music dictionary : Sf - Si

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sf.abbreviation for sforzando, sforzato
sferzando(Italian) whipping, peitschend (German), en cinglant (French)
sff.abbreviation for sforzatissimo
sfffz.abbreviation for sforzato
sffz.abbreviation for sforzatissimo
[entry supplied by Alan Camerer]
sfiorare(Italian) to scan
sfogare(Italian) to vent, to give vent to, to give free play to, to disclose
sfogarsi(Italian) to give vent to one's feelings
sfogato(Italian, literally 'exhaled') light and easy style, particularly of singing or singers
sfoggiando(Italian) flauntingly, ostentatiously
sfoggiare(Italian) to show off, to flaunt, to be ostentatious
Sfoggio(Italian m.) a show, a parade, ostentation, display, luxury, abundance
Sfoglia(Italian f.) foil (metal), flake (of paint, etc.)
sfogliare(Italian) to strip off (leaves), to turn the pages of (a book, etc.), to draw one by one (cards from a pack)
sfogliarsi(Italian) to shed leaves or petals, to flake off
Sfogliata(Italian f.) thin pastry, rapid glance (through a book)
Sfogliatura(Italian f.) exfoliation, the shedding of leaves
Sfogo (s.), Sfoghi (pl.)(Italian m.) a vent, an outlet, free play, relief, effect, development, outburst, eruption (medical)
sfolgorare(Italian) to blaze, to flash
Sfolgorio(Italian m.) blaze, flashing, glitter
Sfollamento(Italian m.) dispersal, break up (crowd, meeting), reduction of staff, evacuation (military)
sfollare(Italian) to disperse, to break up, to evacuate
Sfollato(Italian m.) evacuee
Sfondamento(Italian m.) breaking, breaking open
sfondare(Italian) to break, to break down, to break open, to stave in, to burst open, to wear a hole in, to knock the bottom out of
(Italian) to progress, to succeed
(Italian) to sink
sfondato(Italian) bottomless, boundless, worn out, worn into holes
Sfondo(Italian m.) background, a recess in a wall or ceiling (intended for a painting)
sformare(Italian) to destroy the shape of, to pull out of shape, to take out of the mould, to deform, to disfigure, to lose patience (familar)
sformato(Italian) shapeless, huge, ugly
sfornire(Italian) to strip, to deprive of furniture or provisions
sfornito(Italian) destitute, unprovided
Sfortuna(Italian f.) ill luck, misfortune
sfortunato(Italian) unlucky, unfortunate
Sforza, Galeazzo Maria
Duke of Milan, Galeazzo was famous as a patron of music. Under his direction, financial backing and encouragement, his chapel grew into one of the most famous and historically significant musical ensembles in Europe. Composers from the north, especially the Franco-Flemish composers from the present-day Low Countries, came to sing in his chapel and write masses, motets and secular music for him. Some of the figures associated with the Sforza chapel include Alexander Agricola, Johannes Martini, Loyset Compère, and Gaspar van Weerbeke. Most of the singers at the chapel fled after Galeazzo's murder, however, and took positions elsewhere; soon there was a rise in musical standards in other cities such as Ferrara as a result
Sforzamento(Italian m.) compulsion
sforzando(Italian) or sforzato (Italian), stark hervorgehoben (German) , forcé (French), en forçant (French), forced, forcing, strongly accented, a direction that may be applied to a chord or to a note, sudden loudness
a control (sometimes called the tutti combination piston), usually a reversible, providing a quick way to get 'full organ,' without upsetting stops drawn in the usual way - when activated it turns on all of the stops and couplers of the organ instantly, without moving the stop controls, and when activated again, restores everything to the way it was before (also labeled 'Tutti' or 'Full Organ')
sforzare(Italian) to compel, to force, to urge, to strain
sforzarsi(Italian) to exert oneself, to strive
sforzatamente(Italian) impetuosity, energetically
sforzatosee sforzando
sforzato pianoabbreviated sfp., indicating an emphasis followed by a immediate piano
sforzoa marking used by Johann Christian Bach (1735-1782) to indicate that a particular note or chord should be played 'with force'
sfossare(Italian) to dig up
sfossato(Italian) deep-set, sunken (eyes)
sfp.abbreviation for sforzato piano, applied to a musical passage, abbreviation for sforzato (i.e. emphasised) then immediately piano, a more accented form of fp.
sfpp.abbreviation for sforzato pianissimo, applied to a musical passage, abbreviation for sforzato (i.e. emphasised) then immediately pianissimo, a more accented form of fpp.
sfregare(Italian) to rub
sfrenato(Italian) wild
SFSR abbreviation of 'Soviet Federated Socialist Republic'
SFTMCthe San Francisco Tape Music Center was founded by Morton Subotnick and Ramon Sender on Divisadero Street in San Francisco in 1962. It consisted of two auditoriums shared with KPFA, a San Francisco radio station, and the Ann Halprin Dance Company, and an attic studio. It functioned as an experimental arts center in which concerts were produced, equipment invented, and musical compositions composed
  • SFTMC from which this extract has been taken
sfuggevole(Italian) fleeting, transitory
sfuggita (alla)(Italian) hastily, stealthily, incidentally
sfz.abbreviation for sforzando
sfuggito (m.), sfuggita (f.)(Italian) avoided, shunned, rambling
sfumare(Italian) to disappear, to vanish, to evaporate, to come to nothing, to end in smoke, to tone down (colour), to soften (a line, or shadow), to diminish gradually (a sound)
sfumatesee sfumato
Sfumatezza(Italian f.) the delicate harmonizing and blending of two colours or shades one into another (for example, the intersection of chiaro and scuro)
sfumato(Italian) or sfumate, very lightly
in painting, sfumato is a technique, largely developed by Leonardo da Vinci, in which the transitions from light to dark are so gradual they are almost imperceptible. Sfumato softens lines and creates a soft-focus effect
in music, (a phrase, a section, etc.) played in a vague indeterminate way
Sfumatura(Italian f.) shade, shading, nuance, light wash of colour
a traditional technique for manually extracting the essential oils from citrus peel using sponges
sfuriare(Italian) to rage, to fly into a passion
Sfuriata(Italian f.) an outburst, a scolding
Sgabello(Italian m.) (piano) stool, bench
Sgabuzzino(Italian m.) closet, lumber-room
sgallinacciare(Italian, from gallinaccio, a turkey-cock) to crow
(Italian) to sing passages indistinctly and unevenly, marking clumsily each note
sgambare(Italian) to stride, to walk quickly, to break the stalk (of a flower)
Sgambata(Italian f.) a walk, a long walk, a run
sgambato(Italian) in a weary style
sgambettare(Italian) to kick the legs about, to take short quick steps, to fisk, to trip, to toddle (child), to caper
Sgambetto(Italian m.) caper, jump
sganasciasi(Italian) to dislocate one's jaw
sganasciarsi dalle risa(Italian) to roar with laughter, to split one's sides with laughing
sganciare(Italian) to uncouple, to unhook
sgangherare(Italian) to unhinge, to dislocate
sgangheratamente(Italian) rudely, boisterously, awkwardly, immoderately
sgangherato(Italian) unhinged, loose, disjointed, awkward, ramshackle, rickety, worn-out, coarse, immoderate
Sgarbatezza(Italian f.) rudeness, unmannerliness, roughness
sgarbato(Italian) rude, unmannerly, rough, awkward, clumsy
Sgarbo(Italian m.) a piece of rudeness, offence, bad grace
sghignazzare(Italian) laugh scornfully
Sgian dubh(Gaelic, literally 'black knife') or skean dhu, a small dagger worn thrust into the stocking by Scottish highlanders
sgobbare(Italian) slog, swot
Sgobbone (m.), Sgobbona (f.)(Italian) slogger
sgolarsi(Italian) shout oneself hoarse
sgomenta(Italian) dismayed, apprehensively
Sgraffito (s.), Sgraffiti (pl.)(Italian) a method of architectural decoration produced by scratching through a thin layer of plaster to expose an otherwise hidden layer of a different colour
(Italian) a method of decoration on pottery produced by scratching through a thin layer of slip to expose an otherwise hidden layer of a different colour
Sgra-snyanHimalayan lute
Sguardo(Italian m.) look, glance
Sha'bior Sha'bii, in most Arab countries the term is applied to folk or folkloric music, but in Algeria the term refers to the urban popular music which emerged in Algiers in the 20th-century
the Algerois sha`bii tradition is easy to listen to, filled with catchy tunes and highlights a clear, unembellished solo singing style. The heart of the genre, however, lies in its lyrics; if you are familiar with North African dialects, the singing style makes it easy to catch many of the words, but the lyrics contain a lot of slang and are filled with local references
s'habiller(French) to dress (oneself), to get dressed, to dress up
s'habiller à la française(French) to dress in the French fashion
s'habituer à(French) to get used to
Shack-shack(Caribbean) an idiophone, a tin can with beads inside, used as a percussion instrument on the island of Saint Kitts and Nevis
Shadajin Indian music, the beginning note (Sa) of the Saptak
Shadingthe use of dynamics to shape phrases, etc.
the partial covering of tone holes to modify pitch or tone colour on open holed wind instruments
on the organ, to place something at the top of an organ pipe so as to alter the character of that pipes sound
Shadoof(Arabic) a device used in Egypt to facilitate irrigation, that consists of a shaft, fastened loosely to the top of a fixed pole, which has a bucket and counterweight at each end
Shadow positionin dance, both partners face the same general direction, one of them squarely behind of slightly shifted sideways ("in the shadow")
Shag, theor Carolina Shag, a form of swing dancing that evolved from the jitterbug and jump blues of the big band jazz era and originated at Myrtle Beach, South Carolina during the 1940s
Shahnainorth Indian shawm
Shah-nameh(Persian, 'Book of Kings') see 'Firdausi'
Sha'ir(Arabic, literally 'poet') poet-singer found in Upper Egypt and among the Syrian-Desert Bedouins
Shakaro(Nigeria) a drum
Shaketrillo (Italian), Triller (German), trille (French), a word meaning 'trill'
from Simpson's The Division-Viol, or The Art of Playing ex tempore to a Ground (1665): "Shaked Graces we call those that are performed by a Shake or Tremble of a Finger, of which there are two sorts, viz. Close and Open: Close-shake is that when we shake the Finger as close and near the sounding Note as possible may be, touching the String with the Shaking finger so softly and nicely that it make no variation of Tone. This may be used where no other Grace is concerned. Open-shake, is when a finger is shaked in that distance from whence it was removed, or where it is to be set down; supposing the divstance exceed not the wideness of two Frets, for wider than that we never shake"
from Playford's A brief Introduction To the Playing on the Bass-Viol (1674): "For the usual Graces, the Shake is the principal; of which there are two, the close shake and the open shake; the close shake is when you stop with your first Finger on the first Fret, and shake with your second Finger as close to it as you can; the open shake is when you stop with your first Finger on the first Fret, and shake with our third Finger on the third Fret; this observe in all stops whatsoever"
from Geminiani's The Art of Violin Playing (1751): "The close Shake...To perform it, you must press the finger strongly upon the string of the instrument, and move the wrist in and out slowly and equally, when it is long continued swelling the sound by degrees, drawing the bow nearer to the bridge, and ending it very strong it may express majesty, dignity, etc. But making it shorter, lower and softer, it may denote affliction, fear, etc. and when it is made on short notes, it only contributes to make their sound more agreable and for this reason it should be made use of as often as possible"
the rapid back-and-forth movement of a percussion instrument to produce a rattling sound
Shaked gracean obsolete term used to describe many different musical ornaments including the backfall, double relish, and so on
Shaker(Italian m., English) a percussion instrument consisting of a receptacle filled with a rattling substance such as seeds, beans or pebbles
Shake, transientsee 'transient shake'
Shak-shak(Caribbean) an African instrument (idiophone) made from a calabash gourd, often found in the Steelbands of Trinidad and Tobago
Shakuhachi(Japanese, a reference to the instrument's length in ancient Japanese units) traditional Japanese end-blown flute, about 55 cm. long, made from bamboo, or more recently from wood
ShakujoJapanese stick rattle, used to accompany shomyo, Buddhist chanting of sacred texts or sutra
Shalishim(Hebrew) most writers identify it with the triangle (1 Samuel 18:6)
Shallotin the organ, the hollow brass tube against which the reed vibrates in a reed pipe
Shalmsee Schalmeie
Shamsee 'shim sham'
Shaman(Russian) a priest or medicine-man amongst the tribes of northern Asia, but now used generally for a medicine-man in any primitive tribe
Shamanisma religious practice first identified by anthropologists studying hunter-gatherer tribes in Siberia, Alaska, and northern Canada in which a shaman would serve as a mediator between his tribal community and the spirit world
Shamisen(English, German n./f.) also samisen or sangen , a long necked Japanese 3-string fretless lute, plucked with a heavy ivory plectrum, that first became popular in the pleasure districts during the Edo Period (1600-1868) when it appeared as part of the musical accompaniment in kabuki and bunraku performances. Shamisen are made from one of a variety of woods such as red sandalwood and the head covered with cat or dog skin. The pegs are traditionally made of ivory while the strings are of twisted silk
Shamisen-ongakumusic played on the shamisen particularly kabuki and bunraku
Shangosee Changó
ShankaraHindu philosopher of the 8th century AD, who was one of the foremost exponents of non-dualism of the Vedanta school of philosophy
Shanksa variety of crook, a piece of tubing, used to alter the pitch of brass instruments. If straight and fitted into the mouthpiece receiver, they are called shanks
Shanmian qinsee yangqin
Shan osiBurmese long drum
Shanty(from the French chanter, to sing) from the middle of the 19th-century, a sea-song (hence, 'sea shanty') which has a chorus, which is sung by all, and verses that are usually sung by only one voice, also called 'chanty'
ShanzMongolian three stringed banjo played with a plectrum
Shao'erChinese earthenware whistle, often shaped like an animal
Shapethe direction of a melody
the abstract quality of the motion and figure of a composition, achieved through dynamics, pitch direction and tempo
Shaped poetryalso called 'concrete poetry' or 'visual poetry', poetry that draws much of its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words
Shape notessee 'shape-note singing'
Shape-Note singingan a cappella style of Protestant religious singing. Instead of reading music by the placement of the notes on the staff, shape-note singers sound out the tune by reading the shapes of the notes. There are two systems of shaped notation. The older Sacred Harp or fasola system uses only four syllables (fa with a triangular note head, sol with a round note head, la with a square note head, and mi with a diamond-shaped note head) in the musical scale which is denoted fa, sol, la, fa, sol, la, mi, fa. The newer seven-note system (using do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, ti) is more commonly used in North Louisiana today. It is also referred to as Sacred Harp singing, a reference to a book of hymns with shape-note notation
SharakanArmenian religious chant. The official book contains 1166 hymns which form the basis of Armenian liturgy. The earliest surviving notated hymns employ a neumatic system (Armenian neumes) which is undecipherable
Sharawaggi(possibly of Japanese origin) or sharawadgi, in art, the beauty that is produced by deliberate asymmetry or irregularity. In 1944, Hubert de Cronin Hastings wrote an article in the Architectural Review called Exterior Furnishing or Sharawaggi: the art of making urban landscape, although the word originates with Sir William Temple in 1685 who believed it to be of Chinese origin
Share-alikea descriptive term used in the Creative Commons project for copyright licenses which include certain copyleft provisions. The specific definition used by Creative Commons is that "If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under a license identical to this one." However, generic variations of share-alike licenses define free software and open content. The term copyleft has been used since the 80s to describe these terms by the free software community, but only as far as free licenses are concerned
Sharersin the Renaissance, senior actors holding business shares in the stock of a theatrical company
Shargijasee sargija
sharpdiesis (Italian), Kreuz (German), dièse (French)
a sign that raises the pitch of a note by one chromatic semitone
a term applied to a note slightly above its expected pitch
a term applied to notes that have a sharp sign placed in front of them, for example A sharp, F sharp, etc.
a term used to describe major or, more usually, augmented intervals
a term used to describe those keys with sharps in their key signatures, i.e. sharp keys, or the 'key of B sharp' meaning the key of B major
organ pipes with a shrill tone, the tone being rich in high overtones
usually used in its plural form (i.e. sharps), the black keys on a modern piano or organ keyboard
Sharpeneda note to which a sharp sign has been added is said to have been 'sharpened', similarly a sharp note to which a double sharp sign has been applied
Sharpened subdominant with added diminished seventh chordin Roman notation #iv dim7, this chord, in the key of C, is F# dim7. It is found in jazz and gospel music
SharqiiNorth-African urban music influenced by Egyptian, Lebanese and Syrian traditions
Shastrasthe Hindu Scriptures
Shave­and­a­haircut, six­bitsan alternative name or catch phrase for the son clavé
Shaw, George Bernard (1856-1950)Irish-born dramatist, noted music critic and winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature (1925)
Shawma family of double-reed instruments from the Medieval and Renaissance periods. The shawm, probably a Mohammedan invention, developed in Bagdad during the reign of Calif Harun-al-Rashid (763-807) and reached Europe during the time of the Crusades when the typical Saracen military band consisted of shawms, trumpets, and drums. The medieval or 'oriental' shawm is keyless with seven finger holes and one thumb hole. The European shawm and the larger shawms, called bombards or bombardes, lost the thumb hole. The narrow bore accounts for its compact tone which is produced by a double reed which is not controlled by the player's lips (i.e., the entire reed is placed inside the mouth). This reed is attached to a staple at whose base lies a metal disc, against which the player presses his lips when performing. The late Middle Ages and Renaissance shawm uses a broad cane reed controlled by the player's lips. With the smaller size shawms, the reed could be placed inside a pirouette, a funnel shaped protector against which the player places his lips. All shawms have several vent holes between the hole for the lowest note and the end of the bell. This section of the instrument is very long and contributes to the tone and carrying power of the instrument. A large fontanelle protects the key mechanism of the lowest note(s). The range is about 2 octaves (depending on the player's skill)
sizelowest note
Sopranoc', g'
Altog, f, d, c
Tenorc, G
BassF, C
Great BassC, GG
Shebeen(Irish) an unlicensed house dispensing alcoholic drinks
Sheddâdafrom Morocco, a group of singers and instrumentalist-singers, for example, that takes part in a performance of milhûn
Sheetin printing, a piece of paper upon which an image can be printed. Except for small jobbing platens, most presses use moderate to large size sheets of paper. To print small objects a printing plate is usually created with a number of different images on it. This allows many small items to be printed in one press run, after which the sheet is cut down
Sheet-fedthe method by which a printing press is fed paper a single sheet at a time from a rack, usually by mechanical grippers. The print quality and registration that results from sheet-feeding is better than what can be obtained from web-fed presses, but the process is not as economical to use
Sheet musichand-written or printed form of musical notation; like its analogues books, pamphlets, etc. the medium of sheet music typically is paper (or, in earlier times, parchment). A common synonym for sheet music is score, and there are several types of scores, as discussed below
Note: the term score can also refer to incidental music written for a play, television programme, or film
Sheets of sounda term coined in 1958 by Down Beat magazine jazz critic Ira Gitler to describe the new, unique style of John Coltrane. Coltrane employed improvisational yet patterned harmonic techniques where densely packed solos consisting of high speed arpeggios and scale patterns were played in rapid succession: hundreds of notes running from the lowest to highest registers
Shehnaisee shenai
Sheikh(Arabic, literally 'old man') the chief of an Arab family or tribe
Sheikhatin Morocco, the word sheikhat, the plural form, or its masculine form, shyoukh, are used imprecisely. They don't denote a single musical genre at all. The terms apply to all men and women whose professional activity is music and/or dancing. However, there are some important differences between the sheikhat of the Middle Atlas and those of the Atlantic plain (Dukkala and Abda), in spite of the widespread use of the terms sheikhat and shyoukh in both areas. The differences occur not only on the level of the language used in the songs, but also in the music, dress and choreography of each version
Shekeré(Nigeria) also 'chekere', calabash shaker (rattle) embroidered with beads that produce the shaker's sound. Known as chékere in Cuba
Shella term used in jazz for a two-note structure in the left hand, consisting of the root and one other note, usually the 7th, the 3rd or 10th, or the 6th
Shemozzlesee schlemozzle
ShenaiSouth Asian Indian shawm
Shengancient Chinese mouth organ, consisting of a bundle of between 17 to 37 pipes seated on a small wind chamber. A free brass reed is placed in the root of the instrument. It is the predecessor of other free reed instruments such as the accordion. The large type is called chao and the smaller he. The earliest known sheng has 14 pipes and was found in Zenghou Yi's tomb in Hubei province. During the period from the southern dynasties to the Tang dynasty (420-907) the sheng played an important role in court music. And in the Ming and Qing dynasty (1368-1911) it was used extensively both in folk instrumental ensembles and in the accompaniment to local theatres and popular narratives. Today, the most common type has 17 pipes and the more sophisticated form for performing contemporary compositions has between 21 and 37 pipes, with keys and a metal resonating chamber into which the pipes are inserted. The resulting tone is bright and harmonious, the instrument is chromatically complete, and has an extended compass
Shepard-Risset glissandosee 'Risset scale, continuous'
Shepard scalein 1964, psychologist Roger N. Shepard constructed an intriguing auditory illusion, the ever ascending or decending scale. The illusion depends on specially constructed complex notes, each containing all its audible octave partials but with the spread of energy centred on the middle member of sequence (that note is given the greatest amplitude). The energy level becomes progressively lower towards the lowest and highest notes. The trick to creating the illusion is that each note in the chromatic scale has the same pitch weight or clarity so that, as the notes change, the height remains constant. When first presented, the illusion was thought to demonstrate the intransitivity of pitch perception. However, the illusion is now regarded as a demonstration of the independence of pitch height and pitch chroma in pitch perception
see 'Risset scale, continuous'
Shepard's illusionsee 'Shepard scale'
Shepard-Skala(German f.) Shepherd scale
Sherpa(Tibetan) a member of an eastern Tibetan tribe living south of the Himalayas, often employed as guides and bearers by climbers in the Himalayas
Shetland fiddleDuke Ellington said that there are only two types of music which possess swing; one is jazz, the other Scottish music. He had almost certainly been listening to musicians from Shetland. Despite their tiny size and population, these island have a distinctive, vibrant and influential style of traditional music with the fiddle at its heart. The Shetlanders have drawn on a range of musical sources, from the virtuosic if rather formal Scott Skinner to the lilting style of the Irish, the "ringing strings" of Scandinavia and the country and swing of America
SheviArmenian flute
Shgul(Arabic, literally 'elaborate') elaboration in traditional Arabic singing
Shiak(Dominica) or gwage, a percussion instrument
Shibboleth(Hebrew) a word that because of difficulties or variations in pronunciation may be used to distinguish or identify persons of different classes, districts, parties or sects
Shifta simple unstructured dress shape, slightly fitted at the bust with darts and clean lines down to the knee
the movement of the left hand from one position to another on the fingerboard when playing a stringed instrument, which may be 'shifting up' or 'shifting down'
the naming of shifts on the violin is related to left-hand position such that:
half-shiftis second position
whole shiftis third position
double shiftis fourth position
Shiftinga general term in linguistics for any slight alteration in a word's meaning, or the creation of an entirely new word by changing the use of an expression
Shift modulationthe sudden change in key that is a feature of some kinds of popular music ballads. In order to relieve the monotony of repeating the verse in the original key, the composer, or sometimes the arranger (in which case it is then called 'arranger's modulation', will move the whole verse usually up to a higher key. The piece is said to 'shift-modulate'. In such a case, it is usual to end the ballad in this new higher key, and not to return to the starting key
Shigin(Japanese) a form of Japanese poetry, which is usually chanted, either individually or within a group
  • Shigin from which this extract has been taken
Shigionoth(Hebrew) according to variable tunes
Shih poetry(shih, Chinese for 'songs') there is no general word for "poetry" specifically in Chinese, but there are exact words for different genres of poetry. Shih is the basic or common Chinese verse. The term encompassed folksongs, hymns, and libretti
Shikosee ashiko
Shiksa(Yiddish) a non-Jewish or non-practising Jewish girl
Shi Jing(Chinese, translated variously as the 'Classic of Poetry', the 'Book of Songs' or the 'Book of Odes) the first major collection of Chinese poems. It comprises 305 poems divided into 160 folk songs (or airs, feng); 74 minor festal songs (or odes - ya), traditionally sung at court festivities; 31 major festal songs, sung at more solemn court ceremonies; and 40 hymns and eulogies (sòng), sung at sacrifices to gods and ancestral spirits of the royal house
  • Shi Jing from which this extract has been taken
Shima uta(Japanese, literally 'island song') traditional music that is sung and performed in the Japanese Pacific Islands
Shime-daikoor tsukeshime-daiko , small rope-tuned Japanese drum, of medium size, used in Noh theatre
ShimmyAfrican-American dance of the late 1880s. It involves the shaking of the shoulders and of the whole body
Shim shamor sham, originally a particular tap dance routine, the dance is credited to Leonard Reed, who originally called it 'Goofus', or to Willie Bryant. For swing dancers today, it is 'line dance' that recalls the roots of swing
Shinawior sinawi, a traditional form of Korean music, performed improvisationally by a musical ensemble, and traditionally accompanying the rites of Korean shamanism. The style first emerged in the Chungcheong and Jeolla provinces, but is now widespread. The traditional shinawi ensemble includes two flutes, a haegeum, a daegeum, a janggu hourglass-drum, and a large buk, although more recently other traditional Korean instruments such as the gayageum and geomungo have been included
Shinesthe syncopated footwork usually done while dancing mambo or chachachá in open position
Shing-a-lingsee 'boogaloo'
Shinglea small business, often set up by an actor or established player at a larger company (colloquial)
Shingle dancinga form of solo dancing akin to tap dancing, of African American origin, usually associated with old-time music. A shingle dancer dances on a small wooden platform (typically no more than about 30 inches square), sometimes equipped with a bell or a loose piece of metal to allow additional percussive effects
ShinobueJapanese bamboo transverse flute
ShinshinNorth-American vessel rattle
Shinteki(Japanese) or minteki, a traverse flute used in minshingaku (the Chinese-style chamber ensemble of Japan). . The instrument's distinctive tone is produced because of the resonating hole covered with extremely thin paper or a bamboo film
  • Shinteki from which this information has been taken
Shipshapetrim, neat, tidy
Ship's pianoin 1820, Aucher Freres of France was one of the first piano makers to use a folding keyboard, which was characteristic of what came to be known as a ship's piano
Shipwrighta shipbuilder, a ship's carpenter
Shi qin(China) a stone zither or xylophone of Southern China
Shirecounty (administrative region)
Shire-horsea heavy powerful draught-horse
Shirkto avoid (work, etc.)
Shirkera person who seeks to avoid work, etc.
Shirrelasticated gathered threads in a garment, etc. to form smocking
Shirrto gather (material) into decorative rows by parallel stitching
Shirring(material) that is gathered with parallel threads
Shirtupper-body garment of cotton, etc., usually front-opening
Shirtsleevesleeve of a shirt
Shirtwaistera woman's dress with a bodice like a shirt
Shirtyangry, annoyed
Shishi mai(Japanese) traditional 'Lion dance' from Okinawa, Japan with Chinese roots, in which a cape hides the dancer
Shishi odori(Japanese) Japanese deer dance, in which the dancer wears a deer mask and usually plays a drum hung from the waist while dancing
Shivareecorrupt form of charivari
Shiwaya(Southern Africa) a type of ocarina
Shlokametrical verse or composition
Shoa Japanese free-reed mouth organ, similar to the Chinese sheng, in which each free-reed pipe will sound the same note when the player exhales or inhales
Shocalloor chocalho, a Brazilian bamboo shaker
Shoegazinga style of music that emerged in the UK in the late 1980s characterised by the use of distortion and the fuzzbox, droning riffs and a Phil Spector-esque wall of sound from the noisy guitars. Another way to describe the guitar effects would be "lead-guitarlessness", typically with two distorted rhythm guitars interweaving together and giving an exceptionally muddied sound. Although lead guitar riffs were often present, they were not the central focus of most shoegazing songs
Shofarsee shophar
Shogun(Japanese, from the Chinese) the hereditary commander-in-chief of the Japanese army, who until 1867 was the virtual ruler of Japan
Shohgaa traditional way of teaching traditional instruments in Japan, Shohga is not solmization, although it does have some similarity. It is sung with melody and Japanese words, the sounds of which imitate the instrument. Shohga shows the shape and nuances of the melody, and its most important purpose is to show the manner with which the melody is to be played. So the word imitates the sound of the instrument, something like onomatopeia, so that the words and style are different for every instrument
Shoka(Japanese) a form of music developed in the 19th-century, that was composed to bring western music to schools
ShokoJapanese flat gong suspended vertically in an ornamental wooden frame, employed in gagaku, or court music
Shomyo(Japanese) or shoomyoo, Buddhist chant (particularly sacred texts or sutra) brought to Japan when the first Chinese teachers of Buddhist music arrived in 719 and 735
Shoo Flyone of the big circle figures danced by all couples in one large circle facing the centre which are traditionally associated with square dancing
Shoomyoosee shomyo
Shoot the Owlone of the figures unique to, or traditionally associated with, square dancing
one of the two-couple figures danced in a circle of four people traditionally associated with square dancing
Shophar(Hebrew) translated as 'trumpet' (Numbers 10:10), synonymous with keren, a wind-instrument made from a ram's horn
Shortless than average height, less than full length, corta (Italian), kurz (German), court (French), sec (French)
Shorteningin linguistics, the word has two meanings, creating a new word by omitting part of a longer expression, and changing a long vowel to a short one
Short grace noteacciaccatura (Italian), Zusammenschlag (German), pince étouffé (French)
Shorthandany system of rapid handwriting which can be used to transcribe the spoken word. Shorthand systems use a variety of techniques including simplifying existing letters or characters and using special symbols to represent phonemes, words and phrases
  • Shorthand from which this definition has been taken
Short octaveon a keyboard instrument of limited range, the bottom three to five keys can be tuned only to notes in the bottom register likely to be used rather than in their usual chromatic sequence, so nonessential notes are omitted
Short scorealso 'close' or 'condensed score', an abridged score where the number of staves in the full score is reduced, often a preparatory stage in the composition process before the scoring has been fully worked out
Short servicein 16th- and 17th-century Protestant England, composers were required to set the canticles for Morning Prayer, Evensong or parts of the Communion Service, in the vernacular following the rule that 'to every syllable a note'. While the Great Services, which reverted to the old length and complexity, were apt to be difficult, requiring well-trained singers in the individual parts, the Short Services were simple settings of the text, without any repetion of phrases, as lovely in their way as the old method of singing the canticles to a plainsong chant
Short storya work of narrative fiction may contain description, dialogue and commentary, but usually plot functions as the engine driving the art
Short syllablein linguistics, any syllable containing a short vowel, but followed by only one consonant or no consonant at all
Short vowela vowel of lesser duration than a corresponding long vowel
Shorty Georgea jitterbug-style dance step from the 1940s named after the Harlem dancer George "Shorty" Snowden involving loose arms, limp knees and a shuffling walk. It appears in the Fred Astaire and Rita Hayworth musical You Were Never Lovelier (1942) performed to an unusually jazzy Jerome Kern tune with Lyle Murphy's light, bouncy arrangement conducted by Xavier Cugat. The orchestra, gets the number off to a swinging start before Astaire launches into his rhythmic vocal, demonstrating the step to a seated Hayworth, who joins in the vocal (dubbed by Nan Wynn). As the vocal ends, Hayworth rises to join a surprised and delighted Astaire in one of the most captivating of the rhythm duets he performed with a partner other than Ginger Rogers, benefiting from what John Mueller, author of Astaire Dancing (1985), describes as "a superb arrangement of the music by big-band composer Spud Murphy"
Shoulder restspalliera (Italian f.), Schulterstütze (German f.), coussin (French m.), used on a string instrument but, unlike the chin rest that lies between the instrument and the chin, the shoulder rest lies between the back of the instrument and the shoulder of the player. Some players use both, although the shoulder rest is less common that the chin rest
Shouqiu(China) a ball-shaped rattle
Shout-and-fallor tumbling strain, a modal frame very common in Afro-American-derived styles
Shout chorusa passage in a big band arrangement in which the melody instruments play a line (usually highly syncopated) in rhythmic unison. A 'shout chorus' usually serves as an interlude between the head and solos
Shove couplera manual coupler found on some larger two-manual harpsichords which is operated by sliding the upper manual toward the nameboard
Showbizshow business (colloquial)
Showcaseone of the two forms of dance competition for choreographed performance routines. Showcase competitions take place usually at regional and national events, and can be for pairs or groups
see 'Jack and Jill'
Shreddedcut into fine strips
Shred Guitara heavy metal guitar playing style where technical proficiency and playing speed are the major goals, often in a neoclassical framework. Beginning in the 1980s, shred guitar appeared in a heavy metal sub-genre known as neo-classical metal, since it often involved phrases and techniques from Baroque and Classical music
Shrew's fiddleso-called because it was originally used in the 18th century as a way of punishing women who were caught bickering or fighting, it was found also in medieval Germany and Austria, where it was known as a Halsgeige (literally 'neck viola' or 'neck violin') originally made out of two pieces of wood fitted with a hinge and a lock at the front. The shrew's fiddle consisted of three holes. One was a large hole for the neck and the other two were smaller holes which fastened the wrists in front of the face
Shrinea reliquary, a sacred image of special importance or a holy place, especially one connected with pilgrimage
Shrink wrapa method of packing printed and other products by surrounding them with plastic, then shrinking by heat
Shruti(Sanskrit, literally 'that which is heard') the Indian classical music term for microtones
Shuang guana small Chinese double-reed wind instrument
Shuang qina Chinese lute similar to the sanxian
Shuddhain Indian music, a pure, natural note
Shudramember of the fourth or menial caste among Hindus
ShudragaMongolian three stringed banjo played with a plectrum
Shuen papersee 'Xuan paper'
Shufflea slow-tempo jazz rhythm, in which each main beat is divided into three smaller beats (prominent in blues music)
Shuffle notesee 'swung note'
Shuffle rhythmsynonymous with 'swing'
Shuffle-Rhythmus(German m.) shuffle rhythm
Shuffle timesee 'swing time'
Shuftior shufty, have a look! (at something), take a look (at something)
Shugu(China) the story telling drum, oblong in shape with animal skins on both ends, that is placed on a rack, which may be high or low, as required by different kinds of quyi. The drum is beaten with a bamboo stick
Shui chan(Chinese) glasses filled with more or less water so as to alter the pitch of the sounds obtained by striking them with sticks
Shumboa traditional musical style of the Bantu Owambo people of Namibia
ShuiqiangChinese whistle
Shurle(Croatia) Istrian reed instrument with two chanters
Shutterto close a legitimate play or musical (colloquial)
Shuttersin the organ, the wooden slats that enclose a swell box
ShuyeChinese leaf reed
Shvian end-blown flute-like instrument, played solo or in ensembles by shepherds in Armenia
Shwetambara primary sect in Jainism, whose name has the literal meaning 'clad in white clothes'. The monks belonging to this sect always wear white robes and carry a small bowl for collecting alms. The Shwetambar sect was formed owing to a dispute over the authenticity of the Jain scriptures. The Digambar, which is the other major sect in the religion, have its own versions of the scriptures. The Shwetambar still adhere to the original scripts, which number 45. The Shwetambar differ also from the Digambar in various other details: they believe that women can also lead an ascetic life and achieve Moksha; they do not believe in the renunciation of clothes for achieving higher spiritual state; members of Shwetambar sect are known for their belief in extreme non-violence; members wear white mask over their mouth to avoid even the accidental consumption of a micro-organism. The Shwetambar sect comprises Murtipujaka, Stanakvasi and Terapanthi sub-sects. Of these sub-sects, only the Murtipujaka sect believes in idol worship
note B natural
(French m., Italian m.) B natural, the seventh note (leading note or subtonic) in the scale of C major
Sisee wa
si(Italian) one, it
si acaso(Spanish) maybe, perhaps, if
si acaso no estuviera ...(Spanish) if he shouldn't be there ...
si alguien preguntara(Spanish) if anybody should ask, if anyone should ask
si alza il sipario(Italian) the curtain rises
Si bémol
note B flat
(French m.) the note 'B flat', the flattened seventh note in the scale of C major
Si bemolle
note B flat
(Italian m.) the note 'B flat', the flattened seventh note in the scale of C major
Si bemolle maggiore
key of B flat major (Italian m.) the key of 'B flat major'
scale of B flat major
the scale of 'B flat major'
Si bemolle minore(Italian f.) the key of 'B flat minor'
Si bemoll major
key of B flat major (Catalan m.) the key of 'B flat major'
scale of B flat major
the scale of 'B flat major'
Si bémol majeur
key of B flat major(French m.) the key of 'B flat major'
scale of B flat major
the scale of 'B flat major'
Si bemol mayor
key of B flat major (Spanish m.) the key of 'B flat major'
scale of B flat major
the scale of 'B flat major'
Si bémol mineur(French m.) the key of 'B flat minor'
si bien(Spanish) although
Sibilantin linguistics, any hissing sound made with a groove down the centre of the tongue, like that of (s) or (sh), the sibilant consonants or a sibilant bird call. In English the sibilant speech sounds are /s/, /sh/, /z/ or /zh/
sibilare(Italian) to hiss
Sibilo(Italian m.) hiss
si bisogna da capo al segno(Italian) must be repeated from the beginning to the sign
Sic(Latin) thus, just so
(Latin) a parenthetic insertion in a quotation or citation emphasing that an error or anomaly is as it was in the source from which the quatation is taken or to which the citation refers
Sicaa variation on the Puerto Rican bomba
see bomba
Siccum lumen(Latin) dry-eyed (tearless) on an occasion of grief
Si cela ne vous fait rien(French) If you don't mind.
sich(German) oneself, himself, herself, itself, themselves
sich aalen(German) to laze, to stretch out
sich abarbeiten(German) to slave away
sich abdrücken(German) to leave an impression
sich abfinden mit(German) to come to terms with
sich abgeben mit(German) to occupy oneself with
sich abheben gegen(German) to stand out against
sich abkehren(German) to turn away
sich abkühlen(German) to cool, to cool down, to turn cooler (weather)
sich ablagern(German) to be deposited
sich ableiten aus(German) to be derived from
sich ableiten von(German) to be derived from
sich ablösen(German) to come off (become detached from), to take turns
sich abmelden(German) to report that one is leaving, to check out (of a hotel)
sich abmühen(German) to struggle
sich abnutzen(German) to wear out
sich abschließen(German) to cut oneself off, to lock up, to end
sich abschwächen(German) to lessen, to weaken
sich absetzen(German) to deposited, to flee, to pause
sich absondern(German) to keep apart
sich absondern von(German) to keep apart from
sich abspielen(German) to take place
sich absprechen(German) to agree
sich abtrocknen(German) to dry oneself
sich abwechseln(German) to alternate
sich abwenden(German) to turn away
sich abzeichen(German) to stand out, to be in the offing, to loom
sich ähneln(German) to be alike
sich akklimatisieren(German) to become acclimatized
sich als Held aufspielen(German) to play the hero
sich amüsieren(German) to be amused, to enjoy oneself
sich anbiedern(German) to ingratiate oneself
sich anbiedern bei(German) to ingratiate oneself with
sich anbieten(German) to offer
sich anbieten zu(German) to offer to
sich ändern(German) to change (oneself)
sich anders besinnen(German) to change one's mind
sich an die Arbeit machen(German) to set to work
sich aneignen(German) to appropriate, to learn
sich anfassen(German) to hold hands
sich anfreunden(German) to make friends, to become friends
sich anfreunden mit(German) to make friends with
sich ängstigen(German) to be frightened
sich ängstigen um(German) to be worried
sich anhäufen(German) to pile up, to accumulate
sich anklammern(German) to cling
sich anklammern an(German) to cling to
sich ankleiden(German) to dress
sich anlegen mit(German) to quarrel with
sich anlehnen(German) to lean
sich anmaßen(German) to presume
sich anmaßen zu(German) to presume to
sich anmelden(German) to say that one is coming, to register, to enrol, to check in (to a hotel), to make an appointment
sich annehmen(German) to take care of
sich anpassen(German) to adapt
sich ansagen(German) to say that one in coming
sich ansammeln(German) to collect, accumulate, to gather
sich anschicken(German) to be about
sich anschicken zu(German) to be about to
sich anschließen an(German) to adjoin, to follow, to become friendly with
sich ansetzen(German) to form, to burn
sich ansiedeln(German) to settle
sich anstecken(German) to catch an infection, to be infectious
sich anstecken bei(German) to catch an infection from
sich anstellen(German) to queue, to queue up, to make a fuss
sich anstrengen(German) to exert oneself, to make an effort
sich anstrengen zu(German) to make an effort to
sich anziehen(German) to get dressed
sich ärgern(German) to get annoyed
sich arrangieren(German) to come to an arrangement
sich aufbauen auf(German) to be based on (figurative)
sich aufblasen(German) to give oneself airs (figurative)
sich aufführen(German) to behave (oneself)
sich aufhalten(German) to stay, to spend one's time
sich aufhalten mit(German) to spend one's time on
sich aufheben(German) to cancel each other out
sich aufheitern(German) to brighten up (weather)
sich aufhellen(German) to brighten (sky)
sich aufklären(German) to be solved
sich aufmachen(German) to set out, to make oneself up
sich aufmachen mach(German) to set out for
sich aufopfern(German) to sacrifice oneself
sich aufpflanzen(German) to plant oneself
sich aufputschen(German) to take stimulants
sich aufraffen(German) to pick oneself up, to pull oneself together
sich aufraffen zu(German) to find the energy for
sich aufregen(German) to get excited, to get worked up
sich aufreiben(German) to wear oneself out
sich aufrichten(German) to straighten up, to sit up
sich aufschwingen zu(German) to find the energy for
sich aufspielen(German) to show off
sich aufstellen(German) to rise, to rise up, to line up
sich aufstützen(German) to lean
sich aufstützen auf(German) to lean on
sich auftun(German) to open
sich auf und davon machen(German) to make off
sich aufwärmen(German) to warm oneself
sich ausbedingen(German) to insist on, to stipulate
sich ausbilden(German) to train, to develop
sich ausbilden als(German) to train as
sich ausbilden zu(German) to train as
sich ausbreiten(German) to spread
sich ausdehnen(German) to stretch, to expand,to last
sich ausdenken(German) to think up, to imagine
sich ausdrücken(German) to express oneself
sich auseinandersetzen mit einem Problem(German) to come to grips with a problem
sich ausgeben als(German) to pretend to be
sich ausgleichen(German) to balance out
sich auskleiden(German) to undress
sich auslassen über(German) to go on about
sich ausleihen(German) to borrow
sich ausmalen(German) to imagine
sich ausruhen(German) to have a rest
sich ausschlafen(German) to get enough sleep, to sleep late
sich äußern(German) to comment, to manifest itself
sich aussöhnen(German) to become reconciled
sich aussprechen(German) to talk, to finish (speaking)
sich aussprechen für(German) to come out in favour of
sich aussprechen gegen(German) to come out against
sich ausstrecken(German) to stretch out
sich austoben(German) to rage, to let off steam (person), to romp about (children)
sich ausweinen(German) to have a good cry
sich ausweisen(German) to prove one's identity
sich auszählen(German) to pay off
sich auszeichnen(German) to distinguish oneself
sich ausziehen(German) to take off one's coat
sich bedanken(German) to thank
sich bedenken(German) to consider
sich beeilen(German) to hurry, to hasten
sich beeilen zu(German) to hasten to
sich befassen(German) to concern oneself, to deal
sich befassen mit(German) to concern oneself with, to deal with
sich befinden(German) to be
sich befreien(German) to free oneself
sich befreunden(German) to make friends
sich begeben(German) to go
sich begegnen(German) to meet
sich begeistern(German) to be enthusiastic
sich begeistern für(German) to be enthusiastic about
sich begnügen(German) to content oneself
sich begnügen mit(German) to content oneself with
sich behaupten(German) to hold one's own
sich beherrschen(German) to control oneself
sich beißen(German) to clash (colours)
sich bekehren(German) to become converted
sich bekennen zu(German) to confess to
sich beklagen(German) to complain
sich bekreuzigen(German) to cross oneself
sich belaufen auf(German) to amount to
sich beleben(German) to revive
sich bemächtigen(German) to seize
sich bemerkbar machen(German) to attract attention
sich bemühen(German) to try
sich bemühen zu(German) to try to
sich benachteiligt fühlen(German) to feel at a disadvantage
sich benehmen(German) to behave
sich bequem zu(German) to deign to
sich beraten(German) to confer
sich beraten lassen(German) to get advice, discuss
sich bereden(German) to talk
sich bereichern(German) to grow rich
sich bereitmachen(German) to get ready
sich berufen(German) to refer
sich berufen auf(German) to refer to
sich beruhigen(German) to calm down
sich beruhigend(German) acquietandosi (Italian), acchetandosi (Italian), becoming calmer, en s'apaisant (French)
sich berühren(German) to touch
sich besänftigend(German) to calm down, en se calmant
sich besaufen(German) to get drunk
sich beschäftigen(German) to occupy oneself
sich beschleunigen(German) to speed up, to quicken, to accelerate
sich beschmutzen(German) to get oneself dirty
sich beschränkenauf(German) to confine oneself to
sich beschwerden(German) to complain
sich besinnen(German) to think, to reflect, to remember
sich besprechen(German) to confer
sich besser(German) to get better, to improve
sich bestätigen(German) to prove to be true
sich betätigen(German) to work
sich betätigen als(German) to work as
sich beteiligen(German) to take part
sich beteiligen an(German) to take part in
sich betragen(German) to behave
sich betrinken(German) to get drunk
sich betten(German) to lie down
sich beugen(German) to bend
sich beunruhigen(German) to worry
sich bewähren(German) to prove one's worth, to prove it's worth, to prove a success
sich bewährenheiten(German) to prove to be true
sich bewegen(German) to move, to take exercise
sich beweisen(German) to prove oneself, to prove itself
sich bewerben(German) to apply
sich bewerben bei(German) to apply to
sich bewerben um(German) to apply for
sich bewölken(German) to cloud over
sich bezahlen machen(German) to pay off (figurative)
sich bezähmen(German) to restrain oneself
sich beziehen(German) to cloud over
sich beziehen auf(German) to refer to
sich beziffern auf(German) to amount to
sich biegen(German) to bend
sich bilden(German) to form, to educate oneself
sich binden(German) to commit oneself
sich blähen(German) to swell, to cause flatulence, to billow (curtain, sail)
sich blamieren(German) to disgrace oneself, to make a fool of oneself
sich bloßstellen(German) to show oneself up
sich brausen(German) to shower
sich brechen(German) to break (wave, shaft)
sich büchen(German) to bend down
sich daranmachen(German) to set out
sich das Gesicht pudern(German) to powder one's face
sich das Knie aufschürfen(German) to graze one's knee
sich decken(German) to cover oneself (familiar)
sich decken gegen(German) to cover oneself against (familiar)
sich dehnen(German) to stretch
sich demütig(German) to humble oneself
sich den Arm auskugeln(German) to dislocate one's shoulder
sich den Arm ausrenken(German) to dislocate one's shoulder
sich den Arm quetschen(German) to bruise one's arm
sich den Kopf zerbrechen(German) to rack one's brains
sich den Fuß vertreten(German) twist one's ankle
sich die Beine vertreten(German) stretch one's legs
sich die Füße abtreten(German) to wipe one's feet, to exit (theatre), to resign (figurative)
sich die Nase zuhalten(German) to hold one's nose
sich die Zeit vertreiben(German) to pass the time
sich distanzieren(German) to distance oneself
sich distanzieren von(German) to distance oneself from
sich drängeln(German) to crowd, to push, to be urgent, to press
sich drängeln um(German) to crowd round
sich drehen(German) to turn, to rotate, to (fast) spin, to change (wind direction)
sich drehen um(German) to revolve around, to be about, to turn, to change (wind direction)
sich drücken(German) to make oneself scarce
sich drücken vor(German) to shirk (familiar)
sich ducken(German) to duck, to cringe (familiar)
sich dumm anstellen(German) to act as if one is stupid, to play the fool
[entry supplied by Michael Zapf]
sich durchbringen mit(German) to make a living by
sich durchschlagen(German) to struggle through (figurative)
sich durchsetzen(German) to assert oneself, to catch on (style)
sich duschen(German) to have a shower
sich eine Ausrede zurechtlegen(German) to have an excuse ready
sich eine Blöß geben(German) to show a weakness (figurative)
sich entfernend(German) allontanandosi (Italian), allontanando (Italian), receding, moving away, dying away, entfernend (German), en s'éloignant (French)
Sicherheitsabstand(German m.) safe distance
sich erregen(German) to get worked up
sich erschöpfend(German) getting exhausted
Sicherung(German f.) fuse (electrical)
sich erwärmen(German) to warm up
sich erwärmen für(German) to warm to (figurative)
sich erweichen lassen(German) to relent (figurative)
sich erweisen als(German) to prove to be
sich fangen (in)(German) to get caught (in), to regain one's balance (figurative), to regain one's composure (figurative)
sich fein machen(German) to dress up
sich gänzlich verlierend(German) disappearing completely
sich gut anhören(German) to sound good
sich gut anlassen(German) to start off well
sich gut ausnehmen(German) to look good
sich gut treffen(German) to be convenient
sich hervortun(German) to distinguish oneself, to show off
sich hingebend(German) abandoning oneself, abbandonandosi (Italian), en s'abandonnant (French)
sich in acht nehmen(German) to be careful
sich in Bewegung setzen(German) to start to move
sich in Gefahr begeben(German) to expose oneself to danger
sich jucken(German) to scratch (an itch)
sich kapputmachen(German) to wear oneself out
sich kümmern um look after(German) to concern oneself with, to take notice of
sich kurz fassen(German) to be brief
sich kurz umdrehen(German) to turn on one's heels
sich lichten(German) to become less dense, to thin (hair)
sich Mut antrinken(German) to give oneself Dutch courage (i.e. take a drink to boost one's courage)
sich nebenbei beschäftigen (mit)(German) to dabble (in)
sich nicht beirren lassen(German) to not let oneself be put off
sich ohne Rechtstitel ansiedeln(German) to squat (occupy a building without permission)
sich operieren lassen (German) to have an operation
sich politisch betätigen(German) to engage in politics
sich quälen(German) to torment oneself, to suffer, to struggle
sich qualifizieren(German) to qualify
sich quetschen(German) to squeeze into
sich räuspern(German) to clear one's throat
sich schlecht anlassen(German) to start off badly
sich seinem Schmerz überlassen(German) to abandon oneself to one's grief
sich selbständig machen(German) to set up on one's own
sich selbst bedienen(German) to help oneself
sich selbst belügen(German) to deceive oneself
sich selbst betrügen(German) to deceive oneself
sich selbst überlassen sein(German) to be left to one's own devices
sich selbst übertreffen(German) to excel oneself
sich selbst überzeugen(German) to satisfy oneself
sich selbst verpflegen(German) to cater for oneself
sich still verhalten(German) to keep quiet
sich straffen(German) to tauten
sich sträuben(German) to stand on end (hair, fur), to resist (figurative)
sich streiten(German) to quarrel
sich stützen auf(German) to lean on, to be based on
Sicht(German f.) sight
sich tarnen(German) to disguise oneself, to camouflage oneself
sich tasten(German) to feel one's way
sich tasten zu(German) to feel one's way to
sich teilen(German) to divide, to fork, to open (curtains), to differ
sich totlachen(German) to be in stitches (familiar)
sich totstellen(German) to pretend to be dead
sich trauen(German) to dare
sich treffen (mit ...)(German) to meet (with ...)
sich trennen(German) to separate, to part
sich trennen von(German) to leave, to part with
sich trimmen(German) to keep fit
sich trösten(German) to console oneself
sich trüben(German) to become cloudy, to cloud over (sky), to dim (eyes), to deteriorate (eyesight, etc.)
sich tummeln(German) to romp (about), to hurry (up)
sich tun(German) to happen
sich türmen(German) to pile up
Sichuan operaa renowned local theatre/opera mainly prevailing in Southwestern China's Sichuan, Yunnan, and Guizhou provinces, Sichuan Opera is characterized by unique solos, refined acting, rich percussion, and talented comedians
sich überanstrengen(German) to overexert oneself
sich überarbeiten(German) to overwork
sich übergeben(German) to be sick
sich ... überhängen(German) to sling ... over one's shoulder, to put ... round one's shoulders
sich überlegen(German) to think over, to consider
es sich anders überlegen (German: to change one's mind)
sich übernehmen(German) to overdo things, to over-reach oneself (financially)
sich überschlagen(German) to somersault
sich überschneiden(German) to intersect, to cross, to overlap
sich überstürzen(German) to happen fast
sich überstürzend(German) precipitately
sich überwinden(German) to force oneself
sich umbringen(German) to kill oneself
sich umdrehen(German) to turn round, to turn over, to turn back, to turn one's back, to move round
sich umeinander sorgen(German) to worry about each other
sich umhören(German) to ask around
sich umkleiden(German) to change
sich umschauen(German) to look around, to look back
sich umsehen(German) to look around, to look back
sich umsehen nach(German) to look for
sich umstellen(German) to adjust
sich umwenden(German) to turn round
sich umziehen(German) to change
sich unterhalten(German) to enjoy oneself
sich unterordnen(German) to accept a subordinate role
sich unterrichten(German) to inform oneself
sich unterscheiden(German) to differ
sich unterstehen(German) to dare
sich unterstellen(German) to shelter
sich unterwerfenen(German) to submit
sich verabschieden(German) to say goodbye
sich verändern(German) to change, to change one's job
sich verantworten (für)(German) to answer (for)
sich verästeln(German) to branch out
sich verausgaben(German) to spend all one's money, to wear oneself out
sich verbergen(German) to hide
sich verbeugen(German) to bow
sich verbiegen(German) to bend
sich verbinden(German) to combine, to join together
sich ... verbitten(German) to not stand for ...
sich verbreiten(German) spread
sich verbreitern(German) widen
sich verbünden(German) to form an alliance
sich verbürgen für(German) to vouch for
sich verdichten(German) to thicken (fog)
sich verdoppeln(German) to double
sich verdrücken(German) to slip away (familiar)
sich verdunkeln(German) to darken
sich verdünnen(German) to taper off
sich vereinen(German) to unite
sich vereinigen(German) to unite
sich verengen(German) to narrow, to contract (pupil of the eye)
sich verewigen(German) to leave one's mark (familiar)
sich verfärben(German) to change colour, to discolour (a fabric, etc.)
sich verfeinden(German) to become enemies
sich verflüchtigen(German) to evaporate
sich vergehen(German) to violate, to sexually assault
sich vergewissern(German) to make sure
sich vergnügen(German) to enjoy oneself
sich vergreifen an(German) to assault, to steal
sich vergrößern(German) to grow bigger, to expand (business), to increase
sich verhalten(German) to behave, to act, to be
sich still verhalten (German: to keep quiet)
sich verhärten(German) to harden
sich verheiraten (mit)(German) to get married (to)
sich verhören(German) to mishear
sich verirren(German) to get lost
sich verjüngen(German) to taper
sich verkalkulieren(German) to miscalculate
sich verkleiden(German) to disguise oneself, to dress up (in a costume, etc.)
sich ... verkneifen(German) to do without ..., to suppress ...
sich verkriechen(German) to hide
sich verkühlen(German) to catch a chill
sich verlassen auf(German) to rely on, to depend on
sich verlaufen(German) to lose one's way,to disperse (crowd); to drain away (water)
sich verlegen auf(German) to take up, to resort to
sich verlieben(German) to fall in love
sich verlieren(German) to disappear, to peter out (a road)
sich verlierend(German) dying away, disappearing, perdendosi (Italian), verebbend (German), en se perdant (French)
sich verloben (mit)(German) to get engaged (to)
sich vermählen(German) to marry
sich vermehren(German) to increase, to breed (plants), to multiply
sich vermischen(German) to mix
sich verneigen(German) to bow
sich verpflichten (zu)(German) to undertake (to), to promise (to), to sign a contract
sich verraten(German) to give oneself away
sich verrechnen(German) to make a mistake, to miscalculate (figurative)
sich verrenken(German) to contort oneself
sich verringern(German) to decrease
sich versammeln(German) to assemble, to meet
sich verschaffen(German) to obtain, to gain (respect)
sich verschärfen(German) to intensify, to increase, to worsen (situation, position)
sich verschätzen in(German) to misjudge
sich verschieben(German) to move, to shift, to slip, to be postponed
sich verschlafen(German) to oversleep
(German) sleepy
sich verschlechtern(German) to get worse, to deteriorate
sich verschlimmern(German) to get worse, to deteriorate
sich verschlucken (an)(German) to choke (on)
sich verschnaufen(German) to get one's breath
sich verschreiben(German) to make a slip of the pen
sich verschwören(German) to conspire
sich versehen(German) to make a mistake
sich versenken in(German) to immerse oneself in
sich versingen(German) to play or sing a wrong note, to mess up
sich versöhnen(German) to become reconciled
sich versorgen(German) to look after oneself
[entry supplied by Michael Zapf]
sich verspäten(German) to be late
sich verspielen(German) to play or sing a wrong note, to mess up
sich versprechen(German) to make a slip of the tongue
sich viel versprechen von (German: to have high hopes of)
sich versteifen(German) to stiffen, to insist (figurative)
sich verständig(German) to communicate, to make oneself understood, to reach agreement
sich verständlich machen(German) to make oneself understood
sich verständigen(German) to communicate, to make oneself understood, to reach agreement
sich verstärken(German) to intensify
sich verstecken(German) to hide
sich verstehen(German) to understand one another, to get on (together)
sich versteifen(German) to stiffen, to insist (figurative)
sich versteifen auf(German) to insist on (figurative)
sich verstellbar(German) to pretend
sich verstellen(German) to pretend
sich versuchen in(German) to try one's hand at
sich versündigen (an)(German) to sin (against)
sich vertagen(German) to adjourn
sich verteilen(German) to spread out
sich vertippen(German) to make a typing mistake
sich vertragen(German) to get on, to go
sich vertragen mit (German: to go with)
sich wieder vertragen (German: to make it up)
sich vertraut machen mit(German) to familiarise oneself with (an instrument, a work, etc.)
sich vertun(German) to make a mistake
sich verwählen(German) to misdial
sich verwahren(German) to protest (figurative)
sich verwandeln(German) to change, to turn
sich verwandeln in(German) to turn into
sich verwerfen(German) to warp
sich verwickeln(German) to get tangled up
sich verwirklichen(German) to be realized
sich verwirren(German) to get tangled, to become confused (figurative)
sich verwundern(German) to be surprised
sich verzählen(German) to miscount
sich verzehren(German) to pine away (figurative)
sich verziehen(German) to lose shape, to warp (wood), to twist (fact), to disappear, to disperse (fog, mist), to pass
sich verzögern(German) to be delayed
sich viel Arbeit machen(German) to go to a lot of trouble
sich viel versprechen von(German) to have high hopes of
sich vor Lachen ausschütten(German) to be in stitches (laughing)
sich vor Lachen biegen(German) to double up with laughter
sich wagen(German) to venture
sich wälzen(German) to roll, to roll about, to toss and turn
sich wandeln(German) to change
sich weich anfassen(German) to feel soft
sich weich anfühlen(German) to feel soft
sich zanken(German) to squabble, to scold
sich zeigen(German) to appear, to become clear
sich Zeit lassen(German) to take one's time
sich zerschlagen(German) to fall through (figurative), to be dashed (hopes), to worn out (exhausted)
sich zersetzen(German) to decompose
sich zerstreuen(German) to disperse, to amuse oneself
sich ziehen(German) to run, to warp, to pull, to draw, to simmer (cooking)
sich ziemen(German) to be seemly
sich zieren(German) to make a fuss, to need coaxing
sich zu einfach anziehen(German) to underdress
sich zufriedengeben(German) to be satisfied
sich zumachen(German) to get ready
sich zunutze machen(German) to make use of, to take advantage of
sich zurechtfinden(German) to find one's way
sich zuruckhalten(German) to restrain oneself
sich zusammennehmen(German) to pull oneself together
sich zusammenreißen(German) to pull oneself together
sich zusammenrollen(German) to curl up
sich zusammenschließen(German) to join together, to merge (firms)
sich zusammensetzen(German) to sit together, to sit down together
sich zusammensetzen aus(German) to be made up from
sich zusammenziehen(German) to contract, to gather, to move in together, to move in
sich zuspitzen(German) to become critical (figurative)
sich zutragen(German) to happen
sich zuviel zumuten(German) to overdo things
sich zuwenden(German) to turn to, to devote oneself to
sich zuziehen(German) to contract, to sustain, to incur, to move into the area
sich zwingen(German) to force oneself
Sic itur ad astra(Latin, literally 'this way to the stars') this way to immortality
Siciliana(Italian f., Spanish f.) or siciliano, a dance of Sicilian origin, usually in a minor key, in compound duple or quadruple time with a swaying rhythm, sicilienne (French)
Siciliano(Italian m.) see siciliana
Sicilian octave(in Italian ottava siciliana or ottava napoletana, lit. 'Neapolitan octave') a verse form consisting of eight lines of eleven syllables each, called a hendecasyllable. The form is common in late medieval Italian poetry . In English poetry iambic pentameter is often used instead of syllabics. The form has a prescribed rhyme scheme of four rhymed couplets, or ABABABAB. Though only the final two rhymes are different from the much more common ottava rima, the two eight-line forms evolved completely separately. According to the Princeton Encyclopedia, scholars disagree on the origin of the Sicilian octave, but all agree that it is related to the development of the first eight lines of the sonnet (called the octave). It is not clear whether the octave emerged first and influence the sonnet or vice versa
Sicilian schoolin a literary context, the term Sicilian School identifies a small community of Sicilian, and to a lesser extent, mainland Italian poets gathered around Frederick II, most of them belonging to his court, the Magna Curia. Headed by Giacomo da Lentini, they produced more than three-hundred poems of courtly love between 1230 and 1266, the experiment being continued after Frederick's death by his son, Manfredi. This school included Enzo, king of Sardinia, Pier delle Vigne, Inghilfredi, Guido and Odo delle Colonne, Jacopo d'Aquino, Giacomino Pugliese, Giacomo da Lentini, Arrigo Testa and Frederick II himself. These poets drew their inspiration from the troubadour poetry of Southern France
Sicilienne(French f.) siciliana
Sicklingin dance, this term is used for a fault in which the dancer turns his or her foot in from the ankle, thereby breaking the straight line of the leg
Sic passim(Latin, literally 'thus throughout the original') a parenthetic insertion in a quotation or citation emphasing that an error or anomaly is as it was in the source from which the quatation is taken or to which the citation refers
Sic transit gloria mundi(Latin, literally 'thus the glory of the world passes away') a Latin phrase that has been interpreted as 'fame is fleeting'
Sicut erat in principio(Latin, literally 'as it was in the beginning') it was conventional practice in church music of the Renaissance period, and later, to recall the opening music of a psalm for the phrase in the doxology that reads sicut erat in principio
Sida(Swedish) page
abbreviation of syndrome immunodéficitaire acquis (French: )AIDS
Siddasee tabla
Side(Danish, Norwegian) page
Side blownalso called 'cross blown', rather than blowing directly into the instrument the player blows across the mouthpiece e.g. the transverse flute
Side-blown trumpeta trumpet where the mouthpiece lies on the side of the instrument rather than at one end
Side drumsnare drum, caisse claire or tambour militaire (French), Kleine Trommel (German), tamburo piccolo or tambour militaire (Italian), caja clara (Spanish)
a small two-headed drum with a membrane or skin, the lower surface in contact with a set of strings called snares which when engaged produce a rattling effect. In the orchestra the side drum is usually placed on a stand. Sizes range from 15-18cm for the standard orchestral instrument, to 45-90cm for the field drum and 8-10cm for the piccolo snare. The orchestral player uses wooden or nylon tipped drum sticks, wire brushes or soft mallets. The side drum can be muffled by loosening the snares or by inserting a piece of silk or cloth between the snares and the parchment
Side leadin dance, a body position or action during a step, sometimes also called 'Same side lead'. Side leading is taking the same side of the body in the same direction of the movement of the moving foot. The word "taking" means that if a step is taken squarely forward or backward, for example, by the left foot, then the left side slightly rotates to the right or to the left respectively, as if the side of the body "leads" the step
Sideman(English, German m.) or sideperson, a member of a band who is not the leader, or a session player
Side projectin popular music, a side project is a project undertaken by one or more persons already known for their involvement in another band. It can also be an artist or a band temporarily switching to a different style. Usually these projects emphasize a different aspect of that person's or that band's musical interests than they feel they cannot explore within the boundaries established by their main project. Side projects can later become full-time endeavours, but shouldn't be confused with quitting a band for a solo career or another band
Side-slippingin jazz, to play a passage, a melody or chord, a semitone (half-step) up or down from its expected place or in relation to the given harmony
Side stitchingin printing, to stitch through the side from front to back at the binding edge with thread or wire
Si dièse
note B sharp
(French m.) the note 'B sharp', the sharpened seventh note in the scale of C major
Si diesis
note B flat
(Italian m.) the note 'B sharp', the sharpened seventh note in the scale of C major
Si doppio bemolle
note B double flat
(Italian m.) the note 'B double flat', the doubly flattened seventh note in the scale of C major
Si doppio diesis
note B double sharp
(Italian m.) the note 'B double sharp', the doubly sharpened seventh note in the scale of C major
Si double bémol
note B double flat
(French m.) the note 'B double flat', the doubly flattened seventh note in the scale of C major
Si double dièse
note B double sharp
(French m.) the note 'B double sharp', the doubly sharpened seventh note in the scale of C major
Siebdruckschablone(German f.) screen printing stencil
sie bekanntgaben(German) was announced
[entry provided by Michael Zapf]
sieben(German) seven
Siebenklang(German) heptachord, a scale of seven notes
siebensaitige Gitarre(German f.) seven-string guitar
siebente(German) seventh
Siebtelton (s.), Siebteltöne (pl.)(German m.) seventh tone
siebzehn(German) seventeen
siebzig(German) seventy
Sieg(German) victory
Siège(French m.) seat, siege (military)
sie gaben bekannt(German) was announced
[entry provided by Michael Zapf]
Siège éjectable(French m.) ejector seat
Siegelabdruck(German m.) seal (as on or attached to a document)
Siege of Rhodes, Thecommonly regarded as the first through sung English opera, it was first performed in Rutland House in 1656 before a private, royalist audience. The organiser and librettist was William Davenant (1606-1668), who had followed Ben Jonson (1572-1637) as Court playwright. The scenery was designed John Webb (1611-1672) (assistant to Inigo Jones (1573-1652), who had himself collaborated with Jonson on many Masques). It had another notable feature. Webb designed the scenery on the Italian system of painted backgrounds and movable flats, providing a link between the fixed scenery of the Court Masque and the flexible scenery of the Jacobean Theatre
siegen(German) to win
Siegeslied(German n.) a triumphal or victory song
Siège social(French m.) head office, headquarters
sièger(French) sit (assembly)
Sieguemisspelling of segue
siehe oben(German) see above, supra
siehe unten(German) see below, infra
siempre hay alguno que no está conforme(Spanish) there's always someone who doesn't agree
¡siempre la misma cantinela!(Spanish) always the same old story! aways the same old thing!
¡siempre la misma canción!(Spanish) always the same old story!
siempre se agradece una sonrisa(Spanish) a smile is always welcome
si encore(French) if only
Siendo las .... horas del día..... del mes ....(Spanish) At ... (time) on the ... (date) of ..... (month) (found on a legal document close to the space for the signature(s))
siente adoración por sus hermanos(Spanish) she adores her brothers
siente añoranza de su país(Spanish) he yearns for his country
siente añoranza por su país(Spanish) he yearns for his country
siente una gran atracción por ella(Spanish) he feels strongly attracted to her
siento que tengas que pasar por ese amargo trance(Spanish) I'm sorry that you have to go through such an awful situation
Sie rauschte aus dem Zimmer(German) she swept from the room
Sierra(Spanish f.) saw
in geology, a range of mountains rising into peaks somewhat like the teeth of a saw
Sierra musical(Spanish f.) musical saw
SiesenkiPolish bagpipe
Siesta(Spanish f.) an afternoon rest, especially one taken in tropical and sub-tropical regions during the hottest part of the day
siete(Spanish) seven
Siete Canciones Populares Espanolas (1914-15)(Spanish, literally 'Seven Spanish Folksongs') for Mezzo-soprano and piano by Manuel de Falla (1876-1946)
the Seven Spanish Folksongs feature songs from different regions of Spain:
El Pano MorunoMurcia region in Southeast Spain
Sequidilla Murcianafrom the Murcia region in Southeast Spain, moderately fast dance of in triple meter
Asturianafrom the Asturias region of Northern Spain, sad and slow
Jotafrom the Aragon Region of Northeastern Spain; a rapid dance in triple time performed by one or more couples and accompanied by castanets
Nanaa traditional lullaby
Canciona well-known Spanish melody
Polofrom Andalusia; evokes flamenco music of the Andalusian gypsies
Sievinga process associated with modern musical set theory, in which the pitch content of some material, that may be pre-existing, is reduced by selecting the portion to be used and omitting repeated pitches from the sieved set
siffler(French) to whistle
Sifflet(French m.) whistle, fife, pipe, fischietto (Italian m.) Pfeife (German f.: fife), Querpfeife (German f.: fife), Flöte (German f.: whistle, pipe), pifano (Spanish m.)
(French m.) hiss
Sifflet à coulisse(French m.) slide whistle
Siffleur (m.), Siffleuse (f.)(French) a person skilled in the art of whistling, a person hired to hiss and boo at a dramatic performance
Sifflöte(German f.) a high-pitched (2 ft., 1 ft.) organ stop of the Hohl-flute species
Sigaomaa more modern Malagasy salegy dance with South African pop influence
siga, por favor(Spanish) please continue
Sighsee 'springer'
Sighingemitting an audible breath in sadness (weariness, relief, etc.), sospirando (Italian), seufzend (German), soupirant (French)
Sightingfrom 15th-century England, also called faburden, a term for the technique of improvising parallel lines of music to the written plainchant. The first part would be sung a third below the melody except for a few notes that would be a fifth below. The second part would be sung a fourth above the main melody
Sight reading (instrumental)to perform a piece of music never seen before
see 'silent sight-reading', 'chunking', 'eye-hand span'
Sight singing (vocal)also called prima vista singing, to perform a piece of vocal music never seen before
Sigillum (s.), Sigla (pl.)(Latin) a seal (as might be attached to a legal document)
Sigla(Italian f.) initials, abbreviation
Sigla musicale(Italian f.) signature tune
siglare(Italian) initial
Siglo(Spanish m.) century, time (epoch), age, ages (figurative), world (figurative)
Siglo X (Spanish: 10th-century)
Siglo XI (Spanish: 11th-century)
Siglo XII (Spanish: 12th-century)
Siglo XIII (Spanish: 13th-century)
Siglo XIV (Spanish: 14th-century)
Siglo XV (Spanish: 15th-century)
Siglo XVI (Spanish: 16th-century)
Siglo XVII (Spanish: 17th-century)
Siglo XVIII (Spanish: 18th-century)
Siglo XIX (Spanish: 19th-century)
Siglo XX (Spanish: 20th-century)
Siglo de las Luces(Spanish m.) Age of the Enlightenment
Siglum (s.), Sigla (pl.)(Latin) a letter or marking used as an abbreviation for a word in a manuscript, a printed text, on coins, on medals, etc.
Signsegno (Italian), Zeichen (German), signe (French)
in linguistics, the basis of Ferdinand de Saussure's theory of signification (semiology)
Signaalhoorn(Dutch) bugle
Signalinformation being measured, transmitted or received via any medium. In terms of sound, it may be a sound to which one wishes to listen, or an electrical representation of a sound (audio signal) which is being recorded or reproduced (as with a microphone, tape recorder and magnetic tape, or a disc recording), transmitted or broadcast (as with radio), or synthesized electronically or by means of a computer
  • Signal from which this extract has been taken
Signal d'entracte(French m.) interval signal
Signal generatoralso called 'tone generator' (in audio only), 'waveform generator', or 'frequency generator', an electronic instrument that generates repeating electronic signals
Signalhorn(German n.) signal horn, hunting horn, trompeta de caza (Spanish f.), corno da caccia (Italian m.), Jagdhorn (German n.), cor de chasse (French m.), bugle (French m.)
Signal hornbugle
Signalist(German) a military trumpet player
Signalprozessor(German m.) a signal processor
Signal-to-Noise ratiothe ratio, usually expressed in decibels, of the average signal (recorded or processed) to the background noise (caused by the electronic circuits)
Signatur(German) signature
Signatura tiempo(Spanish f.) or signo de compás, time signature
there are three kinds of signature:
clef signature
chiave (Italian)
Notenschlüssel (German)
armure de la clé (French)
a sign placed at the far left of the staff marking the pitch of a note placed on one particular line
key signature
Tonartvorzeichnung (German)
tonalité à l'armure (French)
signs placed on the staff to mark the number and position of the sharps or flats usually those appropriate to the key in which the piece is written, for example, two sharps for D major or B minor. Because these chromatic signs are proper to the key they are not strictly accidentals
time signature
meter signature (US)
Taktvorzeichnung (German)
signature temps (French)
division temporelle (French)
a sign placed on the staff to indicate the number of beats in a bar (or measure), usually shown by two numbers one directly above the other, but occasionally marked with a single digit (2 or 3) or a large letter C with or without a vertical line passing through it
Signature de clé(French m.) key signature
Signature motifs
motifs based on letters from the names of noted composers (using the German note naming convention)
B, A, C, B naturalfor Bach (usually J. S. Bach)
F, E flat, C, B naturalfor Franz Schubert (F. Schubert)
E flat, C, B natural, B flat, E, Gfor Arnold Schoenberg (Schönberg)
D, E flat, C, B naturalfor Dmitri Shostakovich (D. Schostakowitsch; DSCH)
B, E, B, A or B, A, B, Efor Béla Bartók (Béla Bartók, the latter motif recognizing the Hungarian practice of placing the family name before the personal name)
C, A, G, Efor John Cage, used by Pauline Oliveros and, in the composition "CAGE DEAD", by Simon Jeffes of the Penguin Cafe Orchestra
A, B flat, B natural, Ffor Alban Berg and Hanna Fuchs-Robettin (A. B. and H. F.), used in Berg's Lyric Suite
A, B flat, E, G, G for Meta Abegg, the inspiration for Robert Schumann's Abegg Variations, Op. 1
A, S, C, H and As, C, H (in English notation A-E flat-C-B and A flat-C-B), used in Schumann's Carnaval. He was romantically involved with one Ernestine von Fricken, who came from a town whose name in German was "Asch". These letters also appear in Schumann's own name. Every piece in the whole cycle is based on one or other of these motifs
Signaturen(German) the numbers used in figured bass to indicate the accompanying harmonies
Signature rythmique(French m.) time signature
Signature temps(French m.) time signature
Signature tuneErkennungsmelodie (German f.), a popular song or dance tune that has become associated with a performer, a radio or television programme, or a dance band or light orchestra
Signe(French m.) sign, segno
Signe d'abaissement(French m.) Erniedrigungszeichen (German n.), a sign that chromatically lowers the pitch of a note, i.e. the flat and the double flat sign
Signe d'altération(French m.) accidental, Vorzeichen (German n.)
Signe d'élévation(French m.) Erhöhungszeichen (German n.), a sign that chromatically raises the pitch of a note, i.e. the sharp and the double sharp sign
Signe de valeur(French m.) time signature
Signe d'expression(French m.) expression mark
signer pour ...(French) to sign on behalf of ...
Signes accidentels(French) accidental single or double sharps, single or double flats or naturals
Signes d'alteració, els(Catalan) accidentals
Signes de prolongation(French m. pl.) signs that indicate the extend the duratin of a note, for example le point d'augmentation (English: augmentation dot), le doublepoint (d'augmentation) (English: augmentation double dot), la liaison (English: tie), le point d'orgue (English: a pause (on a note)), le point d'arrêt (English: a pause (on a rest))
Signes des silences(French) rests
Signetthe personal seal of the monarch of England, developed into a separate royal secretariat in the 14th century; also used in a more general sense for a small personal seal
Significación(Spanish f.) meaning, significance
Significado(Spanish m.) meaning
significado(Spanish) well-known
significar(Spanish) to mean, to express
significarse(Spanish) to stand out
significativo(Spanish) significant
Signo(Spanish m.) sign
Signo ampersand(Spanish m.) ampersand (&)
Signo de adición(Spanish m.) plus sign, addition sign (+)
Signo de admiración(Spanish m.) exclamation mark (!)
Signo de alteración(Spanish m.) accidental (sign), signe d'altération (French), Vorzeichen (German n.)
Signo de apertura de admiración(Spanish m.) inverted exclamation mark (¡)
Signo de apertura de exclamación(Spanish m.) inverted exclamation mark (¡)
Signo de centavo(Spanish m.) cent symbol (¢)
Signo de cierre de admiración(Spanish m.) normal exclamation mark (!)
Signo de cierre de exclamación(Spanish m.) normal exclamation mark (!)
Signo de cierre de interrogación(Spanish m.) normal exclamation mark (?)
Signo de compás(Spanish m.) or signatura tiempo, time sign
Signo de derechos de autor(Spanish m.) copyright sign (©)
Signo de dólar(Spanish m.) dollar sign ($)
Signo de equivalencia (Spanish m.) signo de tilde, equivalence sign, tilde (~)
Signo de euro(Spanish m.) euro symbol ()
Signo de fin de párrafo(Spanish m.) pilcrow, paragraph sign ()
Signo de grado(Spanish m.) degree (°)
Signo de igual(Spanish m.) equal sign (=)
Signo de intercalación(Spanish m.) or acento circunflejo (Spanish m.), circumflex (ˆ)
Signo de interrogación(Spanish m.) question mark (?)
Signo de Libra Esterlina(Spanish m.) pound sterling symbol (£)
Signo de marca registrada(Spanish m.) registered mark (®)
(Spanish m.) registered trade mark ()
Signo de más(Spanish m.) plus sign, addition sign (+)
Signo de más o menos(Spanish m.) plus or minus sign, plus/minus sign (±)
Signo de mayor que(Spanish m.) greater than sign (>)
Signo de menor que(Spanish m.) less than sign (<)
Signo de menos(Spanish m.) minus sign, subtraction sign (-)
Signo de micro(Spanish m.) micro- (10 to the power of -6) (µ)
Signo de número(Spanish m.) hash sign (#)
Signo de porcentaje(Spanish m.) percentage sign (%)
Signo de pro mil(Spanish m.) per thousand sign ()
Signo de sección(Spanish m.) section symbol (§)
Signo de subrayado(Spanish m.) underscore, underline (_)
Signo de sustracción(Spanish m.) minus sign, subtraction sign (-)
Signo de yen(Spanish m.) Japanese yen symbol (¥)
Signo igual(Spanish m.) the equal sign (=)
Signo invertido de admiración(Spanish m.) inverted exclamation mark (¡)
Signo invertido de interrogación(Spanish m.) inverted question mark (¿)
Signo normal de admiración(Spanish m.) normal exclamation mark (!)
Signo normal de interrogación(Spanish m.) normal question mark (?)
Signos de acentuación(Spanish m.) any expression mark used in musical notation, particularly that associated with note length, slurring, arpeggiation and legato
Signos de articulación(Spanish m. pl.) in music, articulation marks
Signos de compás(Spanish m. pl.) in music, time signatures
Signos de expresión(Spanish m. pl.) in music, expression marks
Signos de prolongación(Spanish m.)
in music, symbols used to indicate a prolonging of duration:
ligadura (de unión)a tie
puntilloa dot of prolongation or augmentation dot
calderónpause mark, indicating, when placed over a note head, that the note should be held for longer than its written duration
tenutousually marked with a horizontal line placed above or below the note head, indicating that the note should be held for its full duration
Signos de puntuación(Spanish m. pl.) punctuation marks, scoring (in a competition), marking (homework)
Signos de repetición(Spanish m. pl.) in music, repeat signs
Signos reguladores(Spanish m. pl.) in music, dynamic markings
Signs (musical)symbols placed on or near a staff indicating performance specifications for pitch, dynamics, time duration, accidentals, phrasing, manner of attack, timing, tempo, repeats, fingering, ornamentation, use of pedals or mutes, etc.
Sign singingalso called 'Karaoke signing', singing using sign language. Typically a song is played, and the "singer" expressively performs a sign language version of the lyrics. Well-known sign singers include the Japanese Tomoko Nakayama, a follower of Nichiren Buddhism, and the bawdy Australian duo 'Dislabelled'. In London in 2003, a series of 'Deaf Idol' events were held where deaf participants competed in karaoke singing, dance etc, in a similar format to the TV show Pop Idol. Sign singing also features in the movie Napoleon Dynamite
Signs of characterin the theatre, the various cues that convey a character's personality, emotion or motivation
Signs of performancein the theatre, an actor's movements, expressions and vocal tones and patterns that contribute to signs of character
Signs of the zodiacsignes du zodiaque (Italian), Tierkreiszeichen des Zodiaks (German), signes du zodiaque (French), signos zodiacales (Spanish). Although the zodiac remains the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system in use in astronomy besides the equatorial one, the term and the names of the twelve signs are today mostly associated with horoscopic astrology
EnglishAstronomical PeriodEnglish translationItalianGermanFrenchSpanish
AriesMar 21-Apr 19The RamArieteWidderle BélierAries
TaurusApr 20-May 20The BullToroStierle TaureauTauro
GeminiMay 21-Jun 20The TwinsGemelliZwillingeles GémeauxGéminis
CancerJun 21-July 22The CrabCancroKrebsle CancerCáncer
LeoJul 23-Aug 22The LionLeoneLöwele LionLeo
VirgoAug 23-Sep 22The VirginVergineJungfraula ViergeVirgo
LibraSep 23-Oct 22The ScalesBilanciaWaagela BalanceLibra
ScorpioOct 23-Nov 21The ScorpionScorpioneSkorpionle ScorpionEscorpio
SagittariusNov 22-Dec 21Centaur The ArcherSagittarioSchützele SagittaireSagitario
CapricornDec 22-Jan 19"Goat-Horned" (The Sea-Goat)CapricornoSteinbockle CapricorneCapricornio
AquariusJan 20-Feb 18The Water BearerAquarioWassermannle VerseauAcuario
PiscesFeb 19-Mar 20The FishesPesciFischeles PoissonsPiscis
Signum congruentiaoften shortened to signum, a sign that shows the start and end of a derived part in a canon, which was widely used in the 15th-century. Other signs or notational devices might indicated when the derived part was to be performed at a different pitch, or in a retrograde or inverted form. The signum congruentia was also used in parts books to show where all the parts 'come together', in order words rather in the present-day manner of using numbers or letters to mark the beginning of sections
Siguidillasee seguidilla
siguiente(Spanish) following, next
Siguiriyas(Spanish) a flamenco song style derived from tonás, full of drama and with a large number of variations. They consist in a powerful wordless introduction followed by a four verse stanza
si ha s'immaginar la battuta di 6/8(Italian) imagine the time to be 6/8, i.e. play the music as though the time is 6/8
Sihufour-stringed type of Mongolian khuuchir or spike tube fiddle
Siiriria single-stringed, spiked fiddle, which the Luo call orutu
Sij(Spanish m./f.) Sikh
Sijo(Korean) short lyric song which is very similar to the gagok in tone and text
Sikadrahaa Malagasy scraper. A long piece of bamboo with transverse ridges cut into it that is played by scraping with a stick
SikuAndean double-row panpipes typically made of cane or clay
Sikyia recreational music and dance of the youth of Ashanti. It originated in the 1920s but became very popular around Ghana's independence in 1957. It is performed in the vein of kpanlongo of the Ga of Accra and boboobo of the Northern Ewe of the Volta Region of Ghana. Sikyi is seen principally at social gatherings where the youth solely express themselves in courtship. It is flirtatious in character. Its characteristic form is the strutting and bobbing up and down and a display of theatrical elegance
Sila large Tibetan cymbal
Silaba(Spanish f.) syllable
silbar(Spanish) to whistle, siffler (French)
(Spanish) to hiss, to boo
Silabario(Spanish m.) spelling book
silabear(Spanish) to divide words into syllables
silábico (m.), silábica (f.)(Spanish) syllabic
si le das alas, ...(Spanish) if you let him have his own way, ...
Silba(Spanish f.) hissing
el público respondió con una escandalosa silba a ... (Spanish: the audience hissed and booed at ...)
silbar(Spanish) to whistle, to hiss, to boo
Silbato(Spanish m.) whistle, for example as used by the referee in a sports match
Silbe(German f.) syllable
Silbentrennung(German f.) word-division
Silberhochzeit(German f.) silver wedding
silberne Hochzeit(German f.) silver wedding
Silbido(Spanish m.) whistle, whistling, sifflement (French)
(Spamish m.) hiss, ring (telephone), ringing (telephone)
Silbido de oídos(Spanish m.) a ringing in the ears
Silbo(Spanish m.) whistle (with the mouth), whistling (with the mouth), hiss
Silbotea larger version of the Basque txistu, a three-hole pipe
Silence(French m.) an absence of sound
(French m.) in music, a rest, Pausezeichen (German n.), silencio (Spanish m.)
the role of silence in music fascinated the American composer John Cage (1912-1992) and led him to write 4' 33"
'To focus on the phenomenon of musical silence is analogous to deliberately studying the spaces between trees in a forest: somewhat perverse at first, until one realizes that these spaces contribute to the perceived character of the forest itself, and enable us to speak coherently of 'dense' growth or 'sparse' vegetation. In other words, silence is not nothing. It is not the null set. Silence is experienced both as meaningful and as adhering to the sounding position of the musical object.' Thomas Clifton The Poetics of Musical Silence Musical Quarterly (1976) LXII: pp. 163-181
Silence de brève
breve rest(French m.) a breve rest (double whole rest) equal to two semibreve rests (whole rests)
silenceux (m.), silencieuse (f.)(French) silent
silenciar(Spanish) to muffle, to hush, to keep silent
Silencio (s.), Silencios (pl.)(Spanish m.) silence
(Spanish m.) rest
in flamenco, any section in a performance when the guitar remains silent, for example when a dancer accelerates his or her footsteps
a section in alegrais which is played in a minor key at a much slower pace
Silencio de blanca
minim rest(Spanish m.) minim rest (half rest), a rest half the value of a semibreve rest (whole rest)
Silencio de breve
breve rest(Spanish m.) a breve rest (double whole rest) equal to two semibreve rests (whole rests)
Silencio de cuadrada
breve rest(Spanish m.) a breve rest (double whole rest) equal to two semibreve rests (whole rests)
Silencio de corchea
quaver rest(Spanish m.) a quaver rest, an eighth rest, a rest one eighth the duration of a semibreve rest or whole rest
Silencio de doble redonda
breve rest(Spanish m.) a breve rest, a double whole rest
Silencio de fusa
demisemiquaver rest(Spanish) a demisemiquaver rest, a thirty-second rest, a rest one thirty-second the duration of a semibreve rest or whole rest
Silencio de garrapatea
semihemidemisemiquaver rest(Spanish m.) a semihemidemisemiquaver rest, a one hundred and twentieth rest, a rest one hundred and twenty eighth the duration of a semibreve rest or whole rest
Silencio de negra
crotchet rest orcrotchet rest(Spanish m.) a crotchet rest (quarter rest) of which four equal the time value of a whole rest or semibreve rest, pausa di semiminima (Italian f.), soupir (French m.), Viertelpause (German f.), pausa de negra (Spanish f.), silencio de semiminima (Spanish m.), pausa de semiminima (Spanish f.)
Silencio de redonda
semibreve rest(Spanish m.) a semibreve rest, a whole rest
Silencio de semicorchea
semiquaver rest(Spanish m.) a semiquaver rest (sixteenth rest), a rest one sixteenth the time value of a whole note rest or semibreve rest
Silencio de semifusa
hemidemisemiquaver rest(Spanish m.) a hemidemisemiquaver rest, a sixty-fourth rest, a rest one sixty-fourth the duration of a semibreve rest or whole rest
Silencio de semiminima
crotchet rest orcrotchet rest(Spanish m.) a crotchet rest (quarter rest) of which four equal the time value of a whole rest or semibreve rest, pausa di semiminima (Italian f.), soupir (French m.), Viertelpause (German f.), silencio de negra (Spanish f.), pausa de negra (Spanish f.), pausa de semiminima (Spanish f.)
silencioso (m.), silenciosa (f.)(Spansh) quiet, silent
Silencis(Catalan m. pl.) rests
Silent sight-readinghighly skilled musicians can sight-read silently; that is, they can look at the printed music and hear it in their heads without playing or singing. Less able sight-readers generally must at least hum or whistle in order to sight-read effectively
Silenzio(Italian m.) silence
silenzio(Italian) keep quiet
Silenzio perfetto(Italian m.) perfect silence, general rest
silenzioso(Italian) silent
si leva il sordino(Italian) take off the mute
si levano i sordini(Italian) take off the mutes
Sílfide(Spanish f.) sylph
SilhouetteFinance Minister, Etienne de Silhouette created an amusement for the eighteenth-century French court by cutting out portraits in profile from black paper. Meanwhile the masses hurt by his tax policies took to wearing black, protesting they could not afford to wear colour. Their mimicry became known as dressing à la Silhouette. Profiles in black are still referred to as silhouettes. Eventually silhouettes were exchanged as tokens of friendship, then as a customary first exchange between lovers. This art form, the poor man's portrait, was very popular until the 1840s when photography came into fashion
Sílice(Spanish f.) silica
Silicio(Spanish m.) silicon
Silicona(Spanish f.) silicone
Silicon papernon-stick silicon-impregnated paper
Peter Krantz, writing about using silicon paper in book restoration makes the following comments:

"waxed paper has its limitations, due to the thin film of wax which can lift off with repeated use, often just single use. Even heavier waxed sheets can go this way. From our experience, the better form of non-stick paper is silicon-coated paper. Baker's non-stick paper is silicon-impregnated, but it is porous to moisture, and ripples. Freezer paper may also be silicon-impregnated paper. The translucent base of these latter two is a special vegetable-based paper. For a reliable non-stick paper, the industrial form of silicon paper mostly comes single-sided. It is known as silicon release paper, sometimes backing or carrier paper. It is common to find it as the backing paper for adhesive tapes and Contact self-adhesive book covering PVC. These silicon release sheets are usually thrown away after the usable PVC film is pealed off. However, since these backing papers behind the Contact are used only once, and then thrown away, then the layer of silicon needs only to be minimal. Notwithstanding, the silicon is, from our experience, on the whole, more hardy than waxed paper.

Some years ago, we discussed this matter with a silicon paper manufacturer here in Sydney, and they advised us that it depended upon the thickness of silicon used in the process, ie how many layers of silicon film were placed on the paper substrate. We watched the silicon film-forming process in their plant. At the time, we were looking for a reliable double-sided silicon paper, with good weight (above 60gsm) and with decent film thickness to be able to use it constantly, process after process, without any need to throw the sheets away. It was very difficult to find a firm double-sided silicon sheet, as it required more sophisticated manufacturing, and there is less demand for this double-coated state. Finally, we found a good product, white in colour, firm, and above 70 gsm, (minutely even thicker after the silicon layer is taken into account). In our workshop, we then cut up a number of sizes, and use them doubled up, ie folded once to the sizes we require, mostly in pairs. We have used each piece hundreds of times between the eps when casing up, in the press, and we have never needed to replace pieces. They can be gently scraped of any residual dried glue and reused with complete impunity - that is how good the silicon impregnation process is. Another very important aspect is that it doesn't ripple when being used, as ripples can form under pressure, and transfer to the surrounding sheets, which then dry with these ripples. It was important to find the correct silicon sheet which prevented this phenomena, caused by water migrating through the sheets

Silk-stockingaristocratic, wealthy or fashionably dressed; a wealthy, aristocratic or fashionably-dressed person
Silk-stocking districta wealthy or fashionable district
Sillslab of stone, wood, or metal at the foot of a window or doorway
Silla(Spanish f.) chair, saddle, see (religious)
Sillaba(Italian f.) syllable
Silla de montar(Spanish f.) saddle
Silla de ruedas(Spanish f.) wheelchair
Silla giratoria(Spanish f.) swivel chair
Sillar(Spanish m.) ashlar
si llegara a pasarle algo(Spanish) if anything happened to her
Sillería(Spanish f.) chairs, set of chairs, choir stalls
(Spanish f.) ashlar
Sillet(French m.) saddle, sella (Italian f.), Sattel (German m.)
(French m.) the nut (upper (du haut or lower du bas, as found on a string instrument such as the violin, etc.)
(French m.), fret (for example, on the fingerboard of a stringed instrument), Bund (German m.), tasto (Italian m.)
Sillet du bas(French m.) Untersattel (German m.), capo-cordiera (Italian m.), (on a violin, etc.) the lower saddle takes the pull of the tailgut off the edge of the belly
(French m.) on a guitar, the bottom nut
Sillet du chevalet de la guitare(French m.) saddle
Sillet du haut(French m.) upper nut, capotasto (Italian m.), Obersattel (German m.), on the violin, etc., the piece of ebony, ivory or some other hard material, that lies at the scroll end of the fingerboard and which has grooves cut into its surface each groove locating one of the strings that passes over it
Sillín(Spanish m.) saddle
Sillón(Spanish m.) armchair, easy chair, side-saddle (riding)
Sillon fermé(French m.) tape loop
s'illustrer(French) to become famous
si lo agarro(Spanish) if I get my hands on him, if I lay my hands on him
Silogismo(Spanish m.) syllogism
Silsilaa term used in Algeria for some of the 'suites' or nubat drawn from the Andalusian tradition
Sil-snyanfrom India and China, a pair of cymbals connected by a cord that passes through the center hole. The instrument is held vertically, and the two cimbals are struck against each other
  • Sil-snyan from which the comment has been taken
s'il te plaît(French) please
Silueta(Spanish f.) silhouette, outline, figure (body), shape (body)
Silva de Sirenas(Spanish, literally 'Sylvan wood of Sirens) a collection of vihuela music originally composed or set by the vihuelist Enriquez de Valderrabano, who probably worked in the court of Conde de Miranda, the dedicatee of his book. Published in Valladolid (1547), Valderrabano's book was highly esteemed in its day and it has the historical distinction of being the only book to contain music for two vihuelas. Valderrabano's book included differencias (theme and variations), and 'intabulations' (arrangements on the vihuela) of vocal works by Josquin, Gombert, Willaert, Mouton, Morales, as well as his own. Valderrabano created his duets for instruments in various tuning combinations. Therefore, they requires five different vihuelas to perform these works, including two vihuelas tuned in unison (nominally in G), plus a vihuela tuned a minor third higher, a 4th higher, and one a 5th higher
S'il venait à(French) If he were to
Silverbasharpaancestor to Swedish nyckelharpa
Silver Endfounded in 1926 by F.H.Critall. During expansion in the I920s Crittalls carpet manufacturers commissioned a scheme for a brand-new company village. The employees administered the village themselves through a company set up specially for the purpose. In the early stages the village consisted mostly of flat-roofed International Modern housing. Other housing was plain neo-Georgian. There was also a village hall, hotel, bank, telephone exchange, surgery, dental clinic, shopping arcade, school and playing fields and a public garden. Farms were established which sold produce direct to the villagers
Silvester(German n.) New Year's Eve
silvestre(Spanish) wild
s'il vous plaît(French) please
sim.abbreviated form of simile (Italian: similar)
Sima(Spanish f.) chasm, abyss
Simadanthe name given on Bonaire to what is known as seú elsewhere in the Dutch Antilles
see seú
Si maggiore
key of B major(Italian) the key of 'B major'
scale of B major
the scale of 'B major'
Si maior
key of B major(Portuguese) the key of 'B major'
scale of B major
the scale of 'B major'
Si majeur
key of B major(French) the key of 'B major'
scale of B major
the scale of 'B major'
Si major
key of B major(Catalan m.) the key of 'B major'
scale of B major
the scale of 'B major'
si mal no me acuerdo(Spanish) if I remember right
Simandlbogen(German m.) see 'German bow/grip'
Simandl bowsee 'German bow/grip'
Si mayor
key of B major(Spanish) the key of 'B major'
scale of B major
the scale of 'B major'
Simbang gabior 'night mass', the Filipino equivalent of the Misa de Aguinaldo which begins the long Christmas season in the Philippines which starts on Dec. 16 and ends on the Feast of the Epiphany or Feast of Three Kings on the first Sunday after New Year's Day. In recent years, the Catholic Church has allowed the holding of the Misa de Aguinaldo in the evening (usually at 8 pm.). It is considered an "anticipated mass," such that the first mass of the nine-day tradition is held in the evening of Dec. 15 and the last, in the evening of Dec. 23. The holding of evening masses now perfectly suits the name simbang gabi
simbólico (m.), simbólica (f.)(Spanish) symbolic, symbolical
Simbolismo(Spanish m.) symbolism
Simbolista(Spanish m./f.) symbolist
simbolizar(Spanish) to symbolise
Símbolo(Spanish m.) symbol
Símbolo arroba(Spanish m.) @ symbol
Símbolo grabado(Spanish m.) graphical symbol (for example, in a musical score, notes, rests, expression markings, etc.)
si me animo a salir te llamo(Spanish) if I feel like going out, I'll call you
Simetría(Spanish f.) symmetry
simétrico (m.), simétrica (f.)(Spanish) symmetric, symmetrical
Simicum(Greek) an ancient Greek instrument with 35 strings, believed to be related to the lyre or harp
Simil(Spanish m.) comparison, resemblance, similarity, simile
Similairesimilar, simile (Italian), ähnlich (German), semblable (French)
Similarsimile (Italian), ähnlich (German), semblable (French), similaire (French)
Similarità(Italian f.) similarity
Similar motionmoto retto (Italian), Geradebewegung (German), mouvement semblable (French), mouvement similaire (French), motion where the parts move in the same direction but not necessarily by the same interval
Similean analogy or comparison implied by using an adverb such as like or as, in contrast with a metaphor which figuratively makes the comparison by stating outright that one thing is another thing. This figure of speech is of great antiquity. It is common in both prose and verse works
simile (s.), simili (pl.)(Italian, literally 'similar') an instruction to continue with some effect or technique
Simile marks
simile marks
signs indicating the repeat of a group of notes or of complete bars
Similitud(Spanish f.) similarity, resemblance
Si mineur(French) the key of 'B minor'
Si minore(Italian) the key of 'B minor'
Simoom(Arabic) a hot dry sand-laden wind which sweeps periodically across the Arabian and Oriental deserts
Simpatía(Spanish f.) liking, affection, sympathy, solidarity
simpatico (m.), simpatica (f.)(Italian) full of tender feeling, nice, likeable, kind, friendly, congenial, charming, sympathetic
simpático (m.), simpático (f.)(Spanish) full of tender feeling, nice, likeable, kind, friendly, congenial, charming, sympathetic
Simpatizante(Spanish m./f.) sympathiser
simpatizante(Spanish) sympathetic
simpatizar(Spanish) to get on
simpatizar con(Spanish) to get on with
Simplesemplice (Italian), einfach (German), simple (French)
not florid, for example 'simple counterpoint'
not developed, for example 'simple imitation'
not exceeding an octave, as in 'simple interval' as opposed to 'compound interval'
simple or pure tone, one devoid of harmonics
see 'simple time'
in ballet, to mean ordinary
(French) single
Simple binary forma binary form in which there is no actual return of the theme which opened the movement, though the melody may be similar. In contrast, a "rounded binary" form brings back the original them, albeit shortened, with the return of the tonic in the second section
Simple counterpointcounterpoint that is not complex
Simple intervalintervallo semplice (Italian m.), einfaches Intervall (German n.), intervalle simple (French), intervalo simple (Spanish m.), an interval of an octave or less (but generally not including the unison which many theorists do not consider an interval) - an interval greater than an octave is called a compound interval
simplement(French) simply, semplice
Simple metersynonymous with 'simple time'
Simplesse(French f.) artificial simplicity, cultivated artfulness
Simple timeeinfache Taktart (German), mesure simple (French f.)
for all simple meter or simple time signatures:
the note denoting the beat is un-dotted
each beat can be divided into two half-beats
the upper number in the time signature is not divisible by 3, expect when it is 3, which is usually a simple time signature
in simple time signatures, the upper number actually indicates the number of beats in each bar
Simplexa term from Medieval theory which covers a variety of specific meanings, but always implying something simple as opposed to something more complex; simplices conductus implies a monophonic composition; simplex organum implies simple as opposed to composite organum; simplex breve implies that the breve should be of a regular, unlengthened duration, and so on
Simplex munditiis(Latin) neat and simple, becomingly unadorned
Simpleza(Spanish f.) simplicity, trifle
Simplicissimus(Latin) a simple-minded man who is always taken advantage of by others
Simpliciter(Latin) naturally, without qualification, wholly, absolutely, unconditionally
simplificar(Spanish) to simplify
simplifié(French) simplified
simpliste(French) over-simple, too simple to be true
Simposio(Spanish) symposium
Simulacrum (s.), Simulacra (pl.)(Latin) an exact image or representation, a counterfeit, an illusion, a phantasm
Simulated glissandion some instruments (e.g., piano, harp), a bending of the tone or continuous sliding is not possible. As a substitute, the player can play a number of adjacent notes in rapid succession, so that the audible result somewhat resembles a true glissando
  • Glissando from which this extract has been taken
Simultalkwhen two people are talking at the same time, particularly when one is interrupting the other
simultané(French) simultaneous
Simultaneitypertaining to the simultaneous sounding of a number of individual notes, as in a chord, but without reference to the chords function
most chord progressions or harmonic progressions are simultaneity successions, though not all simultaneity successions are harmonic progressions and not all simultaneities are chords
Simultaneity successionin music and music theory a simultaneity succession is a series of different groups of pitches or pitch classes, each of which is played at the same time as the other pitches of its group. Thus, a simultaneity succession is a succession of simultaneities
simultaneo(Italian) simultaneous
simultáneo(Spanish) simultaneous
Simultaneous maskingin acoustics, simultaneous masking is masking between two concurrent sounds. Sometimes called frequency masking since it is often observed when the sounds share a frequency band e.g. two sine tones at 440 and 450Hz can be perceived clearly when separated. They cannot be perceived clearly when simultaneous
sin.abbreviation for sinistra
sin'abbreviation for sino, used when immediately preceding a vowel
Sinal(Portuguese) signal
sin' al(Italian) until the, as far as the
sin' al fine(Italian) a prefix to another instruction, implying that whatever is required should be carried out to the end (Italian, fine) of the work
sin aliento(Spanish) out of breath, breathless
sin' al segno(Italian) a prefix to another instruction, implying that whatever is required should be carried out to the sign (Italian, segno)
sin ambages(Spanish) in plain language
sin anestesia(Spanish) without an anesthetic
sin asideros en la realidad(Spanish) with no grip on reality
Si naturel(French) the note 'B natural'
Sinawisee shinawi
sin contemplaciones(Spanish) unceremoniously
Sincopa(Spanish f., Italian f.) syncopation, syncope (French)
sincopar(Spanish) to syncopate
Sincope(Italian f.) syncopation
sincronizar(Spanish) to synchronize
Sincronizzazione(Italian f.) sychronisation
sin dilación(Spanish) immediately
Sindinga West African harp with five strings made out of hemp. The resonating body is a calabash stretched with goat skin. A tin rattle may be attached to the instrument. Plucking the string sets the rattle in motion, adding a percussive element to the hollow sound
sin disputa(Spanish) undoubtedly
Síndrome(Spanish m.) syndrome
Síndrome de abstinencia(Spanish m.) withdrawal symptoms
Síndrome de Down(Spanish m.) Down's syndrome
Síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida(Spanish m.) acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
Síndrome de la clase turista(Spanish m.) economy class syndrome
Síndrome premenstrual(Spanish m.) premenstrual syndrome, premenstrual tension (PMS), premenstrual tension (PMT)
sin duda (alguna)(Spanish) without a doubt
sine die(Latin, literally 'without a day') (postponed) indefinitely
a hearing adjourned sine die stands open indefinitely without a further hearing having been allocated
sine judice(Latin, literally 'in the course of trial') whilst a court case is under consideration, proceedings are sub-judice and details cannot be disclosed
sine legitima prole(Latin) or s.l.p., without legitimate issue (i.e. no legitimate children)
sine prole(Latin) or s.p., without issue (i.e. no children)
sine qua non(Latin) 'without which, nothing' (i.e. indispensable)
Sine tonesee 'sine wave'
Sine waveor 'sine tone', a signal put out by an oscillator in which the voltage or equivalent rises and fall smoothly and symmetrically, following the trigonometric formula for the sine function (i.e. shown mathematically by the equation y = sin x). Sub-audio sine waves are used to modulate other waveforms to produce vibrato and tremolo. Audio-range sine waves contain only the fundamental frequency, with no overtones or higher partials, and thus can form the building blocks for more complex sounds
Sinf.abbreviated form of sinfonia
Sinfonia (s.), Sinfonie (pl.)(Italian f.) term applied in a variety of contexts in different periods; e.g. as a near synonym for 'instrumental canzona', 'prelude', 'overture', and 'symphony'
the Italian operatic overture, called sinfonia, was standardized by Alessandro Scarlatti (1660-1725) at the end of the 17th century into three sections, the first and last being fast and the middle one slower in tempo. Since these sinfonie had little musical connection with the operas they preceded, they could be played alone in concert. It became customary in the early 18th century to write independent orchestral pieces in the same style, which were the first real symphonies
(German f.) sinfonia
(Finnish) symphony
Sinfonía(Spanish f.) symphony, symphonie (French)
Sinfonia concertante(Italian f.) symphonie concertante
Sinfonía concertante(Spanish f.) symphonie concertante
sinfónico(Spanish) symphonic
sinfonico, sinfonica(Italian) symphonic
Sinfonie(German f.) the name given by Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) to his three-part contrapuntal works for keyboard but which, today, are called three-part inventions
(French, German f.) symphony
Sinfonieorchester(German n.) symphony orchestra
Sinfonietta(Italian f.) a small-scale symphony, particularly one for chamber orchestra
a name that can be used by a chamber orchestra, as, for example, The London Sinfonietta
sinfonische Band(German f.) symphonic band
sinfonische Dichtung(German f.) symphonic poem
sinfonisches Gedicht(German n.) symphonic poem
Singcantare (Italian), singen (German), chanter (French)
sing.abbreviation of 'singular'
Singakademie(German f.) a society for the cultivation of choral singing, a vocal academy
Singart(German) manner or style of singing
singbar(German) singable, in a singing style, cantabile
Singbing a Manding guitar with three to seven strings
Singchor(German) singing choir, quire
Singe(in cooking) to brown or colour, (in general) to scorch or burn superficially or lightly
to remove the fuzz from a fabric thereby making it smoother
singen(German) to sing, to chant, singing, chanting
singend(German) singing, melodious, in a singing style, cantabile
singende Säge(German f.) musical saw
Singer (female)cantatrice (Italian), Sängerin (German), chanteuse (French)
Singer (male)cantatore (Italian), Sänger (German), chanter (French)
Singeriein art, a pictorial representation of monkeys in human situations or employed in human occupations, a form that was fashionable in the 18th-century
Singfult(German) singing-desk
Sing-gedicht(German) hymn, poem intended to be sung
singhiozzando(Italian) sobbing, sighing, catching the breath, sobbingly
singhiozzando per tenerezza(Italian) tender sobbing
Singing birdan automaton made of decorated metal, which could move its wings and sometimes its head. The sound would have been produced from a bellows-operated flute or whistle within the box from which the bird pops up
Singing by earan unusual feature of traditional klapa singing in which the harmony in extemporised a technique called pjevanje na uho
see pjevanje na uho
Singing cardsee 'talking postcard'
Singing exercisesolfeggio (Italian), Singübung (German), solfège (French)
Singing glassesamong the The Cries of London Engraved after ye Designs made from ye Life by M Lauron. Printed for Iohn Bowles (c. 1740)' there is an engraving entited 'Buy my fine Singing Glasses'. From c. 1635, the glass trade in London was controlled by the Company of Glass-sellers who prosecuted illegal hawkers. However, novelty singing glasses were probably excluded from this control. The shorter glasses in the hawker's left hand are 'singing glasses' or 'music glasses,' none of which survive today. The longer glasses were fitted with mouthpieces with reeds, and were called 'glass trumpets' or 'glass horns.'
Singing schoola school for teaching vocal music. Singing schools form an interesting cultural tradition in the Southern United States. While some singing schools are offered for credit, most are informal programs. Many singing schools are religious in nature, associated with one or more Christian traditions. Singing schools are often associated with churches that have an a cappella tradition, such as the Church of Christ and Primitive Baptists. Singing schools are also common in connection with the 'Sacred Harp' shaped note singing tradition. They are also common with churches in rural areas of the south, such as Missionary Baptist, that still use Hymnals printed in the seven shape note system
Singing style, in aor 'with a singing tone', cantabile (Italian), cantando (Italian), singend (German), touche mélodieuse (French)
Singing, throatsee 'Throat-singing'
Singing towerterm sometimes used to refer to a tower housing a carillon
Singing voice specialista singing teacher with special training equipping him or her to practice in a medical environment with patients who have sustained vocal injury. Most singing voice specialists have a degree in voice performance or pedagogy. Some have extensive performing and teaching experience, but without a formal academic degree. Nearly all have professional performance experience, as well as extra training in laryngeal anatomy and physiology of phonation, training in the rehabilitation of injured voices, and other special education
Singkunst(German) the art of singing
Singlesingle thing (single room in a hotel, a ticket valid for an outward journey, pop record with one item on each side, game with only one person on each side), unmarried person
one only (not double or multiple), united or undivided, one by itself (a single note), regarded separately (every single thing), unmarried, (of a flower) having only one circle of petals
Single action (harp)a pedal mechanism believed to have been invented by the Bavarian instrument maker Hochbrucker, that allows a harpist to change by one semitone any particular note in every octave
Single appoggiatura
single appoggiatura
unlike accented and unaccented passing notes, the single appoggiatura is not approached by step, but by leap. Although it still resolves by step, the dissonance is more prominent as a result
Single-breasted(of a coat etc.) having only one vertical row of buttons and overlapping little down the front
Single chanta simple harmonised melody, extending only to one verse of a psalm
Single coil pickupon electric and electro-acoustic guitars, an early pickup design with a single coil of wire wrapped around a magnet
Single combatduel
Single creamthin cream with a relatively low fat content
Single-deckerbus with only one deck
Single fileline of people one behind another
one behind the other (for example, 'to walk in single file')
Single fuguea fugue on one subject, as distinguished from a double fugue, a fugue on two subjects
Single-mindedpursuing only one aim
Single-mindednessthe state of pursuing only one aim
Single parentperson bringing up a child or children alone
Single reedlengüeta simple (Spanish f.), caña simple (Spanish f.), caña única (Spanish f.), einfaches Rohrblatt (German n.), anche simple (French f.), ancia semplice (Italian f.)
a piece of cane bound to a mouthpiece by a ligature, that when the player's breath is blown between the reed and the mouthpiece, vibrates thus sounding the instrument. Single reed instruments include clarinets and saxophones
Single string stylesee 'Reno style'
Single strunginstruments with one course or row of strings
Single-strung harpthe orchestral and lever harps are both examples of single strung harps with 7 strings per octave giving a diatonic scale on C. Levers, when set, flatten the pitch of a string by one semitone (half-step) while the seven double-action pedals can either sharpen or flatten the pitch of each of the seven strings
Singletsleeveless vest (after doublet)
Singletonone card only of a suit in a player's hand, single person or thing
Single tonguingthe standard tonguing used by wind and brass players where the same consonant is used repeatedly to articulate a succession of notes. Double and triple tonguing techniques require the combination of two or three different consonants so allowing the player to perform note sequences more quickly
Single outto choose for special attention, etc.
single voice, for asee 'for a single voice'
Singmährchen(German) ballad
Singmanieren(German f. pl.) vocal ornaments or graces
Singmeister(German m.) singing-master
Singpartitur(German f.) a score of a work for voice(s) and instruments, but containing only the vocal line(s)
Singsaite(German f.) cantino (Italian), top string on a stringed instrument (for example, the top e" string of a violin), Sangsaite (German), chanterelle (French)
Singsang(German) sing-song
Singschauspiel(German) singing-drama, a drama with songs, etc., interspersed
Singschule(German f.) a singing-school, a method for training the voice
Singschüler(German m.) a boy-singer
Singsing originally traditional celebrations, which include song, dance, feasting and gift-giving, the term singsing is now applied to pop music from the Solomon Islands
Singsonginformal singing party
monotonously rising and falling in pitch
Singspiel(German n., literally 'sing-play') a form of opera which evolved in Germany and Austria in the 18th-century as an equivalent of the French opéra-comique or the English 'ballad opera'. It is a comic opera that includes spoken dialogue, often in the local dialect, as an alternative to recitative, for example, Die Zauberflote (1791) by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)
Singstimme (s.), Singstimmen (pl.)(German f.) the singing voice, a vocal part
Singstück(German) air, melody
Singstunde(German) singing lesson
Singtanz(German) dance, accompanied by singing
Singübung(German f.) a singing exercise
Singularsingular word or form (as opposed to plural)
unique, outstanding, extraordinary, strange. (of a word or form) denoting a single person or thing
Singverein(German) a choral society
Singvogel(German m.) songbird
Singweise(German) melody, tune
Sinhalesealso Singhalese, member of a Nothern Indian people now forming the majority of the population of Sri Lanka - also their language
of or pertaining to this people or language
Sinisterevil or villainous in appearance or manner, wicked, criminal, ominous
in heraldry, of or on the left-hand side of a shield, etc. (that is to the observer's right)
Sinistra(Italian f.) the left hand
sinistra(Italian) on the left
Sinistrae(Latin) left-handed flutes
Sinistra mano(Italian f.) the left hand
Sinistra manu(Latin) the left hand
sinistro(Italian m.) left(-hand)
Sinkplumbed-in basin (especially in a kitchen or larder), place where foul liquid collects, place of vice
to fall or come slowly downwards, to disappear below the horizon (the sun), to go or penetrate below the surface (especially of a liquid), to go to the bottom of the sea ,etc. (ship), to settle comfortably, to a decline in strength, etc., to descend in pitch or volume (of the voice), to cause or allow to sink or penetrate, to cause (a plan, person, etc.) to fail, to dig (a well) or bore (a shaft), to engrave (a die), to invest (money), to knock (a ball) into a pocket or hole in billiards, golf, etc., to overlook or forget (for example, sink their differences)
Sinkapacea cinque-pace, a galliard
Sink into penetrate or permeate, to become understood (for example, 'give it time for the details to sink in')
Sinking fundmoney set aside gradually for the eventual repayment of a debt
Sinn(German m.) a sense, a meaning, a sound
Sinnbild(German n.) a symbol
sinnbildlich darstellen(German) to symbolize
Sinnerperson who sins, especially habitually
Sinn Fein(Irish, literally 'we ourselves') an Irish movement, founded by Arthur Griffith in 1905, striving for self-government and cultural independence, political wing of the IRA
sinnlich(German) sensory
sino, sin'(Italian) to, as far as, until
Sino(Portuguese) bell
Sino-of or pertaining to Chinese (as in 'Sino-American treaty', a treaty between China and the United States)
sino al fine pianissimo(Italian) pianissimo to the end
sino allora(Italian) until then
si no le gusta, que se aguante(Spanish) if he doesn't like it, he can lump it (colloquial)
Sinologista person who studies the Chinese language, Chinese history, etc.
Sinologythe study of the Chinese language, Chinese history, etc.
Sinopia(Italian f.) a sketch made in red crayon on plaster as a preliminary to fresco painting
Sino-Tibetana group of languages spoken in China, Tibet, and Burma, including Mandarin
sin previo aviso(Spanish) without warning, without notice, without prior warning
sin querer(Spanish) without meaning to
Sinuoushaving many curves, undulating
Sintagma musicum (1618/9)written by Michael Praetorius (1571-1621), the Latinized named of Michael Schultheiß, and published in Wolfenbüttel, an important treatise on music and musical instruments
S.inter.abbreviation for senza interruzione (Italian: without interruption, without intermission)
s'intéresser à(French) to be interested in
Sintesi del suono(Italian f.) tone synthesis
Sintetizador(Portuguese m., Spanish m.) synthesiser, synthesizer, synth., synthétiseur (French)
sintetizar(Spanish) to synthesize
Sintetizzatore(Italian m.) synthesiser, synthesizer, synth., synthétiseur (French)
sintió que le faltaba el aire(Spanish) she felt as if she was going to suffocate
Sintirsee sentir
s'intituler(French) to be entitled
Síntoma(Spanish f.) symptom
sintomático, sintomática(Spanish) symptomatic
Sintonía(Spanish f.) tuning (on a radio), signature tune (on the radio or TV), harmony (figurative)
sintonico(Italian) syntonic
Sintonización(Spanish f.) tuning (radio), harmony (figurative)
Sintonizador(Spanish m.) tune (radio), tuning knob
sintonizar(Spanish) to tune in (radio), to get on well with (figurative), to be on the same wavelength (figurative)
Sinuosidad(Spanish f.) bend (road, etc.), curve (road, etc.), tortuousness (of an argument), deviousness (of a person)
Sinuscavity of bone or tissue, especially in the skull connecting with the nostrils
Sinusoidali(Italian m.) sine-wave generator
sinuoso, sinuosa (f.)(Spanish) winding (road), tortuous (argument), devious (person)
Sinusitis(English, Spanish f.) inflammation of the sinuses
Sinussoidaux(French m.) sine-wave generator
Sinuston(German m.) sine tone
Sinustongenerator(German m.) sine-wave generator
Sinuswelle(German f.) sine-wave
Si on (allait au cinéma)?(French) How about (going to the movies)?
Siparietto(Italian m.) main drape
Sipario(Italian m.) curtain, drape
il sipario si abbassathe curtain falls, the curtain goes down
il sipario si alzathe curtain rises, the curtain goes up
il sipario si aprethe curtain opens
il sipario si chiudethe curtain closes
si piace(Italian) at pleasure, as you please
Sipi Tausee kailao
Si placet(Latin) in music, the term si placet refers to a supplementary part that may be played 'if desired'. The purpose of si placet parts was to enrich the sonority of older compositions, making them musically more interesting for later generations. Although chansons were the most common model for this practice, si placet parts also are found in motets and masses, in many cases, the arranger having to make judicious changes to the original work in order to accommodate the newly composed parts
Sípok(Hungarian, literally 'shepherd's pipe') ancient pipes, with varying numbers of holes, that were made of reed, bone and wood
there were various types of Hungarian pipe
willow pipea duct flute without holes, made in the spring, when the branches of the willow are still fresh
pottery pipea vessel pipe made in the shape of bulls, cocks, birds, etc. Some are called 'cuckoo' after the sound they make. They have one or two holes. Sometimes water is poured into the pipe to get the sound of chirping birds
reed pipean ancient instrument, which can be made very easily easily, which predates more sophisticated forms
double reed shepherd's pipemade of maple, willow or elder and sometimes fitted with a reed. The wood is widened with a hot iron, and polished, inside and out. Mouthpiece and holes are carefully hand-carved
bagpipe stalka double recorder, without a bag, made of hard wood and sounding like a bagpipe
chanter pipe or drone pipea double pipe made of elder wood, both pipes being played simultaneously
gourd pipe or recorderan instrument used by minstrels and folk singers of regös songs. It is made of gourd, and can be considered a simple version of the töröksíp
Sippetsolder culinary term for croutons
Sipsia wind instrument made out of bone, wood or reed. The reed version is most common. A small reed at the end of the instrument produces the sound
si raddoppia il tempo(Italian) as fast again, redouble the tempo
Sirdar(Hindi, from Persian) a military leader, a general Iin India and the Orient), the British Commander-in-Chief of the Egyptian army
Sirensee 'Acme siren'
Sirena(Italian f.) siren
Sirene(German f.) siren
Sirène(French f.) siren
Sirène de brume(French f.) foghorn
Sirenengesang(German) siren's song, a soft seductive melody
si replica(Italian) repeat!, to be repeated
SirillasChilean dance from the Quellón region that combines Spanish music and dance forms with aboriginal Chilean music and dance
Siringa(Italian f., Spanish f.) panpipes, fauto di Pan, (Italian m.), Panflöte (German f.), flûte de Pan (French f.), syrinx (French m.)
Sirkar(Hindi, from Persian) a house-steward
Sirocco(Italian, from Arabic) or scirocco, a hot, humid, oppressive wind blowing from the south or south-east across the Mediterranean to southern Europe
Sir Roger de Coverlyan English dance mentioned by Charles Dickens (1812-1870), the ancestor of America's Virginia Reel
Sirtakialso sirtáki or syrtáki, a popular line or circle dance of Greek origin. However, despite widespread belief, it is not an authentic traditional Greek dance. It was created in 1964 for the movie Zorba the Greek from the mixture of slow and fast versions of hasapiko dance
Sirvonjaa Croat Reigenlied, which may have inspired the pastoral theme used by Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827) in his Symphony No. 6 in F major, op. 68
Sirventéstroubadour and trouvères songs with moral, political or literary overtones
Sirventoistroubadour and trouvères songs with moral, political or literary overtones
sis(Catalan) six
si scriva(Italian) as it is written (without alteration or embellishment)
sisear(Spanish) to hiss
si segue(Italian) go on, proceed
Siseo(Spanish m.) hiss, hissing
Siset(Catalan m.) sextuplet
Sissonne(French) named for the originator of this ballet step, it is a jump from both feet onto one foot with the exception of sissonne fermée, sissonne tombée and sissonne fondue, which finish on two feet. Sissonne may be performed petite or grande. The petites sissonnes are sissonne simple, sissonne fermée, sissonne ouverte at 45 degrees and sissonne tombée at 45 degrees. The grandes sissonnes are sissonne ouverte at 90 degrees, sissonne renversée and sissonne soubresaut
  • Sissonne from which this information has been taken
Sissonne fermée(French, literally 'closed sissonne) in dance, a step of low elevation performed to a quick tempo. This sissonne finishes on two feet with the working foot gliding along the floor into the demi-plié in the fifth position. It may be performed en avant (French) - para frente (Portuguese), en arrière - para trás (Portuguese) and de côté in all directions, such as croisé, effacé, écarté, etc
Sissonne ouverte, grande(French, literally 'big open sissonne') This sissonne is usually performed with high elevation and is done from a demi-plié on both feet and finished on one foot with the other leg raised in the desired pose, such as attitude, arabesque, à la seconde - para o lado (Portuguese), etc. It is performed en avant - para frente (Portuguese), en arrière - para trás (Portuguese), de côté, en tournant and is done with a développé or a grand battement at 90 degrees
Sistema(Italian m., Spanish m.) a stave, a system
Sistema cableado(Spanish m.) hard-wired system
Sistema de ecuaciones(Spanish m.) simultaneous equations
Sistema de escritura(Spanish m.) writing system
Sistema de notación(Spanish m.) notation system
Sistema de notación musical(Spanish m.) musical notation system
Sistema de notación musical alemán(Spanish m.) German musical notation system, the so-called German system for naming notes of a major scale on C, that is, using the letters of the alphabet (C D E F G A H), and using B to denote the note called B flat in the English system. Note that the note B in the English system is named H in the German system
Sistema de notación musical francesa(Spanish m.) French musical notation system, the so-called French system for naming notes of a major scale on C, that is, using the Aretinian syllable names Ut Re Mi Fa Sol La Si), although Si was a later addition
Sistema de notación musical inglesa(Spanish m.) the so-called English system for naming notes of a major scale on C, that is, using the letters of the alphabet (C D E F G A B)
Sistema de notación musical latina(Spanish m.) the so-called Latin system for naming notes of a major scale on C, that is, using the modified Aretinian syllable names Do Re Mi Fa Sol La Si). The original Aretinian symbol for the first note of the scale was Ut, not Do
Sistema experto(Spanish m.) expert system
Sistema gráfico(Spanish m.) graphical system
Sistema nervioso(Spanish m.) nervous system (anatomical)
Sistema planetario(Spanish m.) planetary system
Sistema solar(Spanish m.) solar system
sistemático (m.), sistemática (f.)(Spanish) systematic
sistematizar(Spanish) to systematise
Sister manuscriptssee 'daughter manuscript'
Sistro(Italian m.) or sistrum, an instrument invented in 17th-century Italy consisting of a series of small bells attached to a frame
(Italian) a triangle
Sistrumor 'spurs', a U-shaped metal frame with a handle at the bottom fitted with cross bars that hove on them a number of loose metal discs, jingles or rings. When shaken, the disks hit either side with a short clattering sound. Spurs are similar in sound but the jungles are attached to a stright single rod
Sistrum (s.), Sistra (pl.)Handrassel (German f.), an ancient Egyptian hand-rattle used in religious events and which survives today as an Ethiopian instrument
Sitawife of Rama
si tace(Italian) be silent
Sita haranaa dance from the Indian state of Manipur that depicts stories from the Ramayana
Sitar(Italian f., English, German f., French m.) sitâr
Sitârinvented by Amir Khusro in the 16th-century during the collapse of the Moghul empire, but probably of Persian origin, and perhaps the most well known of Indian instruments, the sitar is a long necked instrument with a varying number of strings (17 is the most usual), three to four playing strings, three to four drone strings, with the remainder, sympathetic strings, lying under the frets. The playing and drone strings are plucked with a wire finger plectrum called the mizrab. The frets are metal rods which have been bent into crescents while the main resonator is usually made of a gourd and there is sometimes an additional resonator attached to the neck
Sitarist (m.), Sitaristin (f.)(German) a sitar player
Sitcoma term now in common usage originally coined as a shorthand for 'situation comedy TV series'
Sitera floor-standing plucked zither, smaller than the cemplung, each tuning, slendro and pelog, needing its own siter, which gives its name to a genre of Javanese traditional music called siteran
Site specificin the theatre, a play which is created or specifically modified to use the character of the performance space to the greatest advantage. Site specific spaces are usually locations which are not normally used for showcasing theatre, but have another primary function (warehouse, mansion, abandoned military bunker, etc.). The term may also be applied to some operas
si tienes algún problema(Spanish) if there's any problem, if you have any problems
Sit in, Sitting inin jazz, when a musician who is not a regular member of a band, plays in the band
Sitio de pie(Spanish m.) standing-room
sitoen(Finnish) legato
Sitolesee citole
SitolotoloSouth African Jew's harp
Sitominen(Finnish) tie, a curved line used to join two or more notes of the same pitch so that they are played without a break
sittlich(German) moral
Sittlichkeit(German f.) morality, decorum, decency
Situational ironyanother term for universal irony
Situation de fait(French f.) de facto situation
si tuviera alguno(Spanish) if I had one
Sitwell, Edith (1887-1964)British poet and critic, Sitwell was most interested by the distinction between poetry and music, a matter explored at 1923 in Façade, published in 1922, and set to music by William Walton (1902-1983), a series of abstract poems the rhythms of which counterfeited those of music. Façade was performed behind a curtain with a hole in the mouth of a painted face and the words were recited through the hole with the aid of a megaphone. The public received the first performance with bemusement, but there were many positive reactions. Still Falls the Rain, about the London blitz, remains perhaps her best-known poem. It was set to music by Benjamin Britten (1913-1976)
Sitz(German m.) seat, bench, pew, set (garment), fit (garment), focus (of an infection), hang (garment)
seinen Sitz haben (German: to be seated)
erhöhte Sitz (German m.: dais)
Sitzbereich(German m.) seating area
sitzenbleiben(German) remain seated
Sitzmaterial(German n.) seating material
Sitzplatz(German m.) seat
Sitzpolster(German n.) seat cushion
Sitzprobe(German f., literally 'sitting try') an opera rehearsal in which the singers work seated, to an orchestral accompaniment
Sitzschale(German f.) seat, moulded hard seat
Sitzreihe(German f.) tier (of seats in the theatre)
Sitzungsberichte(German m. pl.) proceedings
Siva(Samoan) dance
Siva Samoa(Samoan) Samoan dance
sivigliano (m.), sivigliana (f.)(Italian) in the style of Seville
si volta(Italian) turn over
Si vous voulez mon avis(French) If you want my opinion
Si vous voulez mon opinion(French) If you want my opinion
six(French) six
Six chordalso called 'six-three chord', the chord which, reading up from the bottom note, is in root position C E G, becomes E G C (i.e. first inversion) or its equivalent in any other key
Six-five chordthe chord which is the first inversion of a seventh chord
Six-four chordthe chord which, reading up from the bottom note, is in root position C E G, becomes G C E (i.e. second inversion) or its equivalent in any other key
Six hands (one piano)a rare configuration, an example of which is Percy Grainger's arrangement of George Gershwin's Oh, I Can't Sit Down scored for three pianists at one piano. It appears that the third part is in fact a written-out improvisation which was added to the song as it appears in his Fantasy for Two Pianos. Based on this evidence, it does not appear that Grainger ever intended to publish this arrangement
Sixiansee Yüeh ch'in
sixième(French) sixth
Six, Lessee Six, The
Six/Nine chords
six pour quatre(French) a sextuplet
Sixte(French f.) sixth
(French f.) the interval of a sixth
Sixte augmentée(French f.) augmented sixth
Sixte diminuée(French f.) diminished sixth
Sixteen-bar bluesa blues chord progression very similar to the eight bar blues form, except that blues is not traditionally associated with any set notation so sometimes it can be called sixteen bars instead of eight
Sixteen-foot pitchon a harpsichord, the pitch of a choir of strings which is tuned an octave lower than those of a piano; the same term is applied to ranks of organ pipes sounding one octave below the standard, eight-foot pitch
Sixteenthan interval of an octave and a second
Sixteenth century dancealso called 'late Renaissance dance'; the sources for this period are English texts, formerly known as the 'Inns of Court manuscripts', and manuals of a number of Italian dancing masters. The Italian dances are still described verbally but in considerably greater detail than was usual in the early Renaissance. The step-vocabulary has become more elaborate, placing the interest strongly on the footwork, while many floor-patterns are based on symmetrical figures
Sixteenth note
semiquavera semiquaver, a note one sixteenth the time value of a whole note or semibreve
Sixteenth rest
semiquaver resta semiquaver rest, a rest one sixteenth the time value of a whole rest or semibreve rest, quart de soupir (French), Sechzehntelpause (German)
Sixte majeure(French f.) major sixth
Sixte mineur(French f.) minor sixth
Sixte napolitaine(French) Neapolitan sixth, sexta napolitana (Spanish)
Sixthsesta (Italian), Sexte (German), sixte (French), sexta (Spanish), sexto grado (Spanish)
an interval containing six diatonic degrees, for example, the interval from C to A
a chord of the sixth is the inversion of a triad
a chord of the added sixth is the subdominant triad with the sixth from the lowest note added to it
a chord of the Neapolitan sixth is the first inversion of the major chord on the minor second of the scale
Six, TheLes Six or Groupe des Six, the name given by French critic Henri Collet, to a group of French composers whose members were Louis Durey (1888-1979), Arthur Honegger (1892-1955), Darius Milhaud (1892-1974), Germaine Tailleferre (1892-1983), Georges Auric (1899-1983) and Francis Poulenc (1899-1963). The grouping is arbitrary as many other composers worked within this group including Erik Satie, Jean Cocteau, Jean Wiéner, etc.
Sixth, addedsee 'added sixth'
Sixth chords
Sixth flutea descant/soprano-sized recorder in D
Six-three chordalso called 'six chord', the chord which, reading up from the bottom note, is in root position C E G, becomes E G C (i.e. first inversion) or its equivalent in any other key
Six-to-octave cadencein the middle ages and the renaissance, cadences were thought of contrapuntally rather than harmonically, so that a dominant-to-tonic chord sequence would be expressed in terms of two voices moving together so that the interval between them changes from a sixth to an octave
a commonly used cadential gesture, often enhanced by rhythmic and melodic ornamentation
Sixty-fourth note
hemidemisemiquavera hemidemisemiquaver, a note one sixty-fourth the time value of a whole note or semibreve, Vierundsechzigstelnote (German), quadruple croche (French f.)
Sixty-fourth rest
hemidemisemiquaver resta hemidemisemiquaver rest, a rest one sixty-fourth the time value of a whole note rest or semibreve rest
Siyaricalabash rattle of Ghana
Si yo tan kaLakota (Native American) word for the flute or whistle
Sizinga substance that is applied to paper during its manufacture to stiffen it and slow its absorbency rate. This helps to keep printing ink on the surface of the paper where it will achieve higher colour density and appear brighter, and sharper. Sizing can be made from glue, gelatin, rosin, or starch. Alum is often added to make the sizing insoluable but it can also add to a paper's acidity. Originally, sizing was applied by hand to the papers surface or added to pulp while still in tubs. This coating eventually became just one more step in mechanised paper manufacturing. Unsized paper is known as waterleaf
Sizzle(German n.) sizzle (as the name of a type of cymbal), sizzle cymbal
(English, German n.) a continuous buzz
Sizzle-Becken(German n.) sizzle, sizzle cymbal
Sizzle cymbala conventional cymbal, around the circumference of which small holes have been drilled and rivets loosely inserted that produce a continuous buzz as they vibrate against the cymbal