music dictionary : Vm - Vz

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Vn, vnabbreviation of 'violin'
Vniabbreviation of violini (Italian: violins)
Vnoabbreviation of violino (Italian: violin)
v.o.abbreviation of version originale (French: film shown in its original language possibly with subtitles in French)
Voabbreviation of violino (Italian: violin)
Vocablenonlexical syllables, lacking literal meaning, a word considered only as a sequence of sounds or letters rather than as a unit of meaning
Vocable musicthe term is applicable to wordless singing that is found in the music of the Blackfoot other American Indian peoples as well as that of the Pygmy and in the music of the Maldives. The Blackfoot, like other Plains Indians, use consonants h, y, w, and vowels. They avoid n, c (ts) and other consonants. i and e tend slightly to be higher pitches, a, o, and u lower ones
Vocabularythe stock of words in a given language or available to a given speaker of that language
Vocal(English, French m.) pertaining to the voice, as in 'vocal exercises' or 'vocal dexterity'
music that is suitable for or particularly effective when performed using the voice
Vocal abusemistreatment usually by overuse of the vocal folds without regard for the consequences
Vocal apparatussee 'larynx'
Vocal chordssynonymous with 'vocal cords'
Vocal conservationtechniques used to preserve or improve vocal function
Vocal cordsthe vocal organs in the human being which produce sound
Vocal "de fundo"(Portuguese) backing vocal
Vocale(Italian f.) vowel, vocal
vocale(Italian) vocal, pertaining to the voice
Vocal ensembles
English French German Italian Spanish
vocal ensemble ensemble vocal Vokalensemble gruppo vocale grupo vocal
chorus choeur Chor coro coro
mixed voices voix mixtes Stimmen gemischte / gemischter Chor voci miste voces mixtas
women's voices choeur de femmes Frauenchor / Frauenstimme coro femminile coro femenino
men's voices choeur d'homme Männerchor / Männerstimme coro maschile coro masculino / coro de hombres
children's voices choeur d'enfants Kinderchor voci bianche coro infantil / coro de niños
equal voices voix égales Stimmen gleiche voci pari voces iguales
Vocaleseas referred to in jazz, the name for a vocal composition created by setting newly composed lyrics to music taken from existing recordings of jazz instrumental music, including the improvised solos. The resulting compositions often require a high degree of vocal virtuosity because the singer is performing music that is not idiomatic for the voice. This practice, which began in the early 1950s and remains popular today, has been unjustly marginalized by most jazz critics, mainly because it does not involve improvisation. Some examples of vocalese are Eddie Jefferson's 1952 Moody's Mood for Love, based on James Moody's I'm in the Mood for Love, Jefferson's version of Charlie Parker's Now's the Time, Jefferson's version of Dizzy Gillespie's Night in Tunisia, and John Hendrick's version of Gillespie's Night in Tunisia
Vocalezzo(Italian m.) a vocal exercise
Vocal fatiguedeterioration of the vocal quality die to prolonged use, may be the result of vocal misuse or abuse or may be indicative of a pathological condition
Vocal foldstechnical term for what are more commonly called the vocal cords
Vocal fry registeralso known as pulse register, laryngealisation, pulse phonation, creak, glottal fry, glottal rattle, glottal scrape or strohbass, the lowest vocal register and is produced through a loose glottal closure which will permit air to bubble through slowly with a popping or rattling sound of a very low frequency
Vocal glottisthe aperture between the vocal cords
Vocal hornRudall & Carte's version of the ballad horn
Vocalisationvocal exercises particularly upon the various vowel sounds, vocal writing, composition for the voice
in linguistics, the change from a consonant sound to a vowel sound
Vocalise(French f.) voice exercises or pieces of music intended as exercises in the technique of singing (for example, focusing on various vowel sounds including the letter 'a' sounded in the Italian manner), vocalize
Vocalismin speech, the use of the voice or vocal organs
in singing, the art or skill of exercising the voice
in phonetics, a vowel sound or articulation, a system of vowels specific to a given language
Vocalización(Spanish f.) vocal exercises particularly upon the various vowel sounds, vocal writing, composition for the voice, vocalise (French)
Vocalizationsee 'vocalisation'
Vocalizeto sing a vowel
singing several notes to a single vowel sound, in particular as an exercise for the voice
vocalizzare(Italian) to practice singing on vowels (for example, focusing on the letter A sounded in the Italian manner)
Vocalizzo (s.), Vocalizzi (pl.)(Italian m.) vocalise, exercise for practicing singing on vowels
Vocal masquea singer's vocal masque is literally his/her facial features and good singers achieve stellar vocal sound when the sound is resonating fully "in the masque." For instance, behind your eyes, within your nasal passages, etc., you have resonating areas or cavities where the vocal sound - when produced freely through proper diaphragmatic support, correct positioning of hard and soft palates and tongue and relaxed, open throat and mouth/jaw area, open eyes - can resonate. Therefore, a person's facial features, combined with the genetic structure of the vocal cords, give the singer his or her unique vocal sound
Vocal misuseincorrect use of pitch, volume, breath support or rate which may occur singly or in combination
Vocal nodulesbilaterally occurring thickenings at the junction of the anterior and middle thirds of the vocal folds, resulting from vocal misuse or abuse
Vocal percussionthe art of creating sounds with one's mouth that approximate, imitate, or otherwise serve the same purpose as a percussion instrument, whether in a group of singers, an instrumental ensemble, or solo. The term 'beatboxing' is often used as a synonym for vocal percussion, but in fact is just one type of percussion, often used to accompany hip-hop music
Vocal rangevocal ranges
human voices are individual and the ranges shown above should be taken as being only a rough guide (for more information, see 'voice, voices' below)
Vocal registrationthe term used to denote various theories of how the human voice changes, both subjectively and objectively, as it moves through its pitch range
see 'voice registers'
Vocal ringclassical artists strive to develop a "ring" to their vocal sound (acoustic resonance at 2,500 - 3,000 Hz). This allows the voice to project freely over a large orchestra or within a large performance venue. In popular music, because of the use of amplification, this ringing quality, achieved through "bel canto" technique, can be relaxed to a certain extent - but not entirely forgotten. The "ring" adds beauty to the vocal sound and it occurs when the sound is resonating in the vocal masque
Vocal scorealso known as 'piano-vocal score', 'piano score' or 'piano reduction', the 'vocal score' used for for large choral works, operas, Broadway shows, etc., that shows all the solo vocal parts as well as the chorus parts, but with the orchestral parts reduced to a piano or organ accompaniment and the voice parts of the chorus, etc. written one above another on separate staves
Vocal soloistcantate solista (Italian f.), Solosänger (German m.), chanteur soloiste (French m.)
Vocal temática(Spanish f.) thematic vowel
Vocal tenor clefsee 'octave clef'
Vocal tractthat cavity in animals and humans, where sound that is produced at the sound source (larynx in mammals; syrinx in birds) is filtered. In birds it consists of the trachea, the syrinx, the oral cavity, the upper part of the esophagus, and the beak. In mammals it consists of the laryngeal cavity, the pharynx, the oral cavity, and the nasal cavity, and in some nonhuman mammals maybe also the airsacs
Vocal trancea subgenre of trance music, and contains highly melodic sessions, intro/outros which are similar to those of hard trance and tracks of usually about 6 to 8 minutes long
Vocal weighta reference to a voice's ability to handle changes in vocal dynamic. Weight is often determined by the thickness of the vocal cords. All voices can sing loudly or softly to some degree, but different voices handle changes in dynamic differently. A voice can be said to have a dramatic or lyric quality. The Fach system exists so singers are able to sing roles at an appropriate timbre and weight, so they will be heard in a theatre without having microphones. It should be noted that Fach is often contested over, and there are many singers who can sing roles outside of their Fach
Vocation(English, French f., from Latin vovo, 'call') employment, trade, profession, a strong feeling of suitability for a particular career, divine call to a career in the Church
Vocativein a synthetic or declined language, a grammatical case used to invoke or call to another person
Voce (s.), Voci (pl.)(Italian f.) voice, part (as in a polyphonic composition)
Voce acuta(Italian) shrill voice
voce alta, asee a voce alta
Voce aspra(Italian f.) harsh voice
Voce angelica(Italian f.) see vox angelica
Voce bianca(Italian f., literally 'white voice') a term given to describe female and child voices
Voce chiara(Italian f.) clear voice
Voce cupa(Italian f.) deep voice
Voce di camera(Italian f.) a voice suited for small-scale work (i.e. private rather than public singing)
Voce di gola(Italian f.) throat voice, a gutteral voice
Voce di petto(Italian f.) chest voice, natural voice, the lower register of the voice
Voce di ripieno(Italian f.) ripieno as opposed to solo
Voce di strega(Italian f.) vocal exercises designed to strengthen the voice and thereby increase its dynamic range
studies of the frequency spectrum of trained singers, especially male singers, indicate a clear formant around 3000 Hz that is absent in speech or in the spectra of untrained singers. It is this formant which allows singers to be heard and understood over an orchestra. This formant is actively developed through vocal training, for instance through so-called voce di strega exercises
Voce di testa(Italian f.) head voice, the upper register of the voice
Voce femminile(Italian f.) female voice
Voce flebile(Italian f.) a doleful voice
Voce granita(Italian f.) a firm, powerful, rounded voice
Voce infantile(Italian f.) child's voice
Voce intonata(Italian f.) a pure-toned voice
Voce maschile(Italian f.) male voice
Voce pastosa(Italian f.) a full, soft, flexible voice
Voce principale(Italian f.) principal voice
Voce rauca(Italian f.) a hoarse, rough voice
Vocerellina(Italian f.) a pretty little voice
Voceri(Corsica) dirges or lamentation sung by women
Voces aequales(Latin) equal voices
Voces Aretinae(Italian f. pl.) the Aretinian syllables
Voces belgicae(Latin) in solmization, the syllables bo, ce, di, ga, lo, ma, ni also called 'bobesation', 'Belgic syllables' or solmisatio belgica
Voce sola(Italian f.) the voice alone
Voce spianata(Italian f.) an even, smooth, sustained voice
Voce spiccata(Italian f.) a voice with clear enuncation
Voce umana(Italian f.) vox humana, the human voice
voce un po' lontana(Italian) her voice a little further away
Voce velata(Italian f.) a voice with a veiled tone
Voci(Italian f. pl.) plural of voce
Vociaccia(Italian f.) a bad, disagreeable voice
Voci eguali(Italian f. pl.) equal voices
Vociferateto utter noisily, to shout, to bawl
vociférer(French) to scream
Vociferousnoisy, clamorous, insistently and forcibly outspoken
Voci misti(Italian f. pl.) mixed voices
Voci mutates(Italian f. pl.) adult male voices (excluding falsettists)
Vocina(Italian f.) a little, thin voice
Vocino(Italian m.) a pleasing little voice
Vociolina(Italian f.) a small, thin voice
Vocione(Italian) a strong, loud voice
Vocoder(English, German m. - a portmanteau of voice and encoder) a speech analyzer and synthesizer
VODacronym for 'video on demand'
Vodka(Russian) a Russian ardent spririt usually distilled from rye
voetklavier (pedaal)(Dutch) pedal board (e.g. on an organ)
Voeu (s.), Voeux (pl.)French m.) wish, vow (promise)
V of Vin jazz, a chord progression in which a dominant chord (V) resolves down a fifth to another dominant chord (V) - for example, C7V7
Vogelflöte(German f.) bird-flute
Vogelgesang(German m.) bird song
Vogelpfeife(German f.) bird pipe
Vogelgesang(German, literally 'singing of birds') an accessory stop in some very old German organs, producing a chirping effect, by some little pipes standing in a vessel with water through which the wind passes before reaching the pipes
Voglia(Italian f.) longing, desire, ardour, fervour
Vogue(French f.) the prevailing fashion or tendency at a given place or time (for example, 'to be in vogue' is to enjoy success in popular esteem at a particular place or time)
Vogueword a word that appears in fashionable use or in pop culture
Vogue la galère(French) let's chance it, press on regardless
voguer(French) to sail
Voice (s.), Voices (pl.)voce (Italian), Stimme (German), voix (French)
the sound which issues from the mouth, and which is produced by the vibrations of the vocal chords
individual line(s) or part(s) in a musical structure
distinct instrumental or vocal part(s) in a musical work, for example, a four-part song may be described as being for four voices, even if each line is performed by a more than one person, as in a large choir
see 'alto', 'soprano', 'mezzosoprano', 'contralto', 'tenor', 'baritone', 'bass'
extended classification of voices:
coloratura-sopranohighest female voice, that has to reach f''' (Queen of the night in Die Zauberflöte)Erna Sack, Mado Robin, Ellen Beach Yaw and Miliza Korjus
coloratura-soubrette or soprano lirico leggieroreaches about d''', usually singing youthful rolesLouise de Vries, Adèle Kern, Elisabeth Schumann and Erna Berger at the start of her career
soprano leggieroalso called a coloratura-singer, but only reaching e'''Galli-Gurci, Dal Monte, Lily Pons, Erna Spoorenberg, Cato Engelen-Sewing, Erna Berger
lyric sopranosinging up to c''', the most versatile soprano (Mimi in La Bohème)Victoria de los Angeles, Grace Moore, Greet Koeman, Irmgard Seefried
soprano lirico spinto (jugendlich-dramatisch)the voice that lies over parts of the lyric and dramatic soprano ranges, with a fine full voice up to c'''Gré Brouwenstijn, Renata Tebaldi, Elisabeth Rethberg
dramatic sopranosinging up to c''' or d''', in Italian repertoire (Turandot and Aida) where the sound is more darkly-coloured than the high-romantic German repertoire (Isolde in Tristan und Isolde)Maria Callas, Rosa Ponselle, Elisabeth Ohms, Kirsten Flagstad
the highest mezzo-sopranos singing up to b'' are named after famous singers: Dugazon and Galli-MariéCora Canne Meijer
dramatic mezzo-sopranoa light contralto-voice up to a'', who in some cases may also perform dramatic-soprano roles (Amneris in Aida)Ebe Stignani, Giulietta Simionato
lyric-colorata altosinging up to about b''-flat and special the alto roles of Rossiniusually these parts are sung by mezzo-sopranos
contraltosings particular roles such as Azucena (Trovatore), Ulrica (Un ballo), DalilaMaartje Offers
dramatic altomore darkly-coloured than a mezzo, singing up to a''-flat (Dalila in Samson et Dalila)Annie Delorie
contraltoa very dark voice, very seldom found in operaClara Butt, Kathleen Ferrier
countertenorfausset (French m.), a special male-voice singing falsetto in the female contralto range, now often used for roles originally written for 18th-century castratos, but with a very different timbreAlfred Deller, Sytze Buwalda
lyric tenorthe male alternative to the lyric soprano who like the tenore leggiero and the tenore di grazia (Ottavio in Don Giovanni) can reach up to about c''Gigli, Richard Tauber, Anton de Ridder
tenore lirico-spintonow called a dramatic tenor, singing up to c'' (Lohengrin)Del Monaco, Caruso
tenore drammatico or Heldentenorin Italian operas, famous for his 'high C' (c''). In German repertoire the voice tends to be a little darker reaching down into the baritone voice (Otello)Jacques Urlus, Hans Kaart, Lauri-Volpi, Tamagno
tenore buffoa flexible clear voice, up to about a', used for acting roles (Jaquino in Fidelio)Chris Taverne
baryton-Martinthe highest baritone-voice, named after the French singer, Martin, and found only in French repertoire (Faust and many French operetta-heroes)
lyric baritonewith a range up to about a'-flat (Figaro in Il barbiere di Siviglia)Tito Gobbi, Schlusnus
bass-baritone or character-baritonemore serious roles and a singing range up to g' (Figaro in Le Nozze)Siemen Jongsma
Heldenbaritonea dark, wide ranged voice up to g' (Boris in Boris Godoenov)Casper Broecheler, Jos Orelio
baritono brillante or Spielbaritona baritone voice with buffo character (Gianni Schicchi)Jos Burcksen
basso buffo or Spiel-bassa voice with a reach up to f' (Mefisto in Faust)Guus Hoekman
basso serioso or basso profundoa voice that can reach to about e' and, at the lower end, capable down to low E (Sarastro in Die Zauberflöte)Arnold van Mill, Boris Christoff, Feodor Chaliapine
Voice actoralso a voice artist, a person who provides voices for animated characters (including those in feature films, television series, animated shorts), voice-overs in radio and television commercials, audio dramas, dubbed foreign language films, video games, puppet shows, and amusement rides. The Japanese term for a voice actor is a seiyuu. When singing is called for a role, a second voice actor is sometimes cast as the character's singing voice
  • Voice actor from which this short extract has been taken
Voice artistsee 'voice actor
Voice as an instrumentusing a voice or a number of voices to produce an instrumental sound, rather than using the voice in the conventional sense as a vehicle for text, more usually associated with twentieth-century music and 'new age' music to produce a mysterious, soothing, beautiful effect
Voice boxsee 'larynx'
Voice cuesvocal signals used to help match rhythmic patterns of steps in dance with music
Voicedas opposed to voiceless, terms used to describe a sound produced either with phonation (vibration of the larynx) or not. A /z/ is voiced, an /s/ is not
Voice disordersa voice disorder may prevent a professional singer from performing or a business person from effectively managing his or her affairs, or it may prohibit simple, daily, verbal communication between elderly spouses. A person's vocal quality may influence the type of work that person does, and conversely, the type of work a person does may influence the importance of avoiding voice difficulties and the degree of professional impairment that may result from a voice disorder. Voice disorders are ubiquitous, and many have severe social, psychological, professional, and economic consequences. Until relatively recently, many voice disorder patients went untreated, but today, with advances in diagnosis and treatment, that has all been changed
Voice exchangea term used to describe the exchange of parts between voices in medieval polyphony
Voice flutetenor-sized recorder in D, in Dutch sang fluyt
Voice Flute, Patenta transverse flute with six fingerholes, and a non-stopped hole at the back, covered with onion skin or rice paper, patented and manufactured by Macgregor and Wigley, c. 1811
Voice instrumental musica broad category describing music for the human voice without words, sometimes characterized as musical onomatopoeia. The practice of vocal instrumental music in some form may be as old as human civilization
Voice in the wildernessunheeded advocate of reform
Voice leadinga term used in America to describe writing a succession of harmonic notes in the inner voices so that they form coherent melodic lines of their own, or, at least, move in a smooth, mainly step-wise motion, that is like part-writing in polyphony. Bach did this to perfection, writing 4 or more independent melodies so that they worked together to form perfect chordal harmony. In Schenkerian analysis, the term 'voice leading' is used in preference to 'part-writing'
Voicelessdumb, speechless
uttered without vibration of the vocal cords (for example, /f/, /p/)
see 'voiced'
Voiceless consonantin phonetics, a voiceless consonant is a consonant that does not have voicing. That is, it is produced without vibration of the vocal cords. Voiceless obstruent consonants are usually articulated more strongly than their voiced counterparts, because in voiced consonants, the energy used in pronunciation is split between the laryngeal vibration and the oral articulation
Voicelinean individual melodic line formed by a voice within one measure. When a staff contains more than one voiceline in any given measure, note stems of each voiceline usually point in the opposite directions. The sum of all note and rest values of each voiceline in any given measure should be accounted for, but sometimes are not
Voice mechanismthe voice is like any musical instrument. It has a power source (breath), a vibrator (vocal folds), and a resonator (the vocal masque). As the breath moves up from the lungs to the trachea, it moves through the vocal folds, which are housed in the larynx. The vocal folds create the sound in the same way that blowing between two blades of grass also creates sound. As the air passes through the vocal folds, which are almost closed, the suction created in this narrow space, causes the vocal folds to close completely. Pressure builds up under the closed vocal folds, causing the vocal folds to open again. As the air passes through the narrow passage, it creates suction which again causes the vocal folds to close. This cycle continues, vibrating 261 times/second for middle C. The vibratory mechanism is called the 'Bernoulli effect'. The sound is created here, at the vocal folds, which are housed in the larynx (your larynx is the bony bump on the front of your throat, often called the voice box, or Adam's apple). The sounds continues up through the vocal tract to the back of the throat, where it resonates, and exits at the mouth. Resonance also occurs in the nose, but only on consonants and sounds, such aahs and the -ing in English words, or nasal French vowels. This is when the velum, or soft palate (if you feel the roof of your mouth with your tongue, feel the hard part - that is your hard palate - go further to where it is soft and there is no more bone - this is your soft palate) moves down and the air passes up further into the nasal area
Voice organthe part of the human body responsible for the generation of sound, usually in the form of speech or singing. It comprises the larynx and the vocal tract
Voice-overor 'voiceover', commentary in a film, etc. by an unseen narrator
Voice parta vocal line, usually called a 'vocal part'. As the plural 'voice parts', generally a reference to chorus parts
however, the term 'voice' may be used more generally for a non-singing part, that is one written for a musical instrument
Voicerone who sets or adjusts the 'voicing' on a musical instrument, for example, a recorder or the pipes of an organ
see 'flea-hole'
Voice registersregistros vocal (Spanish), registres de voix (French), Gesangsregister (German), registri della voce (Italian)
one important categorization that can be applied to the sounds singers make relates to the register or the "voice" that is used. Singers refer to these registers according to the part of the body in which the sound most generally resonates, and which have correspondingly different tonal qualities. There are widely differing opinions and theories about what a register is, how they are produced and how many there are. The following definitions refer to the different ranges of the voice:
vocal fry
Strohbassregister (German)
Schnarrregister (German)
Pulsregister (German)
friture (French)
a very low register employed in Untertongesang and the throat singing of Mongolia, Tuva, Tibetan lamas, etc.
chest voice
long voice
registro de pecho (Spanish)
registre de poitrine (French)
voix de poitrine (French f.)
registre lourd (French)
Bruststimmregister (German)
Vollstimme (German)
Modalstimme (German)
registro di petto (Italian)
voce di petto (Italian f.)
the register typically used in everyday speech. It is so called because it can produce the sensation of the sound coming from the upper chest. This is because lower frequency sounds have longer wavelengths, and resonate mostly in the larger cavity of the chest. A person uses the chest voice when singing in the majority of his or her range. In the musical theatre, the voice may be pushed to the top of the chest voice, and even beyond the upper passaggio, leading to a frontal or nasal tone. This style of singing is known as 'belting', 'open voice' singing, voce aperta (Italian f.) or voix ouverte (French f.)
middle voice
mixed voice
registro medio (Spanish)
voix mixte appuyée (French f.)
voix mixte (French f.)
registre mixte (French)
Mittelstimme (German)
mezza voce (Italian f.)
also known as the "blend", the term used to describe the range of notes which marks the crossover between the chest and head, or falsetto voice. It may be a distinct change (a passage, passaggio or ponticello) or a more gradual blending. With training, many singers can choose whether to sing notes in this range in the head or chest voice. In the male baritone this range falls between G3-E4, typically
head voice
short register
registro de cabeza (Spanish)
registre de tête (French)
registre léger (French)
voix de tête (French f.)
Kopfstimme (German)
registro di testa (Italian), voce di testa (Italian f.)
different from falsetto in that it is connected to the chest voice, that is, the singer's head voice & chest voice are linked and sound bridged; in transition the voice doesn't cut out or make any audible changes in harmonics. The tonal qualities of the head voice are usually described as being sweet, balladic, lilting, lyrical, or pure. On the negative side, especially in men, on very high notes this register may sound light, squeaky, or breathy
whistle register
flageolet register
registro de silbido (Spanish)
Pfeifregister (German)
Flageolettregister (German)
registre de sifflet (French)
registre de flageolet (French)
voix de sifflet (French f.)
voix de flageolet (French f.)
the very highest notes in the range of a female voice, those employed in coloratura roles such as that of the Queen of the Night in Mozart's opera The Magic Flute
falsete (Spanish)
fausset (French m.)
voix de fausset (French f.)
Falsett (German)
falsetto (Italian)
a higher range than the head voice, although the only difference between the two is the force with which air is pushed through the folds, as anatomically they are produced in the same way. It relies on completely relaxed vocal folds and may sound breathy. In yodelling, the voice switches rapidly between the chest and falsetto registers. The terms feigned voice, voce finta and voix feinte are applied to a weak unsteady falsetto voice
clear voice
white voice
voce chiara (Italian f.)
voce bianca (Italian f.)
voix claire (French f.)
voix blanche (French f.)
a clear open timbre in which the tongue retracts and blocks the pharynx
open voice
voce aperta (Italian f.)
voix ouverte (French f.)
the use of the chest voice in the highest possible register - another way of describing belting. The mouth is more and more opened on the ascending scale
closed voice
voce chiusa (Italian f.)
voix fermée (French f.)
a voice which modifies itself in the upper middle register. The singer feels the pivot of the larynx and the gradual opening of the pharynx. The mouth is rounded and not too open
covered voice
voce coperta (Italian f.)
voix couverte (French f.)
a voice in which the timbre is dark but brilliant with a homogeneity prevailing over the complete range. The larynx has pivoted and remains stable; the pharynx is open
feigned voice
voce finta (Italian f.)
voix feinte (French f.)
sometimes used to describe falsetto, describes the timbre of the unsupported voice. The sound is too clear and inconsistent. It is often the result of a horizontal mouth posture and of the absence of physical support. Some singers unfortunately use this feigned voice as an attempt to be expressive
full voice
voce piena (Italian f.)
voix pleine (French f.)
a voice, with an intense, well-supported timbre, that combines the qualities of chest and head voice
Voicingvoicing refers to the vertical distribution of the pitches of a chord above the bass. When the root of a triad is in the bass, we describe the voicing of chords as chords in either open or close position. In open position, in between any two members of the chord, another chord tone could be inserted. In close position, no other chord tones could be inserted between two members of the chord
the term is used to describe the process of optimisation of tone, volume, attack and timbre applied to the sound generating parts of flue- or duct-pipe instruments, for example, in the recorder or the organ
voicing organ pipes entails adjusting three aspects:
the attackthe very first instant of speech
the tone qualitycolour that distinguishes one kind of sound from another
the volumestrength of the tone
the process of shaping the plectra and regulating the jacks on a member of the harpsichord family
on the piano, the term is used to express the methods of obtaining a particular quality of tone by adjusting the hardness of the hammer felt so that the tone of each note is uniform throughout. The process includes the choice and alignment of the original hammers, shaping the hammmers with small files, and 'needling' the hammers with a special needling tool
Void notationin the early part of the 15th-century a change took place from the earlier full 'black' notation to 'outline', 'white' or 'void' notation. The change did not apply to rests, or most auxiliary symbols such as custodes, time signatures, etc. which retained their earlier meaning. It remains unclear why the change took place but it appears to have begun in England
Voile(French m.) veil, as when placing a cloth over a drum to muffle it
fine semi-transparent fabric
voilé(French) veiled, subdued, husky, damped, muffled, gedämpft, coperto, assourdi, velato, velata
voimakkaasti(Finnish) forte
voimistuen(Finnish) crescendo
voir(French) to see
voir 36 chandelles(French) to see stars
voir à(French) to see to it that, to make sure that
voir de ses propres yeux(French) to see something with one's own eyes
voir la vie en rose(French) to see life through rose-colored glasses
voir le bout du tunnel(French) to see the light at the end of the tunnel
voir le jour(French) to be born
voir venir(French) wait and see
voir venir gros comme une maison(French) to see something coming from a mile away
Voiture(French f.) (motor) car, coach (train), carriage
Voiture à cheval(French f.) horse-drawn carriage
Voiture cellulaire(French f.) prison van
Voiture de course(French f.) racing-car
Voiture de fonction(French f.) company car
Voiture d'enfant(French f.) pram, baby carriage (U.S.)
Voiture de tourisme(French f.) private car
Voix(French f.) voice, voices, part (as in a polyphonic composition)
(French f.) vote (in an election)
Voix angélique(French f.) vox angelica
Voix argentine(French f.) a clear-toned voice
Voix âpre(French f.) harsh voice
Voix claire(French f.) clear voice
Voix céleste(French, literally 'celestial voices') see céleste
Voix de fausset(French f.) falsetto (voice)
Voix de gorge(French f.) throat voice
Voix de poitrine(French f.) chest voice, natural voice
Voix de tête(French f.) head voice
Voix éclatante(French f.) loud, piercing voice
Voix empâtée(French f.) a neat, clear voice
Voix enfantine(French f.) child's voice
Voix féminine(French f.) female voice
Voix flûtée(French f.) a soft, sweet voice
Voix glapissante(French f.) a shrill, squeaky voice
Voix grave(French f.) deep voice
Voix humaine(French f.) vox humana
Voix masculine(French f.) male voice
Voix mixtes(French f. pl.) mixed voices
Voix perlée(French f.) pearly voice
Voix pleine(French f.) full, solid voice
Voix seule(French f.) solo voice
Voix voilée(French f.) a veiled, not clear voice
Vokal(German m.) vowel
vokal(German) vocal
Vokalise(German f.) vocalise
vokalisieren(German) to vocalize
Vokalisierung(German f.) vocalization
Vokalmusik(German f.) vocal music
Vokalpartitur(German f.) vocal score
Vol(French m.) flight (plane, bird, bumble-bee), flock, flight
(French m.) theft (hold-up), robbery
vol.abbreviation of 'volume'
volage(French) fickle, inconstant, volatile
Volaille, la(French) poultry
Vol à la tire(French m.) pickpocketing
vol à main armée(French) armed robbery
VO Languagea language that tends to place the verb before the grammatical object in a sentence. Modern English is a VO language
Volant(French m.) (steering-)wheel, flounce (dress)
volant (m.), volante (f.)(French) flying, light, swift, volante
volante(Italian, literally 'flying') fast and light, a light and rapid series of notes
in string playing, a bow-stroke where the bow bounces on the string to produce an effect very similar to that of the ricochet
volar por los aires(Spanish) to explode, to blow up
Volata (s.), Volate (pl.)(Italian f.) a run or division, a series of quick notes forming an embellisment to a melody, a roulade (French)
Volate(German) volata
Volatilechangeable in mood, fickle, unstable (trading conditions), likely to erupt in violence (political situation)
Volatina (s.), Volatine (pl.)(Italian) diminutive of volata
Volatine(French) volata
Vol-au-vent(French) an individual pie case made of very light puff pastry and often served with a filling of meat, fish or fowl in a sauce
Volcan(French m.) volcano
Volcán(Spanish f.) volcano
Volcán en actividad(Spanish f.) active volcano
Volcanicof, like, or from a volcano
volcanique(French) volcanic
Vol du Bourdon(French m.) Flight of the Bumble-bee
volé(French) 'robbed', rubato
volée(French) flight, flock, volley (of shots, etc.)
Volente Deo(Latin) God willing
voler(French) to fly
(French) to steal
Volet(French m.) shutter (window), (folded or tear-off) section (of a document, etc.)
voleter(French) to flutter
Voleur (m.), Voleuse (f.)(French) thief
voleur (m.), voleuse (f.)(French) thieving
volgendosi(Italian) turning
Volière(French f.) aviary
Voliho(Madagascar) a round bamboo zither with eighteen to fifty-four strings, formerly the favorite instrument of Merina princes. It is always used in tromba possession rituals. The name comes from the word vadya (Sanskrit: musical instrument)
Volitionact or power of willing
Volitivea verb form that expresses a wish, command, or the speaker's will. In many languages, an identical verb form is used for both the intentive (which expresses intention) and the volitive
Volk dichtet, das(German, literally 'the populace writes poetry') popular ballads and folk-songs are composed by the people at large (a doctrine popular at one time but now accepted by few)
Völkerwanderung (s.), Völkerwanderungen (pl.)(German f.) also called the Germanic migrations, this term refers to the mass migration of Germanic tribes westward across Europe between 375 AD and 750 AD. This demographic movement pushed the Vandals, Ostrogoths, and Goths into the boundaries of the Roman Empire in the fifth century, speeding its dissolution. The same movement also pushed the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes across the channel into Celtic Britain, where they in turn dislocated the native Celtic population by driving them into Cornwall, Wales and Scotland in the western and northern parts of Britain and even into Brittany in northeastern France. These Anglo-Saxon tribes formed the basis of the English people and their tongue became known as Old English. The late stages of the Volkerwanderung involved northern Germanic Viking tribes from Norway, Scandinavia, and Denmark pillaging the British isles and much of Britain
völkisch(German) national, nationalistic (particularly when expressed aggressively as, for example, with reference to the pronouncements and policies of the German National Socialist Party)
Volksbewegung (s.), Volksbewegungen (pl.)(German f.) a spontaneous instinctive upsurge of feeling experienced by a whole nation
Volksbühne(German f.) theatre workshop, workshop theatre
Volksgeist(German m.) (also Volksseele, Nationalgeist or Geist der Nation, Volkscharakter, and in English 'national character') a term originating in 1801 with Hegel which is described by Stephen Bayley in his book Taste (1991) as being "an abstract entity embodying the national spirit which imparts a common stamp to religion, politics, ethics, customs, arts and science."
Volksleid (s.), Volksleider (pl.)(German n.) folk song
Volksmusik(German f., Dutch) folk music
Volkstanz (m.), Volkstänze (f.)(German m., literally 'folk dance') the term, used in Austria, for an Austrian folk dance
Volkston(German m.) folk style
Volkstückchen(German n.) popular air
volkstümlich(German) popular, unsophisticated
volkstümliche Musik(German f.) music in a folk style
volkstümliches Lied(German n.) from the late 18th-century a term applied to popular song written in a 'folk-style'
Volkszither(German f.) autoharp
Christian August Gütter of Markneukirchen, Germany had built a zither that he called a Volkszither which most resembles the 'Autoharp' played today. Gütter obtained a British patent for his instrument (c.1883-1884). In 1882, Charles F. Zimmermann patented a design for improvements on the traditional harp that included pulling mechanisms for muting certain strings during play, and which he named the 'Autoharp. In 1885, after returning from a visit to Germany, Zimmermann began production of the Gütter design but with his own design patent number and catchy name. Gütter's instrument became very popular and Zimmermann has often been mistaken as the inventor
voll, volles, vollem(German) full
volledig Akkoord(Dutch) full chord
volle Kraft(German) full power
volle, kräftig Stimme(German f.) solid voice
volle Orgel(German) full organ
völler(German) fuller, louder
volles Chor(German m.) full choir
volles Orchester(German n.) full orchestra
volles Werk(German n.) full organ
volle Spel(Dutch) full organ
volles Zeitmaß(German) full tempo
volles Zeitmass(German) full tempo
volle Werke(Dutch) full organ
Vollgesang(German) chorus
Vol libre(French m.) hang-gliding
völlig(German) complete, completely, utterly
völlig geräuschlos(German) completely silent, utterly quiet
vollkommen(German) perfect, complete
vollkommene Cadenz(German f.) perfect authentic cadence
vollkommener Ganzschluss(German m.) perfect authentic cadence
vollkommene Kadenz(German f.) perfect authentic cadence
vollkommener Tonschluss(German m.) perfect authentic cadence
vollstimmigfull-toned, full-voiced, a term often used to indicate a full texture, i.e., a chordal or contrapuntal. The word here seems to indicate any instrument capable of playing chords. In Denkmäler Deutscher Tonkunst Band 12, books 1-4 of songs by Heinrich Albert (first published in Königsberg between 1638-1641), the first two volumes are entitled Lieder in ein Positiv/Clavicimbel/Theorbe oder anders vollstimmiges Instrument zu singen gesetzt von Heinrich Alberten
(German) polyphonic
Vollstimmigkeit(German f.) fullness of tone
volltönend(German) full-sounding, resonant, sonorous
volltönig(German) full-sounding, resonant, sonorous
VolinkaUkranian bagpipe
Volontà(Italian f.) will
Volontaire(French m./f.) volunteer
volontaire(French) voluntary, determined (person)
volontairement(French) voluntarily, intentionally
Volonté(French f.) will (intention, faculty), wish (hope), will-power, one's pleasure (as in à volonté (French) at one's pleasure, at will, ad libitum)
volontiers(French) with pleasure, willingly, gladly, readily
Vol plané(French m.) gliding
Volt(English, French m.) unit of electromotive force, the difference of potential that would carry one ampere of current against one ohm resistance
Voltaalso called a turn, a volta is a sudden change in thought, direction, or emotion near the conclusion of a sonnet. This invisible volta is then followed by a couplet or gemel (in English sonnets) or a sestet (in Italian sonnets)
(Italian f.) also called 'volte' or 'lavolta', a quick dance in triple time in which the lady is lifted into the air during a quarter-circle turn
Volta (s.), Volte (pl.)(Italian f., Portuguese f.) turn, time
una volta (Italian: once)
c'era una volta (Italian: once upon a time)
due volte (Italian: twice)
qualche volta (Italian: sometimes)
voltabile(Italian) that can turn, that can be turned, inconstant
Volta brackets(Volta-Klammern, German pl.) the angled lines that indicate the 'first ending' and 'second ending' at repeats, distinguishable because the 'first ending' which lies before the repeat end sign contains a figure 1 and the 'second ending' which lies after the repeat end contains a figure 2
Volta del gioioso(Italian f.) in 15th-century dance, a special type of volta tunda, or full turn round. In a volta del gioioso the dancer performs the volta tunda using two sempi and ending in a ripresa. A volta del gioioso normally lasts two misura
Voltafaccia(Italian f.) turning about, volte-face (French, English)
Voltage(English, French m.) electromotive force expressed in volts
Voltaggio(Italian m.) voltage
Volta-Klammern(German pl.) volta brackets
Volta prima(Italian f.) first time
voltare(Italian) to turn, to turn round, to turn over, to change, to translate
voltar faccia(Italian) changing sides
voltarsi(Italian) to turn
Volta inferiore(Italian f.) or sagoma inferiore (Italian f.), lower bout, Unterbügel (German m.), courbe inférieure (French f.)
Volta no ar(Portuguese f.) tour en l'air (French)
Volta superiore(Italian f.) or sagoma superiore (Italian f.), upper bout, Oberbügel (German m.), courbe supérieure (French f.)
Voltata(Italian f.) turn, turning, change of direction
volta tanto, una(Italian) once in a while
Volta tunda(Italian f.) in 15th-century dance, a full turn round that can last either 1 or 2 misura depending on the context
Volta seconda(Italian f.) second time
Volte-face(French from Italian) a complete reversal of attitude or opinion
volteggiando(Italian) or mani incrociate, a term used in piano playing when referring to the crossing of the hands so that the left hand is playing higher notes than the right hand
volteggiare(Italian) to turn about, to fly about, to flit, to hover, to flutter, to flap, to perform feats of horsemanship or gymnastics, to vault
(Italian) to cross the hands, when playing the piano, etc.
Volteggio(Italian m.) turning, vaulting, trick-riding (as in a circus)
volte tanto(Italian) (a number) times as much
volti(Italian) turn, turn over
volti subito(Italian) turn over (the page) as quickly as possible
Voltmeterinstrument measuring electric potential in volts
Volublespeaking or spoken fluently or at length
volubile(Italian) fluent, voluble
Volubilità(Italian f.) volubility, freedom of performance, fluency of delivery
Volubilitythe characteristic of being voluble
volubilmente(Italian) fluently, volubly, flowing
Voluma(Portuguese) volume
Volumethe loudness or strength of a sound
(English, French m.) single book forming part or all of a work
solid content, bulk, space occupied by a gas or liquid
Volume sonoro(Italian m.) the loudness (or intensity) of a sound
Volume swella musical crescendo commonly associated with the electric guitar. Volume swells are also known by guitarists as violining
Volumetricof measurement by volume
Voluminous(of drapery etc.) loose and ample, written or writing at great length
Voluntad(Spanish f.) will
Voluntaryacting, done, or given willingly, not compulsory, intentional
unpaid (voluntary work), (of an institution) supported by charity
(of a movement, muscle, or limb) controlled by the will (as opposed to involuntary)
(in music) a keyboard piece in a free style
(in music) an organ solo played before and after an Anglican church service
(in music) a choral piece that opens a church service
Volunteerperson who voluntarily undertakes a task or enters a service
to undertake or offer (one's services, a remark, etc.) voluntarily, to be a volunteer
Volupté(French m.) sensual pleasure incluing towards sensuality
Voluptuaryperson who seeks luxury and sensual pleasure
Voluptuousof, tending to, occupied with, or derived from, sensuous or sensual pleasure
(of a woman) curvaceous and sexually desirable
Voluta(Italian f., Spanish f.) scroll, Schnecke (German f.), chiocciola (Italian f.)
Volute(in architecture) spiral stonework scroll as an ornament of especially Ionic capitals
(English, French f.) scroll, Schnecke (German f.), voluta (Italian f., Spanish f.), chiocciola (Italian f.)
on a guitar, a piece of wood fitted just behind the peghead. It strengthens the neck where the headstock begins
the scroll is the carved spiral found just above the pegs at the very top of the neck of a violin, viola, etc. - if the instrument bears a carving of a face, animal, etc. then it is called a 'head' and not a 'scroll'
voluttuoso(Italian) voluptuous
volver a las andadas(Spanish) to go back to one's (bad) old ways
Volynka(Russian) Slavic bagpipe with 1 or 2 drones
vom(German) from the
vom Anfang(German) from the beginning, da capo, (return) to the beginning
da capo al fine
vom Blatt(German) sight-read, at first sight, from sight, a primera vista (Spanish), a prima vista (Italian), a libro aperto (Italian), à livre ouvert (French), à première vue (French)
vom Blatt abspielen, etwas(German) to play something from sight
vom Blatt lesen(German) sightreading
vom Blatt singen(German) sightsinging
vom Blatt spielen(German) to play from sight, to play from music
vom Erfolg berauscht(German) inebriated by success, drunk with success
Vomitto eject (contents of the stomach) through the mouth, to be sick, (of a volcano, chimney, etc.) to eject violently, to belch forth (smoke, etc.)
Vomitorium (s.), Vomitoria (pl.)(Latin) a passage or opening in an ancient theatre or circus leading to or from the seats
there is no foundation for the belief that the Romans used this word to describe a room set aside for vomiting between courses of a meal
vom Thema abkommen(German) digress
von(German) by, from, of, on
von Anfang an(German) da capo
[entry provided by Michael Zapf]
von Beginn an(German) da capo
[entry provided by Michael Zapf
von Belang(German) of importance
von Bestand sein(German) last
von Bildfläche verschwinden(German) disappear from the scene
von da an(German) from then on
von Dauer(German) lasting
von dem Zeichen(German) from the sign
von hier(German) from here
von Mörderhand sterben(German) to die at the hand of a murder, to die at the hands of a murderer
von Musik umrahmt(German) with music before and after
von Zeit zu Zeit(German) from time to time
Voodooreligious witchcraft as practised especially in the West Indies
voorafgaande(Dutch) preceding
voorbereiding(Dutch) preparation
voorbericht(Dutch) preface, forward
voor de maat spelen(Dutch) to play ahead of the beat
voordracht(Dutch) word painting
voordrachtsteken(Dutch) expression mark
voordragend(Dutch) reciting
voorhouding(Dutch) anticipatory note, suspension
voorrede(Dutch) preface, forward
voorslag(Dutch) acciaccatura or appogiatura
(Flemish and Dutch, literally 'forestroke') chime. The term applies both to the short automatically produced tune on the divisions of the hour and preceding the striking of the hour and to the set of bells themselves
voortekening(Dutch) key signature
voor twee handen(Dutch) for two hands
voor twee koren(Dutch) for two choirs
voor twee snaren(Dutch) on two strings (i.e. due corde)
voorwoord(Dutch) preface, forward
voorzien met een kruis(Dutch) to mark with a sharp sign
voorzingen(Dutch) lead the singing
vor(German) for, before, forward, prior to
Vorabdruck(German m.) preprint
Voraciousgluttonous, ravenous, very eager (voracious reader)
vorantreibend(German) moving forward, en animant, animando
voraus(German) beforehand
vorausnahme(German f.) anticipation
vorbereiten(German) prepare
a marking found in organ music, for example, warning of an impending change of registration
vorbereitet(German) prepared
vorbereiteter Vorhalt(German m.) suspension
Vorbereitung(German f.) preparation, or discords, etc.
Vorbühne(German f.) footlights, stage front
Vordersatz(German m.) or antecedent, a term coined by Wilhelm Fischer to describe an opening phrase, especially in a Vivaldian ritornello, that establishes the tonic before closing on either the tonic or (more frequently) the dominant
Voreinstellung(German f.) a preset
Vorfilm(German m.) Beifilm (German m.), supporting feature (in a programme of films - so-called because it is exhibited before the main feature)
vorgefaßt(German) preconceived
Vorgeige(German f.) the orchestral leader, the first of the first violins
Vorgeiger(German m.) the orchestral leader, the principal of the first violins
vor Gesundheit strozend(German) bursting with health
vorgetragen(German, literally 'brought out') prominent
Vorgreifung(German f.) anticipation
Vorgriff(German) anticipation
Vorhalt(German m.) variously, suspension (harmony), retardation (tempo), long appoggiatura (ornamentation), syncopation (rhythm)
Vorhaltsquartsextakkord(German m.) or kadenzierender Quartsextakkord (German m.), cadential 6/4
[entry provided by Michael Zapf]
vorhanden(German) available
Vorhang(German m.) curtain
der Vorhang fälltthe curtain falls, the curtain goes down
der Vorhang hebt sichthe curtain rises, the curtain goes up
der Vorhang öffnet sichthe curtain opens
der Vorhang schließt sichthe curtain closes
vorher(German) formerly, foregoing, before, preceding, previous
vorhergehend(German) previous, former
vorhergehendes Tempo(German) at the previous or former speed
vorherig(German) formerly, foregoing, before, preceding, previous
vorherige Benachrichtigung(German) prior notice
vorheriger Absprache, nach(German) according to a prior agreement
vorig(German) formerly, foregoing, preceding, previously
voriges Zeitmaß(German n.) preceding or former speed, previous tempo, tempo precedente
Vorklassik(German f.) pre-classical music, pre-classical era, pre-classical
vor kurzem(German) a short time ago
vorläufer Ton(German m.) onset tone (acoustics), transient tone (acoustics), precursor tone
vorläufig(German) temporary
Vorlaufzeichnung(German f.) preliminary sketch
Vorm(Dutch) form
Vormärzafter Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo (1815), his victorious opponents set about rebuilding Europe at the Congress of Vienna; and in Austria, pre-revolutionary conditions were re-established under the iron heel of Prince Metternich. During this period, known as Vormärz, the masses lived in poverty, and even middle-class citizens enjoyed very few freedoms. Dancing became an `opiate of the people'; Strauss and other composers of the waltz competed for fame, and ballet and theatre - albeit a theatre much subject to censorship - were typical Viennese entertainments
vormerken(German) to make a note of
vornehm(German) noble
Vorrang haben (über)(German) to take priority (over)
vorrangig(German) with priority
Vorrede(German f.) preface
see Vorwort
Vorsänger(German m.) precentor
Vorschlag(German m., literally 'forestroke') a grace note
an appoggiatura, as in kurzer Vorschlag meaning acciaccatura, or langer Vorschlag meaning appogiatura
Vorschläge(German m. pl.) grace notes
Vorschlagsnoten(German f. pl.) grace notes
Vorsingen(German n.) an audition
vorsingen(German) to audition
Vorspiel(German n.) overture, prelude, introductory movement
(German n.) audition
Vorspielen(German n.) an audition
Vorspieler(German m.) leader of the band, the principal performer or primo in any section of an orchestra
Vorsprechen(German n.) audition
vorsprechen(German) audition
Vorsteller(German m.) performer, player
Vorstellung(German f.) conception, idea, image, representation, imagination, association, notion, theory
(German f.) house (as in 'full house' in the theatre), performance, presentation, show, interview, introduction
Vorstellung beginnt um acht, die(German) the curtain will rise at eight
Vorstellungen machen(German) to remonstrate
Vorstellung ist aus, die(German) the show is over
Vorstellungsgespräch(Italian m.) interview
Vorstellungskonzept(German n.) conceptualization, visualization
Vorstellungskraft(German f.) imagination
Vorstellungsprogramm(German n.) presentation programme (book)
Vorstellungsrunde(German f.) making the rounds, introductory tour
Vorstellungstermin(German m.) appointment for an interview
Vorstellung von(German f.) notion of
Vortex (s.), Vortices (pl.)(Latin) a violent eddy or whirl of water, flame, etc. (hence, a constant round of pleasure and entertainment)
a thing viewed as destructive or devouring (the vortex of society)
Vortrag(German m.) discourse, performance, recital, lecture, recitation, talk, paper
(German m.) diction, elocution, execution, the act of uttering or pronouncing
Vortrag auf zwei Klavieren(German m.) two-piano recital
Vortragen(German n.) recital
vortragen(German) to play, to perform, to declaim, to recite, to report on, to read (as in to present), to execute, to render
(German) to emphasize
Vortragende(German m.) lecturer, reciter, speaker (person)
Vortragsabend(German m.) recital
Vortragsbezeichnung (s.), Vortragsbezeichnungen (pl.)(German n.) expression mark, performance marking
Vortragsfolge(German f.) programme
Vortragshonorar(German n.) speaker's fee
Vortragskunst(German f.) elocution
Vortragskünstler(German) elocutionist, reciter
Vortragsreise(German pl.) lecture tours
Vortragssaal(German m.) lyceum
Vortragsserie(German pl.) lecture series
Vortragsstück(German n.) a piece designed to show a player's virtuosity
Vortragsveranstaltung(German f.) lecture event
Vortragszeichen(Dutch) expression mark
vortreffliche Virtuos(German m.) outstanding virtuoso
Vorurteil(German n.) preconception, bias, prejudement, prejudice, preoccupation
Vorurteile(German n. pl.) prejudices, cut-and-dried opinions
vorurteilsfrei(German) unbiased, without bias, openminded, enlightened, unprejudiced
Vorurteilsfreiheit(German f.) or Vorurteilslosigkeit (German f.), catholicity, liberality (for example, having a wide range of tastes or interests)
vorurteilslos(German) unbiased, unprejudiced
Vorverkauf(German m.) advance booking
vorwärts(German) forwards, avanti, en avant
vorwärts drängend(German) pressing forward
vorwärts gehen(German) move forward, progress, faster, en avant, andando
Vorwort(German n.) preface, foreword
see Vorrede
Vorzeichen(German n.) accidental, signe d'altération (French m.)
Vorzeichnung(German f.) clef signature (usually Notenschlüssel), key signature (usually Tonartvorzeichnung) or time signature (usually Taktvorzeichnung)
(German f.) a sketch or outline of a composition
vorzutragen(German) to perform prominently
Vos desafinada(Portuguese) a style of singing from the Portuguese regions of Beira Alta, Douro Litoral and Minho, situated to the north of the river Tag, a relic form of an archaic style of polyphonic song. Its characteristic features are (i) that it is invariably sung by women, and (ii) that the chords might be thought 'out of tune' or, in Portuguese, vos desafinada. Songs from Beira Alta and Douro Litoral are in three parts, while a fourth part is added in songs from Minho. This fourth part may occasionally be a high falsetto known as guincho, literally 'squeaky'
the voices are named
according to their position in the arrangementbaixo, (low or alto) and por cima (high)
according to the voice's timbreraso (flat or smooth) or guincho (squeaky)
to describe its functiondescanta (high), canta (the singing voice), comeca (the one who begins), bota o fim (the one who ends)
to describe the placing of the voice in the course of the stanzarabo (end), fim (end)
vostabbreviation of version originale sous-titrée (French: film shown in its original language with subtitles in French)
Votación(Spanish f.) vote, voting, ballot, balloting
Votación a mano alzada(Spanish f.) vote by a show of hands
voter contre(French) to vote against
voter pour(French) to vote for
Votivea chant or hymn honoring a particular saint, or the Virgin Mary
Vou-veri-rou(Spain) lullaby from Majorca
vouloir bien(French) to be willing to, to be glad to, to be good enough to, to be kind enough to
Vouloir, c'est pouvoir.(French) Where there's a will, there's a way.
vouloir dire(French) to mean
vouloir faire de l'esprit(French) try to be witty
voulu(French) intentional, deliberate
Voussoir(French) one of the wedge-shaped stones from which an arch is constructed
Vous voyez d'ici le tableau!(French) Just picture it!
Voûte(French f.) arching, bombatura (Italian f.), Wölbung (German f.)
voûté(French) hoch gewölbt, high arched, bombé (French), molto bombata (Italian), bombatura alta (Italian)
Vowel chamberon the organ, unusual shaped resonator found on certain short reed pipes
Vox(Latin, literally 'voice') the increased range of vocal lines over several centuries demonstrates the success of vocal training in extending a natural untrained voice. Even in the late 13th-century Hieronymus de Moravia is discussing vox pectoris, vox gutturis and vox capitis, chest voice, throat voice and head voice
Vox acuta(Latin) a shrill voice
Vox angelica(Latin, literally 'angelic voice') an 4ft. organ stop, a sweet wavy stop of two ranks of pipes one tuned a little too sharp, voix célestes
Vox antecedens(Latin) the antecedent
Vox capitis(Latin) head voice
Vox consequens(Latin) the consequent, the answer, for example, in a fugue
Vox et praeterae nihil(Latin, literally 'a voice and nothing more') a disembodied voice, for example, a nightingale that can be heard but not seen or if seen then so much more insiginicant that its song
the term is used more generally to mean 'an ineffective utterance'
Vox gutturis(Latin) throat voice
Vox humana(Latin, literally 'human voice') in an organ, an 8 ft. reed stop with short resonators, designed to imitate the human voice
tenor oboe
the term is used more generally for 'an exaggerated expression of emotion'
Vox nasalis(Latin) a nasal voice
Vox nihili (s.), Voces nihili (pl.)(Latin, literally 'word of nothing') a sequence of letters which do not form a word, a ghost-word (that is, a word that has entered a dictionary or book of reference as a result of some misunderstanding or mistake)
Vox organalis(Latin) in early polyphony or organum, the second part added to the vox principalis
Vox pectoris(Latin) chest voice
Vox populi(Latin) the voice of the people, an expression of popular or general opinion
Vox principalis(Latin) in early polyphony or organum, the original part to which the vox organalis is added
Vox retusaan 8 ft. organ stop
Vox-saxthe singing through the saxophone of a drone or harmony note, or in unison or at the octave to the instrument
Voyage à Cythère(French, literally 'a journey to Cytheria' - a Greek island sacred to Aphrodite) a quest for erotic experience
Voyage à la façon anglaise(French, literally 'English-style voyage) a 'bridal tour', sometimes accompanied by friends or family, when the bridge and bridegroom visit relatives that had not been able to attend the wedding
Voyage imaginaire(French) (an account of) an imaginary journey
VoyagerGeorge Lewis, improvisor with trombone, composer, wrote the software for Voyager between 1985 and 1987. In performance, the software, running on a portable computer, 'listened' via a microphone to Lewis' trombone improvisation, came to quick conclusions about what Lewis had played, then generated a response that seemed to make appropriate decisions about melody, harmony, orchestration, ornamentation, rhythm, and silence
  • Voyager from which this extract has been drawn
voyager en taxi(French) to travel by taxi
voyager en train(French) to travel by train
Voyager Golden Recorda gramophone record, attached to the two Voyager spacecraft launched in 1977, containing sounds and images selected to portray the diversity of life and culture on Earth
Voyant (m.), Voyante (f.)(French) a seer, a person endowed with second sight
Voyelle(French f.) vowel
Voyeur(French) a peeping Tom
Voz(Spanish f., Portuguese) voice, part (as in a polyphonic composition), voix (French)
Voz baja(Spanish f.) sotto voce
Voz celeste(Spanish f.) voix céleste
Voz de alto(Spanish f.) countertenor, contreténor (French)
Voz de tiple(Spanish f.) treble voice, boy soprano voice, the unbroken voice of a young boy
Voz masculina(Portuguese f.) male voice
Voz pastosa(Spanish f.) a mellow voice, voix chaude (French), voix bien timbée (French)
Vraisemblance(French) verisimilitude, plausibility, the appearance of truth
vrije vorm(Dutch) free form
vrombir(French) hum
vrombissement(French) humming
vsabbreviation of 'vocal score', 'piano-vocal score'
v.s.abbreviation of volti subito, (Italian: turn over quickly)
Vue(French f.) view
Vue d'ensmble(French f.) a general view, an opinion taking everything into consideration
VuelieSami storytelling song
Vuelta(Spanish) to turn (a dance move)
vuelta por delanteturn to the front
vuelta por detrasturn to the back or go behind
vuelta quebradaa broken turn, where the head remains at a 45 degree angle while the body moves
vuelta normalea regular, upright turn, which can be either frontward or backward
Vuide(French, literally 'open') the note played on the open string
vuit(Catalan) eight
vuitanta(Catalan) eighty
vuitè de pausa (m.)
quaver rest(Catalan) a quaver, a eighth rest, a rest one eighth the time value of a whole rest or semibreve rest
Vulgaris(Latin) a flue-stop in the organ whose full name is tibia vulgaris
Vulgarisateur(French m.) a popularizer, a person who writes popular books on specialist or technical subjects
Vulgar Latinthe uneducated Latin used in everyday speech in the Roman Empire, as opposed to the more refined Classical Latin used in literature and governmental address
Vulgatean adjective referring loosely to any commonly recognized or accepted version of a work
Vulgate, TheSaint Jerome's Latin anthologized compilation and translation of the Bible, prepared in the fourth century AD and used as the authorized version in Roman Catholic liturgical services up until Vatican II
vulgo(Latin) commonly, popularly, in the vernacular language
vuoto (m.), vuota (f.)(Italian) empty, as in corda vuota, 'open string'
Vuvuzelathe ear-splitting plastic trumpet that produces a sound like a swarm of angry bees, a combination of buzz and drone – made popular by football fans at the 2010 World Cup in South Africa
V.V.abbreviation of violini (Italian: violins)
vv.ll.abbreviation of variae lectiones (Latin: variant readings)