the position of G on the staff, for example, the treble clef
vi piace la musica?(Italian) do you like music?
Viradothe tamborim is usually held in the weaker hand, with the thumb crossing the rim and resting on the drumhead, The other fingers are curled under the rim, with the index typically applying and releasing pressure on the underside of the head to produce higher or lower notes. The beater is held at the very tip with the stronger hand and the head is struck a little off-centre. A playing technique called virado is often used, in which the drum is rapidly flipped upside-down to produce ghost notes and syncopated grooves. The instrument may also occasionally be struck on the rim
  • Tamborim from which this extract has been taken
Virago(Latin, literally 'an heroic woman') a violent woman, a termagant, a scold, a shrew
Virelaimedieval French song-form, one of the formes fixes, originating in the 13th-century from Vire in Normany. The virelai is similar to a rondeau. Each stanza has two rhymes, the end rhyme recurring as the first rhyme of the following stanza. The overall musical structure is almost invariably AbbaA, with the first and last sections having the same lyrics; this is the same form as the Italian ballata
see formes fixes
  • Virelai from which some of this entry has been taken
Virando(Portuguese) en tournant (French)
Virelaysee virelai
a second form of the virelay consists of stanzas made up of shorter and longer lines, the lines of each kind rhyming within one stanza and with the rhymes of the shorter lines rhyming with the longer ones of the preceding stanza. The form never became popular in English because of the difficulties with the set rhyming of English words and the potential for monotony
Virement(French) transfer, clearing (in book-keeping and accountancy)
Virgasee 'neume notation'
Virga jacenssee 'neume notation'
Virginais muselares(Portuguese) muselar virginals
Virginal(English, German n., French m., Spanish m.) a plucked stringed keyboard instrument of the 16th and 17th centuries, often called 'virginals' or 'a pair of virginals' in England. The virginal is rectangular or polygonal in shape and is distinguished from the harpsichord by its strings being set at right angles to the keys, rather than parallel with them. There are several manuscript collections of virginal music by English composers, including The Fitzwilliam Virginal Book, My Ladye Nevells Booke, Will Forster's Book, Benjamin Cosyn's Book, and Elizabeth Rogers's Book
Flemish virginals emerged in the 17th century as two distinct instruments, depending where the keyboard was located:
keyboard positioned to the rightmuselarproduced a round, fluty sound of unusual power
keyboard positioned to the left of centrespinetproduced a sound approaching that of the wing-shaped harpsichord of the period. This is explained by the fact that with the keyboard to the left, the instrument's jacks pluck the strings at points similar to those that would have been found in an instrument with a bentside
in England until the middle of the 17th-century the term 'virginal' was used in a more general sense to include all jack-action keyboard instruments
Virginalbuch(German n.) virginal book (as in 'Fitzwilliam Virginal Book')
Virginale(Italian m.) virginal
Virginalist(English, German m.) a person who plays the virginal, one of the school of composers who wrote for it
Virginia Minstrelsa group of 19th-century American entertainers known for helping to invent the entertainment form known as the minstrel show
Virginia Reelan American folk dance that dates from the 17th-century
virginibus puerisque (canto)(Latin, literally (I sing) for girls and boys) a description used of literary works particularly those suitable for the young
Virgin Marythe mother of Jesus, considered the most elevated of the saints and Queen of Heaven
Virgo (intacta)(Latin) a virgin (who is untouched)
Virgola(Italian f.) comma
Virgolette(Italian f. pl.) inverted commas
Virguleslanting mark (/) indicating pause, hyphen, or alternative
in poetry, a forward-slash mark ( / ) used in scansion to mark the boundaries of poetic lines (i.e. line breaks) or alternatively, they may be used to indicate the boundaries of poetic feet
in linguistics, the same mark surrounds a phonetic transcription to indicate the enclosed material represents phonemes rather than graphemes
Virgula(Catalan f., Spanish) stem (part of a note)
Viritysavain(Finnish) tuning fork
Viritysjärjestelmä(Finnish) temperament, adjustment of pure intervals to produce a non-Pythagorean tuning system
Virtù(Italian) supreme competence as an artist, artistic excellence, a love or knowledge of fine art, a collection of works of art
virtueller Ton(German m.) virtual pitch
Virtuoos(Dutch) virtuoso
virtuos(German) virtuostic
Virtuos(German m.) virtuoso
Virtuosasee virtuoso
Virtuose(French m./f., German m.) virtuoso
Virtuosenmusik(German f.) virtuostic music
Virtuosisee virtuoso
virtuosicdisplaying virtuosity
virtuosístico(Portuguese) virtuosic
Virtuosität(German f.) virtuosity
Virtuosité(French f.) virtuosity
Virtuositytotal mastery of one's instrument
Virtuoso (m), Virtuosa (f.), Virtuosi (Italian pl.), Virtuosos (English pl.)(Italian, English) originally the term implied a collector or connoisseur of objects d'art and particularly a gentleman, i.e. a dilettante, and later Samuel Pepys would, on February 15, 1667, describe 'the Royal Society', the premiere scientific institution in England, as 'the college of vertuosoes'. Today, in connection with music, the term has come to mean a performer (not necessarily a gentleman) possessing total mastery of their instrument
  • Virtuoso from which this information has been drawn
Virtuoso (s.), Virtuosos (pl.)(Spanish m.) virtuoso
Vis(French f.) screw (for example, the mechanism that is employed to adjust the tightness of the hair on a bow)
Visage(French m.) face
Visagisme(French) the care of the face, beauty treatment
Visagiste(French) an expert in beauty treatment, an expert in the use of make-up
Vis a tergo(Latin) pressure from behind
Visaverlängerung(German f.) visa extension
vis-à-vis(French) face to face (with), opposite (one another)
see doppelflügel
a term used in dancing to describe a dance where couples face one another and dance matched step-sequences
Viscera(Latin) the soft contents of the bodily cavities (i.e. internal organs, bowels, etc.)
Vis comica(Latin) sense of humour
viser juste(French) to aim straight
Visigothic chantsee 'Mozarabic chant'
Visigothic scriptsee 'Mozarabic neumes'
visina tona(Serbian f.) pitch (of a note)
Visiothe Latin name for the medieval genre of the dream vision
Visionaryvisionary writing has the qualities of prophecy - perhaps it is apocalyptic in imagery, or it may be predictive in its insights, or it may contain a core of moral truth. Many of the Romantic poets (especially Blake) have been labelled visionary. Note that in its literary sense, visionary writing need not be religious in nature, though it frequently is
Visitationthe periodic inspection by a bishop of the temporal and spiritual affairs of a diocese which are under his control, or by an abbot or monastic official of houses within his jurisdiction
Vista(Italian f., Spanish f.) a sight, a view, a prospect, a far reaching mental vision
vistasee visto
Vistaarin Hindustani classical music, an elaboration of a group of notes in a particular raga
vistamente(Italian) briskly, quickly, immediately, swiftly
visto (m.), vista (f.)(Italian m.) brisk, quick, swift, animated
vistoso(Spanish) colourful, bright
Visual acuityacuteness or clearness of vision, especially form vision, which is dependent on the sharpness of the retinal focus within the eye and the sensitivity of the interpretative faculty of the brain
Visual artsart forms that focus on the creation of works which are primarily visual in nature, such as painting, photography, printmaking, and filmmaking. Those that involve three-dimensional objects, such as sculpture and architecture, are called plastic arts. Many artistic disciplines (performing arts, language arts, and culinary arts) involve aspects of the visual arts as well as other types, so these definitions are not strict. The current usage of the term "visual arts" includes fine arts as well as crafts, but this was not always the case
Visual imageryimagery that invokes colours, shapes, or things that can be seen
Visual poetrysee concrete poetry
Visual spectrumthe spatial arrangement of components of radiant electromagnetic energy in order of their wavelengths that appear to us as white light or its colour components
Vita (s.), Vitae (pl.)(Latin, 'a life') for medievalists, a vita is a medieval literary genre, one commonly called a saint's life or a hagiography
in a more modern sense, a vita or curriculum vitae, also called a c.v., is a summary of a scholar's work, publications, teaching, and education
Vita brevis, ars lunga(Latin) life is short, art is long
Vitae, curriculumsee vita
Vitalidad(Spanish f.) vitality
vitamente(Italian) briskly, quickly, immediately, swiftly
Vitaminany of a group of organic substances essential in small quantities to normal metabolism
Vita nuova(Italian f.) a new life, turning over a new leaf
Vite(Italian f.) screw
vite(French) quick, fast
Vitellone (s.), Vitelloni (pl.)(Italian m.) a young (Italian) hooligan, a teddy boy
vitement(French) quickly
Vitesse(French f.) speed, swiftness, quickness
Vitesse de la bande(French f.) tape speed
Vitiateto corrupt, to corrupt morally or by intemperance or sensuality
Viticulteur(French m.) a (French) vine-grower
Vitoan Andalusian dance
vitorear(Spanish) to cheer
Vitrail (s.), Vitraux (pl.)(French) a stained-glass window
Vitrine(French) a glass show-case set in the wall of a room for the display of small works of art, etc.
Vitriolsulphuric acid (formerly used also for any of the various sulphates of metallic elements)
abusive or venomous language used to express blame or censure or bitter deep-seated ill will
Vitrioliccaustic, capable of destroying or eating away by chemical action
acerbic, harsh or corrosive in tone
vittorioso(Italian) victoriously
viv.abbreviation of vivace (Italian: quick, lively)
Viva(Spanish m.) cheer
see viva voce
¡Viva!(Spanish exclamation) Hurray!
vivace(Italian) vivacious, animated, lively, brisk, sprightly, quickly
as an indicator of tempo vivace denotes a speed of movement faster than allegro
vivacemente(Italian) vivaciously, lively, briskly, sprightly, quickly
vivacetto(Italian) rather vivacious, rather lively
(Italian) as a tempo mark similar to allegretto
vivacissimamente(Italian) very vivacious, very lively
vivacissimo(Italian) extremely vivacious, extremely lively
Vivacità(Italian f.) vivacity
¡Viva el rey!(Spanish) Long live the king!
vivamente(Italian) lively, briskly, quickly, in a lively way
Vivandière(French f.) a female camp-follower
the term most properly applies to a woman who sells provisions and liquor although it has also come to imply a female who engages in prostitution
Vivarium (s.), Vivaria (pl.)(Latin) a piece of ground or stretch of water given over to the keeping and display of wild creatures under their natural conditions
Vivat!(Latin) long life and prosperity!
Vivat regina(Latin) Long live the queen
Vivat rex(Latin) Long live the king
Viva voce(Latin, 'with a living voice') an examination where the participants converse face to face (colloquially shortened to viva)
vivaz(Portuguese) allegro, quick
vivesee vif
vive aislado del mundo(Spanish) he's cut himself off from the world
vive angustiada(Spanish) she lives in a constant state of anxiety
vive con la angustia de que ...(Spanish) she's constantly worried that ...
vive en el piso de arriba(Spanish) he lives upstairs
vive (en un piso) de alquiler(Spanish) he lives in a rented flat
Vive le roi!(French) long live the king!
the phrase is often used ironically to acclaim the successor to a deceased or disgraced official
vivement(French) in a lively fashion, brisk, ardently, vigorously, unremittingly
"In Italian, vivace. This word indicates a mouvement [primarily in the sense of "tempo" but of "emotion" as well] that is gai, quick and animé, and a performance that is hardi and full of fire." - Brossard (1703)
viven por aquí(Spanish) they live around here
vivente(Italian) animated, in a lively fashion
vivere alla giornata(Italian) to live from hand to mouth
vivere di espedienti(Italian) to live by one's wits
Viveur(French m.) a loose liver, a rake (as in bon viveur)
Vivezza(Italian f.) vivacity, liveliness
vivido(Italian) lively, brisk
Vivienda digna(Spanish) decent home
vivieron felices y comieron perdices(Spanish) they lived happily ever after
vivir al dia(Spanish) to live from hand to mouth, to live from day to day
vivir bien(Spanish) to live well
vivir como gitanos(Spanish) to live like tramps
vivir de la pluma(Spanish) to live by one's pen
vivir de las rentas(Spanish) to have a private income
vivir del cuento(Spanish) to live on one's wits, to live by one's wits
vivir para ver(Spanish) you live and learn
vivo(Italian) lively, sprightly, brisk, alive
Vivoa nose flute from Tahiti
vivre au jour le jour(French) to live from day to day, to live from hand to mouth
vivre comme chien et chat(French) to fight like cat and dog
vivre dans la misère(French) to live in poverty
vivre dans la peur(French) to live in fear
vivre de très peu de choses(French) to exist on very little, to live on very litte
vivre d'expédients(French) to live by one's wits
vivre les uns sur les autres(French) to live one on top of the other
Vixit(Latin) he/she has lived
viz, viz.abbreviation of videlicet (Latin: that is to say, namely)
Vizgunki(Russian, literally, 'shrieks') the name given to the smallest members of the rozhok family
Vl.abbreviation of violino
v.l.abbreviation of varia lectio (Latin: a variant reading)
Vla.abbreviation of viola
Vladimir hornsee rhozok
vlag (van noot)(Dutch) flag (of a note)
Vlaggetje(Dutch) flag (of a note)
Vlc.abbreviation of violoncello
vleabbreviation of 'violone'
Vleugel(Dutch) grand piano
Vlloabbreviation of violoncello
Vln.abbreviation of 'violin'
vloeiend(Dutch) pushing on
Vlugschrift(Dutch) pamphlet