music dictionary : M - Ma  
 



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Mafter Carl H. Mennicke, cataloguer of music by Carl Heinrich Graun (1701-1759), Karl Heinrich Graun (1704-1759) & Johann Adolph Hasse (1699-1783)
meta-catalogue of music by Vagn Holmboe (1909-96) prepared by Paul Rapoport
or MS, reference to the catalogues of music by Johann Melchior Molter (1696-1765) prepared by Klaus Hafner
after Gian Francesco Malipiero (1882-1973), the cataloguer of music by Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741) & Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643)
after Frederick Marvin, the cataloguer of music by Antonio Soler (1729-1783)
after F. Munter, the cataloguer of music by Ignaz von Beeke (1733-1803)
after Murray, the cataloguer of music by Francesco Antonio Rosetti-Rösler (1750-1792)
Mdeveloped in 1986 by David Zicarelli, Joel Chadabe, and Antony Widoff at Intelligent Music, M was the first realtime software for interactive composition
M.abbreviated form of 'manual' (on the organ), main (French: hand), mano (Italian: hand), mezzo (Italian: 'half' or 'medium') or 'metronome' (usually M.M.)
MA, M.A.abbreviation of Magister Artium (Latin: Master of Arts)
Ma(Italian) but, as in allegro ma non troppo (Italian: fast, but not too much so)
(Japanese, literally 'space') it is used in music to describe a period of silence. In taiko drumming, ma is the period between hits on the drum. It is important to appreciate this silence when playing taiko, just as you would appreciate the sound of a hit on the drum. Since ensemble taiko is focused on rhythm, the ma of a piece is critical to adding drama, excitement, and tension. Ma can be a rhythmic rest, or an extended silence, to be broken at the player's discretion. If the player concentrates on hearing the ma between each hit, in addition to the hits themselves, he or she will create a much more effective and satisfying sound
Maandblad(Dutch) monthly publication
maandelijks(Dutch) monthly
Maat(Dutch) bar, measure
maat houden(Dutch) keep time
Maatschappij(Dutch) company, society
Maatsoort(Dutch) time signature, meter
Maatstreep(Dutch) barline
maatvast(Dutch) keeping time
Mâau(Wallis and Futuna, French overseas territory) specialists who teach the traditional music of Polynesia
Mabinogi(Welsh, 'Four Branches') the four branches or four parts of The Mabinogion, a medieval collection of Welsh myths and legends important in Celtic studies
maboul(French) mad (familiar)
macabre(French) gruesome, reminiscent of the danse macabre or 'Dance of Death'
Macarenaa song by Los del Río about a woman of the same name, originally released in 1993, as a new flamenco rumba pop fusion theme with fully Spanish lyrics, with a great success in Spain and Mexico
  • Macarena from which this extract has been taken
Macaron(French m.) a macaroon (a small cake), badge
Macaronictext spoken or written using a mixture of languages, although the term is occasionally used of hybrid words, which are in effect internally macaronic
Macaronis(French m. pl.) macaroni (a pasta)
Macaroonscakes made from ground almonds or coconut, sugar, and egg white, baked on rice paper. The macaroon originated in Italy, where they are known as amaretti
Macchina(Italian f.) machine, mechanism
(Italian f.) valve (mechanism found on some brass instruments), Ventilmaschine (German f.), mécanisme du piston (French m.), mecanismo del pistón (Spanish m.)
Macchina da scrivere(Italian f.) typewriter
Macchina del vento(Italian f.) wind machine
Macchina per il tuono(Italian f.) thunder machine
Macethe large ornamented tapered rod or baton used by a drum major in a marching band or military band
Macédoine(French f.) or macedonia, a salad composed of small pieces of fruit or of vegetables
Macédoine de fruits(French f.) fruit salad
Macedonian folk music
macérer(French) to soak, to pickle (in vinegar)
Machair(Gaelic) a strip of costal plain, a sandy tract almost at sea-level
Machalath(Hebrew) found in the titles of Psalms 53:1 88:1, and believed to be a type of lute or guitar
Mâchefer(French m.) clinker
mâcher(French) to chew
Ma chèresee mon cher
Machete(Spanish) a broad, heavy knife or cutlass
see cavaquinho
machiavélique(French) machiavellian
Machiavellianas an adjective, the word refers generally to sneaky, ruthless, and deceitful behavior, especially in regard to a ruler obsessed with power who puts on a surface veneer of honor and trustworthy behavior in order to achieve evil ends
Machiavelle(also spelled machiavel) a villain, especially an Italian aristocratic power-monger, or a deceitful betrayer, who behaves according to the principles established by Niccoló Machiavelli
Machicot(French) leader of the choir in church
Machicotage(French) extemporised ornamentation of plainsong by the celebrant
Machimsee cavaquinho
Machimbosee cavaquinho
Machin(French m.) thing (familiar), what's his name (familiar)
machinal(French) automatic
machinalement(French) automatically
Machine à coudre(French f.) sewing-machine
Machine à écrire(French f.) typewriter
Machine à laver(French f.) washing-machine
Machine à rythme(French f.) rhythm unit, rhythm machine
Machine à sous(French f.) fruit machine, slot-machine (US)
Machine à tonnerre(French f.) thunder machine, thunder-sheet
Machine à vent(French f.) wind machine
Machine headalso 'tuners' or 'tuning machines', a system of worm gears used to control the tension of the strings on string instruments, used since the eighteenth century in particular on guitar and double bass
Machine musica variety of Western European movements appeared at the beginning of the early twentieth century, associated with extreme statements and political stances
Machine-outil(French f.) machine tool
Machine pour le tonnerre(French f.) thunder machine
machiner(French) to plot
Machinerie(French f.) machinery
Machine stopa mechanism operated by a pedal or knee lever found in some eighteenth-century French and English harpsichords. It affects several registers simultaneously and is used to obtain a sudden piano effect
Machiniste(French m.) stage-hand (in a theatre), driver
Macho(Eglish, Spanish m.) male (in English, someone who is aggressively masculine, virile or rough)
the male or smaller of any two paired percussive instruments (bongos, clave,timbales, etc.)
Mâchoire (French f.) jaw
mâchonner(French) to chew at
Machree(Irish) or mochree, my darling
mächtig(German) mighty, powerful
Machtpolitik(German f.) power politics
Machtübernahme(German f.) a taking-over of power by violent means, a putsch, a coup d'état
mâchurer(French) to blacken (the face)
Machwerk(German) a term of disparagement for music that is thought mundane, the product of labour and study rather than that of imagination or inspiration
Macinkosee masenko
Macintoshor 'Mac', a shower proof coat similar to the trench, often buttoned up from the knee to the breast with large lapels
Mackleor macule, a double or blurred impression caused by shifting paper or type
Ma cocotte(French) my sweet, my dear
Maçon(French m.) builder, bricklayer
Maçonnerie(French f.) brickwork, stonework, masonry
maçonnique(French) Masonic
Macramé(Turkish, from Arabic) (the art of making) a fringe of knotted thread
macrobiotique(French) macrobiotic
Macrocosmthe natural universe as a whole, including the biological realms of flora and fauna, weather, and celestial objects such as the sun, moon, and stars
Macron(Greek) a diacritical mark in the form of a short horizontal line (¯) placed over a vowel to indicate that it is long
Macrón(Spanish) or raya alta (Spanish f.), macron
Macuilxochitl(literally 'Five flower') Aztec god of music and dance, actually another name for Xochipilli
Maculea patch of skin that is altered in colour but usually not elevated and that is a characteristic feature of various diseases (for example, smallpox)
(printing) see 'mackle'
Maculelêa circle dance from Brazil in which dancers carry and strike one another's sticks; not to be confused with and a combat dance without sticks called capoeira
maculer(French) to stain
Macumboan Afro-Brazilian ritual dance
macushlasee acushla
Madaalsee madal
Madal(Nepal) a drum, suspended horizontally from the neck of the player by means of a cord, played in a sitting or standing position. The player uses both hands
  • Madal from which this extract has been taken
Madalamsee maddalam
Madama Dorèa canzo a ballo (song for dancing) from the thirteenth century, sung at weddings, which became a children's game known throughout Italy. The king sends his emissary to bring back Madame Dorè's beautiful daughters to marry a succession of men, beginning with the chimney sweep
Madame (s.), Mesdames (pl.)(French f.) madam, Mrs
the singular form, madame, is used in English for the proprietress of a brothel - the word is then preceded by the definite article
Madame est servie.(French) Dinner is served.
Madame Rentz's Female Minstrelsa blackface minstrel troupe composed completely of women. M. B. Leavitt founded the company in 1870
Madchestera term coined for a music scene that happened in Manchester, UK, at the end of the 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s. The scene mixed indie and dance music
Maddalambarrel drum from Indonesia
or madhalam, an abbreviation for shuddha madalam or suddha maddalam, a heavy, two-sided drum, from Southern India, that is tied around the waist of the person playing. Each side of the drum produces a different note and the player stands while performing
Made-fora colloquial phrase usually meaning a TV movie (that is, a move made-for-television)
Madeleine(French f.) a small shell-shaped sponge-cake
Mademoiselle (s.), Mesdemoiselles (pl.)(French f.) miss, Miss
the term is also used for a French governess in an English family and for a native French mistress in a girl's school
Madera(Spanish f.) wood, bois (French), Holz (German), legno (Italian)
Maderas(Spanish f. pl.) woodwind (collectively)
Maderas que cantan(Spanish f. pl.) the marimba in Mexico is a cultural symbol woven into the fabric of everyday life in the state of Chiapas. It is indeed difficult to walk down any street within the state without hearing las maderas que cantan or what Chiapans affectionately call 'the wood that sings'. Chiapas is one of Mexico's most isolated and exotic states, which only adds resonance to the combination of reality and legend that surrounds the marimba, its music, and the people who play the instrument. In the Mexican tradition, generally several musicians perform on a single instrument
Madère(French m.) Madeira (wine)
Madhalamassociated with Panchavadyam, a heavy, two-sided drum, from Southern India, that is tied around the waist of the person playing. Each side of the drum produces a different note and the player stands while performing
Madhyain Indian music, 'medium' (for example, between 'fast' and 'slow')
Madibaa Mandinka wrestling rhythm
Madisona novelty line dance that was popular in the late 1950s to mid 1960s
Madone(French f.) madonna
Madonna(Italian) a picture or statue of the Virgin Mary
Madrastra(Spanish f.) stepmother
Madre(Spanish f.) mother, bed (of a river), origin (figurative), cradle (figurative), (coffee) grounds, dregs, main channel
Madre adoptiva(Spanish f.) adoptive mother
Madre alquílada(Spanish f.) surrogate mother
Madre de família(Spanish f.) mother, housewife
Madre de leche(Spanish f.) wet-nurse
Madreperla(Spanish f.) mother-of-pearl
Madre política(Spanish f.) mother-in-law
Madrépora(Spanish f.) white coral, madrepore
Madreselva(Spanish f.) honeysuckle
Madre soltera(Spanish f.) unmarried mother
Madre superiora(Spanish f.) mother superior (nun)
Madriale(Italian m.) a madrigal
Madrialetto(Italian m.) a short madrigal
Madrigal, Madrigaux (French pl.)(English, French m., Spanish m., German n.) a fourteenth-century Italian style where secular verse is set for two or three unaccompanied voices, in two sections, the first being repeated two or three times, the second performed only once, where the top line is generally more florid than the line(s) below
a sixteenth- and seventeenth-century contrapuntal setting of verse (usually secular) for several equally important voice parts, usually unaccompanied and unrelated to the earlier form
Madrigal comedya late sixteenth- and early seventeenth-century musical entertainment of linked madrigals illustrating a common, usually comic, theme or story. The term is of twentieth-century origin
Madrigal dramasee 'madrigal opera'
Madrigale(Italian m.) madrigal
Madrigalkomödie(German f.) madrigal comedy
madrigaleggiare(Italian) to compose madrigals
madrigalesco(Italian) in the style of a madrigal
Madrigalessa(Italian f.) a long madrigal
Madrigaletto(Italian m.) a short madrigal
Madrigalino(Italian m.) a short madrigal
Madrigalismthe use of illustrative devices including 'text painting', for example, through changes in texture, tone, range, or volume to musically mirror what the text is describing, used particularly in madrigals
Madrigali spiritualimadrigals on sacred texts, for eaxample, Gesualdo's most famous sacred composition, the set of Tenebrae Responsories (1611)
Madrigal operaalso called 'madrigal drama', a sequence of madrigals performed as a staged drama, an early experiment in opera
Madrileña(Spanish) a dance from the province of Madrid
Madrilène(French) a dance from the province of Madrid
Mad scenesan enormously popular device in nineteenth-century Italian and French romantic opera, that provided an opportunity for exciting and demanding vocal writing for great singers. The most famous examples are in Lucia di Lammermoor and Anna Bolena by Gaetano Donizetti (1797-1848), and I Puritani by Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini (1801-1835). They are nearly always for soprano
Maelstrom(old Dutch) a whirlpool (both the Danish and Swedish forms are probably from the Dutch)
the term is now applied to describe any influence drawing someone or something irresistibly to destruction
MaelzelJohann Nepomuk Maelzel (1772-1838), inventor of a mechanical metronome
Maenadalso known as bacchae or thyiads, maenads were female worshippers of Dionysus or Bacchus
Maestà(Italian f.) majesty, dignity
a representation of the Virgin and Child seated on a throne surrounded by censing angels
maestade(Italian) majesty, dignity
maestate(Italian) majesty, dignity
maestevolissimo(Italian) extremely majestic, extremely dignified
maestevole(Italian) majestic, dignified, noble
maestevolmente(Italian) majestically
maestoabbreviated form of maestoso (Italian: majestic, dignified, noble)
maestosamente(Italian) majestically
maestosissimo(Italian) exceedingly majestic
maestoso(Italian) majestic, dignified, noble, majestically
Maestra(Italian f., Spanish f.) artiste, female performer
Maestrale(Italian) the term is applied to the stretto in a fugue in which all the voices take part, and in which the subject is heard complete in each voice
(Italian) a strong cold north-wind, the equivalent of the French mistral
Maestra repetidora(Spanish f.) female rehearsal director
maestrevole(Italian) masterly, highly finished
Maestrisee maestro
Maestria(Italian f.) art, skill, ability, authority, mastery, perfect command
Maestri secolari(Italian pl.) teachers of secular music, teachers of instruments in a conservatorio
Maestro (s.), Maestri (pl.)(Italian m./f.) master, teacher, conductor, an experience and skilful artist
in Italy, an honorific given to conductors, composer and impressarios
Maestro al cembalo(Italian m./f.) a director who guides the performance while seated at a keyboard (usually a harpischord)
Maestro all'organo(Italian m./f.) a director who guides the performance while seated at an organ
Maestro collaboratore(Italian m./f.) a deputy to the director, for example a coach or répétiteur, originally called maestro sostituto
Maestro concertatore(Italian m./f.) conductor, although this term has been replaced by direttore (d'orchestra)
Maestro de ballet(Spanish m./f.) ballet master
Maestro de flamenco(Spanish m./f.) the equivalent to a classical ballet master but who teaches dance from the Flamenco tradition, called the Flamenco master
Maestro del coro(Italian m./f.) a choir-master or chorus-master
Maestro di ballo(Italian m./f.) ballet master
Maestro di canto(Italian m./f.) a singing-master
Maestro di capilla(Spanish m.) maestro di cappella (Italian), Kapellmeister (German), maître de chapelle (French), choirmaster or director of music (English)
Maestro di cappella(Italian m./f.) maestro di capilla (Spanish), Kapellmeister (German), maître de chapelle (French), choirmaster or director of music (English)
(Italian m./f.) a director or conductor of a chapel choir, although later applied generally to a director or conductor of music associated with a court rather than a chapel. The role of maestro di cappella might often include the writing of music for specific church or chapel services and for this reason the maestro di cappella may often be found to be a noted composer
the spelling maestro di capella is incorrect
Maestro di coro(Italian m./f.) a director of the choir in an opera house
Maestro di corte(Italian m./f.) the master of music at court
Maestro di musica(Italian m./f.) a music master
Maestro d'organo(Italian m./f.) organ virtuoso
Maestro repetidor(Spanish m.) or repetidor (Spanish) rehearsal director
Maestro sostituto(Italian m./f.) see maestro collaboratore
Maestro suggeritore(Italian m./f.) the prompter
Maeta`Are`are (Malaita, Solomon Islands) wood blocks
Magabbreviation of Magnificat (Latin)
Magas(Greek) the bridge of a stringed instrument
Magadi vinaa simple bamboo-stick zither. Its image may be found on the walls of ancient temples. This instrument appears to be the progenitor of classical instruments such as the rudra vina. Today this instrument is very rare
Magadis(Greek) an ancient Greek harp with 20 strings
Magasin(French m.) shop, store, warehouse, magazine (of an army)
Magazine(French m.) programme (broadcast)
see 'journal'
magg.abbreviated form of maggiore (Italian: major)
Maggiolata(Italian f.) a May song, a Spring song
maggiore(Italian) major (in reference to key or interval), greater
Maggota fancy, a madrigal
Maghreb(French m.) North Africa
Maghrebin (m.), Maghrebine (f.)(French) North African (person)
maghrebin (m.), maghrebine (f.)(French) North African
Magisee magus
Magicien (m.), Magicienne (f.)(French) Magician
magico(Italian) magically
Magie(French f.) magic
magique(French) magic, magical
Magiscoro(Italian) the chief of a choir or chorus
Magister Artium(Latin) Master of Arts, MA
Magister Cappellae(Latin) choirmaster, maestro di cappella
Magister Civium(Latin) Bürgermeister
Magisterium(Latin) the authority of the Church in matters of doctrine, the authoritative teaching of the Church
Magister Organi(Latin) organist, maestro d'organo
Magister Puerorum(Latin) master of the boys (the choir master responsible for training the boy singers)
magistral(French) masterly, colossal
magistralement(French) in a masterly fashion
Magistras(Latin) the collective body of those in authority
Magistrat(French m.) magistrate
Magistrature(French f.) judiciary
Magna(Italian) great
Magna Charta(Latin) or Magna Carta, the Great Charter of liberties signed by King John in 1215
Magna cum laude(Latin, 'with great honour') with academic distinction
magnanime(French) magnanimous
Magnanimitas(Latin) nobility of intention, courage to do the right thing, fortitude
Magnanimité(French f.) magnanimity
Magnat(French m.) tycoon, magnate
Magnetband(German n.) magnetic tape
Magnetbandgerät(German n.) tape-recorder
Magnetkopf(German m.) magnetic head
Magnetic recordingthe storage of data using a magnetised medium
Magnétisme(French m.) charisma
Magnetófono(Spanish m.) tape or cassette recorder
Magnétophone(French m.) tape or cassette recorder
Magnificat(English, German n., Latin, 'it magnifies') the first word of the canticle Magnificat anima mea dominum (Latin: my soul doth magnify the Lord) which, since the fourteenth century, forms part of the Roman Catholic vespers service, a setting of the Biblical hymn of the Virgin Mary (Luke I, 46-55)
Magnifico(Italian m.) a nobleman of Venice, an exalted personage
Magnifikat(German n.) Magnificat
magno(Italian) great
magno intervallo(Italian) (divided) by a great interval (of space), (followed) after a great interval (of time)
Magnum(Latin) a bottle containing two quarts of wine or spirits
Magnum opus(Latin, 'great work') or opus magnum, the greatest work of an author's life, a great or important literary work
Magnus liber organi(Latin, literally 'great book of organum') a collection of Notre Dame organa for special occasions throughout the Church year believed composed by Leonin with additions by Leonin's pupil, Pérotin
Magoteea musical instrument used by the Pambatees or snake-charmers of the east Indies. A hollow calabash is fitted with a mouth-piece, similar to that of a clarinet, at one end and a tube with fingerholes, like those of a recorder, at the other. The player blows through the mouth-piece. Small mirrors or brightly coloured beads are fixed to the instrument which attract the attention of the snakes
Mago-uta(Japanese) the song of the horseman, that features in kabuki to the accompaniment of the ekiro, or horsebells
Magrunaa North-African double-reed wind instrument
MaguAboriginal Australian term for the didjeridu
Magus (s.), Magi (pl.)(Latin, from the Persian) a member of the ancient Persian preisthood, one skilled in astrology and magic, a wise man
Mahabharatathe story of the struggle between the five Pandawa brothers, Yudistira, Bima, Arjuna, Nakula and Sadewa, who rule the country of Amarta and the hundred Korawa brothers of Ngastina, led by Suyodana, Sakuni, Dorna and Karna, the dissident half-brother to the Pendawa, which ends with the disatrous battle (Baratayuda) lasted eighteen days during which the champions from each side face one another; this story provides one of the subjects for wayang theatre
Mahagita(Burmese, literally 'the great or royal songs') a rich source of songs from the days of the Burmese kings (1800s). The Mahagita contains many different song types of which the Co, Bwe and Tahein ghan are the oldest. In addition, there are the more recent Patt Pyou songs, the Yodaya songs modeled on a musical style drawn from the Kingdom of Ayuthia in Thailand and many others
songs that formed the basis of the repertoire of the hsaing ensembles of Burma
Mahandjaleg-rattles from Mozambique, made from little packets of leaf fibres filled with seeds
Maharajah(Hindi) an Indian prince
Maharanee(Hindi) the wife of a maharajah
Mahatma(Sanskrit) an adept in esoteric Buddhism, supposed to possess supernatural powers
a term similar in usage to the Christian term 'saint'
Mahavir
(c.540-c.468 BC)
24th Tirthankar or Prophet of Jainism who is popularly regarded as its greatest promulgator, originally named Vridhamana
Mahayajnathe great sacrifice or ritual of propitiation
Mahfils(India) popular venues for gatherings of folk music
Mahogani(German n.) mahogany, mogano (Italian m.), acajou (French f.), bois d'acajou (French m.), caoba (Spanish f.)
Mahoganymogano (Italian m.), Mahogani (German n.), acajou (French f.), bois d'acajou (French m.), caoba (Spanish f.)
any of various tropical American evergreen trees of the genus Swietenia, valued for their hard, reddish-brown wood
Mahout(Hindi) an elephant-driver
Mai(Japanese) dance
Maidan(Persian) an open space near a town, used for sports and exercise
maigre comme un clou(French) thin as a rail.
Mail(from Latin macula, 'spot' or 'mesh') or 'chainmail', a type of armour or jewellery that consists of small metal rings linked together in a pattern to form a mesh
the bags of letters and packages that are transported by the postal service, and hence, regular delivery of letters and small parcels
Mailänder Gesang(German m.) Ambrosian chant
Mailloche (de batterie)(French f.) mallet, beater or drum stick
Main (s.), Mains (pl.)(French f.) hand
for example, main droite (French: 'right hand') or main gauche (French: 'left hand')
Main drapealso known as the 'act curtain' or 'front drape', the main drape serves as a visual and sound barrier between the audience and the activity on stage that is not intended for the audience experience. In addition, the main drape is an important part of the auditorium décor and helps set the tone for the evening's performance
Main droite(French f.) right hand
Mainframea large powerful computer, often serving many connected terminals and used mainly by government institutions and large companies
Main gauche(French f.) left hand
Mains croisées(French f.) crossing hands
Mainspringused since the 15th century as a reservoir of power for mechanical devices, a spiral torsion spring of metal ribbon that powers mechanical watches and some clocks
chief motivating force or incentive
Mainstream(English, German m.) twentieth-century music, in particular, jazz, swing and pop; music that is currently popular
Mairie(French f.) the adminstrative office of a French municipality
Mais(French) but
mais(French) but
mais alto(Portuguese) louder
Maison(French f.) house, home, building
Maison close(French f.) a brothel
Maison d'à côté(French f.) next-door
Maison de commerce(French f.) firm, home-made (cooking)
Maison de convalescence(French f.) convalescent home
Maison d'édition(French f.) publishing house
Maison de passe(French f.) a disorderly house, a hotel or boarding house that is in effect a brothel
Maison de rendezvous(French f.) a hotel or lodging house offering accommodation to men and their mistresses
Maison de repos(French f.) convalescent home
Maison de retraite(French f.) old people's home
Maison de santé(French f.) a nursing-home, a private hospital
Maison des jeunes(French f.) youth centre
Maison de société(French f.) a brothel
Maison dieu(English, French f.) almshouse, or residence for the poor
Maisonettemisspelling of maisonnette
Maison mère(French f.) parent company
Maisonnée(French f.) household
Maisonnette(French f.) small house, cottage
Maison tolérée(English from the French f.) or maison de tolérance (which is more correct in French), a State-licensed brothel
Maïstorin the Orthodox rite, a composer of church music who is often also an accomplished singer
Maître (m.), Maîtresse (f.)(French) master (m.), mistress (f.)
the masculine is a form of address or reference to a French lawyer
Maître à penser(French m.) a teacher whom one chooses, in order to learn not just a set of facts or point of view, but a way of thinking
Maître de ballet (m.), Maîtresse de ballet (f.)(French) chefe do balé (Portuguese m./f.), ballet master (m.), ballet mistress (f.), the person responsible for the training of a company of dancers and for the conducting of rehearsals
Maître de chapelle(French m.) the French equivalent of the terms Kapellmeister (German), director of music (in a church), maestro di cappella (Italian), maestro di capilla (Spanish)
Maître de musique(French m.) music master, conductor, musical director
Maître d'hôtel(French m.) manager of a hotel, head-waiter, steward (older meaning)
Maîtres chanteurs(French m. pl.) master singers
Maîtresse de balletsee maître de ballet
Maîtresse en titrean acknowledged mistress, an 'official' mistress generally of a person of some social standing
Maîtresse femmea competent, efficient woman
a masterful woman, a woman of the world
Maîtrise(French f.) a French choir school (usually attached to a cathedral) and by extension a choir formed of members of such a school
(French f.) master of the choirboys
Maje krahi(Albanian, 'cries') an important part of North Albanian folk song, originally used by mountaineers to communicate over wide distances, but are now considered 'songs'. Maje-krahi songs require the full range of the voice and are full of "melismatic nuances and falsetto cries"
Majesta(Italian) majesty, dignity, stateliness
Majesticallywith majesty, with dignity, with stateliness, maestoso (Italian), majestätisch (German), majestueusement (French)
majestätisch(German) majestic, majestically, maestoso
Majesté(French m.) majesty
"Character of grandeur and superiority that makes sovereigns revered. ... Also said about a grave and serious air with which one does something. ... One also says that verse is full of majesty when it is grave, full of pomp, and when it has great meaning." - Furetière (1690)
majestueusement(French) majestically, with majesty, with grandeur, maestoso
majestueux (m.), majestueuse (f.)(French) majestic, noble
majestuoso (m.), majestuosa (f.)(Spanish) maestoso, majestic, stately
majeur(Dutch) major
majeur (m.), majeure (f.)(French) major (key or interval)
majeur-Akkord(Dutch) major triad
majeur septiem Akkord(Dutch) major seventh chord
majeur Toonladder(Dutch) major scale
Majo (m.), Maja (f.)(Spanish) a gaily-dressed Spaniard of the lower classes
Majolica(English from the Italian maiolica) a fine Italian pottery glazed with a tin enamel and highly decorated
Majormaggiore (Italian), Dur (German), majeur (French), greater, as opposed to minor or lesser (particularly when discussing intervals, scales, keys and chords)
in the film industry, one of the eight major film studios (Disney, MGM, Paramount, Sony, 20th Century Fox, Dreamworks, Universal, Warner Brothers)
Major cadencea cadence that ends on a major triad
Major chorda chord that has a major third and a perfect fifth
Major flat nine (b9) pentatonic scaleMajor flat 9 pentatonic scale
this pentatonic can be used over C7, Eb7, F#7 or A7, where the symmetric diminished scale would be used
Major intervalsthe intervals between the tonic and the second, third, sixth and seventh degrees of a major scale
Major keytono maggiore (Italian), Dur Tonart (German), ton majeur (French), a key that has major intervals between both the first and third degrees and first and sixth degree
Major minor major ninth chorda ninth chord consisting of a major triad, minor seventh, and major ninth, a dominant ninth chord in a major key
Major-minor relativesalso called 'Aeolian twins' (by Ger Tillekens), a term used to describe the pairing of major keys with their relative minors, for example, the scales of C major and a minor, that have the same notes in common (C, D, E, F, G, A and B). Relative major-minor pairs of chords, like A minor (A-C-E) and C Major (C-E-G), share two notes, which makes it easy to keep a sense of the original key when shifting between them which explains why they can take each other's place in a chord progression. So major-minor relatives, though separated melodically, are closely related harmonically
Major minor seventh chordthe V7 chord, for example, G-B-D-F, so named because it has a major triad with a minor third above the fifth. The seventh above the root is minor
Major modea mode that has major intervals between both the first and third degrees
Major modus(Latin) see 'major mode'
Major ninth chordequivalent to a dominant ninth chord in a major key
Major ordersthe higher ranks of the Christian ministry, comprising the orders of bishop, priest, deacon and sub-deacon
Major pentatonic scalea five-note scale consisting of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th and 6th degrees of a major scale
Major scalescala maggiore (Italian), Dur Tonleiter (German), gamme majeur (French)
C major scale
a mode consisting of the rising interval sequence T-T-S-T-T-T-S, (T=tone or whole-step, S=semitone or half-step)
Major secondthe interval of a tone (a whole step)
Major semitonesynonymous with 'diatonic semitone' (for example, C to D flat)
Major seventh chorda seventh chord consisting of a major triad plus a major seventh
Major sixthan interval of four tones and one semitone (four steps and a half step)
Major sharp nine (#9) flat seven (b7) pentatonic scaleMajor #9 flat 7 pentatonic scale
this pentatonic scale comprises 2 triads, C major and Eb major
Major tetrachordalso called 'Dorian tetrachord', a rising row of four notes, with successive intervals T-T-S (T=tone or whole-step, S=semitone or half-step)
Major thirdan interval of two tones (two steps)
tonus cum diapente or hexachordo maior
Major triad
G major triad a chord consisting of a major third above which is placed a minor third. The example shown here is the G major triad
Major triple (meter)a meter that is synonymous with double triple meter or 3/2
Majusculea large letter or a capital letter
in medieval manuscripts, any script composed entirely of capital letters
Makam (s.), Makamlar (pl.)(Turkish, from the Arabic maqâm (s.), maqâmat (pl.)) based on the use of untempered intervals (with as many as 53 microtones amplifying the western octave), a given makam follows a particular scale and a set of associated musical practices. A makam has no intrinsic (allegorical) value and is not bound to certain times of the day or year, as is the related Indian raga
the melody type used in Turkish music; that is, it is the concept used to codify phenomena of scale structure, interval structure, and melodic characteristics that underly composition and improvisation. Its counterpart in Arab music is maqam; in Byzantine music, echos; in Assyrian music, makam; in Uyghur music, muqam; in Uzbek music, shashmakom; and in Indian music, raga. All of these concepts roughly correspond to mode in Western music, although they may differ in detail depending on the specifics of the music theory to which they belong
Makamiathe Greek form of the Turkish makamlar
Makéthe small drum in gwo ka that embellishes the central rhythm played on the larger boula
Makellarikos horossee hasapiko
Makimono(Japanese) a Japanese painted scroll, so arranged as to unroll horizontally and reveal a series of pictures
Makinaan electronic music genre originating in Spain, similar in sound to UK Hardcore but with elements of bouncy techno and other differences. The makina sound is usually characterized by its resonating synthesized sounding chords, and has a weaker but higher octave sounding punchier kick drum than the similar United Kingdom produced tracks. Makina is also popular in North East England, where both gabber and bouncy techno had been played for many years previously
  • Makina from which this extract has been taken
MakossaCameroonian dance rhythm from the Duala region
Cameroon's most popular pop style
MakuséPygmy music designed to bring luck to a hunting camp
Makutathe makuta drums, brought to Cuba by Congo or Bantu people, are one of the ancestors of the conga drums. The makuta drums can have a tubular, cylindrical or barrel-shaped body. They have a single head with the lower end open. The head is tensioned by the heat of a fire since the membrane is tacked onto the shell of the drum. more recent models are commonly tensioned with a more complex system of lugs and turnscrews. Makuta festivals are ceremonial celebrations which originated and still exist in societies of the Congo people and their descendants. They were very common during the nineteenth century and were still not infrequent during the early decades of the 20th. In Cuba the word makuta indicates a festive gathering. The term also refers to a kind of ritual staff to which is attached a spherical receptacle containing magical elements or objects. This staff or makuta is used at certain moments in the ceremony to strike the ground in a rhythmic accompaniment to a song or dance. The makuta drums bear individual names: caja, ngoma and nsumbi
(Cuba) an Afro-Cuban dance rhythm
[corrected by Donald Skoog]
a grand crown worn by male dancers representing a hero, king, minister or prince in the ancient Indian dance art of yakshagana, an amazing combination of dance, music, spoken word, costume-makeup and stage technique. It is among the oldest traditional and popular folk dance forms of Karnataka with a history dating back to the 14th century AD
Makutisee pungi
Mal(German n.) time, occasion
(German n.) mark
mal accordé (m.), mal accordée (f.)(French) out of tune
mal acompañado(Spanish)in bad company
Maladaptivecoping or responding in a damaging way, such as a maladaptive response to fear of speaking by always avoiding speaking situations
Malade(French m./f.) sick person, patient (of a doctor)
malade(French) sick, ill, bad (arm, throat, etc.), diseased (plant)
Malade imaginaire(French m./f.) a hypochondriac, one who imagines himself (or herself) to be an invalid
Maladie(French f.) illness, disease
maladif (m.), maladive (f.)(French) sickly, morbid (fear)
Maladresse(French f.) clumsiness, awkwardness, lack of tact, a blunder (particularly in a social setting)
Maladroit (m.), Maladroite (f.)(French) clumsy (person)
maladroit (m.), maladroite (f.)(French) clumsy
mala fide(Latin) in bad faith, with intent to deceive, fraudulently
Malagasy hip hop
Malagueña(German f., Spanish f.) a improvised song based on a repetitive chordal accompaniment
see flamenco
Mal agüero(Spanish m.) bad omen
Malaise(French f.) an ill-defined and inexplicable feeling of discomfort, either physical or mental
Malakatlong trumpetlike wooden ceremonial horns from Ethiopia
Mal aliento(Spanish m.) bad breath
Malanconia(Italian) melancholy, sadness
Mala pata(Spanish f.) bad luck
Malapropismmisusing words to create a comic effect or characterize the speaker as being too confused, ignorant, or flustered to use correct diction
mal à propos(French) inopportunely, unseasonably, inappropriately, inopportune, unseasonable, inappropriate
Malas artes(Spanish f.) trickery
Malas condiciones higiénicas(Spanish f.pl.) unsanitary conditions
Malas notacias(Spanish f.pl.) bad news
Malattie di petto(Italian) pulmonary diseases, diseases of the chest
Mala uva(Spanish f.) bad mood
mal avenido(Spanish) at odds
mal avisado(Spanish) ill-advised
mal avisé de(French) ill-advised to
Malayo-Polynesiananother term for Austronesian
Malaysian hip hop
mal café(Spanish) foul temper, awful mood
mal coiffé(French) with untidy hair
mal conçu(French) badly planned
Mal d'amour(French m.) the pangs of love, love-sickness
Mal de mer(French m.) sea-sickness
Mal di gola(Italian m.) sore throat
Mal di pancia(Italian m.) stomach-ache
Mal di petto(Italian m.) consumption
mal disposé(French) in a bad mood
maldisposto(Italian) ill-disposed
Mal di testa(Italian m.) headache
Mal du pays(French m.) or maladie du pays (now rarely used), home-sickness
Mal du siècle(French m.) weariness of life, pessimistic depression, world-weariness
Male(Italian m.) evil, pain, illness, harm
Male altosee 'alto'
maledetto(Italian) cursed, awful (horrible)
maledire(Italian) to curse
Maledizione(Italian f.) curse
Maledizione!(Italian) damn!
maleducato(Italian) ill-mannered
Malessere(Italian) indisposition, uneasiness (figurative)
Maleficencedoing or causing evil
Maleficio(Italian m.) witchcraft
Maleficium(Latin) the doing of evil by means of magic, sorcery, a malicious enchantment
malefico(Italian) evil, harmful
Malenconico(Italian) melancholy, sadness
Malentendu(French m.) a misunderstanding, a misapprehension
mal équipé(French) poorly equipped
malerisch(German, 'picturesque') (a painter or a picture) expressing form by colour and tone, not by contour
Maleviziotisthe traditional dance of Iraklion, Crete
malevolo(Italian) malevolent
malefamato(Italian) of ill repute
malfatto(Italian) badly done, ill-shaped, malformed
Malfattore(Italian m.) wrongdoer
Malfeasancewrongful conduct by a public official
malfermo(Italian) unsteady, poor
malformato(Italian) misshapen
Malgarbo(Italian m.) rudeness
Malgoverno(Italian m.) misgovernment
malgrado(Italian) in spite of, although
malgré(French) in spite of, although
malgré lui(French) in spite of himself, against his will
malgré moi(French) in spite of myself, against my will
malgré tout(French) in spite of everything, all things considered
Malheur(French m.) misfortune, clalmity, ordeal, hardship, accident, mishap, adversity, ill luck
un malheur ne vient jamais seul (French: it never rains but it pours, troubles never come singly)
Un malheur est si vite arrivé (French: accidents happen so easily, mishaps happen so easily)
Le malheur des uns fait le bonheur des autres (French: one man's joy is another man's sorrow)
C'est dans le malheur qu'on connaît ses amis (French: a friend in need is a friend indeed)
Malhounsee milhûn
Malhunsee milhûn
Malia(Italian f.) spell
Malian hip hop
malignare(Italian) to malign
Malignità(Italian f.) malice, malignancy
maligno(Italian) malicious, evil, malignant
Malimbaan African thumb-piano
Malinconia(Italian f.) melancholy
malinconicamente(Italian) dejectedly, gloomily, with an expression of melancholy
malinconico(Italian) melancholy, dejected, sad, gloomy
malinconioso(Italian) in a melancholy or dejected manner
malinconoso(Italian) in a melancholy or dejected manner
Maling(China) horse bell
malintenzionato(Italian) ill-intentioned
Malinteso(Italian m.) misunderstanding
malinteso(Italian) mistaken
Malivataa contemporary presentation of the hunters' music and dance from Eastern Tanzania incorporating variety of props and other visual elements from the Southern Region of Africa
Malizia(Italian f.) malice, cunning, trick
malizioso(Italian) mischievous, malicious
malleabile(Italian) malleable
malle in arnese(Italian) in bad condition
Malleolus (s.), Malleoli (pl.)a rounded bony prominence, such as those on either side of the ankle joint
Malletmazza (Italian f.), mazzuolo (Italian m.), Schlägel (German m.), mailloche (French f.), mazzo (Spanish m)
a beater used to strike percussion instruments, that has a cylindrical or spherical head that comes in a variety of materials (soft cloth or yarn - soft or hard rubber - woods of varying hardness) to produce a wide range of timbres:
unwrapped malletsused on glockenspiel, xylophone and other instruments with keysmade of durable material, have heads made of brass, kelon, nylon, acrylic, wood, or other hard materials
wrapped malletsused on marimba, vibraphone and other instruments with softer keyshave heads of kelon, nylon, acrylic or other medium-hard materials wrapped in softer materials like yarn, cord or latex
softer or thicker malletsused on an instrument's lower registers
harder or thinner malletsused on an instrument's higher registers
Mallet instrumentsalso called 'mallet percussion instruments', 'keyboard percussion' or 'tuned percussion', pitched instruments played with mallets, for example, xylophone, glockenspiel, marimba, tubular bells, crotales, steel drums and vibraphone
Mallet percussion instrumentssee 'mallet instruments'
Mal mariée(French f.) an unhappily married woman
malmenare(Italian) to ill-treat
malmesso(Italian) shabbily dressed (person), poorly finished (house, etc.)
malnutrito(Italian) undernourished, ill-nourished
Malnutrizione(Italian f.) malnutrition
Malocchio(Italian m.) evil eye
Maloyain Reunion, the traditional sega which is relatively slow and is danced by couples who are not as physically close as those on Mauritius
MALSabbreviation of 'Master of Arts in Library Sciences'
mal se tirer de(French) to do something poorly, to manage something poorly
mal soigné (m.), mal soignée (f.)(French) unkempt, shabby, uncared for
malsonnant(French) ill sounding, bad-toned, poor sounding
mal venu(French) untimely
mal volentieri(Italian) or con difficoltà (Italian), unwillingly
mal vu(French) viewed with disapproval, resented
Mambo(English, German m.) a generic term for a popular dance and hybrid music style, developed in the 1940s and 50s. The history of modern mambo begins in 1938, when a danzon called "Mambo" was written by Orestes and Israel 'Cachao' López. The word Mambo is the name of a Voodoo priestess
there are a number of sub-groups:
a musical section evolved in the late 1930s and 1940s from the nuevo ritmo of the danzón
an up tempo Afro-Cuban musical style, invented by Pérez Prado, that evolved in the 1940s and 50s, a blending of the mambo section, elements of the son and some influences of American jazz orchestras
a section of an arrangement usually following or developing from the montuno section featuring new arranged (or sometimes improvised) material such as moñas in the horn section
an Afro-Cuban dance of the same name popularized in New York and sometimes calledsalsa
Mambo bellthe bell played by the timbalero in mambo style songs
Mambo with güiro rhythman early name for the chachachá
Mamelon(French, literally 'nipple') a small fortified hill
man.abbreviated form of mano, 'manual'
Mana(Maori) supernatural or magical power or influence
Maña(Spanish f.) skill
Mañas(Spanish f. pl.)cunning
Manadsskrift(Swedish) monthly publication
Managerkrankheit(German f.) physical and mental sickness and disturbance resulting from excessive executive responsibility
Mañana(Spanish m.) the future, tomorrow
Mañana(Spanish f.) the morning
mañana(Spanish) tomorrow
mañana por la mañana(Spanish) tomorrow morning
Mañanero(Spanish m.) early riser
mañanero (m.), mañanera (f.)(Spanish) early-rising, morning
Mañanita(Spanish f.) bed jacket
Manata(Italian f.) slap
Manatlig(Swedish) monthly
manc.abbreviated form of mancando (Italian: failing, diminishing in strength, dying away, lacking)
Manca(Italian f.) the left
mancando(Italian) failing, diminishing in strength, dying away, lacking
mancante(Italian) failing, diminishing in strength, dying away, lacking
Mancanza(Italian f.) lack, absence, shortage (insufficiency), fault, defect
mancare(Italian) to lack, to be absent, to miss, to fail
mancare a(Italian) to fail to
mancare di(Italian) by lacking in
Manche(French m.) Hals (German m.), manico (Italian m.) neck (of a stringed instrument, for example, a lute or violin)
(French m.), handle (for example, on a barrel organ, which is turned to operate the internal mechanism), handle (on a broom, etc.), haft, crop (whip), grip (as in handgrip)
(French f.) sleeve (of a jacket, etc.)
Manche à balais(French m.) broomstick
Manche de balai(French m.) broom handle
Manche de chemise(French m.) shirt-sleeve
Manche de l'épée(French m.) sword-arm
Manche du couteau(French m.) knife-handle
Manche du sabre(French m.) sword-arm
Manchegaa lively kind of seguidilla
Manche raglan(French m.) raglan sleeve
Manchetesee cavaquinho
manchevole(Italian) defective
Mancia(Italian f.) tip
mancino(Italian) left-handed
Manco(Italian f.) left hand
manco(Italian) left
(Italian) not even
mandabbreviation of 'mandolin'
Mandador(Portuguese) the caller who 'calls' the folk dances of Portugual, in particular the corridinho, baile de roda and baile mandado. The instruments that support these Algarve dances consists mainly of the accordion, the violin, the pífaro or the flute and the tamboril (drums)
Mandala tuning device found on the Turkish kanun, a small levers, one for each string, which can be turned by the player while the instrument is being played, raise the pitch of the course up to one semitone (half-step). Typically, they are used to raise the pitch by a quarter tone
mandare(Italian) to send, to give off (to emit), to utter (sound)
mandare a chiamare(Italian) to send for
mandare avanti la baracca(Italian) to keep the ship afloat
mandare avanti la casa(Italian) to run the house
mandare giù(Italian) to swallow
Mandarino(Italian m.) mandarine (fruit), tangerine
Mandarin pop musicsee 'Mandopop'
Mandata(Italian f.) consignment, turn (of a lock)
Mandato(Italian m.) mandate, warrant (legal), money order
Mandibola(Italian f.) jaw
Mandilatos(from Mandra, Greece) a Thracian couples dance performed at weddings
Mandilion(in use 1520-1560, 1577-1620) a loose, thigh-length overcoat with a standing collar and loose sleeves
mandoabbreviated form of mancando (Italian: failing, diminishing in strength, dying away, lacking)
Mandobassa rare bass mandolin
Mandocello(English, German n., called 'mandoloncello' in Italy) a large mandolin, larger than a mandola. When tuned an octave below a mandola (CC-GG-dd-aa) it is called an 'octave mandola'. When tuned an octave below the mandolin, it is called an 'octave mandolin'. The first dated music for this instrument was written in Paris by R. Leoncavallo in a symphonic poem entitled La Nuit de Mai (1887)
Mando-cümbüssee cümbüs
Mandola(English, German f.) also mandora or mandore, a large mandolin, bearing six to eight courses of strings, in use during the Renaissance
also mandora or mandore, a large mandolin a fifth below a standard mandolin
Mandolinin cooking, a tool for slicing vegetables
Mandolin, Mandoline(Italian) a family (the family name is mandola, mando or mandolin) of originally lute-shaped instrument usually with four to six pairs of strings, a fretted fingerboard and played with a plectrum. There are two types of mandolin in use today, bluegrass and folk. The third type, known colloquially as 'roundback', is the original lute-backed mandolin of earlier times and is rarely used today. The modern Bluegrass mandolins, including mandolin, mandola, mandocello and mandobass, often have f-holes rather than the traditional round sound-holes of the folk mandolin. The folk instrument is distinguishable by its deeper and larger body.
namestandard scale lengthtuning(s)
piccolo mandolin
also called brilliantone mando/piccolo mando
10.2"/26cmfour courses of eight strings
pocket mandoline12.9"/32.7cmfour courses of eight strings
travelling mandoline13.1"/33.2cm to 14.4"/36.5cmfour courses of eight strings
mandriola13.1"/33.2cm to 14.4"/36.5cmtriple strung with twelve strings, tuned like a standard mandolin
mandolinetto
mandolin-guitar
13.1"/33.2cm to 14.4"/36.5cmsmall guitar-shaped instrument with 8 strings in pairs tuned and played like a mandolin and with a much softer tone. The instrument is really a guitar not a mandolin
archtop mandolin
American mandolin
13.1"/33.2cm to 14.4"/36.5cmduring the 1890s, a number of US instrument builders developed a new kind of mandolin and guitar, the archtop mandolin and archtop guitar. These instruments had an arched (and usually carved) top and back like a violin. The invention is usually credited to Orville Gibson (1856-1918). Although this is not true, Gibson's agressive marketing was certainly what made these new instruments popular, and his A style and F style mandolins are the models for almost most all later archtop mandolins
A style mandolin13.1"/33.2cm to 14.4"/36.5cman archtop mandolin design introduced by Gibson around 1900, originally the A style mandolin had a round sound hole, but when Loyd Loar joined Gibson in the 1920s, he redesigned it with f holes
F style mandolin13.1"/33.2cm to 14.4"/36.5cman archtop mandolin design introduced by Gibson around 1900. Unlike the A style mandolin the F style mandolin has a small extension of the body on the bass side (possibly inspired by the significantly more extreme harp mandolin) to make a larger resonance chamber. Originally the F style mandolin had a round sound hole, but when Loyd Loar joined Gibson in the 1920s, he redesigned it with f holes
harp mandolin
(not to be confused with the mandolin-harp)
13.1"/33.2cm to 14.4"/36.5cma mandolin with the body extending upwards on the bass side all the way to the headstock. Unlike the harp guitar it doesn't have any extra bass strings. The extension is only to provide a larger resonance chamber
lyre mandolin13.1"/33.2cm to 14.4"/36.5cma mandolin with the body extending upwards on towards the headstock on both sides, giving it a lyre like look and providing a larger resonance chamber
resonator mandolin13.1"/33.2cm to 14.4"/36.5mmintroduced by the Dobro brothers in the late 1920s
electric mandolin13.1"/33.2cm to 14.4"/36.5cma mandolin specially constructed to be played amplified. There are three distinctive kinds of electric mandolins, some has a solid body like an electric guitar, some has a regular mandolin body with a magnetic pickup installed and some has a piezoelectric transducer to produce a sound resembling an acoustic mandolin
mandolin
also called mezzo mando
14.2"/36cmstandard tuning: GDAE from bass to treble
Celtic mandolin13.1"/33.2cm to 14.4"/36.5cmthe unique Celtic style mandolin is very similar to the French kind, but with an even simpler, cleaner design, a lighter build and a light and dynamic tone of its own
Cremonese mandolin with a small bowlback body and four single gut (or nylon) strings, the Cremonese mandolin dates from about 1700. It appears to be the first 'mandolin' to use the four fifths tuned course configuration common to modern mandolins
French mandolin13.1"/33.2cm to 14.4"/36.5cmoldest of the flat/arched back mandolins with four courses of eight strings. At the end of the seventeenth century, Parisian musicians took to their citterns 'mandolins' so that they could compete with the more fashionable Neapolitan musicians with their own native mandolins
Genovese mandolin a bowlbacked, lute shaped 6 course, 12 string, metal-strung mandolin that appeared towards the end of the seventeenth century
Lombardic mandolin
also called mandolino lombardo/mando-lute
11.8"/30cmthe word mandolino isn't known until the end of the seventeenth century. The Lombardic variety is a small bowlback wide and shallow bodied lute with five or six double courses, usually tuned an octave higher than a modern guitar, the instrument for which Vivaldi wrote his mandolin works
Milanese mandolin during the nineteenth century, the Lombardic mandolin evolved into the Milanese mandolin, very similar to its predecessor, but with a louder tone to satisfy new musical tastes and sometimes with single strings instead of double courses
Neopolitan mandolin13.1"/33.2cm to 14.4"/36.5cmthe 4 course, 8 string mandolin popular throughout most the nineteenth and well into the twentieth century and even today it remains by far the best known bowlbacked mandolin
Portuguese mandolin13.1"/33.2cm to 14.4"/36.5cmprobably evolved from the French mandolin, the Portuguese mandolin differs by having a tapered and usually ribbed back while the French has a simpler flat back
Roman mandolin
Embergher mandolin
13.1"/33.2cminvented by Luigi Embergher (4 Feb. 1856-12 May 1943) as a refinement of the Neapolitan mandolin, it differs from its ancestor mainly by a curved fretboard and a slightly narrower body
ten-string mandolin the five course, ten-string mandolin is a mandolin with an extra pair of low strings, allowing it to reach down as far as the alto mandola
banjola
banjo-lute/mandoline-banjo/banjo-mandolin
25.6"/65cm to 26.8"/68cman instrument with a mandola body and a five-string banjo neck, introduced by US company Gold Tone, but similar instruments called banjo-lute or mandoline-banjo have been around since the late nineteenth century. The banjola should not to be confused with the mandolin-banjo or the banjolin which are completely different instruments
alto mandola
mandora (old spelling)
usually simply called mandola and occasionally, incorrectly, tenor mandola
16"/41cm to 17"/43cmstandard tuning: CGDA from bass to treble.
other common tunings: ADGD GCGC GDGD. Traditionally it had a fairly long scale (16.5"/42cm to 20.3"/51.5cm), but around 1900 Gibson introduced a mandola with a much shorter (15"/38cm to 15.8"/40.2cm) scale. Although the shorter scale mandola was the dominating variant for some time, today the longer scale version has becoming more popular
octave mandolin
also called tenor mandola/octave mandola/bouzouki/octofone
19"/48cm to 22"/56cmstandard tuning: GDAE from bass to treble (one octave below mandolin)
Other common tunings: CGDA EADG DADA DADG EADA. Neapolitan style tenor mandolas were common in the nineteenth-century mandolin quartet and recently Celtic style octave mandos have become popular in Irish traditional and folk music
bouzouki
also called Irish bouzouki/octave mandolin
19"/48cm to 27"/69cm4 or 5 courses (double strung), guitar or lute shaped and fixed frets, the instrument's standard tuning is: GDAE.
other common tunings: CGDA EADG DADA DADG EADA. It is generally agree that term octave mandolin should be used for the tenor mandola (a mandola intended to be tuned GDAE one octave below a mandolin) while Irish bouzouki should be used for an instrument resembling the original bouzouki (4 courses, long neck, small body) except for the tuning and the flat back, and Irish cittern used as a generic term for any large mandola that doesn't fit any other definition. Generally the tenor mandola is regarded as most suitable for melodic playing and the Irish bouzouki and Irish cittern for chords, but there are many exceptions to this convention
Irish cittern20"/50.8cm to 26"/66cma wide variety of different large mandolas mainly used in Irish/Celtic music
mandocello24"/61cm to 26"/66cmstandard tuning: CGDA (one octave below the alto mandola)
mandobass
also called bass mando/double bass mando
39.6"/100.6cmstandard tuning: as a double bass or bass guitar, EADG
the alternative names depend on the tuning adopted. Thus, an instrument tuned an octave below a mandolin will be called an 'octave mandolin', while the same instrument tuned an octave below a 'mandola' will be called an 'octave mandola'
Mandolina(Spanish f.) mandolin
Mandolinata(Italian) a serenade for the mandolin, generally quiet in nature
(in piano music) a direction to play with a mandolin effect
groups that combine various sizes of mandolin and guitar, usually mandolins, guitars, mandolas and mandocellos (or mandolocellos)
Mandoline(French f., German f., Dutch) mandolin, mandolino (Italian)
Mandoline-banjosee 'mandolin, mandoline'
Mandoline-guitarsee 'mandolin, mandoline'
Mandolinettosee 'mandolin, mandoline'
Mandoliniste(French m./f.) a player of the mandolin
Mandolino(Italian m.) mandolin, Mandoline (German f.), mandoline (French f.)
Mandolinyhomemade lutes from Madagascar
see kabosy
Mandoliónsynonym for bandoneón
Mandolin zitheran instrument, closely related to the 'guitar zither', with doubled strings and a more mandolin-like sound
Mandoloncello(Italian) the mandocello
Mandopopa colloquial abbreviation of 'Mandarin pop music'. The term refers to 'C-pop' in which the lyrics are in Mandarin Chinese. Sometimes, the same song is produced in both Cantonese ('Cantopop') and Mandarin versions
  • Mandopop from which this extract has been taken
MandoraSwedish string instrument, similar to a mandolin
(English, German f.) see mandola
Mandoresee mandola
Mandorla(Italian f., literally 'almond') in art, an almond-shaped panel or opening, an almond-shaped halo
Mandorlo(Italian m.) almond(-tree)
Mandrain Indian classical music, 'low'
Mandria(Italian f.) herd
Mandriolasee 'mandolin, mandoline'
Mandulina(Corsica) a mandolin
Manea (s.), Manele (pl.)a Balkan music style mainly derived from Turkish love songs, most prominent in Romania, especially in rural areas and poor urban neighbourhoods, but is also present in Bulgaria, Serbia, Albania and parts of Turkey
  • Manele from which this extract has been taken
manedlig(Danish, Norwegian) monthly
Manedsskrift(Danish) a monthly
Manedsvis(Norwegian) a monthly (publication)
Manège(French m.) in ballet, an imaginary circle bounding the stage, the limit of the area in which the dancers perform, a dance round the extreme limits of the stage
Manèges(French m. pl.) term applied to steps or enchaînements executed in a circle
maneggevole(Italian) easy to handle
maneggiare(Italian) to handle
Maneggio(Italian m.) handling, plot (intrigue), riding school
maneja al marido a su antojo(Spanish) she has her husband twisted around her little finger
Manelesee manea
Manentsee manet
Manes(Latin) the deified souls of the departed ancestors, the shade of the dead
manesco(Italian) quick with one's fists
Manesse Codexor Grosse Heidelberger Liederhandschrift (Heidelberg, University of Heidelberg Library, Cod. Pal. germ. 848), a codex copied and illustrated between 1305-1340 in Zürich, compiled at the request of the Manesse family of Zurich, possibly by Johannes Hadlaub. It contains the texts of love songs in Middle High German by important poets, several of whom were famous rulers. The term for these poets, Minnesänger, combines the words for "romantic love" and "singer", reflecting the content of the poetry, which adapted the Provençal troubador tradition to German
Manet(from the Latin manent, 'they remain') or manent, a direction calling for a person, or a group of people, to remain on the stage while others exit
often the phrase is accompanied with explanatory remarks, such as Manent utras (Latin: The others remain on stage), or Manet solus (Latin: He alone remains)
Manetta(Italian f.) the handle or knob of the organ stops, hand lever
Manette(Italian f.pl.) handcuffs
Mangada(Guinea-Bissau) a set of three drums
Manganello(Italian m.) truncheon
Mangano(Italian m.) mangle
Mangel an Arbeitskräften(German) shortage of labour
manger dans la main à ...(French) to eat out of ...'s hand
manger dans l'assiette(French) to eat off of a plate
manger du bout des dents(French) to nibble
mangereccio(Italian) edible
Mangeria(Italian f.) illicit profit
Mange toutsugar or snow pea
Mangiare(Italian m.) eating, food, meal
mangiare(Italian) to eat, to eat up, to eat away (corrode), to take
mangiare con gusto(Italian) to tuck (tuck in, into food)
mangiare si le parole(Italian) to mumble
mangiare voracemente(Italian) to tuck (tuck in, into food)
mangiarsi le unguie(Italian) to bite one's nails
Mangime(Italian m.) fodder
Mangissaa popular Bayaka (Pygmy) dance form
ManguaréColombian tuned log
Manhattan Transfer, Thean American vocal group
Mani(Italian f. pl.) hands
Maniaco (m.), Maniaca (f.)(Italian) maniac
maniaco (m.), maniaca (f.)(Italian) maniacal
Manica(Italian f.) fingering, shift (on a fingerboard)
(Italian f.) sleeve, band (group)
Manica, la(Italian) the English Channel
Manice(Italian m.) the bellows of an organ
Manichino(Italian m.) dummy (tailor, window)
Manichorda clavichord
Manichorde(French m.) a clavichord
Manichordion(French) a clavichord
Manichordium(Latin) a clavichord
Manico(Italian m.) Hals (German m.), manche (French m.), neck of a string instrument (for example, a guitar or violin)
(Italian m.) handle
Manicomio(Italian m.) mental home
Manicordiendrahtclavichord string
Manicordio(Spanish m.) clavichord
Manicordo(Italian m.) clavichord
Manicotto(Italian m.) muff, sleeve (machine)
Manicure(Italian m./f.) manicurist
manié(French) in cooking, softened
Manier(German f.) manner
a grace, an ornament
Maniera(Italian f.) manner, style, method
Maniéra(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) manner, fashion, guise, use, custome, stile or course. Used also for a kind or sort. Also for qualitie. Also for mannerlinesse and civilitie
Maniera affettata(Italian f.) an affected style or delivery
Maniera languida(Italian f.) a languid, sleepy style
manierato(Italian) affettato (Italian), affected, mannered, geziert (German), affektiert (German), affecté (French), maniéré (French)
Maniàre(French f.) manner, style, method
maniéré(French) manierato (Italian), affettato (Italian), affected, mannered, geziert (German), affektiert (German), affecté (French)
maniéré (m.), maniérée (f.)(French) affected, characterised by artificial mannerisms
Maniére d'attaque(French f.) touch, manner or style, of playing the pianoforte, etc.
Manieren(German f. pl.) pural of Manier, ornaments, grace-notes, embellishments
Maniérisme(French m.) mannerism
Manierismo(Italian m.) mannerism
Manierismus(German m.) mannerism
Manierista (s.), Manieristi (pl.)(Italian) a person addicted to artificial mannerisms
Maniero(Italian m.) manor
manieroso(Italian) (art) displaying the unmistakable touch of a master hand
Manifattura(Italian f.) manufacture, factory
manifestare(Italian) to show, to express, to demonstrate
manifestarsi(Italian) to show oneself
Manifestazione(Italian f.) show, expression, manifestaton, demonstration
Manifesto(Italian m.) a public declaration of policy, poster
manifesto(Italian) evident
Maniglia(Italian f.) handle, strap (on a train, bus, etc.)
Mani incrociate(Italian f. pl.) or volteggiando, crossing hands
Manikayclan songs of the Indigenous Australians of Arnhem Land
Manilaabbreviation for Manila hemp, strong fibre from a tree native to the Philippines
Manila papera type of paper originally made from Manila hemp. It is strong, beige in colour and the fibres are usually visible to the naked eye. Because manila paper is generally inexpensive, it is commonly given to children for making child art
Manimbasee marímbula
Manipleitem of mass vestments; rectangle of fabric worn fastened to the left wrist
manipolare(Italian) to handle, to adulterate, to manipulate (figurative)
Manipolazione(Italian f.) handling, adulteration, manipulation
Manipuri danceone of the major Indian classical dance forms, it originates from Manipur, a state in the North-East state of India on the border with Myanmar, also known as Burma
Maniscalso(Italian m.) smith
Manjira(Tibet, India) a pair of small hand cymbals
Mann (s.), Männer (pl.)(German m.) man
Mannaia(Italian f.) axe, cleaver
Mannequin(French m. from the Dutch manneken, 'little man') an artist's lay-figure, a woman employed to display garments in a dressmaker's showroom
Mannerway a thing is done or happens, maniera (Italian), Manier (German), manière (Italian)
Männerchor(German m.) male chorus, men's choir, men's chorus
Mannerism(from Italian maniera, 'manner' or 'style') idiosyncrasy (a behavioral attribute that is distinctive and peculiar to an individual), affectation (a deliberate pretense or exaggerated display), habitual behaviours (exaggerated or effected style in art, speech, or other behaviour)
a period of European art which emerged from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520. It lasted until about 1580 in Italy, when a more Baroque style began to replace it, but continued into the seventeenth century throughout much of Europe
in music, ars subtilior (literally 'more subtle art') a musical style characterized by rhythmic and notational complexity, centred around Paris, Avignon in southern France, and northern Spain at the end of the fourteenth century. The style also is found in the French Cypriot repertory. Often the term is used in contrast with ars nova, which applies to the musical style of the preceding period from about 1310 to about 1370; though some scholars prefer to consider the ars subtilior a subcategory of the earlier style. Primary sources for the ars subtilior are the Chantilly Codex and the Modena Codex
Manneristan artist of the Mannerist period (c.1520-1600) who flouted the traditional 'rules' of classical and Renaissance art
of or relating to Mannerism
Manner of articulationin linguistics, how the speech organs of lips, tongue, and vocal cords must be arranged in order to produce a particular sound such as a nasal, a stop, a fricative, or so on
Männergesangverein(German m.) a society for the cultivation of music for male voices
Männergeschlecht(German n.) mankind
Mannerism(Italian maniera literally 'manner' or 'style') a movement in Italian art from about 1520 to 1600 that developing out of the Renaissance. Mannerism rejected Renaissance balance and harmony in favour of emotional intensity and ambiguity. In Mannerist painting, this was expressed mainly through severe distortions of perspective and scale; complex and crowded compositions; strong, sometimes harsh or discordant colors; and elongated figures in exaggerated poses. In architecture, there was a playful exaggeration of Renaissance forms (largely in scale and proportion) and the greater use of bizarre decoration. Mannerism gave way to the Baroque
in music, aspects of Renaissance and Baroque mannerism appear as 'madrigalism' and 'text painting', where the music mirrors textual detail
Mannerism (musical ornamentation)in the Baroque period, various devices or 'mannerisms' belonged to the 'method' (of musical embellishment) usually applied freely to unadorned music. These included accento, passaggio, cercare della nota, tremolo, trillo, bombo, groppo, circolo mezzo, tirata mezza, figura corta and messanza. Usually, the composer gave only basic notes to which the performer provided the ornamentation. The musical figures listed above include some that were 'written out in full', that is, the composer supplied all the notes that he or she wished played or sung. If one compares German music of this period with that of the Italians, it is clear that German composers favoured 'written out' mannerisms/embellishments, while Italian composers, by providing simple musical lines, expected the performers to apply the mannerisms as they deemed appropriate and in good taste, thereby engaging in an act of creative collaboration. Although this trend was prevalent in the eighteenth century, some composers, for example, François Couperin and Johann Sebastian Bach, are well-known for wanting performers to stick strictly to what they had written including 'written out' ornaments
Männerstimme (s.), Männerstimmen (pl.)(German f.) male voice
Mannheim birdsa characteristic of the music of the Mannheim School, the imitation of birds chirping in solo passages
Mannheim crescendogreat crescendos and diminuendos that ranged from pianissimo to fortissimo
Mannheimer Schule (German f.) Mannheim school
Mannheim rocketrapid upward arpeggio over a large range, combined with a crescendo
Mannheim rollscale passages in measured tremolo, combined with a crescendo
Mannheimer Rakete(German f., literally 'Mannheim rocket') Mannheim crescendo
Mannheim rollera characteristic of music of the Manheim School, an extended crescendo passage typically having a rising melodic line over an ostinato bass line
Mannheim schoolin 1720, the court of the Elector Carl Philipp moved from Heidelberg to Mannheim, where the orchestra grew, larger than that of any of the surrounding states, and included some of the best performers of the day, including Jan Václav Stamic (Stamitz) (1717-1757) who is regarded as being the founder of the 'Mannheim school'. Stamitz arrived in 1741/42 and became the orchestra's director in 1750. The most notable of the revolutionary techniques associated with the Mannheim orchestra were its more independent treatment of the wind instruments and its famous whole-orchestra crescendo, a stark contrast to the dynamics of baroque music which allowed only for instantaneous changes from forte to piano and back
Mannheim sigha mannered treatment of Baroque practice of putting more weight on the first of two notes in descending pairs of slurred notes
Männliche Stimme(German) a manly voice
männlicher Reim(German m.) masculine rhyme
Mano (s.), Manos (pl.)(Spanish f.) hand, side, skill, quire (of paper), pestle (used with mortar)
Mano (s.), Mani (pl.)(Italian f.) hand, coat (layer of varnish, etc.)
mano aperta (con generosità)(Italian f.) open hand (with generosity)
Mano armonica(Italian f.) harmonic hand
Manocordea clavichord
Mano de obra especializada(Spanish f.) skilled labour
Mano de pintura(Spanish f.) coat of paint
Mano derecha(Spanish f.) right hand, main droite (French)
Mano destra(Italian f.) right hand, main droite (French)
Manodopera(Italian f.) labour
Mano dritta(Italian f.) right hand, main droite (French)
Mano izquierda(Spanish f.) left hand, main gauche (French)
Manometro(Italian m.) gauge
Manómetro(Spanish m.) (pressure) gauge
manomattere(Italian) to tamper with, to violate
ma non troppo(Italian) but not too much, for example allegro ma non troppo, quick but not too quick
Manopla(Spanish f.) mitten, gauntlet
Manopola(Italian f.) knob, mitten
Manos agarrotadas(Spanish f.) stiff hands
Manoscritto(Italian m.) manuscript
manoscritto(Italian) handwritten
manoseado (m.), manoseada (f.)(Spanish) worn(-out), hackneyed (figurative)
manosear(Spanish) to touch repeatedly, to finger, to paw (familiar)
Manoseo(Spanish m.) touching, pawing
Manoseo del cuero(Spanish m.) a drumming style using hands and fingers developed by early Cuban tympanists
Mano sinistra(Italian f.) left hand, main gauche (French)
Mano sinistra sopra(Italian f.) left hand above (the right hand)
Mano sinistra sotto(Italian f.) left hand below (the right hand)
Manos temblorosas(Spanish f. pl.) shaky hands
Manouche jazz(French) also called 'Gypsy jazz' or 'Gypsy Swing', an idiom sometimes said to have started by the Ferré brothers in the late 1920s. That said it became popular due to the work of guitarist Django Reinhardt in the 1930s
Manovale(Italian m.) labourer
Manovello(Italian m.) handle, crank (handle)
Manovra(Italian f.) manoeuvre, shunting (railway)
manovrare(Italian) to operate (action), to manoeuvre (figurative)
Manque(French m.) gap (lack of), lack, shortage
manqué (m.), manquée(French) unsuccessful, unsatisfactory, abortive, failed (attempt), missed (opportunity)
(a person) who might have achieved great success in a profession or vocation other than the one he (or she) has chosen
manque d'à propos(French) irrelevance
Manque de(French m.) absence of, lack of, shortage of
manque de chance(French) just his luck, just her luck
Manque de goût(French m.) absence of good taste
manquer(French) to to absent, to be missing
manquer à(French) to miss ...
manquer à sa parole(French) to break one's word
manquer de(French) to neglect, to fail to, to lack, to miss, to lack
manquer le coup(French) to fail completely, to botch it, to mark the occasion (familiar), to show a reaction (familiar)
manquer son coup(French) to fail (familiar)
Manrovescio(Italian m.) (back-handed) slap
Mansarda(Italian f., Spanish f.) attic, dormer window
Mansión(Spanish m.) mansion
Mansión señorial(Spanish m.) stately home
Mantel(Spanish m.) tablecloth
Manteleta(Spanish f.) shawl
Mantenedor (m.), Mantenadora (f.)(Spanish m./f.) member of a jury
mantener el oído alerta(Spanish) to keep one's ears open
mantenga los medicamentos fuera del alcance de los niños(Spanish) keep medicines out of the reach of children
Mantenimiento(Spanish m.) maintenance, upkeep, sustenance, support
Mantice (s.), Mantici (pl.)(Italian m.) bellows
Manticeria(Italian f.) that part of the organ that produces the wind, the wind-chest
Mantilla(Spanish f.) a head-scarf, or veil, usually of black lace
Mantlea loose, sleeveless cloak or cape
Mantling(in heraldry) or lambrequin, drapery tied to the helmet above a shield, that forms a backdrop for the shield
Mantougu(China) frame drum
Mantra, MantramBuddhist and Hindu sacred text used as a sacred prayer, magical incantation
Mantra musicsee kirtan
Mántricas(Spanish f.) Buddhist and Hindu invocations
Manuaal(Dutch) manual
Manuala book (usually one giving instructions or advice)
a book containing special services for occasional use, such as baptisms, marriages and visiting the sick
(English, German n. from the Latin manus,'hand') a keyboard played with the hands, for example, on a harpsichord or an organ which can have two or more manuals, as opposed to the keyboard played with the feet, which are called pedals (from the Latin pedis, 'foot') or pedal keyboard
in the 1800s it became common to place the pipes played from the upper keyboard in a closed box that had shutters that could be opened and closed by the player to "swell" the sound
manuals of a late 1800 English organmanuals of a late 1800 French organcomment
SwellRecittop manual (swell shutters)
GreatGrandemiddle manual in England, lowest manual in France
ChoirPositiflowest manual in England, middle manual in France
Manualcoppel(German n., archaic spelling) manual coupler
Manual couplera device used to connect the keys of the manuals. When it is engaged and the lower manual is played, the upper manual moves with it
Manual de instrucciones(Spanish m.) instruction manual, 'how-to' book
Manuale(Latin, Italian m.) manual (of an organ)
(Italian m.) handbook, manual
manuale(Italian) manual
Manualiter(from the Latin, manualis) organ composition for the manual alone, that is, without the pedals
Manualkoppel(German n.) see Koppel
Manualuntersatz(German m.) Sub-Bourdon
Manubrio(Italian) the handle or knob of the organ stops
Manubrium(Latin, German n.) the handle or knob of the organ stops
Manuductoran official of the early church who gave the signal for the choir to sing, and who beat time with the hand, so regulating the music
Manuel(French m.) manual
manufatto(Italian) hand-made, manufactured
Manus(Latin) hand
Manuscript(English, Dutch) a document bearing the notation of a composition, normally sheets of paper (or parchment) with the composer's handwritten notation of a composition. Medieval manuscripts (for example the hand-written medieval book, the Codex manuscriptus, often ornamented with decorative borders, illuminated initials and miniatures, and containing works of ancient philosophy or scholarly, ecclesiastical, and literary texts) were written on parchment (or, sheepskin), since papyrus from Egypt was scarce; consequently, they are highly durable. Prior to about A.D. 800, text manuscripts were written only by a small number of highly-skilled monks. In the reign of Charlemagne (AD 768-814) there was a concerted effort to increase literacy in Europe. At first the scriptoria (writing rooms) of monasteries transcribed the contents of famous manuscripts and made copies. Monastic communities in the Netherlands and northern Germany began producing manuscripts around 1383/84. Flanders, Burgundy, and in particular Paris became major centres for the mass production of breviaries (prayer books) and Books of Hours. New, cursive scripts were invented to make copying faster
Manuscript papersee 'staff paper'
Manuscrit(French m.) manuscript
manuscrit (m.), manuscrite (f.)(French) handwritten
Manuscrito(Spanish m.) manuscript
Manushyaman (as a being)
Manuskript(German n.) manuscript
Manutengolo(Italian m.) receiver of stolen goods, accomplice, resetter
Manutenzione(Italian f.) maintenance (of buildings, etc.), preservation, care, keeping
Manyangaa popular percussion instrument from Kenya
Manzana(Spanish f.) apple, block (building)
Manzana acaramelada(Spanish f.) toffee apple
Manzana almendrada(Spanish f.) almond-flavoured apple infusion (in the US this would be described as a 'tea' rather than an 'infusion')
Manzana de Adán(Spanish f. - Latin America) Adam's apple
Manzana de la discordia(Spanish f., literally 'apple of discord') bone of contention (figurative: a person, object or event that becomes the excuse for disagreement)
the origin of the reference 'apple of discord' has its roots in ancient Greek mythology and, in particular, the cause of the Trojan War which had as its roots the marriage between Peleus and Thetis, a sea-goddess. Peleus and Thetis had not invited Eris, the goddess of discord, to their marriage celebrations. Univited, the goddess stormed into the wedding banquet and threw a golden apple onto the table. The apple belonged to, Eris said, whomever was the fairest. Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite each reached for the apple. Zeus proclaimed that Paris, prince of Troy and thought to be the most beautiful man alive, would act as the judge. Hermes went to Paris, and Paris agreed to act as the judge. Hera promised him power, Athena promised him wealth, and Aphrodite promised the most beautiful woman in the world. Paris favoured Aphrodite, and she promised him that Helen, wife of Menelaus, would be his wife
Manzana podrida(Spanish f.) rotten apple (figurative)
Manzanilla(Spanish f.) a dry, light sherry
(Spanish f.) camomile tea, camomile (plant)
ManzumaEthiopian Islamic music that originated from the region of Wello in northeastern Ethiopia and is sung in Amharic. Manzuma has spread to Harar and Jimma, where it is now sung in the Oromo language
Mão(Portuguese) hand
Mão-esquerda(Portuguese) left hand
MapleAhorn (German m.), Érable (French m.), Esdoorn (Dutch), legno di acero (Italian m.) European Species: Acer campestris (Field maple), A. platanoides (Norwegian Maple), American Species: A. saccharum (Hard, rock, or sugar maple), A. saccharinum (Soft or silver Maple), A. nigrum (Black Maple): Average Weight: 45 pounds per cubic foot (Sugar Maple)) Field Maple is a small tree or bush with wood which splits and bends easily but is hard and durable. Norwegian Maple (which is also found in Germany and Russia) is a larger tree with softer wood. Maple seems to have been used mostly for bowls and other turned work, although Hinckley claims maple was used for furniture "since the Gothic period". Field Maple is apparently similar to Sugar Maple in working characteristics. Norwegian Maple may be similar to the "soft" American maples
Mappingthe process of identifying patches and keys, so that sound files can be played properly. A key map will translate values for MIDI messages, so that the correct keys will be played. A patch map functions to identify the correct patches (sounds, instruments)
Maqâm (s.) مَقَامٌ
Maqâmât (pl.) مقامات
in Arab music, melody is usually based on scales or modes known as maqâmât. Although as many as 120 modes have been identified, about a dozen are regularly used. Notes include micro-intervals which do not conform with traditional Western systems. Although there are various systems of notation, nowadays maqâmât are generally treated as scales consisting of 24 equal quarter-tones. Western notation has been adapted, using the "flat" symbol with a horizontal line through it to lower a note by a quarter-tone, and the "sharp" symbol with a single vertical line, to raise it. The names given to the various maqâm designate an important note in the scale (for example, Turkish Cargah, Arabic Chahargah, meaning fourth position), or a city (for example, 'Esfahan', sometimes spelled 'Isfahan'), a landscape (for example, Turkish Hicaz, Arabic Hijazi), a person (for example, Kurdi) or a poetic abstraction (for example, Suzidil)
Legend: C-do D-re E-mi F-fa G-sol A-la B-si : #-sharp z-half-sharp b-flat k-half-flat
Maqâm 3ajam (Major) ['3ajam' in Arabic denotes something foreign, particularly Persian]
Scale intervals: 1 1 ½ 1 1 1 ½
Key of CCDEFGABC 
Key of GGABCDEF#G 
Key of DDEF#GABC#D 
Key of AABC#DEF#G#A 
Key of EEF#G#ABC#D#A 
Key of BBC#D#EF#G#A#B 
Key of FFGABbCDEF 
Maqâm Nahawend (Minor) ['Nahawend' is in Persia]
Scale intervals: 1 ½ 1 1 ½ 1 1
Key of AABCDEFGA 
Key of EEF#GABCDE 
Key of BBC#DEF#GAB 
Key of DDEFGABbCD 
Key of GGABbCDEbFG 
Key of CCDEbFGAbBbC 
Key of FFGAbBbCDbEbF 
Maqâm Rasd : same as 3ajam but drop 3rd and 7th by ¼ ['Rasd' is the note C]
Scale intervals: 1 3/4 3/4 1 1 3/4 3/4
Key of CCDEkFGABkCpopular
Key of GGABkCDEFzGpopular
Key of DDEFzGABCzD 
Key of AABCzDEF#GzA 
Key of EEF#GzABC#DzA 
Key of BBC#DzEF#G#AzB 
Key of FFGAkBbCDEkFpopular
Maqâm Byati: same as Nahawend but drop 2nd by ¼
Scale intervals: 3/4 3/4 1 1 ½ 1 1 (*optional: raise 6th by ¼ on way up)
Key of AABkCDEF*GApopular
Key of EEFzGABC*DE 
Key of BBCzDEF#G*AB 
Key of DDEkFGABb*CDpopular
Key of GGAkBbCDEb*FGpopular
Key of CCDkEbFGAb*BbC 
Key of FFGkAbBbCDb*EbF 
Maqâm Kurd : Same scale intervals as Nahawend, but starts from 5th
Scale intervals: ½ 1 1 1 ½ 1 1
Key of EEFGABCDEpopular
Key of BBCDEFcGAB 
Key of FFGbAbBbCDbEbF 
Key of AABbCDEFGApopular
Key of DDEbFGABbCDpopular
Key of GGAbBbCDEbFGpopular
Key of CCDbEbFGAbBbC 
Maqâm Hijaz
Scale intervals: ½ 1.5 ½ 1 ½ 1 1 (*optional: raise 6th by ¼ tone)
Key of EEFG#ABCDE 
Key of BBCD#EF#GAB 
Key of FFGbABbCDbEbF 
Key of AABbC#DEFGApopular
Key of DDEbF#GABbCDpopular
Key of GGAbBCDEbFGpopular
Key of CCDbEFGAbBbC 
Maqâm Sika
Scale intervals: 3/4 1 ½ 1.5 ½ 1 3/4 (* Optional: may drop 5th by ½ tone)
Key of CCzDEFG#ABCz 
Key of GGzABCD#EF#Gz 
Key of DDkEbFGbABbCDk 
Key of FFzGABbC#DEFz 
Key of BBkCDEbF#GABkpopular
Key of EEkFGAbBCDEkpopular
Key of AAkBbCDbEFGAk 
Maqamapicaresque Arabic stories in rhymed prose
MaqrunahTunisian and Libyan double reed pipe
Maquereau(French m., literally 'mackerel') a pimp, a procurer
Maquette (s.), Maquettes (pl.)often found as 'unfinished' drawings in some manuscripts, maquettes are dummies used to show how an illumination or other artwork was to be placed, showing an outline of the figures and the frames needed. They may be monochrome, or partially coloured
(French f.) a small model (of a piece of sculpture), a rough sketch (of a painting)
(French f.) a life-size, non-working model (of a piece of machinery, etc.), a mock-up
Maquillage(French f.) make-up, cosmetics, the art of make-up
maquillé (m.), maquillée (f.)(French) wearing cosmetics, (heavily) made up
Máquina de coser(Spanish f.) sewing machine
Máquina de escribir(Spanish f.) typewriter
Máquina del trueno(Spanish f.) thunder machine
Máquina de tejer(Spanish f.) knitting machine
Máquina de viento(Spanish f.) wind machine
Maquinaria(Spanish f.) machinery, machines, works
the term is used also for those responsible for the building of sets for theatrical productions, also called scenemen
Maquis(French) scrub-land, heath covered with undergrowth (in Corsica)
Maquisard (m.), Maquisarde (f.)(French) a member of the Maquis, a guerrilla fighter in France during the Second World War
marabbreviation of 'marimba'
MarabiSouth African 'three-chord' township music of the 1930s-1960s, which evolved into 'African jazz'
Marabout(French, from the Arabic) a Moslem hermit or monk
(French) or 'marabou' (English), a tuft or plume of downy feather, used to decorate a woman's dress or head-dress
Maracas(Italian f. pl., English, French m. pl., German f. pl.) maracas are a pair of dried gourds each attached to a wooden handle. The seeds inside the gourd make a "ch-ch-ch" sound when the maracas are shaken. Maracas are usually played in pairs and are used in folk and popular music from Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, and other Latin American countries. Today maracas are also made from materials such as wood, metal, or plastic. They may be filled with beads, beans, or pebbles. Each kind of material creates a slightly different sound
Venezuelan maracas are unlike the kind often used in the U.S., which derive from Cuba and Puerto Rico, being smaller, with a softer sound. While a typical rhythmic triplet for Caribbean maracas places the accent at the end (1/2/3), the counterpart for Venezuelan maracas inverts the accent (1/2/3)
Maracatua term applied to two distinct performance genres found in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil, maracatu nação (also known as maracatu de baque virado) and maracatu rural (also known as maracatu de baque solto, maracatu de orquestra, and maracatu de trombone). The music is played on large alfaia drums, large metal gonguê bells, snare drums and shakers
mar adentro(Spanish) out at sea
Marakas(German f. pl.) maracas
Marame(Italian m.) refuse (rubbish), rubbish
Marangone(Italian m.) a cormorant, a joiner, a carpenter
Maravaneor maravanne, from the Western Indian Ocean islands, a wooden rattle onto which tin sheets are nailed
Maraviglia(Italian f.) a wonder, a marvel, astonishment, surprise
maravigliare(Italian) to astonish, to surprise, to amaze
maravigliarsi(Italian) to wonder, to be surprised, to be amazed, to be astonished
maraviglioso(Italian) wonderful, marvellous, amazing
Marblinga mottling or streaking that resembles marble
the process or operation that gives an object the surface appearance of marble
the decorative imitation of marble patterns produced on page edges and endpapers of books, a technique known in Japan from as early as the 9th century AD and in Europe from the 17th century
flecks or thin strips of fat, especially when evenly distributed in a cut of meat
Marc(French) the refuse that remains after the pressing of grapes, used to produce inferior wine and brandy
marc.abbreviated form of marcato
marcadamente(Spanish) markedly
Marca del metrónomo(Spanish f.) metronome mark
Marca de pedal(Spanish f.) pedal mark (which include 'engage (sustain) pedal', 'release (sustain) pedal' and 'variable pedal mark', the last used to more accurately indicate the precise use of the sustain pedal)
Marca depositata(Italian f.) registered trademark, eingetragenes Warenzeichen (German n.), marque déposée (French f.)
Marca di fabbrica(Italian f.) trade-mark
marcado(Spanish) accented, marcato
Marcajein flamenco, to mark time, also known as marqueo, used to interpret and embellish the sung verses and, when it includes moving around the stage, is accompanied by a majestic strutting that incorporates the arms
marcando(Italian) marking, stressing, markierend (German), en marquant (French)
(Spanish) in flamenco, the movements of the dancer during the letra
(Spanish) in flamenco, to mark time with the feet
Marcantonia(Italian f.) a plump woman
marcar (el compás)(Spanish) to beat the time, battre (le temps) (French)
marcare(Italian) to mark
marcar en dos tiempos(Spanish) to beat in 2, battre à deux temps (French)
Marcas(Spanish f. pl.) marking, marks
marcata(Italian) marked, accented
marcata la melodia(Italian) the melody is to be marked
marcatissimo(Italian) very strongly marked, strongly accentuated
marcato(Italian) marked, accented, stressed, markiert (German), marqué (French)
applied to a melody, indicates that it should be given prominence
marcato il pollice(Italian) mark, or accent strongly, the note(s) played by the thumb
Marcato marking
marcato mark an V lying on its side, wider part to the left, over the notehead
Marcatura(Italian f.) marking
Marcella desino(Italian) vibraslap, a percussion instrument designed to imitate the sound of a donkey jawbone or quijada
marcescibile(Italian) perishable, corruptible
Marchmarcia (Italian), Marsch (German), marche (French)
instrumental music with a repeated and regular rhythm such as might appropriately accompany a marching group
Marcha(Spanish f.) march
(Spanish f.) the name given to the conga part
(Spanish f.) a carnival samba (march) rhythm
(Spanish f.) departure, course, progress, speed, gear (in a car), operation, running, go, good humour
Marcha fúnebre(Spanish f.) funeral march
Marcha militar(Spanish f.) military march, fanfare (French)
Marchamo(Spanish m.) mark, seal
Marcha nupcial(Spanish f.) wedding march, marche nuptiale (French)
Marche(French f.) march
(French f.) a succession or progression of chords
Marche des voix(French f.) part writing, voice leading
Marche d'harmonie(French f.) harmonic progression, harmonic sequence
Märchen(German n.) tale, tales especially fairy-tales
the term is used occasionally for German opera based on fairy-stories
Marche funèbre(French f.) funeral march
Marche harmonique(French f.) a sequence (of chords)
Märchen(German n.) a folk-tale, a fairy-story
Märchenerzähler(German m.) a storyteller
märchenhaft(German) fairy-tale, fabulous (fantastic)
Märchenoper(German f.) fairy-tale opera
Marche nuptiale(French f.) wedding march, marcha nupcial (Spanish)
marcher á tâtons(French) to grope one's way along
Marche redoublée(French f.) a double-quick march
Marcher lorda lord who had royal prerogative in, and jurisdiction over, lands in the Welsh and Scottish Marches
Marchesa(Italian f.) a marchioness, a marquise
Marchese(Italian m.) a marquess, a marquis
Marchetesee cavaquinho
Marche triomphale(French f.) a triumphal march
marchiando(Italian) huge, enormous, gross
Marching band(English, Marchingband (German f.), harmonie (French), harmonie-fanfare (French)) a group of instrumental musicians who generally perform outdoors, and who incorporate movement - usually some type of marching - with their musical performance
Marching machine a rare, often home-made, percussion instrument that simulates the sound of soldiers marching, used by Morton Gould (1913-1996) and Fisher Tull (1934-1994)
Marching percussioninstruments specially designed to be played while moving
Marching tubassome tubas are capable of being converted into a marching style, known as "marching tubas". A leadpipe can be manually screwed on next to the valves. The tuba is then usually rested on the left shoulder (although some tubas allow use of the right shoulder), with the bell facing directly in front of the player. Some marching tubas are made only for marching, and cannot be converted into a concert model. Most marching bands opt for the sousaphone, an instrument which is easier to carry and almost always cheaper than a true marching tuba. Drum and bugle corps players, however, generally use marching tubas, which in this context are referred to as contras
Marchio(Italian m.) a mark, a stamp, a brand
Marchio di fabbrica(Italian m.) a trade mark
marchionale(Italian) pertaining to a marquis
Marcia (s.), Marce (pl.)(Italian f.) a march
Marcia funebre(Italian f.) a funeral march
Marcialesee Marziale
Marciana (biblioteca)(Italian f.) St. Mark's Library (Venice)
Marciapiede(Italian m.) pavement, platform (station), side-walk
marciare(Italian) to march
marciare con(Italian) to march with
Marciata(Italian f.) a march, marching
marcido(Italian) rotting, withered, tainted, drunk (familiar)
marcio(Italian) rotten, tainted, putrid, spoiled, decayed, crumbling
Marcita(Italian f.) a flooded meadow
Marco(Spanish m.) frame (of a door, window, picture)
(Spanish m.) framework (i.e. contextual association)
Mardi Gras(French, literally 'Fat Tuesday') the day before Ash Wednesday, and is also called "Shrove Tuesday" or "Pancake Day", the last day of Carnival before Lent
  • Mardi Gras from which some of this extract has been taken
Mare(Italian m.) the sea, the ocean
Marea(Italian f.) the tide, ebb and flow
mareggiare(Italian) to float, to rise and fall in waves, to undulate, to surge (tide), to swell (tide)
Mare nostrum(Latin, 'our sea') the Roman name for the Mediterranean
marezzare(Italian) to water (silk), to marble (paper)
Marezzatura(Italian f.) watering (of silk), a watered effect, marbling
(Italian f.) Flamme (German f.), onde (French f.), flame, the figure found in the maple on the backs of violins
marginale(Italian) marginal
Marginalia(Latin pl.) marginal notes, drawings, illuminations, particularly manuscript notes in a printed book or ancient manuscript
marginare(Italian) to leave a margin in printing
marginato(Italian) or marginoso (Italian), with a wide margin
Marginatura(Italian f.) arrangement of the margin (in typography), edging
Margherita(Italian f.) pearl, daisy, Margaret (English), Marguerite (French)
Margomkalia ritual folk art of the Syrian Christians of the Kottayam and Thrissur districts of Kerala, India
Mari(French m.) a husband
Maria(Italian f.) Mary
Mariachi(English, German m.) traditional Mexican ensemble popular throughout the country, consisting of at least two violins, two trumpets, one Spanish guitar, one vihuela (a high-pitched, five-string guitar) and one guitarrón (a small-scaled acoustic bass), but sometimes featuring more than twenty musicians
Mariage(French m.) a marriage, a wedding
Mariage blanc(French m.) an unconsummated marriage
Mariage de convenance(French m.) a marriage of convenience, an arranged marriage, a marriage contracted with a view to material benefits
Mariage d'inclination(French m.) a marriage for love or affection
Marian antiphonan antiphon for the Virgin Mary
Mariannea national emblem of the French Republic
Mariboua fur-like trim made from feather remnants, a smaller version of the boa, popular in dress trimming for eveningwear
Mari complaisant(French m.) a complaisant husband, a husband who condones his wife's infidelities
Marié, Mariée (f.)(French) (bride)groom (m.), bride (f.)
les mariés (French: the bride and groom)
marié, mariée (f.)(French) married
Marienantiphon(German n.) antiphon of the Blessed Virgin
Marienkapelle(German f.) Lady chapel
Marientrompete(German f.) tromba marina
marier(French) to marry
Marijuana(Spanish, derived from Mexican Spanish) a preparation of parts of the hemp plant smoked as an intoxicant
Marimbabbreviation of Marimbaphon (German: marimba)
Marimba (Italian f., English, French m., German f.) a xylophone-like percussion instrument fitted with resonators and played with drum sticks. Its name is derived from Bantú languages in which rimba suggests a 'flattish object sticking out' such as a note or key, and ma is a cumulative prefix; thus, marimba means 'many keys'. The marimba is the national instrument in Guatemala where it is used in religious ceremonies, as well as in social or community events. The marimba has traditionally been played, although to a lesser extent, in Brazil, Nicaragua, Ecuador, Cuba and Peru. The keys of the modern marimba are usually constructed of rosewood, and the resonators, one lying under each bar, are of brass or aluminum. The resonators (pipes), which are tuned to the fundamental note of the bar above and strengthen the fundamental and odd-numbered over tones, are graduated in length (as are the keys) and closed at one end (the end facing the floor). The marimba has a two-level keyboard, similar to a piano's division of black and white keys, allowing the full chromatic range to be represented. The most common orchestral marimba is a four octave instrument, and the solo marimba has a range between four-and-a-third and five octaves. Larger instruments (up to six-and-a-half octaves in range) are found in the villages of Guatemala and México, where they may be played by two or three persons simultaneously, each using two to four mallets. The modern orchestral marimba is mounted on a standing frame and played from a standing position
a thumb piano or mbira
Marimbafono(Italian m.) marimba
Marimba, Mexicansee maderas que cantan, las
Marimbaphon(German n.) marimba
Marimbaphone(English) marimba
Marimberos (Spanuish m. pl.) marimba players
Marimbolsee marímbula
Marímbula(Cuba) other Caribbean countries have adopted this name or some variant of it - marimba, malimba, manimba, marimbol, a large resonant wooden box with a (kalimba-like) thumb piano constructed over an opening in the box. It is of Congolese Bantú origin and was the original bass instrument in the changui groups. The player sits on the box and plucks at the metal keys and strikes rythmic figures on the box itself
in Africa, it is also known as the mbira, marimba, likembe, nadimba, uboh, sansa or congoma
see 'thumb piano'
Marin(French m.) sailor
marin (m.), marine (f.)(French) sea
Marinadea spiced pickling liquid used to flavour and/or tenderise meats and fish prior to cooking
marinare la scula(Italian) to play truant
Marine(French f.) the navy
Marine marchande(French f.) merchant navy
mariner(French) to marinate
MarineraPeruvian handkerchief dance, performed by couples that in some ways resembles the Chilean cueca, and indeed it is descended from the earlier zamacueca, the Chilean version of which was widely popular in nineteenth-century Peru, prior to the War of the Pacific. With Chile having taken Peruvian territory, however, the zamacueca changed its name to marinera, in honor of the sailors who had fought in the war, and distanced itself from the original. It is played with two guitars and cajón, accompanied by hand clapping
Marinera peruanaflirting dance from Peru
Marine trumpetsee tromba marina
Maringathe name given to 'palm-wine music' in Sierra Leone
Marionettemisspelling of marionnette
Marionnette(French f.) a puppet (manipulated by strings)
Marionette Opera-Theatresee 'puppet opera'
maritalement(French) as husband and wife
maritime(French) maritime, coastal, shipping (agent, etc.)
Marivaudage(French) refinement of style and subtle analysis of sentiment, practised in an excessive degree (named for the author and playwright Pierre Carlet de Chamblain de Marivaux (1688-1763), the term signifying the flirtatious bantering tone characteristic of Marivaux's dialogues
the style called marivaudage derives mainly from Fontenelle and the Précieuses, though there are traces of it even in Jean de La Bruyère. It abuses metaphor somewhat, and delights to turn off a metaphor in an unexpected and bizarre fashion. Sometimes a familiar phrase is used where dignified language would be expected; sometimes the reverse. Crébilllon also described Marivaux's style as an introduction to each other of words which have never made acquaintance, and which think that they will not get on together (this phrase is itself rather Marivaux-esque). This kind of writing, of course, recurs at several periods of literature, especially at the end of the nineteenth century. This fantastic embroidery of language has a certain charm, and suits the somewhat unreal gallantry and sensibility which it describes and exhibits
Markedclearly noticeable, marcato (Italian), markiert (German), marqué (French)
Marked worda word that has some limitation or boundary in its meaning (for example, mare, doe, buck, etc.) when contrasted with an unmarked word without such a limitation or boundary (for example, horse, deer, etc.)
Marketingabteilung(German f.) marketing department
Markeursee maké
Markidim(Hebrew) dance leaders
markieren(German) to mark, to accent, to emphasise
markierend(German) marking, accenting, emphasising, marcando (Italian), en marquant (French)
markiert(German) marked, accented, emphasized, marcato (Italian), marqué (French)
markig(German) vigorous
Markinga term used in singing for rehearsing without using full voice so as to avoid tiring the voice before a subsequent performance
markiren(German) archaic form of markieren
markirt(German) marked, accented
Mark treealso known as a chime tree or set of bar chimes, the Mark tree is a percussion instrument used primarily for musical colour. It consists of many small chimes - typically cylinders of solid metal approximately 6 mm (one-quarter inch) in diameter - of varying lengths mounted hanging from a bar. The chimes are played by sweeping a finger or stick through the length of the hanging chimes. They are mounted in pitch order to produce rising or falling glissandos. It should not be confused with either the 'wind chime' or the 'bell tree'. Unlike tubular bells, another form of chime, the chimes on a mark tree do not produce a definite pitch, as they produce inharmonic (rather than harmonic) spectra
  • Mark tree from which this extract has been taken
Marlinany of several large, slender deep-sea fishes related to the sailfish and spearfish
Marmaille(French f.) brats (familiar term for children)
Marmelade(French f.) stewed fruit (in England, a marmelade is a jam made with a citrus fruit)
Marmi finti(Italian, literally 'false marble') an imitation of marble. Usually a decorative feature (on simulated architectural features) it was sometimes used in paintings, particularly by the artist Andrea Mantegna (1430/31-1506)
Marmite(French f.) cooking-pot, stockpot
marmonner(French) to mumble
Marmot(French m.) kid (familiar)
marmotter(French) to mumble
Maroc(French m.) Morocco
Marocain(French m.) a crinkly fabric woven from specially twisted yarn (the material can be of cotton, silk or wool)
Marocain (m.), Marocaine (f.)(French) Moroccan (person)
marocain (m.), marocaine (f.)(French) Moroccan
Maroki (m.), Marokiya (f.), Maroka (pl.)(Hausa) musician
see roko
Maronite Sacred music
Maroquinerie(French f.) a shop selling leather goods
Marot, Clément
(1496-1544)
a French poet of the Renaissance period. Many of Marot's texts were set as chanson, particularly by his contemporary Claudin de Sermisy. In about 1539, his famous translations of the Psalms appeared. The powerful influence which the book exercised on contemporaries is universally acknowledged. The great persons of the court chose different pieces, each as his or her favourite. They were sung in the court and in the city, and they are said, probably with exaggeration, to have done more than anything else to advance the cause of the Reformation in France
Marotte(French f.) a fad, a craze
Marovanasee marovany
Marovanyalso valiha vata or marovana, a deep-sounding twelve-string box-shaped zither, a cousin of the valiha, from southern Madagascar with strings on both sides
marquant (m.), marquante (f.)(French) outstanding (remarkable), significant
Marque(French f.) mark, brand, make
(French f.) reprisal (particular one authorised by one state on the subjects of another state)
marqué(French) marked, accented, emphasised, marcato (Italian), markiert (German)
Marque de fabrique(French f.) trade mark
Marque déposée(French f.) registered trademark, marca depositata (Italian f.) eingetragenes Warenzeichen (German n.)
Marqueosee marcaje
marquer(French) to mark (in order to distinguish things, sheep, beats, etc.), to show, to note down, to score, to brand (an animal), to leave a mark, to stand out
(French) to mark equally all the beats in the bar
marquer le rythme(French) to beat time
marquer un temps d'arrêt(French) to pause
Marqueterie(French f.) marquetry
marquez un peu la mélodie(French) the melody to be slight marked or accented
Marquis (m.), Marquise (f.)(French) marquis (m.), marchioness (f.)
Marquise(French f.) a glass awning projecting from the façade of a building, usually over a flight of steps
a style of cutting gemstones into a leaf shape formed by the intersection of two arcs, a cluster of small jewels having the same outline
Marquisette(French f.) a diaphonous open-mesh fabric resembling gauze
Marrabentaa popular roots-based urban rhythm from Mozambique
MarranzanuSicilian Jew's harp, also known as mariolu, ngannalarruni, and nghinghilarruni. The marranzanu is believed to have a North African origin
Marron glacé(French m.) a sweetmeat made of crystallized chestnuts
Marriagethe ceremony of union of man and wife was a sacrament of the church
Mars(Dutch) march
Marsch (s.), Märsche (pl.)(German m.) march
Marschgesang(German m.) cadence call (military)
marschieren(German) to march
Marschkapelle(German f.) marching band
marschmässig(German) in a march-like style
Marseillaise, Laa French popular revolutionary song of which Claude Joseph Rouget de Lisle, an army officer, composed the words and music at Strasbourg on April 25, 1792. It was originally entitled Chant de guerre de l'Armée du Rhin ("Marching Song of the Rhine Army) and became the rallying call of the French Revolution and was called La Marseillaise because it was first sung on the Paris streets by troops (fédérés) from Marseille. It is now the National Anthem of France
Marsyasa rustic Phrygian mountain Daimon (Spirit) or Satyros who was skilled in the playing of the flute. In his hubris, dared to challenge the god Apollon to a musical contest. He inevitably lost and was flayed alive by the god for the presumption. The rustic gods transformed the unfortunate Satyros into a stream. Marsyas was sometimes identified with the Arkadian god Pan, to whom the story of the musical contest with Apollon is sometimes transferred
  • Marsyas from which this extract has been taken
Marteau(French m.) hammer (in music, for example, as on a piano or to play certain percussion instruments), martillo (Spanish)
martelé(French) hammered, beaten, very strongly marked as if hammered
Martelé marking
martellato mark an inverted V over the notehead
martellando(Italian) hammering, strongly marking
martellare(Italian) to hammer, to mark strongly
martellato(Italian, literally 'hammered', French m. - from the Italian) strongly marked
hammered, in string music signifying that the bow should be brought down strongly onto the strings
hammered, in piano music signifying that the player should strike the key firmly with a heavy unyielding stroke
Martellato marking
martellato mark an inverted V over the notehead
martellement(French, literally 'hammering') in the seventeenth century, a 'mordent'
or Schwebungen, a term described by Ch. Delusse (c.1760), who uses the term martellement, and Johann Justus Heinrich Ribock (1782) who uses the term Schwebungen, for a finger vibrato on the flute. Delusse writes: "Martellement is understood as a continuous finger movement on the hole, which produces almost the same effect as the vibrato which is customary on the violin"
Martelletto(Italian m.) hammer
Martello(Italian m.) hammer
Martial(Engish, French) in a march-like manner, marziale (Italian), kriegerisch (German), guerrier (French), martial (French)
Martial art dancesfound throughout the Caribbean, for example man' in Cuba (said to be of Congolese origin), mayolè, sovéyan and bènaden (three different forms of stylized wrestling) in Guadeloupe, danmyé (also known as ladja) in Martinique, kokomakaku in Curaçao, broma in Venezuela, while in Brazil there is both a stick-fighting dance, maculelê, and a combat dance without sticks, capoeira
Martillo(Spanish m.) hammer, marteau (French)
the name of the rhythm played on the bongos, primarily a timekeeping pattern but including improvised variations called repiques
Martinetein flamenco, a toná originally sung by gypsies who worked in a forge. As a traditional song of blacksmiths, the martinete is often accompanied by the sound of a hammer (or martillo) striking the anvil
Martinique beguinepopular ballroom dance of the island of St. Lucia and Martinique, characterized by the rocking back and forth of the hips while the woman throws her arms around her partner's neck. His arms loosely clasp her about the waist
Martinshorns(German n. pl.) see Schalmei
Martnerafter Knut Martner, the cataloguer of music by Gustav Mahler (1860-1911)
Martraza(Spanish) a Spanish dance
Martyrmember of the Christian church who suffered death for their faith; martyrs ranked before all other saints
Martyrologybook containing the lives and deaths of the Christian martyrs, to be read during mass on their feast days
Marugaa metal rattle or shaker, often used in groups which perform Cuban rumba
Mary Ambreean English heroine whose valour in the seige of Ghent (1584) is recorded in the eponymous ballad in Percy's Reliques. Her name was proverbial for a virago or woman of heroic spirit
Mary Janepopular in the 1920s, flat or low heeled ladies shoe with a buttoned ankle strap fastening
Marzas(Spanish f. pl.) martial songs
marziale(Italian) martial, in march style
más abajo(Spanish) below, further down (for example, in a book, véase más abajo (Spanish: see below)
más adelante(Spanish) further on, later (time), later on (time)
Masa de sonido(Spanish f.) or masa sonora, sound mass
Masaje(Spanish m.) massage
Masajista(Spanish m./f.) masseur (m.), masseuse (f.)
más allá(Spanish) further away, further on
el más allá (Spanish m.: the afterlife, the beyond, the hereafter)
más allá de(Spanish) beyond, over and above
¡más alto, por favor!(Spanish) louder, please!
más arriba(Spanish) higher up, further up, above (for example, in a book, véase más arriba (Spanish: see above)
Masa sonorasee masa de sonido
más aun(Spanish) even more
más bien(Spanish) rather
Máscara(Spanish f.) mask
(Spanish f.) a brown or black cosmetic for the eyelashes, applied with a small brush
(Spanish m./f.) a masked person
Mascarada(Spanish f.) a masque, a 'masked' ball, masquarade
Mascarade(French f.) a masque, a 'masked' ball, masquarade
Máscaras(Spanish f. pl.) masquerade
Mascarilla(Spanish f.) a mask, a face pack (cosmetics)
Mascarón(Spanish m.) a large mask
Mascarón de proa(Spanish m.) the figurehead (on the prow of a ship)
Mascella (d'asino)(Italian f.) jawbone (of an ass), vibraslap
Maschera(Italian m./f.) usher (m.), usherette (f.) (cinema, theatre)
(Italian f.) mask, fancy dress (costume), stock character (in commedia dell'arte)
Mascheramento(Italian m.) masking, camouflage (military)
Mascherata(Italian f., literally 'masquerade') a sixteenth-century entertainment with costumed, occasionally masked, participants, usually members of the nobility which commonly includes references to Greek and Roman mythology
a type of villanella associated with Italian street carnivals
mascherare(Italian) to mask, to hide, to camouflage
mascherarsi(Italian) to put on a mask
mascherarsi da(Italian) to dress up as
Mascherata(Italian f.) masquerade
Mascherone(Italian) a painted or carved mask, a grotesque human face, a gargoyle
Maschile(Italian m.) mascule (gender)
maschile(Italian) masculine, male (sex)
maschilista(Italian) sexist
Maschinenpauke (s.), Maschinenpauken (pl.)(German f.) mechanically-tuned kettledrum
Maschinenstil(German m.) an industrial design particularly suitable for manufacture by mass-production techniques
Maschinenzeichnung(German f.) an engineering drawing
Maschio(Italian m.) male, son
maschio(Italian) male; manly (virile)
maschista(Italian m.) macho
mascolino(Italian) masculine
Mascota(Spanish f.) mascot
Mascotte(Italian f.) mascot
más crítica(Spanish) more serious, more critical
Masculine ending, Masculine rhymerhymes that end with a heavy stress on the last syllable in each rhyming word
Masculine ordinalindicador ordinal masculino (Spanish m.: º)
mascullar(Spanish) to mumble
Masenkoor masenqo, an Ethiopian one-string spike fiddle, the typical instrument used by an azmari or entertaining bard. The string is made of braided horsehair and the diamond-shaped box resonator is covered with parchment
Masenqosee masenko
Mashal (s.), Meshalim (pl.)in the Hebrew tradition, a mashal is a broad, general term including almost any type of figurative language from short riddles to long, extended allegories
Mashed Potatoa popular dance craze of the early 1960s
Masilla(Spanish f.) putty
Masinkosee masenko
Masïnqosee masenko
masivo (m.), masiva (f.)(Spanish) massive
Maskin the theatre, to block another actor
in the theatre, to cover the face or disguise a voice
the wearing of masks is an important feature of many theatrical traditions, for example, Japanese kabuki
see masque
an artefact normally worn on the face, typically for protection, concealment, performance, or amusement
opaque material used to protect open or selected areas of a printing plate during exposure to light
to disguise, to hide, to cover, to conceal
in cooking, to coat with sauce
to dissemble, to hide under a false appearance
Maskandaa Zulu music that arose in the early 20th century among Zulu men forced to become migrant workers. Originally played solo on a home-made, less resonant but more percussive variant of the acoustic guitar, called an igogogo, the more popular contemporary maskanda frequently features kit drums, synthesisers and digital beats, and can be mixed with mbaqanga (township jive) and international pop flavours. In South Africa, its distinctively stomping, macho style has today become intrinsically bound up with concepts of Zulu nationalism
Maskesee masque
(German f.) mask
Maskingin the theatre, the use of drapery or flats to frame the stage, and stop the audience from seeing the backstage areas
Masochismo(Italian m.) masochism
Masochista(Italian m./f.) masochist
masochista(Italian) masochist
Masonic musicmusic used in connection with the functions of the freemasons
masónico (m.), masónica (f.)(Spanish) masonic
Masoretic(from Hebrew Masorah, 'handed over') the Masoretic texts are partly Hebrew and partly Aramaic versions of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) with accompanying explanatory notes or marginalia
Masque(French m.) mask
Masque(English, Gewrman f.) also 'mask' or 'maske', an aristocratic 16th- and seventeenth-century English theatre form integrating poetry, dance, music, and elaborate sets, derived from the French ballet de cour and the intermedi from Italy, which would be superceded, after the Civil War, by the more developed opera
Masquerthe main 'performer' in a masque, usually an aristocratic amateur
Masqueraders (Montserrat, Caribbean) the Montserratian tradition of masquerading is both a ritual and celebratory element of folk music. Groups of dancers (masqueraders) with bright costumes and voluminous adornments, including whips (hunters) that are used for the masqueraders to move crowds away as they parade the streets, scare away evil spirits and send signals to other dancers. Masqueraders travel door to door and receive small gifts, while dancing a standard set of dances consisting of a heel-and-toe polka and five quadrilles. This celebration begins in mid-December and ends January 1
Masrakithaan ancient Biblical instrument consisting of pipes of various sizes, fitted into a wooden chest, into which the player blows air, the notes being produced by the raising of fingers placed over the top of each pipe
Mass(from the Latin, missa) the liturgy of the Eucharist, the central service of the Roman Catholic Church. In the Middle Ages, the Mass was chanted and this has proved to be one of the chief sources of music from that period that has survive to the present. Many composers throughout European history have set the Mass to music from the early middle ages through to the present time. There are two major categories of the items of the Mass, the Proper, or the texts that are variable, and the Ordinary, or the texts that are fixed. The two major categories of the items of the Mass are set out in the table below.
typical Ordinary Masstypical Proper Mass
 Introit
Kyrie eleisonKyrie eleison
Gloria in excelsis DeoGloria in excelsis Deo
 Gradual
 Alleluia Sequence
CredoCredo
 Offertory
Sanctus BenedictusSanctus Benedictus
Agnus DeiAgnus Dei
 Communion
Ita missa estIta missa est
Maß(German n.) measure, time
Massa(Italian f.) mass, earth (electricity)
Massage(French) the pressing, kneading or rubbing of the human body for therapeutic purposes
Mass culturethe growth of modern industry from the late eighteenth century onward led to massive urbanization in many Western countries and the rise of new great cities in Europe, America, Australia and other regions as economic opportunities brought huge numbers of migrants from rural communities and the developing world to rich cities. This urbanization, combined with increased literacy, improvements in education and public health, and new technology, provided the socio-economic bases of modern popular culture. Music was drastically reshaped by new technology and techniques: the mass-production of musical instruments such as the guitar, the banjo, the ukelele, the harmonica and the pianoforte (soon followed by the player piano and reproducing piano); the invention of the saxophone; the evolution of the symphony orchestra; the standardisation of concert pitch; and the advent of cheap printed sheet music, and the invention of the phonograph (c.1878)
Masses, Thepublished in New York from 1911-1917, The Masses was a graphic, politically motivated magazine featuring articles and artwork by radicals such as John Reed and Rockwell Kent. The Masses was shut down by the government in 1917, but was succeeded by The Liberator and New Masses
Masseur (m.), Masseuse (f.)(French) a person who practises massage
Massif(French m.) a representative but pre-eminent figure, object ,etc.
mäßig(German) moderate, moderately
mäßig bewegt(German) walking pace, andante
mäßigen(German) to moderate
mäßigend(German) moderating, temperando (Italian), en modérant (French)
mäßiger(German) more moderate
mäßig geschwind(German) moderately fast
mäßig langsam(German) moderately slow
mäßig schnell(German) moderately quick
Massima(Italian f.) the longest note in measurable notation, the maxima
massimo(Italian) augmented, as regards intervals
massimo (m.), massima (f.)(Italian) the greatest
Mässingsinstrument(Swedish) brass (e.g. orchestral section)
Massinkosee masenko
Maßstab(German m.) scale
maßstäblich(German) scale
maßstäbliche Modell(German n.) scale model
más suave(Spanish) più piano
Mass vestmentsceremonial clothing worn by a priest for the celebration of the mass
Mastaba(Arabic, literally 'bench') an ancient Egyptian tomb, rectangular in plan with a flat top and sloping sides
Master(English, German m.) skilled tradesman able to teach others (for example, master carpenter), a skilled practitioner, a great artist, maestro (Italian), Meister (German), maître (French)
Master classa master class is a class given to students of a particular discipline by an expert of that discipline - most usually music, but also painting, drama, or any of the arts
Master Drummers of Burundia group of traditional Burundi musicians and dancers, who perform complex percussive music using sacred drums, the karyenda. Their performances are a part of ceremonies such as the coronation of a new mwami (king)
Master-generalthe head of the Dominican order
Masteringsee 'audio mastering'
mastern(German) to master
Master of songthe name given to that member of the Royal household whose duty it was to teach the children of the Chapel Royal to sing
Master of the Housebookor Master of the Amsterdam Cabinet, two names used for an engraver and painter working in South Germany in the last quarter of the fifteenth century
Master of the King's (Queen's) MusicMaster of the Queen's Music (or Master of the King's Music) is an official post associated with the British Royal Court. The post is comparable to that of Poet Laureate. His or her duties are not clearly stated although the holder of the post is expected to write music to commemorate important royal events, such as anniversaries, marriages and deaths, and to accompany ceremonial occasions. The title was created by Charles I as Master of the King's Musick (a spelling which was used until the appointment of Malcolm Williamson) and was first given to Nicholas Lanier. At that time the holder of the post took charge of the monarch's private band. Holders of the post are tabled below
nameperiod of appointment
Nicholas Lanier (1588-1666)(1625-49 and 1660-66)
Louis Grabu (fl. 1665-94)(1666-74)
Nicholas Staggins (d. 1700)(1674-1700)
John Eccles (1668-1735)(1700-35)
Maurice Greene (1696-1755)(1735-55)
William Boyce (1711-1779)(1755-79)
John Stanley (1712-1786)(1779-86)
William Parsons (1745/6-1817)(1786-1817)
William Shield (1748-1829)(1817-29)
Christian Kramer (d.1834)(1829-34)
Franz Cramer (d.1848)(1834-48)
George Frederick Anderson (d.1870)(1848-70)
William George Cusins (1833-1893)(1870-93)
Walter Parratt (1841-1924)(1893-1924)
Edward Elgar (1857-1934)(1924-34)
Walford Davies (1869-1941)(1934-41)
Arnold Bax (1883-1953)(1942-52)
Arthur Bliss (1891-1975)(1953-75)
Malcolm Williamson (1931-2003)(1975-2003)
Peter Maxwell-Davies(2004-2014)
Judith Weir(2014-current)
Masterpiecea term now loosely applied to the finest work by a particular artist or to any work of art of acknowledged greatness or of preeminence in its field. Originally it meant the piece of work by which a craftsman, having finished his training, gained the rank of'master' in his guild
Mastersingersee Meistersinger
Mástil(Spanish m.) neck (of a guitar, violin, etc.), manche (French)
(Spanish m.) mast (ship), pole
MasulEgyptian duct flute
MasurGerman form of the word mazurka
MasureGerman form of the word mazurka
MasureckGerman form of the word mazurka
MasurekGerman form of the word mazurka
MasurkaGerman form of the word mazurka
Masurkka(Finnish) mazurka
MATabbreviation of 'Master of Arts and Teaching'
Matachinessee mattachins
Matador(Spanish m.) a bull-fighter
Matala miesääni(Finnish) bass
Matalana small Indian flute used to accompany the Bayadere dances
Matala naisääni(Finnish) alto
Matamuertea dance music form of the Garifuna of Honduras and Belize
Matassinsalso mattachins or Bouffons, a staged sword fight
Matbudj(Iraq) or mizwidj, two parallel reed pipes, fastened together at the top and bottom with string
  • Matbudj from which this extract has been taken
Matched gripa method of holding drum sticks and mallets to play percussion instruments in which each hand holds its stick in the same way. Almost all commonly used matched grips are overhand grips. Specific forms of the grip are French grip, German grip, and American grip. The matched grip is performed by gripping the drum sticks with one's index finger and middle finger curling around the bottom of the stick and the thumb on the top. This allows the stick to move freely and bounce after striking a percussion instrument
Maté(Spanish) an infusion of tea (usually made from the leaves of the Ilex paraguayensis)
Matelassé(French, literally 'matressed') (a fabric) with a raised pattern resembling quilting
Matelot(French m.) a sailor
Matelotte(French) sailor's hornpipe
manténganse apartados de las vías(Spanish) keep off the track
Matepe mbiraan mbira with thin keys that range in number from 29 to 34
Mater(Latin) mother
Mater dolorosa(Latin) sorrowful Mother (the Virgin Mary)
Materfamilias(Latin) the mother of the family
Material culturea broad genre of folklore that includes such traditional artifacts or objects as musical instruments
Materiale de scena(Italian m.) prop
Materialkostenzuschlag(German m.) parts and materials surcharge
Materia medica(Latin) the study of the use of drugs (in medicine)
Mathcorealso known as 'tech hardcore' or 'chaotic hardcore', is a style of hardcore punk recognized for a high level of technical musicianship
  • Mathcore from which this extract has been taken
Matériel(French m.) the total stock of material objects required for the conduct of some enterprise
Mathema (s.), Mathemata (pl.)a musical composition in which stichera idiomela (s. sticheron idiomelon) are interspersed with kratemata (s. kratema) and sung in the ornate style termed 'kalophonic'
Mathematariona codex containing a collection of mathemata
Mathematical progressions and musical scales
Mathematics of musical scales
Math metal'tech metal' is a subgenre of heavy metal/death metal. Sometimes known as 'math metal', though this term is usually characterised by a greater emphasis on odd time signatures than on technical riffs
Math rocka style of rock music that emerged in the late 1980s. It is characterised by complex, atypical rhythmic structures, stop/start dynamics and angular, dissonant riffs
  • Math rock from which this extract has been taken
Matices agógicos(Spanish m. pl.) or matices de tempo nuances of tempo, speed and changes of speed
Matices de temposee matices agógicos
Matices dinámicos(Spanish m. pl.) dynamic nuances
Matière(French) the physical constituents (canvas, paint, etc.) of a picture
matig Tempo(Dutch) medium tempo
Matinée(French f.) a morning or, more usually, an afternoon concert, theatrical performance, film performance, etc.
Matinée musicale(French f.) a morning or, more usually, an afternoon concert
Matins(Latin, from matuninus meaning 'early morning') or 'mattins', the first service of the Divine Office, usually performed at 3:00 a.m., that consists of several responsories and psalms which are sung
Matiz (s.), Matices (pl.)
(Spanish, literally 'nuance') in music, 'dynamic level', 'tonal strength'
muy débilweaker
débilweak
medianamente débilfairly weak
un poco débila little weaker
murmullowhispering
media vozmezza voce
un poco fortea little stronger
medianamente fortefairly strong
fortestrong
muy fortestronger
Matlachines de Hidalgo, losan ancient dance of the Mexican sierra and of the Huasteca region. It is the custom to dance Los Matlachines de Hidalgo at weddings and popular town fiestas. The name is derived from the Nahóa word Malacatonzín (Malacachos), which means to gyrate or turn on a malacate. It was originally danced in concentric circles, with the performers gyrating simultaneously, and sometimes in a straight line, like a malacate
Matouqinsee matuqin
Matra (s.), Matras (pl.)(literally 'unit') in Indian classical music, the smallest unit of the taal, a beat
Matraca(Spanish f.) Spanish ratchet, rattle, crécelle (French)
Matracca(Italian f.) Italian ratchet, rattle, crécelle (French)
Matrigna(Italian f.) stepmother
Matrimonio(Italian m.) marriage
Matrimonio segreto(Italian m.) secret marriage
Matrix (s.), Matrices (pl.)(Latin) in printing, the mould in which a piece of type is cast
Matrix sentence(linguistics) a sentence in which another sentence is embedded (for example, in 'The woman who called is waiting', 'The woman is waiting' is a matrix sentence
Matryoshka dolla Russian nested doll (often incorrectly referred to as a Babushka doll - babushka means "grandmother" in Russian), a set of dolls of decreasing sizes placed one inside the other. Matryoshka is a derivative of the Russian female first name Matryona, which was a very popular name among peasants in old Russia. The name Matryona in turn is related to the Latin root mater and means "mother", so the name is closely connected with motherhood and in turn the doll has come to symbolize fertility
MatsuribueJapanese festival flute
Mattachinosee mattacino
Mattachins(from the Italian mattachino) the dance also called Bouffons, a staged sword fight
Mattacináre(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) to play or dance the mattachíno
Mattacíni(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) also called atteláni, a kinde of antique moresco or mattacino dance
Mattacino(Italian m.) or, in English, 'mattachino', a character from Italian theatre. Mattacino was a kind of court jester, who would speak the truth to the king when nobody else would. The mattachin (from Arabic mutawajjihin, literally 'mask-wearers') were originally Moorish sword-dancers who wore elaborate, colourful costumes and masks
Matthäus-PassionJ. S. Bach's St. Matthew Passion BWV 244
Mattinata(Italian f.) a morning song, aubade
(Italian f.) matinée, a morning performance
Mattinatore(Italian m.) the man who, at sunrise, sings an aubade under the window of his lady
Mattinssee 'matins'
Matto per la musica(Italian m.) music-mad
Matutinalpertaining to or occurring in the morning
Matuqin(China and Mongolia) a bowed lute or fiddle adorned with a horse head that has a long history. It was popular with the Mongolian people during the early part of the thirteenth century
  • Matouqin from which some of this information has been taken
Matze(German from Hebrew) the unleavened bread used by Jews at the Passover celebrations
Matzore(Asia minor) the modal types of the minore and matzore were certainly influenced by European music, but they do not indicate merely that a song is written in major or minor key, rather that it is based on melodic material common to major or minor scales. The majority of amanedhes were sung on Ottoman melodic types (makamlar = Greek makamia). To call the makam 'mode' is somewhat misleading. The scale is not the only determinant of the improvisations performed in each makam. There are also melodic progressions (Turkish: seyir) that characterize the makâm and include the emphasis on particular notes and whether those rich and expressive musical resources favored by Greek as well as Turkish singers
maudit(French) (someone) who is beyond redemption, a lost soul, (someone) who is dogged by undeserved misfortune
Maulanatitle of respect given to learned Muslims
Maulidi(Iran) a dance from Bushehr, performed around the birthday of the prophet Mohammed, where the dancers sit in a circle and move their upper torsos in rhythm, gradually entering into a state of trance
Maulinchoa small higher pitched charango, the same as or similar to the walaycho or hualaycho
Maultrommel(German f.) Jew's harp
Ma'ulu'ulua traditional Tongan dance, performed by a group of seated man and women, and a direct successor of the ancient 'otuhaka
Maulvireligious teacher
Maung hsaing(Burmese) a set of bronze gongs, lower and more mellow in tone than those of the kyi waing, set in a rectangular frame
mauresco(Italian) Moorish
mauresque(French) Moorish
Mausoleum (s.), Mausolea (pl.)(Latin, from the Greek) a building used as the burial place of a family, a stately sepulchral monument (named for one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, the tomb of Mausolos, king of Caria, at Halicarnassus)
Mauvais coucheur(French m.) someone with whom it is very difficult to come to terms, a difficult person, a quarrelsome person
Mauvaise honte(French f.) false shame, unreasonable diffidence, painful shyness
Mauvaise langue(French f.) spiteful or malicious gossip (person)
Mauvaise méchante(French f.) spiteful or malicious gossip (person)
Mauvaise querelle(French f.) unreasonable quarrel
Mauvaise volonté(French f.) ill will
Mauvais goût(French m.) bad taste, lack of good taste
Mauvais moment(French m.) an unpleasant or embarrassing moment, a passing embarrassment or discomfort
Mauvais prêtre(French m.)a renegade priest (as required for the celebration of a Black Mass)
Mauvais quart d'heure(French m.) an unpleasant quarter of an hour, an embarrassing scene
Mauvais sang(French m.) bad blood, bad feeling, ill-will
Mauvais sujet(French m.) a 'bad lot', an irredeemable scoundrel
Maverickcoined by Samuel Maverick, originally an animal that had not been branded (Maverick did not brand his cattle), later an unconventional person or a politician who does not follow the party line
Mavourneen(from the Irish mo mhurnin) my darling
Mawwalor mawal, the emotional melodic beginning to an Arabic song that is sung or spoken in an improvisatory manner over a slow instrumental section before breaking into the fast-moving main body of the composition
MAXthe first versions of Max were initially developed by Miller Puckette in 1986 at IRCAM, Paris, as realtime control software for Giuseppe Di Giugno's 4X synthesizer. Beginning in 1988, David Zicarelli, first at Intelligent Music, then at Opcode Systems, finally at Cycling '74, translated Max into a MIDI software product. He then brought Puckette's PD audio modules into the Max environment to create Max/MSP, a graphical programming environment in which onscreen objects are connected via 'patchcords' to control the sound output from a computer
Maxima proverb, a short, pithy statement or aphorism believed to contain wisdom or insight into human nature
Maxima
maxima(Latin) duplex long, one of the symbols in early Medieval mensural notation
Máxima autoridad en el ministerio(Spanish f.) top official in the ministry
Maxima cum laude(Latin) the with highest praise, with distinction
Maxim airsee 'operatic air'
Maxime
maxima(French) duplex long, one of the symbols in early Medieval mensural notation
Maxi skirtthe name given to a long, full length skirt
Maxixeor Brazilian tango, a vigorous Brazilian dance in simple duple time, a combination of the polka and the lundu from African drum music
Mayaillusion, in Hindu philosophy Maya is the divine power which has created the cosmos
Mayan or Central American bird whistle a clay whistle found throughout Mexico, Central America and northern South America, that are made in the shape of animals or birds
Mayonnaise(French f.) a cold sauce emulsion consisting of egg yolks, vinegar, seasoning and a good quality oil. This product is called 'salad dressing' if no eggs are used
mayor(Spanish) major, majeur (French)
Maypole dance(Jamaica) a European retention which was originally celebrated on 1st May at the May Day fertility celebration in England. It is now very Jamaican in character. Groups may comprise 12 to 16 dancers - sometimes all female or with mixed couples. The plaiting of the pole with coloured ribbons has basic traditional patterns, starting with the grand chain, basket weave wrapping the ribbons around the pole from the top. The plaiting then continues away from the pole ending with the 'cobweb' plait before the full unplaiting takes place. Mento music is usually the musical accompaniment, but it is now not unusual to have groups perform this dance to popular reggae tunes
Mayuri vinadefined by its peacock shaped body, even the word mayur means 'peacock'. This instrument is of the same class as the dilruba and the esraj. Like the other members of this family, the differences are so slight that one may move from one instrument to another with ease. However, unlike the esraj and the dilruba, this instrument is nearly extinct
Mazarinade(French) a satirical pamphlet of the Fronde directed at Cardinal Jules Mazarin
Mäzen(German m.) patron
Mazhar(North Africa, Middle East) a very large bass tambourine
Mazook(Dominica) named for the mazurka that had its origins in Poland, and was very popular in France, from where it reached the West Indies. The steps have great variety but the music pattern starts with a smooth glide on the third note, shuffle step for the next note, another smooth glide and a series of cross steps until one is back to the first position. A special feature is the clicking and raising of the heels at the end of each round in the 'Heel and Toe Polka' Mazook
MazourkGerman spelling of mazurka
Mazourka(French, German) German spelling of mazurka
Mazout(Russian) a thick oily substance which remains when crude oil is distilled
Mazukaspelling of mazurka found in the U.S. Southern States
Mazura traditional Polish folk dance from Mazovia (Marzury)
Mazurca(Spanish f.) mazurka
Mazurkamazurka (Italian f.), Masurka (German f.), mazourka (French f.), mazurca (Spanish f.)
the mazur and mazurek (the latter meaning 'small mazur'), or in English mazurka, are general terms for a series of Polish folk dances in triple meter, which originated in the plains of Mazovia around Warsaw. The people of the province were called Mazurs; thus, the dance mazur bears the same name as the male inhabitant of the region. The dances, known abroad as mazurkas, comprise more than one type: mazur or mazurek, the obertas or oberek, and the kujawiak from the neighbouring district of Kujawy. These dances are linked by common rhythmic and choreographic traits, especially the mazurka rhythm. The name is much younger than the dance itself, and probably originated outside of the region. This term appears for the first time in J. Riepel's music dictionary published in Germany in 1752. The dance was known as early as the sixteenth century; early lute and organ tablatures feature many instances of the mazurka rhythm in pieces entitled 'Polish dance', or in Latin, chorea polonica. During the seventeenth century, the dance spread over Poland and began to appear also in neighbouring countries; distinct versions of these dances could be found in the repertoire of the countryside (the folk mazur-type dances and the mazur of the nobility), and the towns (urban mazurka)
Mazurkealternative spelling of mazurka
Mazza(Italian f.) mallet
Mazza del tambur maggiore(Italian f.) drum major's baton
Mazzuolo(Italian m.) mallet

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