music dictionary : Mf - Mo 

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mf.abbreviation of mezzoforte (Italian: moderately loud)
MFAabbreviation of 'Master of Fine Arts'
M.G., m.g.abbreviation of main gauche (French: left hand)
MGMabbreviation of 'Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer'
MGGabbreviation of Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart: allgemeine Enzyklopedie der Musik, Friedrich Blume, in two multi-volume parts: subjects (10 volumes) and biographies (17 volumes) Kassel: Bärenreiter, 1994-2007. This standard German language music encyclopedia is a reference work of the highest scholarly quality, available only in German
MHreferring to the catalogue prepared by Charles H. Sherman and T. Donley Thomas of music by Michael Haydn (1737-1806)
m.Holzschl.abbreviated form of mit Holzschlägel (German: with a wooden-headed mallet or beater)
Mithe third degree (mediant) of the major scale
in 'fixed do' solfeggio, mi is always the note 'E'
note E
(Portuguese, Italian m., French m.) the note 'E'
mi alma(Spanish) or alma mía, my love
my heart (as in 'with all my heart')
Miami bassalso known as 'booty music', a term that may also include other genres, is a type of hip hop music that became popular in the 1980s and 1990s, known for applying the Roland TR-808 sustained kick drum, slightly higher dance tempos, and occasionally sexually explicit lyrical content
mi amor(Spanish) my darling, my love
Miasma (s.), Miasmata (pl.)(Greek) noxious exhalations from putrescent matter, infection emanations, atmospheric pollution
mi balenò un'idea(Italian) an idea flashed through my mind
Mi bémol
note E flat
(French m.) the note 'E flat', the flattened third degree of the scale of C major, which in 'fixed do' solfeggio is called me
Mi bemolle
note E flat
(Italian m.) the note 'E flat', the flattened third degree of the scale of C major, which in 'fixed do' solfeggio is called me
Mi bemolle maggiore
key of E flat major(Italian m.) the key of 'E flat major'
the scale of E flat major
the scale of 'E flat major'
Mi bemoll major
key of E flat major(Catalan m.) the key of 'E flat major'
the scale of E flat major
the scale of 'E flat major'
Mi bemolle minore(Italian m.) the key of 'E flat minor'
Mi bémol majeur
key of E flat major(French m.) the key of 'E flat major'
the scale of E flat major
the scale of 'E flat major'
Mi bemol mayor
key of E flat major(Spanish m.) the key of 'E flat major'
the scale of E flat major
the scale of 'E flat major'
Mi bemol menor(Spanish m.) the key of 'E flat minor'
Mi bémol mineur(French m.) the key of 'E flat minor'
Micsee 'microphone'
micabbreviation of 'microphone'
Mica powder(in gilding) mica is a mineral ground and treated to create a gold coloured pigment. It can be mixed with a medium and applied to a surface. It is usually employed in exactly the same manner as bronze powders were. It is an excellent substitute for bronze powders because of its stability. It will not tarnish or chemically react with its medium. It is non-toxic unlike bronze powders
Mi-carême(French) mid-Lent
Michafter Helga Schölz-Michelitsch, the cataloguer of music by Georg Christoph Wagenseil (1715-1777)
Mi contra fa(Latin, Italian) tritone, false relation
a quotation from a Latin rhyme, mi contra fa, diabolus est in musica, (mi against fa is the devil in music), which, in counterpoint, refers to the tritone, an awkward interval that notes bearing these two solmization syllables produce, when they occur consecutively, usually as a 'false relation' in different parts
MICRacronym for 'Magnetic Ink Character Recognition', used in automatic sorting methods, for example, on cheques, based on the printing of numbers in magnetic ink on the cheque itself
Microcosmthe human body. Renaissance thinkers believed that the human body was a "little universe" that reflected changes in the macrocosm, or greater universe
Micro double bobinage(French) humbucker
Microfono(Italian m.) microphone
Micrófono(Spanish m.) microphone
Microfono a condensatore(Italian m.) condenser microphone
Microfono a contatto(Italian m.) contact microphone
Microfono con filtro antirumore(Italian m.) noise-cancelling microphone
Microfono elettrodinamico(Italian m.) electrodynamic microphone
Microfono elettromagnetico(Italian m.) electromagnetic microphone
Microformphotographic "microcopies" of images which can be read using an enlarging machine. The two main types of microform are Microfiche, transparent rectangular sheets, and Microfilm, reels of transparent film. A wide range of material is stored on microform, including books, newspapers, journals, manuscripts, photographs, art works etc.
Micro-groove recordingpre-1940 records were made using shellac, but after World War II, the availability of polyvinyl chloride PVC), a flexible, more durable and less expensive plastic, allowed engineers to increase the density of grooves on the records surface to 100/centimetre (the narrower grooves were called 'micro-grooves'). This new technique, combined with PVC's excellent mechanical properties, allowed for a greater fidelity (greater frequency response and dynamic range) and so the rotation speed could be reduced (from 78 rpm to 33 1/3 rpm) so extending the 'playing time' to approximately 25 minutes
Microhousea subgenre of house and glitch music
Microintervalsee 'microtonal'
Micromontagethe use of musical montage technique on the time scale of microsounds
Microphone(English, French m.) sometimes called a 'mic' (pronounced "mike"), a transducer that converts sound into an electrical signal
Micropolifonía(Spanish f.) micropolyphony
Micropolyphonytwentieth-century technique encompassing the complex interweaving of all musical elements, not just melody. The technique was developed by György Ligeti (1923-2006), who explained it as follows: "The complex polyphony of the individual parts is embodied in a harmonic-musical flow, in which the harmonies do not change suddenly, but merge into one another; one clearly discernible interval combination is gradually blurred, and from this cloudiness it is possible to discern a new interval combination taking shape."
Microphone à condensateur(French m.) condenser microphone
Microphone à condtact(French m.) contact microphone
Microphone électrodynamique(French m.) electrodynamic microphone
Microphone électromagnétique(French m.) electromagnetic microphone
Microsillon(French m.) long-playing record, LP
Micro simple bobinage(French) single coil, as in a microphone
Microsolco(Italian m.) long-playing record, LP
Microsoundmicrosound includes all sounds on the time scale shorter than musical notes, the sound object time scale, and longer than the sample time scale. Specifically this is shorter than one tenth of a second and longer than 10 milliseconds, including the audio frequency range (20 Hz to 20 kHz) and the infrasonic frequency range (below 20 Hz)
(English, French, Spanish) interpretations of the terms microtone and microtonal vary widely, and it is useful to note the following two basic types of usage:
the most literal and narrow definition of the word microtone has as its reference point the Western tone (or whole tone). If a semitone is half of a tone (in terms of cents*), then according to this definition, anything smaller is classified as a 'microtone', or 'microinterval'. There are more specific names such as 'quarter-tone', 'fifth-tone', 'eighth-tone', 'sixth-tone', etc.
* Alexander J. Ellis' system for measurement of musical intervals, in which the equal-tempered semitone equals 100 cents, the whole tone 200 cents, the octave 1200 cents, and so on
the most general, inclusive - and most common-usage of the term microtonal is its application to any music that makes use of intervals other than the traditional intervals of 12-note equal temperament (with its multiples of 100 cent semitones and 200 cent whole tones), which has been the standard tuning for Western music since the mid-nineteenth century.
considering this second, more general application, we can easily see that there are a variety of artistic, theoretical and philosophical channels through which musicians may be drawn to those 'other intervals'. As a result there are a few different disciplines, only loosely inter-related, all of which may fall into the category 'microtonality'. These include:
the practice of simply adding pitches to 12-note equal temperament (most often through microtonal equal temperaments such as 24-note ('quarter-tones'), 36-note ('sixth-tones'), 48-note, 72-note, 96-note, etc.)
contemporary pure tuning methods such as the various modern forms of just intonation, Pythagorean and mean-tone tunings
historically accurate tunings of Medieval, Renaissance, Baroque and Classical pieces
the study of non-Western tuning systems
Microtonalismo(Spanish m.) microtonalism
Microtonalitysee 'microtonal'
Microtonal musicmusic which makes use of intervals smaller than a semitone or half step
Microtonal notationone form of microtonal notation was developed by Rauf Yekta Bey (1871-1935), Turkish musician, musicologist and writer on music, who produced the first modern account of Turkish classical music available in a Western language (La Musique turque. The article appeared in Encyclopedie de la musique et dictionnaire du Conservatoire, Premiere partie, Paris, 1922, although the article was written in 1913. His system employs 4 sharps (roughly +25 cents, +75 cents, +125 cents and +175 cents) and 4 flats (roughly -25 cents, -75 cents, -125 cents and -175 cents), none of which correspond to the tempered sharp and flat. They presuppose a Pythagorean division of the octave taking the Pythagorean comma (about an 8th of the tempered tone, actually closer to 24 cents, defined as the difference between 7 octaves and 5 just-intonation 5ths) as the basic interval. The Turkish system has been adopted by some Arab musicians. The Czech composer Alois Hába (1893-1973) is noted for his use of the quarter-tone scale, though he used other intervals such as sixth-tones and twelfth-tones. His quarter-tone system included symbols for half-sharp, sharp, sharp-and-a-half, half-flat, flat and flat-and-a-half. More recently, George D. Secor and David C. Keenan have developed 'Sagittal'
Microtonesee 'microtonal'
Microtonos(Spanish m.) microtones
Microtuneran electronic device or audio software endowed with microtuning capabilities specifically designed and used to modify the tuning of musical instruments (in particular synthesizers), hence allowing for microtonal scales, just intonation scales and tunings other than the twelve-tone equal temperament to be played
  • Microtuner from which this extract has been taken
MidalangChinese rattle drum
Middeleeuwen(Dutch) Middle Ages
middeleeuws(Dutch) medieval
Middenstemming(Dutch) meantone temperament
Middeltonetemperatur(Danish) meantone temperament
Middentoonstemming(Dutch) meantone temperament
Middle agesa period, from about 500 AD until about 1430 AD, that is sometimes divided into two. The term 'Middle Ages' cannot be traced further back than to 1688 when Christophus Cellarius (Keller) issued Historia medii aevi
the early middle ages500-1100
the late middle ages or Gothic period1100-1450
Middle Cdo centrale (Italian m.), eingestrichenes C (German n.), do central (Spanish m., French m.)
the note middle Cthe one-accented c (c'), c' in Helmholtz notation, C4 in US Scientific notation, do3 in French. In the modern equal-temperament tuning system, based on a'=440Hz, c'=260Hz
see 'octave'
Middle comdeyGreek comedies written in the early 300s BC, in which the exaggerated costumes and the chorus of the Old Comedy were eliminated. We have no surviving examples of these Middle Comedies, but they are alluded to and described in other works
Middle earone of three conceptual anatomical divisions for the organ of hearing, including also the outer ear and the inner ear. The air-filled ear cavity located behind the eardrum or tympanic membrane. The middle ear contains three small bones, ossicles, that connect the tympanic membrane to the oval window of the cochlea. The cavity can be vented to the outside world via the eustachian tube
Middle eightsee 'release'
Middle Englishthe name given by historical linguistics to the diverse forms of the English language spoken between the Norman invasion of 1066 and the mid-to-late fifteenth century, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the introduction of the printing press into England by William Caxton in the 1470s. By this time the Northumbrian dialect spoken in south east Scotland was developing into the Scots language. The language of England as spoken after this time, up to 1650, is known as Early Modern English
Middle High German language(MHG, in German Mittelhochdeutsch) the term used for the period in the history of the German language between 1050 and 1350. It is preceded by Old High German and followed by Early New High German. In some older scholarship, the term covers a longer period, going up to 1500
Middle Irishform of the Gaelic language as it was used between 900 and 1200
Middle joint(of a wind instrument) pezzo di mezzo (Italian m.), Mittelstück (German n.), second corps (French m.), cuerpo superior (Spanish m.), cuerpo medio (Spanish m.)
Middle of the roador MOR, a broad term encompassing a number of musical styles. Not technically a genre in its own right, it was, and in some places still is, a popular radio format. Music classed as MOR is broadly popular in outlook, but not cutting edge; it is generally strongly melodic and frequently uses vocal harmony techniques and arrangements involving orchestral instruments. Such music is rarely (if ever) aggressive or abrasive
Middle passagethe sea-voyage from Africa to the West Indies and/or the Americas commonly used by slave-traders
Middle voicea classically trained female voice has up to three registers, the chest voice, middle voice and head voice, each characterised by a different tone quality and distinct sensations felt by the singer when she is singing
Midi, le(French m.) the south of France
MIDI(English, German n.) an acronym for Musical Instrument Digital Interface. MIDI is a specification for the types of control signals that can be sent from one electronic music device to another
Mi dièse(French) the note 'E sharp'
Mi diesis(Italian) the note 'E sharp'
MIDI eventeach piece of information contained within a MIDI file is an event. This includes 'notes' (attack and release), 'control changes', 'system exclusive', 'meta events', 'program changes', etc.
MIDI-Kanal(English, German m.) MIDI channel
Midinette(French f.) a girl apprenticed to a dressmaker, a milliner's assistant
MIDI Tuning Standardor MTS, a specification of musical pitch agreed to by the MIDI Manufacturers Association
MIDI Tuning Standard unit:1/196608 part of an octave. This divides the 12-tET semitone into 214 = 16384 parts which resolution makes sufficiently accurate tuning of electronic instruments possible. See the MIDI Tuning Specification 1.0. There are other MIDI tuning units which differ per manufacturer, for example Yamaha has models tuned in 1/768 or 1/1024 parts of an octave. There is also the MIDI Pitch Bend message, which can carry the values -8192 .. 8191, so when the range (which is variable) is the standard range of +/- 200 cents, then the unit is 1/49152 part of an octave or 0.024414 cents
Midjwehmidjwiz or mijwiz, a folk double clarinet found in the Nile region of Egypt that has versions found throughout the Mediterranean Near East and even as far away as western China. It is generally made from cane, and has two pipes of the same length, each containing a reed and toneholes
see 'double clarinet'
Mi doppio bemolle
note E double flat
(Italian m.) the note 'E double flat', the doubly flattened third degree of the scale of C major
Mi doppio diesis
note E double sharp
(Italian m.) the note 'E double sharp', the doubly sharpened third degree of the scale of C major
Mi double bémol
note E double flat
(French M.) the note 'E double flat', the doubly flattened third degree of the scale of C major
Mi double dièse
note E double sharp
(French m.) the note 'E double sharp', the doubly sharpened third degree of the scale of C major
Mi-doux(French) moderately soft (in volume of sound), mezzo piano (Italian), halbleise (German), mittelleise (German)
Mid vowelin linguistics, any vowel sound made with the jaw and tongue positioned between the normal articulations for high and low vowels
Mi gaungBurmese three stringed instrument in the shape of a crocodile
Midjwizsee midjweh
Miedo al público(Spanish m.) stage fright
mieux-être, le(French) greater welfare, improved standard of living
mieux que jamais(French) better than ever
le mieux serait de(French) the best thing would be to, the best plan would be to
Mieux vaut plier que rompre.(French) Adapt and survive.
Mieux vaut prévenir que guérir.(French) Prevention is better than cure.
Mieux vaut tard que jamais(French) Better late than never
mieux-vivre, le(French) improved standard of living
Mi-forte(French) moderately loud, mezzoforte or mezzo forte (Italian), halbstark or mittelstark (German)
Mighty handfulKutchka
migliorato(Italian) improved
Mignolo(Italian m.) little finger
Mignon (m.), Mignonne (f.)(French) a small delicate person
mignon (m.), mignonne (f.)(French) delicately small, dainty
Migraine(English, French) or megrim (anglicized French), a severe nervous headache
Migrant cantus firmusa cantus firmus that is treated canonically, the chant therefore appearing in all voices and not just the ones to which it is usually restricted
MihCroatian reed instrument similar to a bagpipe but without a drone - also known as diple and mjeh
Mihbaja Bedouin coffee-grinder made of wood, with a base that is about 30 cm. tall and a 60 cm. pestle which serves the double purpose: as a household item and, when an expert artist uses it, as a percussion instrument
mi hija se hizo amiga de un compañero de clase(Spanish) my daughter made friends with a classmate
Miijiru(Okinawan, literally 'female-string') the thinnest of the three strings of the sanshin
MijwizLebanese double clarinet
see 'double clarinet'
Mikado(Japanese) the title of the Emperor of Japan
Mikrofon(German n.) microphone
Mikrofonabstand(German m.) distance to the microphone
Mikrofongalgen(German m.) or Mikrofonangel (German f.), boom arm (for a microphone)
Mikrofotographie(German f.) microphotography
Mikrointervalle(German pl.) microintervals (intervals that are less than a half step or semitone)
Mikromann(German m.) boom operator
Mikrophon(German n.) microphone
Mikrophoniecomposed by Karlheinz Stockhausen in 1964, this is among the first electronic performance works
Mikropolyphonie(German f.) micropolyphony
Micropolyphonya type of twentieth-century musical texture involving the use of sustained dissonant chords that shift slowly over time
Mikroton (s.), Mikrotöne (pl.)(German m.) microtone
mikrotonal(German) microtonal
mil(Catalan) thousand
Milanese chantsee 'Ambrosian chant'
Milanese Ritesee 'Ambrosian Rite'
Miles gloriosusthe braggart soldier, a stock character in classical Roman drama
Milhûn(Arabic) a form of sung poetry in Moroccan colloquial Arabic (Darija) which uses many of the modes and instruments found in al-âla. A milhûn suite is comprised of two parts, the taqsim overture played on an oud or kamenjah in a free rhythm to introduce the mode for the rest of the piece, followed by the qassida, or sung poem which is itself divided into three parts. These are the solo verses (al-aqsâm), choral refrain (al-harba) and crescendoing chorus that completes the suite (al-dîdka). As well as the oud and violin, milhûn orchestras are made up of darbuka, handqa (small cymbals), hadjouj (a bass lute) and swisen (a high-pitched lute)
Milieu(French m.) middle
(French m.) (social) environment, (social) surroundings, (intellectual) atmosphere
militaire(French) military
militairement(French) military, in a military or martial style, militarily, alla militare (Italian), militarmente (Italian), militärisch (German)
militar(Spanish) military
militär(German) military
militare(Italian) military
militärisch(German) military, in a military or martial style, militarily, alla militare (Italian), militarmente (Italian), militairement (French)
militarmente(Italian) military, in a military or martial style, militarily, alla militare (Italian), militärisch (German), militairement (French)
Militärmusik(German f.) military music
(German f.) a military band
Militärtrommel(German f.) military snare drum, field drum
Military banda regimental band made up of woodwind, brass and percussion, a description that can also be applied to civilian marching bands which may also be called 'concert bands' or 'wind orchestras'
disposition of a French military band according to a Royal Commission, chaired by Minister for War de Rumigny, set up in 1845:
1small flute in C
1small clarinet in E-flat
14omnitonique clarinets in B-flat (first and second parts)
2bass clarinets in B-flat (according to Sax's plans, with a metal bell)
2oboes (modele allemand)
2bassoons (avec pavillon de cuivre)
2cornets with three valves
2trumpets with three valves (systéme Sax)
4valve horns
1small saxhorn in E-flat
2saxhorns in B-flat
2alto saxhorns in E-flat
3bass saxhorns in B-flat with three or four valves
4contrabass saxhorns in E-flat
1valve trombone (systéme Sax)
Military popor 'martial music', is very similar to 'neofolk'
Military snare druma drum, lightly larger than the standard snare drum, that in the United States is called the field drum
Milk jugpercussion instrument used by Hungarian Gypsy musicians
Mille feuilles(French) a kind of 'puff' pastry consisting of multiple layers of thin flakes
Millefiori(Italian) a form of ornamental glass made by fusing together a number of threads of coloured glass and embedding a cross-section in transparent glass
Millefleurs(French) a perfume distilled from a large number of different kinds of flowers
Mille fois merci(French) Thanks a million! Bless you!
Millegrain(French) a setting for a precious stone in which the edge of the stone is gripped by a continuous band of minute beads of metal
Millennium (s.), Millennia (pl.)(Latin) a thousand year period
Milli-one thousandth (10-3)
Milliampone thousandth (10-3) of an ampere, abbreviated as mA
Milli-faradone thousandth (10-3) of a farad, abbreviated as mF
Millimetreone thousandth (10-3) of a metre, abbreviated as mm
Millioctave(abbreviations: m8ve, µ8ve, moct, µoct) an interval measurement which simply divides the 'octave' (2:1 ratio) into 1000 logarithmically-equal parts. The interval was named and used by Arthur Joachim von Oettingen (1836-1920) in his book Das duale Harmoniesystem (1913). Alfred Jonqière indicated the millioctave with the Greek letter μ. It was first used however by John Herschel in the book which he wrote with George Bidell Airy On Sound and Atmospheric Vibrations with the Mathematical Elements of Music (1871). Sometimes millioctaves are propagated as a "value-free" substitute for cents, not having the 12-tET bias, because the round cent numbers may lead people to the false belief that the intervals are perfectly in tune. However using these millioctaves introduces a 10-tET bias, which is a much less familiar tuning. Often the cent values of just intervals are easy to remember by their deviation from the 12-tET multiple of 100, for example the pure fifth is 702 cents, with millioctaves this is harder: 585 millioctaves compared to 583.333. Another advantage of cents is the size of the schisma: almost 2 cents against 1.63 M.O.
Milliohmone thousandth (10-3) of an ohm, abbreviated as
Millisecondone thousandth (10-3) of a second, abbreviated as ms
Millivoltone thousandth (10-3) of a volt, abbreviated as mV
Milongathe milonga, which precedes the tango in history, was a solo song cultivated during the nineteenth century by the gaucho (an Argentine cowboy) in the vast rural area known as the Pampa. It derives from the payada de contrapunto, in which two singers (payadores), accompanying themselves on the guitar, improvised on different topics in a competition-like practice. The verses were octosyllabic quartets structured in a musical period of eight measures in 2/4. The term milonga is an African-Brazilian term that means words, i.e., the words of the payadores. It may also be called rural milonga in order to distinguish it from later developments of the genre
Spanish dance first originated in Andalusia
Milonga urbanasee tango
Milongon(Uruguay) a slow candombe
Milord(from the French) a wealthy Englishman travelling abroad
Miltonic imageryimagery made famous by Milton's poetry, especially Paradise Lost. Examples include the dark angels or twisted demons laboring at Pandemonium's construction deep below the earth in fiery shadow, especially when such imagery is taken in contrast with the pastoral tranquility of Eden or the pearly mansions of heaven afloat in glowing clouds. Likewise, the motif of the rejected, fallen, rebellious seraphim struggling against the Almighty's white lightning remains a haunting image in Milton's poetry
Milz(German f.) spleen (anatomical)
Mi maior
key of E major(Portuguese m.) the key of 'E major'
the scale of E major
the scale of 'E major'
Mi majeur
key of E major(French m.) the key of 'E major'
the scale of E major
the scale of 'E major'
Mi major
key of E major(Catalan m.) the key of 'E major'
the scale of E major
the scale of 'E major'
Mi mayor
key of E major(Spanish m.) the key of 'E major'
the scale of E major
the scale of 'E major'
mi mayor anhelo(Spanish) my greatest wish
Mimein dance, movements that a dancer uses to 'talk' without words
mimen(German) to act
Mi menor(Spanish m.) the key of 'E minor'
Mimesis(Greek) mimicry, impersonation (usually unconscious), imitation or representation of something else rather than an attempt to literally duplicate the original (in the sense that a play about World War I might attempt to represent rather than duplicate that event)
in ancient Greek drama, memisis was the form that showed rather than told the thoughts or the inner processes of characters, by external action and acting
mimesis may involve ecphrasis, the act of translating art from one type of media into another. A classical musician or composer might be entranced by an earlier bit of folkloric art, the legend of William Tell. He attempts to imitate or represent the stirring emotions of that story by creating a stirring song that has the same effect; thus, the famous overture to William Tell results. A story has been translated into a musical score. It is also possible to attempt mimesis of one medium into the same medium. For instance, American composer Aaron Copland was inspired by the simplicity of Quaker music, in his attempt to re-create that music mimetically in Appalachian Spring, much as he had attempted earlier to mimetically capture the American spirit in Fanfare for the Common Man
Mi mineur(French m.) the key of 'E minor'
Mimik(German f.) gestures and facial expressions
Mi minore(Italian m.) the key of 'E minor'
Mimodramaa performance, with or without music, in which dramatic action is conveyed by gesture and choreography instead of words
Mimose(German f.) mimosa
min.abbreviation of minore (Italian: minor), 'minor'
Minaa cylindrical drum found in Venezuela
(Cuba) an Afro-Cuban dance, closely related to the Brazilian martial dance capoeira
Mina1/2460 part of an octave, named by Dave Keenan and George Secor as an abbreviation of schismina. It is 0.487805 cents or 1/205 part of a 100 cent semitone, and selected because 2460-tone equal temperament is consistent up to the 28th harmonic and its step is therefore a useful measure in which to express high-limit just ratios, with very little roundoff errors. They use it in the development of their Sagittal notation system. Although for that purpose the exact size of one mina is 1/233 part of a Pythagorean apotome, or 0.487918 cents or 1/2459.427234 octave
minaccevole(Italian) menacing, threatening
minaccevolmente(Italian) menacingly, threateningly
minacciando(Italian) in a menacing manner, in a threatening manner
minacciosamente(Italian) in a menacing or threatening manner
minaccioso(Italian) menacing, threatening
Minauderie(French) affectation, coquettish manners
Mina y curbataa set of one-headed Afro-Venezuelan barrel drums made from avocado wood. The mina drum is about 2 metres long and is played diagonally, hitting it with sticks. The curbata is about 1 metre long and it is also played with sticks
mind.abbreviation of mindestens (German: at least - au moins (French))
minder(German) less, lesser
Minderheit(German f.) minority
minderjährig(German) under-age
Minderjähriger (m.), Minderjährige (f.)(German) minor
Minderjährigkeit(German f.) minority
minderjährigsein(German) to be under age
mindern(German) to diminish, to decrease (tempo)
Minderung(German f.) decrease
minderwertig(German) inferior
Minderwertigkeit(German f.) inferiority
Minderwertigkeitskomplex(German m.) inferiority complex
Mindestabstand(German m.) minimum distance
Mindest-(German) minimum (prefix)
(der/die/das) mindeste(German) (the) least
mindestens(German) at least, au moins (French)
Mindestlohn(German m.) minimum wage
Mindestmaß(German n.) minimum
Mineiroa metal cylindrical shaker filled with metal shot or small dried seeds that features in maracatu nação (also known as maracatu de baque virado) an Afro-Brazilian performance genre
Minerassee flamenco
Minervain Roman mythology, the equivalent of the Greek goddess Athena, goddess of war, wisdom and of the arts and crafts
Mines of Rammelsberga UNESCO World heritage site near the German town of Goslar, the site of continuous mineral extraction over a period of more than 1000 years. The Rammelsberg is a mountain, whose summit is 636 m above sea level
Minestrone(Italian) a substantial soup made of rice, pasta and various kinds of vegetables
the term is used in English for any mixture of disparate things
mineur(Dutch) minor
mineur (m.), mineure (f.)(French) minor, moll (German)
mineur-akkord(Dutch) minor triad
Mineure melodique(French f.) melodic minor
Mineur met verhoogde septiem(Dutch) minor with raised seventh
Mineure naturelle(French f.) natural minor, pure minor
Mineur none akkord(Dutch) minor ninth chord
Mineur septiem akkord(Dutch) minor seventh chord
Mineur toonladder(Dutch) minor scale
Mingulay boat songsee 'boat song'
Minia television miniseries
Miniaturea full page or half page painting in a manuscript
Miniature scorealso 'pocket score' or 'study score', a musical score (usually 13·5 × 18·5 cm) not primarily intended for performance use, with the notation and/or text reduced in size
Miniaturpartitur(German f.) miniature score
Mini-jazza type of jazz music characterized by swing dancing and jazzy melodies with influences from rock music. Predominant in Haiti in the 1970s, its popularity has waned since the 1990s
Minimblanca (Spanish), minima (Italian), blanche (French), minime (French), half note (US), Halbe (German), halbe Note (German)
minima half note, a note half the value of a semibreve (whole note)
minimain mensural notation, equivalent to a minim or half note
minim(Italian, Spanish, Portuguese) a half note, a note half the value of a semibreve (whole note)
Mini-majorbig film production companies that are supposedly smaller than the majors although such companies as Miramax, Polygram and New Line compete directly with the big studios
Minimal Electronicaa musical genre containing elements of other electronic genres, such as ambient and glitch
Minimal pairalso called contrastive pair, used by linguists to illustrate subtle sound differences, two words that differ by only a single sound
Minimalismlate twentieth-century style characterized by the slowing down of musical processes through the repetition-with-variation of short fragments
Minimalismo(Spanish m.) minimalism
Minimalismus(German m.) minimalism
Minimalista(Spanish m./f.) minimalist (composer, painter, etc.)
minimalistisch(German) minimalistic
Minimal musicalso called 'process music', music in the style called 'minimalism'
Minimal processrepetitive process on a small number of elements, for example, In C by Terry Riley (b. 1935) or Koyanisqatsi by Phillip Glass (b. 1937)
Minimal psychedelic trancealso referred to as 'minimalist trance', 'psytekk', 'progressive psytrance' and 'psyprog', a style of electronic trance music developed in the early 2000s, developed as a sub-genre of psychedelic and Goa trance
Minimal technoa minimalist sub-genre of Techno music. It is characterized by a stripped-down, glitchy sound, a simple 4/4 beat (usually around 120-135 BPM) and the repetition of short loops. Related styles are Minimal Electronica, ambient techno, minimal house, microhouse and tech house
Minime(French f.) or blanche (French), a minim
Minim restsilencio de blanca (Spanish), pausa de blanca (Spanish), pausa di minima (Italian), demi-pause (French), half rest (US), halbe Pause (German)
minim resta half rest, a rest half the value of a semibreve rest (whole rest)
Miniseriesalso 'mini-series', in a serial storytelling medium, a production which tells a story in a pre-planned limited number of episodes
Minister(Latin) attendant, retainer, minister
a church served by a body of canons or prebendaries; the same as a collegiate church; in the north of England the term was also used for a cathedral
Ministère de musique(French m.) minister for music (government minister)
Minister generalterm for the head of the Franciscan order
Ministeriale (s.), Minstrerialn (pl.)(German) a member of the class of service nobility in the Middle Ages in Germany
Ministerialis (s.), Ministeriales (pl.)(Latin) as used in English, meaning originally an official in the imperial service
Ministers provincialterm for the heads of provinces within the Franciscan order
Ministralis(Middle Latin) retainer
Ministrel(Middle Latin) retainer
Ministrello(Italian m.) minstrel
Ministril (s.), Ministriles (pl.)(Spanish m.) or músico de viento, a wind instrumentalist associated with the church
(Spanish m.) troubadour, ménestrel
Ministro de música(Spanish m.) minister for music (government minister)
Minium(Latin) in art, vermillion, red crystalline mercuric suphide, red lead, red oxide of lead
Minne(German) love
the German term for fin amour (i.e., courtly love)
Minnedichter(German) medieval German poets who flourished between 1138 and 1347
Minnelied (s.), Minnelieder (pl.)(German n.) German vernacular love songs of the 12th- to 15th-centuries, generally in two sections, the first repeated, the second not
although the formal love song is the most common type found in Minnesang at all periods, but there were also others:
Botenliedaddress to a messengerthe lady or the man reveal to a messenger emotions that, by convention, could not be expressed directly to the beloved
Kreuzliedcrusading songthis song does not usually tell of a crusade and its hardships, but rather of the pain caused by leaving the beloved behind
Wechselconversation songthis song represents an actual conversation between two lovers, but often convention is served by making the conversation take place in a dream. In all these types of poems the rules of formal love poetry are preserved, and the formal aspects of the Minnelied (love song) appear
Tagelieddawn songderived from the Provençal alba, it shows the parting of two lovers at dawn after a night of illicit love. A watchman cries that dawn has come; the lovers are in danger from spies sent by a jealous husband or perhaps from a less successful suitor. The stress is on the feelings of the woman rather than those of the man, and there is no attempt to idealize the situation. The form was not popular with German poets since there are few examples of it in early lyric poetry, and even after Romance traditions became established, resorting to a dreamlike setting seemed to be preferable to an explicit portrayal in the Romance vein
Pastourellepastoral songfrom the Occitan pastorella, the pastourelle was a poetic genre that was popular throughout France in the 12th and 13th centuries. Set in the countryside, a man discovers and attempts to seduce a young woman, usually a shepherdess. The poem includes both narrative (the man's point of view), and dialogue. In this way it contrasts with the conventions of courtly love by having the object of desire being not a noble lady where social constraints dictate events, but a commoner, with the less refined associations that would be drawn by the listener
Minneliet(Middle High German) Minnelied
Minnesang(German m.) courtly and secular music in Medieval Germany, cultivated by the nobility although similar in many ways to the troubadour tradition, focussing on the idea of 'courtly love' or Minnedienst, the loyality and devotion of a knight to an unattainable lady
Minnesänger(German m.) or Minnesinger, the German counterpart of the French troubadour/trouvere, a medieval poet-musician. Usually from the upper classes particularly those of knightly rank, they were part of the Minnesang tradition, singing of heroism, love and nature, although their tone was more idealistic than that of their Provencal/French equivalents. They were active in Germany between c. 1150 and ca. 1325. There were two chief schools: that from the Danube and that from the Rhine valleys (both great highways to the Crusades, thus frequented by travelling troubadours who spread theirart). Minnesingers declined in the thirteenth century and were replaced by Meistersingers
  • Jester from which this information has been taken
Minnim(Hebrew) strings (Psalms 150:4), probably a stringed instrument
Minorminore (Italian), Moll (German), mineur (French), lesser, smaller (particularly when discussing intervals, scales, keys and chords)
Minor II-V-Ia II-V-I progression in a minor key
Minor Colorcolored notes in tempus imperfectum which consist of a blackened semibreve followed by a blackened minim. Although this may have originally been intended to be a triplet, during the Renaissance, it represented a dotted minim followed by a semiminim. (In Apel's description of minor color, he erroneously claims that it represents a dotted semiminim followed by a fusa, but shows the correct note shapes!)
Minor diesissee diesis
Minore(Italian) less, smaller, shorter, lower
(Italian) minor (when referring to key or interval)
(Asia Minor) see matzore
Minor intervalthe interval a chromatic semitone (half-step) narrower or smaller than a major interval
Minor keytono minore (Italian), Moll Tonart (German), ton mineur (French), a key which has a minor interval between its first and third degree
Minor large chordan alternative name for the 'minor major seventh chord'
Minor major modethe first mode of the melodic minor scale - also the chord derived from that mode
Minor major seventh chorda seventh chord consisting of a minor triad plus a major seventh
Minor modea mode, or scale, in which the third and sixth are minor
Minor ninth chordequivalent to a dominant ninth chord in a minor key
Minor ordersthe lower ranks of the Christian ministry, comprising the orders of acolyte, exorcist, reader and doorkeeper
Minor pentatonica five-note scale consisting of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 5th and 6th degrees of a natural minor scale
Minor scalescala minore (Italian), Moll Tonleiter (German), gamme mineur (French)
the three standard minor scales used in Western music are:
natural minor scalealso called the Aeolian mode, exactly as the key signature dictates. This is the minor scale that is not altered. It begins on the note a minor third below the tonic or key-note of the major scale for which the key signature would usually apply. Thus the D natural minor scale, with a key signature of one flat, uses the same sequence of notes as the F major scale but begins and ends on D, i.e. D, E, F, G, A, B flat, C, D.
The interval sequence for the rising natural minor scale is T-S-T-T-S-T-T (T=tone or whole-step, S=semitone or half-step)
harmonic minor scalecontains the pitches most commonly used to form the harmony in the minor key. The only altered note is the seventh scale degree which is raised by a semitone (half-step) to form a leading note. The V chord, the tonicizing chord, requires this leading note to function properly. Thus, the D harmonic linor scale has the same note sequence as the D natural minor scale but with the seventh scale degree C, raised to C sharp.
The interval sequence for the rising harmonic minor scale is T-S-T-T-S-T+S-S (T=tone or whole-step, S=semitone or half-step)
melodic minor scalecontains the pitches that are often used in melodies that approach the tonic from below and fall away from the tonic. In this scale then, the sixth and seventh scale degrees are altered. In the harmonic minor scale, there is an augmented second between the sixth and seventh scale degree. This makes no difference in a collection of pitches used to form harmony. However, intervals like this are avoided in melodic usage, and the melodic minor scale accounts for this by raising the sixth degree as well as the seventh. This way, a melody can approach the tonic with a leading tone, and the leading tone can be approached by step as well. Notice that the descending melodic minor scale approaches the dominant the same way the ascending scale approaches the tonic so the sixth and seventh degree no longer need to be altered and it is in the unaltered natural minor form. Thus the ascending D melodic minor scale is D, E, F, G, A, B natural, C sharp, D, and the descending D melodic minor scale is D, C, B flat, A, G, F, E, D
The rising interval sequence for the melodic minor scale is T-S-T-T-T-T-S (T=tone or whole-step, S=semitone or half-step). The falling sequence is identical to that for the falling natural minor scale
Minor secondan interval comprising a semitone (half step)
Minor semitonean older term for 'chromatic semitone' (for example, C to C#)
Minor seven flat five chordhalf diminished seventh chord
Minor seventhan interval of five tones (whole steps)
ditonus cum diapente
Minor seventh chorda seventh chord consisting of a minor triad plus a minor seventh chord
Minor six (6) pentatonic scaleminor 6 pentatonic scale
a scale that is useful in jazz, but not so much used in blues or rock. The minor 6 pentatonic scale can be used over many chords including a minor 6 chord
Minor sixthan interval comprising four tones (four steps)
semitonium cum diapente
Minor tetrachorda rising row of four notes with successive intervals T-S-T (T=tone or whole-step, S=semitone or half-step)
Minor thirdan interval comprising three semitones (i.e. a tone and a semitone, or a step and a half)
Minor triad
G minor triad a chord consisting of a minor third above which is placed a major third. The example shown here is the G minor triad
Minor triple (meter)the meter 3/8, so-called because it should be played twice as fast as music written in 3/4
Mino washi(Japanese) a type of Japanese paper created in Gifu Prefecture, Japan. Because of the high quality of the paper, it was used in many of the traditional crafts within the city, including lanterns, umbrellas and fans
Minshingaku(Japanese, literally 'Ming-period music') Japanese genre of chamber music based on Chinese musical forms and instruments of the Ming dynasty (1368-1644) that reached its peak popularity in the sixteenth century
Minsogak(Korean) or minsok-ak, folk music
Minstreel(Dutch) minstrel
Minstrel(English, German m.) from the French, menestrel, menestrier) the word menestrier, first coined in the fourteenth century, referred to the superior class of musicians, the jongleur. The word menestrier, which is related to the word 'minister', may refer to the duty of providing musical accompaniment to the troubadours. The profession was known as menestrandie, from which came menestrel. This group were further divided into menestrel de bouche (singer), menestrel de guerre (military instrument player), and so on. When the word menestrel emigrated from the Continent to England, it was changed to minstrel, (related to the Saxon gleemen)
Minstrel harpsee 'celtic harp'
Minstrel showthe 'minstrel show' or 'minstrelsy' of the mid to late nineteenth-century United States included performers who sang songs and danced dances mimicking blacks (African-Americans) with banjo and percussion accompaniment, the performers being both black and white dressed in black-face. The minstrel show began with brief burlesques and comic entr'actes in the early 1830s and emerged as a full-fledged form in the next decade. By the end of the 1850s, minstrel shows as such had become a "lifeless ... [but] profitable" institution, which lingered on for several decades. By the turn of the century, the minstrel show enjoyed but a shadow of its former popularity, having been replaced for the most part by vaudeville. It survived as professional entertainment until about 1910, and was performed until the 1950s in high schools, fraternities, local theatres. In the 1950s as African Americans began to score legal and social victories against racism and to successfully assert political power, minstrelsy lost popularity
Minstrelsysee 'minstrel show'
Minteki(Japanese) or shinteki, a transverse flute used in minshingaku, the Chinese-style chamber ensemble of Japan
see shinteki
Minué(Spanish m.) minuet
Minuetminuetto (Italian), Menuett (German, Swedish), menuet (French), a graceful French dance in simple triple time often appearing as a section of extended works (e.g. dance suites) of the 17th- and 18th-centuries. Later minuets are generally quicker than the earlier form
the minuet remains an element in folk dance in countries such as Finland and parts of Sweden
Minuet and trioan ABA form (A=minuet; B=trio - because the minuet is repeated this form is sometimes called a 'double minuet') in a moderate triple meter that is often the third movement of the Classical sonata cycle
Minuettina(Italian) a little minuet
Minuetto(Italian m.) minuet
Minuscule(English) in medieval manuscripts, script composed of lower case letters. The invention of minuscule allowed for faster, more compact writing in scriptoria
minuscule(French) tiny, microscopic
Minutario(Spanish m.) minute book (for keeping a record of the business at meetings)
Minute(English, German f.) a period of time equal to one sixtieth of an hour. One minute is equivalent to 60 seconds
Minuterie(French) small pieces of jeweller's work, an automatic time-switch that turns off corridor or landing lights automatically after a fixed period of time from when they are switched on
Minutia (s.), Minutiae (pl.)(Latin) a trivial detail, a minor peculiarity
MinyoJapanese and Korean folk songs
Mir(Russian) a Russian village community
Mirabile dictu(Latin) wonderful to relate
Mirabile visu(Latin) wonderful to behold
Mirabilia(Latin pl.) things to wonder at, astonishing things
Mirabrássee flamenco
Miracle of the Virgina vita or a miracle play that dramatizes some aspect of humanity activity, and ends with the miraculous intervention of the Blessed Virgin
Miracle playsor 'mystery plays', not to be confused with medieval 'morality plays', miracle plays involve the use of drama to tell biblical stories, popular in Medieval England, also called 'Mysteries' or 'Moralities'. They developed from the representation of Bible stories in churches as tableaux with accompanying antiphonal song, such as the Quem Quaeritis - a short musical performance set at the tomb of the risen Christ. These simple structures were developed with tropes, verbal embellishment of the liturgical text, and became more elaborate. As these liturgical plays became more popular, more vernacular elements were introduced and non-clergy began to participate. As the dramas became increasingly secular, they began to be performed entirely in the vernacular and were moved out of the churches by the thirteenth or fourteenth century
Miracle temperamentin music, miracle temperament is a regular temperament invented by George Secor which has as a generator an interval, called the secor, which serves as both the 15/14 and 16/15 semitones. Because 15/14 and 16/15 are equated, their ratio (15/14)/(16/15) = 225/224, sometimes called the septimal kleisma, is tempered out, and two secors give an 8/7 interval. Three of these 8/7 intervals, or six secors, make up a fifth, so that (3 / 2) / (8 / 7)3 = 1029 / 1024, an interval sometimes called the gamelan residue, is also tempered out. This gives the 7-limit version of miracle
Mirada(Spanish f.) look
Mirada acusadora(Spanish f.) accusing look
Mirage(French) an optical illusion observable in sandy deserts, hot road surfaces, etc., which produces the appearance of sheets of water
the word is now applied more generally to mean an illusion of something pleasant which has no real existence
mirar(Spanish) to look at, to check, to watch, to look after, to think, to consider, to be careful, to see, to face
mirar alrededor(Spanish) to look around
mirarse(Spanish) to think twice, to look at one another, to look at each other
mirarse en el espejo(Spanish) to look at oneself in the mirror
Mire(French f.) centre of attention (figurative), TV test card
mirepoix(French) roughly cut vegetables, usually onions, carrots, celery with a sprig of thyme and bay leaf
Mirilla(Spanish f.) peephole, spyhole
mir kam zum Bewußtsein(German) I realised
mir kam zum Bewußtsein daß(German) I realised that
Mirliton(Dutch, Italian m., English, German m., French m.) a membranophone in which a freely vibrating membrane distorts the sound used to excite it, for example, the kazoo
The Danse des mirlitons in Tchaikovsky's ballet The Nutcracker is a reference to reed-pipes or panpipes
miro(French) short-sighted (familiar)
mirobolant (m.), mirobolante (f.)(French) marvellous (familiar)
miró hacia arriba(Spanish) he looked up
Miroir(French m.) mirror
miroiter(French) to gleam, to shimmer
Miroloyia(Greek) dirges sung by women as part of the cermonies following a death
Mirrora term used to describe a part appearing upside down, which if set directly below the original part it would appear like the other reflected in a mirror lying between the two lines
Mirror ballsee 'disco ball'
Mirror canona musical palindrome, a canon that sounds the same when sung or played backwards
Mirror passagea section of a story that might not contribute directly to the plot (i.e., it contains characters divorced from the main narrative, and the events it deals with do not further the action) but which does reflect the basic concerns of the work in terms of theme, action, or symbolism or which seems to echo another scene, image, or situation
Mirror scenea scene in a play or novel that does not contribute directly to the plot (i.e., it contains characters divorced from the main narrative, and the events it deals with do not further the action,) but which does mirror the basic concerns of the play or narrative in terms of theme, action, or symbolism
Misa(Spanish f.) Mass, messe (French)
Misa baja(Spanish f.) Low Mass, messe basse (French)
Misa cantada(Spanish f.) sung Mass, messe chantée (French)
Misa católica(Spanish f.) Mass of the Roman rite
Misa de Aguinaldo(Spanish f.) see aguinaldo
Misa de campaña(Spanish f.) outdoor Mass, messe en plein air (French)
Misa de cuerpo presente(Spanish f.) funeral Mass
Misa de difuntos(Spanish f.) Mass for the dead, messe de Requiem (French), messe des morts (French)
Misa de esponsales(Spanish f.) betrothal Mass
Misa de Gallo(Spanish f.) the word gallo ('rooster') associates the Mass with when it is held (the first sound of dawn or at the crowing of the rooster), the Christmas Eve Mass, or Mass held at midnight of Dec. 25, to formally welcome the Nativity of the Messiah
Misa del alba(Spanish f.) morning Mass, première messe (French)
Misa del gallo(Spanish f.) Christmas midnight Mass, messe de minuit (French)
Misa gregoriana(Spanish f.) Mass using the Gregorian rite
mis ahijados(Spanish) my godchildren
mis à jour(French) brought up to date
Misal(Spanish m.) missal, hymn-book
Misa mayor(Spanish f.) High Mass, grand-messe (French)
Misa negra(Spanish f.) black Mass, messe noire (French)
Misanthrope(French m.) misanthropist
misanthrope(French) misanthropic
Misa pontifical(Spanish f.) papal Mass, messe pontificale (French)
Misa privada(Spanish f., literally 'private mass') Low Mass
Misa rezada(Spanish f., literally 'prayed mass') Low Mass
Misa solemne(Spanish f.) messe solennelle (French)
Misatobue(Japan) a modified shinobue in which an extra finger hole has been added at a the back near mouthpiece, so as to facilitate the production of sounds otherwise difficult to obtain on the shinobue. This hole is stopped by the thumb of the left hand
  • Misatobue from which this extract has been taken
Misa votiva(Spanish f.) votive Mass (celebrated for a special intention)
miscelare(Italian) to mix
Miscella(Latin) a mixture stop in the organ
Miscellaneous(English) of mixed composition or character, of various kinds
Miscellania(Latin pl.) a collection of writings on miscellaneous subjects
Miscellany(English from the Latin miscellania) a collection of writings on miscellaneous subjects, mixture, medley
mischen(German) to mix, to master (a recording)
mischiare con(Italian) to blend in with
Mischpult(German n.) sound mixer, mixer, mixing desk
Miscible(English) capable of being mixed
Misconceive(English) have a wrong idea or conception
(English) badly planned, badly organized, etc.
mise(French) putting
mise à exécution, la(French) implementation, enforcement
mise à jour(French) act of updating, updated
mise à mort(French) kill
mise à pied(French) dismissal (employment)
mise à prix(French) reserve price
mise au monde(French) birth
mise au point(French) tuning, focusing, the clarifying and illuminating of an obscurity
mise de page(French) the arrangement of printed matter on the page of a book, typographical design
mise de fonds(French) capital outlay
mise de voix(French, literally 'placing the voice') messa di voce
mise en accusation(French) indictment
mise en bière(French) placement into a coffin
mise en boîte(French) ridiculing, leg-pulling (colloquial)
mise en bouteille(French) bottling
mise en cause(French) calling into question, pointing a finger at
mise en condition(French) conditioning
mise en demeure(French) formal demand, formal notice
mise en espace(French) the staging of a play on an open stage in an amphitheatre
mise en examen(French) placing under investigation
mise en forme(French) imposition (typography), warming up (exercise), limbering up (sports, exercise)
mise en gage(French) pawning
mise en jeu(French) involvement, bringing into play
mise en marche(French) starting up (a machine or apparatus)
mise en ondes(French) production (radio)
mise en page(French) make-up (typography)
mise en plis(French) hair setting
mise en pratique(French) putting into practice
mise en relief(French) enhancement, accentuation
mise en sacs(French) packing
mise en scène(French f.) the production or staging of a play or film
the use of the term has been extended include 'the background against which some action takes place' or 'the setting of a work of fiction'
mise en service(French) putting or starting into service
mise en valeur(French) development, improvement
mise en vigueur(French) enforcement
mis en ordre(French) arranged
mis en place(French) in cooking, preparation prior to service
mis en relief(French) emphasised, risaltato (Italian), hervorgehoben (German)
Miserere(English, German n., Latin, literally 'have mercy') named for its opening words, Miserere mei, Deus, the 51st Psalm sung in the Roman Office for the Dead and during Holy Week
a small bracket on the underside of a hinged seat arranged to give some support to a person standing in front of it
Miserere nostri(Latin literally 'have mercy upon us') taken from the Te Deum, lines set by many composers but few more strikingly than by the English composer, Thomas Tallis (1505-1585)
Misericorda swing up seat in the choir of a major church, allowing clergy celebrating divine office to rest their weight while standing up
a room in a monastery where the inhabitants were allowed occasionally to eat meat
mise sur pied(French) setting up
Mi Sheberach-Tonleiter(German f.) Mi-Sheberach scale, one of the modes of the harmonic minor scale, of which another mode is the Spanish scale
Mishra ragain Hindustani classical music, the mixture of two or more ragas
Mishrokitha(Hebrew) probably the Chaldean name for a flute with two reeds (Daniel 3:5)
Misile(Spanish m.) missile
Misile antiaéreo(Spanish m.) antiaircraft missile
Misile balístico(Spanish m.) ballistic missile
Misile de largo alcance(Spanish m.) long-range missile
Misiva(Spanish f.) missive (a short written note)
Misma nota(Spanish f.) same note
mismo (m.), misma (f.)(Spanish) same
Misnjacasee hrvatski tanac
Misnicebagpipe from Dalmatia (Croatia) and Herzegovina (Bosnia-Herzegovina), made of goatskin. The chanter is a double pipe with six holes on each side. One pipe is used as the drone and occasionally fingered, the other side used for the tune, in nearly the same register as the drone
Miso(Japanese) seasoning derived from soya bean
Misolidio(Italian) Mixolydian
Misomusistnot so much a passive ignorer of culture, as an active opponent of it
Missa(Latin) the Mass
Missa brevis(Latin, literally 'short mass') a concise or less elaborate setting of the Mass
a setting of the Kyrie and Gloria only
Missa cantata(Latin) a 'chanted' mass, a compromise between the missa solemnis and missa privata, a Low Mass accompanied by choral chants
Missa La sol fa re mithe five-note theme from Josquin's 1502 Missa La sol fa re mi was borrowed by subsequent composers and used in vocal and instrumental compositions at least until 1626. Examples include vihuelist Diego Pisador's 1552 Fantasia del quarto tono sobre la sol fa re mi, lutenist Albert de Rippe's 1555 Fantasie XVII, Neapolitan composer Rocco Rodio's 1579 Quinta Ricercata, and Girolamo Frescobaldi's 1624 Capriccio sopra la, sol, fa, re, mi
Missala book of the Church containing all the texts and musical notation necessary for the celebration of the Mass
Missale(Latin) missal
Missal of Silosthe oldest known paper document created in the Christian West. The paper for the missal probably came from Islamic Spain. The missal itself comes from the Monastery of Santo Domingo de Silos near Burgos, Spain and is still in the library of the monastery. It is a Mozarabic rite quarto missal with 154 folios, from the eleventh century
Missa privata(Latin) Low Mass, a simplified form of the Mass in which a single Celebrant takes on the Deacon and Subdeacon roles and where the whole service is spoken
Missa pro defunctis(Latin) requiem Mass
Missa solemnis(Latin, literally 'solemn mass') High Mass, which includes singing by the Celebrant, deacon and subdeacon, as well as chanting or polyphonic singing by the choir
as a musical setting, a missa solemnis is elaborate, often symphonic, and suitable for liturgical use
Missa solennis(Latin) missa solemnis
misshällig(German) dissonant, discordant
Misshälligkeit(German f.) dissonance, discordance
misshellig(German) dissonant, discordant
Misshelligkeit(German f.) dissonance, discordance
Missing fundamentalalso called 'subjective fundamental', 'suppressed fundamental' or 'phantom fundamental', an acoustic effect that, although beating between its overtones suggest a fundamental frequency, the sound actually lacks a component at the fundamental frequency itself
Mission civilisatrice(French f.) the duty of European nations to bring civilization to their colonial subject peoples
Mississippi saxophonesee 'harmonica'
Missklang (s.), Missklänge (pl.)(German m.) discord, dissonance, cacophony
Misslaut(German) dissonance
misslauten(German) to sound discordantly
misslautend(German) disonant, discordant
Misspellingwhile some words admit multiple spellings, some spellings are clearly incorrect, and thus labeled as misspellings
Missstimmung(German) discord, dissonance
Misston (s.), Misstöne (pl.)(German m.) false note
misstönend(German) discordant (as in 'discordant note')
misterieux (m.), misterieuse (f.)(French) mysterious, in a mysterious manner
misteriosamente(Italian) mysteriously, in a mysterious manner
misterioso(Italian) mysteriously, in a mysterious manner
Mistero(Italian m.) mystery
Mistery(from Latin misterium, literally 'occupation') a Medieval English guild for professional scribes, and after which, the 'Misteries', we get the name of the places in which they worked. In other part sof Europe their were equivalent societies which in addition to scribes included manuscript illuminators
Mistery playssee 'miracle plays'
Mistica(Italian f.) mysticism
Mistico(Italian m.) mystic
Mistral(French) a strong colod north-west wind, the equivalent of the Italian maestrale
Mistura(Italian f.) mix
Misura(Italian f.) measure, bar, time
misurare con il calibro(Italian) to measure with calipers
misurarsi con(Italian) to measure against
misurato(Italian) measured, in strict time, a battuta (Italian), im Takt (German), im Zeitmaß (German), à mesure (French)
(Italian) in Renaissance dance there were four characteristic tempos and movements. Whereas the bassadanza remains in one time signature throughout its dance, balli of the fifteenth century could be composed of any of four different misura or measures. Each of the misura had a unique tempo, time signature, and a special way to approach the steps:
piva misuraconsidered the least important of the measures, usually written in 2/4 time (occasionally in 6/8 time), with the fastest steps of the four. It is danced as though it were in duple time. The term piva can also indicate a special step as well as a particular misura. The piva step is described as being a "fast double" , but it is unclear quite what this means
salterello misurathe measure, least important but one, usually written in 3/4 time (occasionally in 6/8 time), with the second fastest steps. The saltarello step, a double step which includes a hop, also appears in other misure. The saltarello misura has a time signature of 6/8 which is usually reconstructed with 6 beats per measure
quadernaria misurausually written in 4/4 time, the quaternaria is the only dance misura of the fifteenth century that is not found as an independent dance. Faster than the bassadanza, this is a four-beat walking step with a stamp on the last beat
bassadanza misuraconsidered to be the most important of the measures, "the queen of measures", usually written in 6/4 time, with steps that are the slowest and most elegant just like the dance of the same name. The bassadanza is a slow, stately dance form, elegant in style, and often processional. It is usually reconstructed with either 3 or 6 beats per measure
MITabbreviation of 'Massachusetts Institute of Technology'
mit(German) by, with
mit Abzügensee Abzug
mit Ach und Krach(German) by the skin of one's teeth (something barely achieved or achieved at the very last minute)
Mitad(Spanish f.) middle (half-way line)
mit Affekt(German) with passion, with warmth
mit Anbetung(German) con adorazione (Italian), adoringly, avec adoration (French)
mit Andacht(German) devoutly, with devotion
mit anfassen(German) to lend a hand
mit angenehmen Registern(German) with pleasing stops (in organ playing)
mit angenehmer Stimme(German) sweetvoiced
mit anhören(German) to overhear
Mitarbeiter(German m.) collaborator, co-worker
mit aufgehobener Dämpfung(German) take away (or release) the dampers
mit Aufschwung(German) in a lofty, impassioned style
mit Aufschwung, aber nicht eilen(German) with impetus, but not rushing
mit Ausdehnung(German) con ampiezza (Italian), with breadth, mit Weite (German), avec ampleur (French)
mit Ausdruck(German) with expression, expressively
mit automatischer Dichtung(German) selfsealing
Mitbadjsee mitbaq
mit bangt davor(German) I dread it
MitbaqIraqi double reed pipe
mit Begleitung(German) accompanied
mit Behändigkeit(German) con agilità (Italian) with nimbleness, with agility, with clean and light expression, avec agilité (French)
mit Beschlag belegen(German) monopolize
mit Besen(German) with the brush
mit Besen gestreift(German) with the striped brush
mit Bestimmtheit(German) for certain
mit Betrübnis(German) con afflizione (Italian) or con accoramento (Italian), with grief, trübselig (German), attristé (French)
mit Bewegung(German) with animation, con moto
mit Bitterkeit(German) con amarezza (Italian), with sadness, with bitterness, with affliction, mournfully, avec amertume (French)
Mitbiqthe Iraqi double clarinet
see 'double clarinet'
mit Bleistift schreiben(German) to write in pencil
mit bloßen Auge(German) with the naked eye
mit Bünden versehen(German) fretted, tastato (Italian) avec sillets (French)
Mitbürger(German m.) fellow citizen
mit Dämpfer (s.), mit Dämpfern (pl.)(German) with mute, with damper
mit dem(German) with the
mit dem Bogen (German) with the bow, coll'arco (Italian), avec l'archet (French)
mit dem Bogen geschlagen(German) to be struck with the bow
mit dem Bogen schlagen(German) to strike with the bow
mit dem Bogenstange(German f.) col legno
mit dem Daumen(German) with the thumb
mit dem Fuß aufstampfen(German) to stamp one's foot
mit dem Knie(German) with the knee
mit dem Kopf des Große-Trommel-Schlägels(German) with the head of the bass-drum beater
mit dem Kopf zuerst(German) head first
mit dem solo Part(German) with the solo part
mit dem Stiel(German) with the handle
mit dem Stiel des Große-Trommel-Schlägels(German) with the handle of the bass-drum beater
mit dem Stock(German) with the stick
mit den Becken scheiben(German) with cymbals
mit den Fingern(German) with the fingers
mit den Fingernägeln(German) with the fingernails
mit den Fingerspitzen(German) with the fingertips
mit den Füßen stampfen(German) to stamp one's feet
mit den Nägel (s.), mit den Nägeln (pl.)(German) with the fingernail, with a nail, with a pin
mit der Fläche(German) with the flat
mit der(German) with the
mit der Bogenstange(German) with the wood (of the bow), col legno (Italian) , avec le bois (French)
mit der Hand(German) with the hand
mit der Handfläche(German) with the flat of the hand
mit der Handwurzel(German) with the wrist
mit der linken Hand(German) with the left hand
mit der rechten Hand(German) with the right hand
mit der Singstimme(German) with the voice
mit der Stimme(German) colla parte
mit der Zeit(German) in time
mit der Zunge anstoßen(German) lisp
mit Drahtbesen(German) with the wire-brush
mit durchaus ernstem und feierlichem Ausdruck(German) with a serious and solemn expression throughout
mit Eile(German) with haste
miteinander(German) with each other, together
miteinander abwechseln (bei)(German) to take turns (with)
mit einem Finger(German) with one finger
mit einem Male etwas wuchtiger(German) all at once somewhat heavier
mit einem Nagel Glissando(German) glissando with a nail
mit einigem Ausdruck(German) with some expression
mit einiger Freiheit(German) somewhat freely
mit Eisenstab(German) with an iron-stick
mit Empfindung(German) with feeling, with emotion
mit Emphase(German) with emphasis
Mitered pipeon an organ, a pipe bent to fit into limited space
Mitessee 'bow mites'
mit etwas drängendem Charakter(German) with a somewhat forward-pressing character
mit Feuer(German) with fire, with ardour, with warmth
mit Filzschlägel (s.), mit Filzschlägeln (pl.)(German) with a felt mallet
mit Flanellschlägel (s.), mit Flanellschlägeln (pl.)(German) with the flannel mallet
mit Fröhlichkeit(German) con allegrezza (Italian), con allegria (Italian), joyfully, cheerfully, gaily, with lightness, avec allégresse (French)
mit ganz schwachen Registern(German) with very soft stops
mit gedämpfter Stimme sprechen(German) to speak in a damped voice, to speak in an undertone
mit Gefühl(German) with feeling, with expression, with soul
mit Geläufigkeit(German) with promptness
mit Gemüt(German) with much feeling and expression
mit Gemüth(German) with much feeling and expression
mit Gemüthlich(German) soulfully
mit Gemütlich(German) soulfully
mit geschlossenem Mund(German) with mouth closed
mit Geschwindigkeit(German) with speed
mit Glockenhammer(German) with chime-mallet
mit Glockenspielschlägel(German) with bell mallet, with the glockenspiel mallet
mit Gummischlägel(German) with the rubber mallet
mit große(German) in a dignified manner, grandiose
mit großem Ton(German) with a full tone
mit großer Ergriffenheit(German) deeply affected, moved
mit großer Freiheit(German) with great freedom, very freely
mit großer Geschwindigkeit(German) with great speed
mit großer Kraft(German) with great vigour
mit großer Wärme(German) with great warmth, with great fervour, very ardently
mit große Trommel Schlägel(German) with bass-drum stick
mit größter Geschwindigkeit(German) at full speed
mit größter Kraft(German) with full force, con tutta la forza (Italian)
mit halber Stimme(German) half voice, mezza voce (Italian), à mi-voix (French)
mit Hammer(German) with the hammer
mit Hand anlegen(German) lend a hand
mit hartem Filzschlägel(German) with a hard felt mallet
mit hartem Schlägel(German) with a hard stick
mit Hingabe(German) with abandon, abbandonatamente (Italian), abbandono (Italian), avec abandon (French)
mit höchster Kraft(German) with greatest power
mit höchster Kraftentfaltung(German) with the greatest unfolding of power
mit höherem Tempo(German) quicker
mit Holzschlägel (s.), mit Holzschlägeln (pl.)(German) with the wooden mallet
mit Humor(German) with humour, whimsically
mitigando(Italian) placando (Italian), appeasing, besänftigend (German), en apaisant (French)
mit innigem Ausdruck(German) with heartfelt expression
mit Innigkeit(German) with deep emotion
mit innigster Empfindung(German) with deepest emotion
mitja pausa
minim rest(Catalan f.) minim rest (half rest), a rest half the value of a semibreve rest (whole rest)
mit Jazzbesen(German) with the wire-brush
mit Keckheit(German) pertness, confidently, with vigour and boldness, in a bravura style
mit Keckheit vorgetragen(German) with a vigorous performing style
mit Kette(German m.) with chain
mit Kette und weichem Schlägel(German m.) with chain and soft stick
Mitklang(German m.) resonance
mitklingende Töne(German m. pl.) overtones, upper partials
mit Korkschlägel (s.), mit Korkschlägeln (pl.)(German) with a cork mallet
mit Kraft(German) with strength, vigorously, energetically, powerfully, con forza
mit langsamen Schritt(German) slowpaced (writing)
Mitlaut(German) concord, consonance, consonant
Mitlauter(German) concord, consonance
mit lauter Stimme(German) in a loud voice
mit Liebenswürdigkeit(German) con garbo (Italian), con amabilità (Italian), tenderly, with sweetness, gracefully, with elegance, with grace and gentleness, avec amabilité (French)
mit Lebhaftigkeit(German) with animation
mit Lederschlägel (s.), mit Lederschlägeln (pl.)(German) with a leather mallet
mit Leichtigkeit(German) with facility, lightly, easily, with ease, con agevolezza Italian), con facilità (Italian), avec aisance (French)
Mitleid(German n.) mercy
mit Leidenschaft(German) with passion, with strong emotion
mit leidenschaftlichem Ausdruck(German) with passionate expression
mitleidig(German) pitying
mit leiser Stimme(German) or unter der Stimme(German), sotto voce (Italian), sottovoce (Italian), under the breath, in lowered tones, softly, as an aside, in an undertone, à voix basse (French)
mit Liebe(German) con amore (Italian), with love, lovingly, with affection, with devotion, fondly, tenderly, avec amour (French)
mit Marimbaschlägel (s.), mit Marimbaschlägeln (pl.)(German) with a marimba mallet
mit matter Oberfläche(German) frosted
mit Metallschlägel (s.), mit Metallschlägeln (pl.)(German) with a metal stick
mit Nachdruck(German) with emphasis, accented
mit nacktem Oberkörper(German) bare to the waist
Mitos(Greek) thread, musical strings woven from flax
Mitote(Spanish m.) Mexican dance, family party (Latin America), fuss (Latin America), row (Latin America), uproar (Latin America), gossip (Mexico)
mit Paukenschlägel (s.), mit Paukenschlägeln (pl.)(German) with a timpani mallet
mit Perlen besetzt(German) set with pearls
Mitrethe pointed headdress worn by archbishops, bishops and some abbots on ceremonial occasions
Mitred pipesee 'mitered pipe'
Mitresthe joints at the corner of a string instrument (e.g. a violin) where all joins are at the diagonal rather than at the square
Mitrib(Arabic) musicians
mit Rute (s.), mit Ruten (pl.)(German) with brush, with switch
mit Saiten(German) snares on
mit sanften Stimmen(German) with soft stops
mit Schlägel (s.), mit Schlägeln (pl.)(German) with a mallet, with a stick
mit Schlägel geschlagen(German) beaten with sticks
mit Schlägelkopf(German) with the mallet head
mit Schnelligkeit(German) with speed
Mitschnitt(German m.) live recording
mit Schwammschlägel (s.), mit Schwammschlägeln (pl.)(German) with a sponge mallets
mit Schwung(German) swingingly, buoyantly
mit Seele(German) with feeling, with soul
mit Sehnsucht(German) ardently, in a style expressive of yearning
mit Sordinen(German) with mutes
mit Sorgfalt(German) con cura (Italian), con accuratezza (Italian), with care, avec soin (French)
mit springendem Bogen(German) saltato (Italian), sautillé (French)
mit Stahlbesen(German) with the wire-brush
mit starken Stimmen(German) with loud or strong stops
mit steigerndem Ausdruck(German) with intensified expression
mit Strenge(German) rigourously
mit Stentorstimme(German) in a stentorian voice
mit Tamtamschlägel(German) with a tam-tam mallet, with a gong mallet
Mitte(German f.) middle
Mitteilung(German f.) announcement, communication
Mittelalter(German n.) Middle ages
mittelalterlich(German) medieval
Mittel-C(German n.) middle C
Mittelcadenz(German f.) the semi- or half-cadence, sometimes called the 'imperfect cadence'
Mitteleinschnitt(German) mediatio (Latin)
Mitteleuropa(German) central Europe, particularly the Balkan states
mittelleise(German) moderately soft (volume of sound)
in terms of volume the equivalent terms are mezzo piano or mezzopiano (Italian), halbleise (German), mi-doux (French)
Mittellosigkeit(German f.) lack of funds
mittelstark(German) or halbstark (German), mezzo forte (Italian), mezzoforte (Italian), mi-fort (French), moderately loud
Mittelstimme (s.), Mittelstimmen (pl.)(German f.) the mean or middle part or voice (usually the tenor), an inner voice
Mittelstück(German n.) middle joint (of a wind instrument), pezzo di mezzo (Italian m.), second corps (French m.), cuerpo superior (Spanish m.), cuerpo medio (Spanish m.)
mit Teller(n)(German) with crash cymbal(s)
Mittelton(German) the mediant
mitteltönige(German) mean-tone
mitteltönige Stimmung(German f.) mean-tone tuning
mitteltönige Temperatur(German f.) mean-tone temperament
Mittenabstand(German m.) distance between centres
mittere(Latin) send
Mittingapplause (colloquial)
mittl.abbreviation of mittlere (German: medium (voice) - (voix) médiane (French))
mittlere(German) medium, middle
mittlere Abweichung(German f.) average deviation
mittlere Lebenserwartung(German f.) average life expectancy
mittleren Alters(German) middle aged
mittlere Osten, die(German f.) Middle East
mittlere Phase(German f.) middle period
mittlerer(German) median, average, mean, middle, medium (middle), median
mittlere Reife(German f.) intermediate level (standard of difficulty, etc.)
mittlere Teile(German f.) middle
mittlerweile(German) by now, in the interim, in the meantime, by this time, meanwhile
mit tonloser Stimme(German) in a toneless voice
mit Triangelstock(German) with a triangle beater
mit Trommelstock(German) with a sidedrum stick, with a snaredrum stick
mit ungebundenem Humor(German) with unconstrained humour, burlando
mit Unterbrechungen(German) intermittent, intermittently
mit Verschiebung(German) with delay, lingering, retardation
(German) with the soft pedal
mit Verstärkung(German) with reinforcement (i.e. doubling)
mit Vibraphonschlägel(German) with the vibraphone mallet
mit Vibration(German) with vibration
mit vielem Ausdruck(German) with strong expression
mit vielem Nachdruck(German) with strong emphasis
mit vollem Chor(German) with full chorus
mit voller Lautstärke(German) at full sound, à plein son (French)
mit voller Orgel(German) with full organ, à plein jeu (French)
mit voller Stimme(German) with full voice, a voce piena (Italian), à pleine voix (French)
mit Wärme(German) with warmth, passionately, ardently
mit Wasser übergießen(German) to pour water over
mit weichem Filzschlägel(German) with a soft felt-stick
mit weichem Schlägel(German) with a soft stick
mit weinerlicher Stimme(German) in a whining voice
mit Weite(German) con ampiezza (Italian), with breadth, mit Ausdehnung (German), avec ampleur (French)
Mitwirkung(German f.) cooperation
mit Würde(German) with dignity
mit Xylophonschlägel (s.), mit Xylophonschlägeln (pl.)(German) with a xylophone mallet
mit zarten Stimmen(German) with soft-sounding stops
mit Zartheit(German) with tenderness, with delicacy
mit Ziffer(German) followed by a number
mit Zuneigung(German) con affetto (Italian), with affection, with warmth, with passion, with tenderness, with emotion, liebevoll (German), avec affection (French)
mit zwei Backen paarweise(German) with a pair of cymbals
mit zwei Münzen(German) with two coins
mit zwei Schlägeln(German) with two sticks
Mixthe phase following a stage of multitrack recording, or the product of that phase, during which the final balance of all tracks to each other in terms of volume and timbre is determined
the term 're-mix' is used in popular music for the translation of a recorded work into a different style using electronic manipulation. Sections can be stretched, through the repetition of previously released material, and individual tracks might be re-produced, either by using different mixing technology (for example, using echo, different equalization, etc.) or by actual re-recording using additional musicians, often recruited from the production team. These results are known as 're-mixes', to differentiate them from the original mixes found on 45s and LPs
re-mixing, the further processing of recorded material, after the initial release, led to a number of categories:
dub mixthe oldest of the 'mixing' categories, usually an instrumental version of the original song
club mixnamed for the venue specific to the style, for example, 'High Time', referring to dance venues in New York City
House mix, Hip-Hop mix, etc.a mix named for a particular dance music styles
mix named after the author of a particular version, usually a well-known DJ
Acapella mix
Percappella mix
a mix using only vocals, without instruments
Bonus track mixa version stripped of all instrumentation except the percussion and, perhaps, a bassline, although the term also applies to an additional track on an album consisting of an entirely different song, maybe one that is released in no other form
radio edit
7-inch edit
a mix whose duration and arrangement conforms with standards used in radio programming, usually identical to the original album and / or 7-inch single version
Mixfrom its neighbours, the Virgin Islands has imported various pan-Caribbean genres of music, including calypso from Trinidad and reggae from Jamaica. Most popular music in the modern Virgin Islands is a blend of these styles, as well as American hip hop music, and is referred to as mix
Mixage(French m.) sound mixture
Mixar(Portuguese) mix, mixing
Mixar novamente(Portuguese) remix
Mixed cadencean old name for a cadence formed with the subdominant, dominant and tonic chords
see 'cadence (harmonic)'
Mixed canonalso called 'accompanied canon', a polyphonic work where some parts are in canon with one another while others are independent or 'free'
Mixed chorusa choir formed of both adult male and adult female voices, usually the four principal voice types, soprano, contralto, tenor and bass
Mixed mediaa work that includes musical, dramatic, verbal, visual, literary elements combined in unusual ways
Mixed metreor 'mixed meter'; while time signatures usually express a regular pattern of beat stresses continuing through a piece (or at least a section), sometimes composers place a different time signature at the beginning of each bar (measure), resulting in music with an extremely irregular rhythmic feel. In such a case barlines are used to indicate the beginning of rhythmic note groups rather than to mark a periodic agogic accent and in such cases the use of barlines is subject to a wide variation - some composers use dashed barlines while others (including Hugo Distler) have placed barlines at different places in the different parts to indicate varied groupings from part to part. The song America from West Side Story by the American composer Leonard Bernstein, which is an excellent example of a tune with a mixed metre (6/8 + 3/4)
Mixed motionmoto misto (Italian), gemischte Bewegung (German), mouvement mixte (French), gemengde beweging (Dutch), motion where more than one variety of motion occurs at once between several different parts
Mixed registrationalso 'mixed tone' or 'mixed voice', vocal adjustments having qualities of both light and heavy register
Mixed rhythm tupletany tuplet that includes notes of different lengths. For example, a triplet of quavers would be written as three quavers placed under a square bracket with a 3 above the bracket. One example of a mixed-rhythm triplet would be a crotchet and a quaver under a square bracket with a 3 above the bracket (the 3 refers to three quavers which are to be played in the time of 2)
Mixed tonesee 'mixed registration'
Mixed voicesee 'mixed registration'
Mixed voicesmixed chorus
Mixer(English, German m.) (electronics) a device for combining, controlling and routing audio signals
(French) to mix
Mixing console(English, Mixer-Console (German f.)) in professional audio, a mixing console, mixing desk (Brit.), or audio mixer, also called a sound board or soundboard, is an electronic device for combining (also called "mixing"), routing, and changing the level, tone, and/or dynamics of audio signals. A mixer can mix analog or digital signals, depending on the type of mixer. The modified signals (voltages or digital samples) are summed to produce the combined output signals
Mixolídio(Portuguese) Mixolydian
Mixolidio (m.), Mixolidia (f.)(Spanish) Mixolydian
Mixolydian modethe seventh ecclesiastical mode
in Greek theory, the Mixolydian is the Hypolydian mode inverted: a descending scale of a whole tone followed by two inverted Lydian tetrachords (each being two whole tones followed by a semitone descending). This is the equivalent of playing all the 'white notes' of a piano from B to B, or B C D (E) | E F G A | B. This happens to be theoretically the same as the Hyperdorian mode, but Mixolydian seems to have been the preferred name. It also seems that this Mixolydian mode was little used by the ancient Greeks, and that it was deemed unfit for any kind of music
mixolydian mode
a mode consisting of a rising sequence of intervals T-T-S-T-T-S-T, (T=tone or whole-step, S=semitone or half-step)
mixolydien (m.), mixolydienne (f.)(French) Mixolydian
Mixolydisch(German n.) Mixolydian (mode)
mixolydisch(German, Dutch) Mixolydian
mixolydische Kadenz(German f.) Mixolydian cadence
mixolydischer Modus(German m.) Mixolydian mode
mixolydische Tonleiter(German f.) Mixolydian scale
Mixtapeor 'mix tape', a home-made compilation of songs (typically copyrighted music taken from other sources) recorded in a specific order, traditionally onto a compact audio cassette. The songs can be sequential, but a true, seamless mix from start to finish can be made by beatmatching the songs and creating overlaps and fades between the end of one song and the beginning of another
  • Mixtape from which this extract has been taken
Mixtur(German f., literally 'mixture') see 'mixture, mixture stops'
Mixtura(Spanish f.) mixture
Mixtura acuta(Latin) an acute mixture stop in an organ
Mixturealthough parallel major and minor scales have the same tonic, their pitch content is different. Since these scales share the same tonics, the same scale degree numbers and consequently the same or nearly the same function can be assigned to pitches with different names. For example, E natural and Eb are both scale degree 3 in C major and C minor, respectively. Since these pitches share the same functional name, they can substitute for one another. Eb can appear in a piece in C major and still function as scale degree three and vice versa. The introduction of pitches from the parallel scale is called mixture. The minor mode has a kind of built in mixture, since you can always introduce the sixth and seventh scales degrees from the parallel major. Composers have used mixture for a variety of reasons
see 'mixture stops'
Mixturessee 'mixture stops'
Mixture stopsor 'mixtures', compound auxiliary organ stops consisting of several ranks of pipes that sound simultaneously. Some, with high pitches corresponding to various harmonics or overtones of the notes on the keyboard, are used with 8', 4' and 2' stops to produce a brilliance and grandeur. These are especially useful in accompanying congregational singing. Others, lower-pitched, are solo stops when used in small combinations
Miya-daikoJapanese shrine or temple drum
Mizik djelalso boula djel, vocalized percussion songs (i.e. mouth music) from Martinique and Guadeloupe which, while associated with traditional wakes, are not considered sacred music
Mizhavua large copper pot-drum that features in performances of kootiyattom in Kerala, Southern India
Mizmaror mozmar, an Arabic wind instrument with single or double reed, similar to an oboe
in Egypt, mizmar usually refers to a surnay
a group of musicians, usually a duo or trio, that play a mizmar instrument along with an accompaniment of one or two double-sided bass drums, known in Arabic as tabl baladi or simply tabl
Mizrab(Turkish) or misrap, pick for plucking strings, for example, on the barbat or sitar
Mizwid(Arabic, literally 'bag' or 'food pouch') a bagpipe played in the central regions of Tunisia
Mizwidjsee mizwid
Mjehsee mih
Mjersnicesee miesnice
MLAthe acronym for the Modern Language Association. English students primarily know the MLA as the publisher of the MLA guidelines for research papers, the standard format used in American college English classes. Founded in 1883, this organization is a professional guild of sorts for professors and instructors of a variety of subjects: foreign languages, linguistics, composition, technical writing, philology, rhetoric, and literature
MLittabbreviation of 'Master of Letters/Literature'
Mloda Polskaa group of Polish composers that include K. Szymanowski, L. Rozycki and G. Fitelberg and Apolinary Szeluto
M.M.originally an abbreviation of Mälzels Metronom, Maelzels Metronom, Maelzel's Metronome or 'Metronome Maezel', although today it is often assumed to stand for 'metronome mark' or 'metronome marking'
mm abbreviation of 'millimetre', millimetro (Italian: millimetre), millimètre (French: millimetre), Millimeter (German: millimetre), milímetro (Spanish: millimetre)
mm.(US) abbreviation for 'measures', what in the UK would be called 'bars' (entry supplied by Susan Mielke)
MMA abbreviation of 'Master of Musical Arts'
MME, MMEdabbreviation of 'Master of Music Education'
Mme, Mmesabbreviation of Madame, Mesdames (French)
MMTabbreviation of 'Master of Music in Teaching'
MMus, M.Mus.abbreviation of 'Master of Music'
Mnemonicsor mnemotechics, the use of syllables or words to memorise or vocalise rhythmic patterns as with Chevé rhythm syllables. A similar approach is used by ornithologists to help identify birds by their song
Mnemotechnicsor mnemonics, a general term used to designate a loosely associated group of mnemonic principles and techniques used to organize memory impressions, improve recall, and assist in the combination and 'invention' of ideas
Moabbreviation of mega octet (French: MB - megabyte)
mobile(Italian) changeable, movable, mobile
Mobile forman alternative expression for 'aleatory music'
Moccasin(Powhatan) a shoe of soft leather without a separate sole worn by American Indians
Mochree(Irish) my darling (a form of endearment)
Mock epicin contrast with an epic, a mock epic is a long, heroicomical poem that merely imitates features of the classical epic
Mock sermona medieval genre commonly known as une sermon joyeux or une sermon jolie, the conventions of which are that a non-clerical figure will present a humourous lecture on a non-religious topic (sexuality and food being two common choices) using all the tropes and conventions of a normal homily - such as the introduction and explication of a Biblical passage, allusions to various intellectual figures, a series of exempla to prove the speaker's point, and a concluding invocation of prayer
mod, mod.abbreviation of moderato, 'modulator', 'modification'
Modor, to use its full name, 'Modernism' or sometimes 'Modism', a lifestyle based around fashion and music that developed in London, England in the late 1950s and reached its peak in the early to mid 1960s. People who followed this lifestyle were known as Mods, and were mainly to be found in Southern England
Modal(English, Spanish, German) pertaining to modes
in jazz, said of a section, or a whole tune, having static harmony (using one chord) and using scales from a particular mode, most typically the Dorian
in jazz, having a key feeling derived not from dynamic chord progressions (like circle-of-fifths) but rather from repetition, monotony, and weight
used in jazz for an harmonic style that is diatonic and makes use of quartal harmony
many people still think that most British, Irish and American folk songs are 'modal', where in fact modal songs constituted only a small part of the body of original Anglo-Saxon folk music (Kramarz, 1983: 40). The reason for this identification of folk music with 'modality' probably lies in the fact, that during the nineteenth-century 'modality' became the main criterion to distinguish Classical music from other musical styles. Van der Merwe (1989: 18-20; 241-242) calls the divergence of styles the 'Great Musical Schism', where folk and popular musicians were promoting and Classical composers were increasingly avoiding the lavish use of double tonics and the resulting enharmonic notes. During this process 'modal' songs got prominence in the domain of folk music above the usual Major ones, as they were kept alive by performing artists. Besides, in the same period folklorists became interested in preserving folk music and, as Dave Harker (1981; 1985) notes, many songs were 'modalised' when they starting playing for what sounded to them as real, authentic - i.e. modal - material, thus involuntarily furthering its production
Mod.abbreviation of módulo (Spanish: module) - for example, a group of offices
modal (m.), modale (f.)(French) modal
Modal changethe term is used today for a change from major to minor or the reverse while retaining the same tonal centre
modaler Jazz(German m.) modal jazz
Modal framein music a melodic mode or modal frame is one of "a number of types permeating and unifying African, European, and American song" and melody including parlour music. "Mode" and "frame" are used in this context interchangeably. Melodic modes allow melodies which are not chord-based or determined by the harmony but instead by melodic features. A note frame is a melodic mode that is atonic (without a tonic) or has an unstable tonic
Modal harmonysee 'modal'
Modalidad(Spanish f.) form, category
Modalitysee 'mode'
Modal jazzin the latter 1950s, spurred by the experiments of composer and bandleader George Russell, musicians chose not to write their songs using chords, but instead used modal scales. This meant that the bassist, for instance, did not have to 'walk' from one important note of a chord to that of another - as long as he stayed in the scale being used and accentuated the right notes within the scale, he could go virtually everywhere. The pianist, to give another example, would not have to play the same chords or variations of the chords, but could do anything, as long as he stayed within the scale being used. The overall result was more freedom of expression
Modal mixturethe use, in a harmonic progression, of diatonic chords taken from parallel major and minor keys
Modal modulationchanging from one mode to another, as for example, changing from C Mixolydian to C Major
Modal notation(English, Modalnotation (German f.))in medieval music, the rhythmic modes were patterns of long and short durations (or rhythms) imposed on written notes which otherwise appeared to be identical. Modal notation was developed by the composers of the Notre Dame School, 1170 to 1250, and replaced the even and unmeasured rhythm of early polyphony and plainchant with patterns based on the metric feet of classical poetry. It was the first step towards the development of modern mensural notation
Modal rhythma description applied to a passage or piece of music following one of the rhythmic patterns called 'rhythmic modes'
Modal tuningmodal tuning is used when a guitarist wants an open tuning that will permit very easy chords but will be neither minor or major. They can be especially effective with droning open strings, and give "suspended" second or fourth chords
Modal voicethe vocal register used most frequently in speech and singing in most languages. It is also the term used in linguistics for the most common phonation of vowels. The term "modal" refers to the resonant mode of vocal cords; that is, the optimal combination of airflow and glottal tension that yields maximum vibration
Modea system of rhythmic notation (modal rhythm) used in the thirteenth century
a particular arrangement, or hierarchy, of related pitches (called notes), as, for example, in major and minor scales, ecclesiastical modes, and so on. The same term can be applied to scalar patterns of intervals from other cultures, for example, those from India, Japan, China, etc. The Greeks thought of a mode as a series of gaps, or holes, between the notes and not the notes themselves
modo (Italian m.), Tonart (German f.), mode (French m.), a term used to describe 'scale families' that are related by the fact that they use a common group of notes but have different roots. These modes are named for the root (for example, E) and a descriptor that describes its interval sequence (for example, 'Phrygian'). So, for the group of notes C, D, E, F, G, A and B, the modes are C Ionian, D Dorian, E Phrygian, F Lydian, G Mixolydian, A Aeolian and B Locrian. In a similar way, the notes that make up the melodic minor scale C, D, Eb, F, G, A and B, have an associated group of modes: C Hypoionian, D Dorian b2, E Lydian augmented, F Lydian b7, G Mixolydian b6, A Aeolian b5 and B Superlocrian
Mode(German f.) fashion
Møde(Danish) conference, meeting, congress [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
Mode dorien(French m.) Dorian mode
Mode ecclésiastique(French m.) church mode
Mode éolien(French m.) Aeolian mode
Modell(German n.) model
modellieren(German) to model
Mode, Greeksee 'Greek mode'
Mode hellénique(French m.) Greek mode
Mode ionien(French m.) Ionian mode
Modello(Italian m.) model, a small version of a large picture (submitted for the approval of the commissioning patron(s))
Mode locrien(French m.) Locrian mode
Mode lydien(French m.) Lydian mode
Mode mixolidien(French m.) Mixolydian mode
Mode mixte(French m.) mixed mode
Mode of limited transpositionsee 'modes of limited transposition'
Mode phrygien(French m.) Phrygian mode
moderado (m.), moderada (f.)(Spanish) moderato
moderando(Italian) moderating
moderar(Spanish) to moderate, to reduce, to tone down
moderare(Italian) to moderate, to reduce, to tone down
moderarsi(Italian) to control oneself
moderatamente(Italian) moderately, in moderate time, moderately quick
Moderately fastmoderato (Italian), gemässigt (German), mässig schnell (German), modéré (French)
Moderately loudmezzo forte (Italian), ein wenig stark (German), mi fort (French), un peu haut (French)
moderatissimo(Italian) very moderately, in a very moderate time
moderato(Italian) moderate (speed) (between andante and allegro)
moderato assai con molto sentimento(Italian) moderately quick with much expression
moderato pesante(Italian) moderately heavy
[entry supplied by Jack Claff]
(German m.) male TV presenter
an effect found on certain early nineteenth-century Viennese pianos
Moderatorin(German f.) female TV presenter
Moderazione(Italian f.) moderation (in time, etc.)
modéré(French) moderate (speed), tempered, mellowed, restrained, regular
"This word indicates a mouvement [tempo] that is midway between lent and gai. It is comparable to the Italian andante." - Rousseau (1768)
Mode relatif(French m.) relative key
modérément(French) moderately
Moderna term usually applied to something that is contemporary and which does not hark back particularly to styles or forms from an earlier time
modern(German) to decay
(German) modern, fashionable
modernasee moderno
Modern American square dancealso called 'Western square dance', 'contemporary Western square dance', or 'modern Western square dance', has, as its basis, a form established during the 1930s and 1940s by Lloyd Shaw, who solicited definitions from callers across the country in order to preserve traditional American folk dance
Modern danceserious theatrical dance forms, including 'free dance', 'expressionist dance', 'postmodern dance', 'dance improvisation' and 'contemporary dance', that are distinct from both ballet and the show dancing of the musical comedy or variety stage
moderne(French) modern
moderne Bund, der(German m., literally 'the modern group') the title assumed by the group of Swiss artists led by the German painter Paul Klee
Modern Englishthe English language as spoken between about 1450 and the modern day
moderner Tanz(German m.) see Ausdruckstanz
modernisieren(German) to modernise
ModernismModernism is a trend of thought that affirms the power of human beings to create, improve, deconstruct and reshape their environment, with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology and practical experimentation, and is thus in its essence both progressive and optimistic. The term covers many political, cultural and artistic movements rooted in the changes in Western society at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth century. Broadly, modernism describes a series of reforming cultural movements in art and architecture, music, literature and the applied arts which emerged in the decades before 1914. But Modernism encouraged the re-examination of every aspect of existence, from commerce to philosophy, with the goal of finding that which was "holding back" progress, and replacing it with new, progressive and therefore better, ways of reaching the same end. In essence, the modernist movement argued that the new realities of the industrial and mechanized age were permanent and imminent, and that people should adapt their world view to accept that the new equaled the good, the true and the beautiful. Modern (quantum and relativistic) physics, modern (analytical and continental) philosophy and modern number theory in mathematics are, however, also said to date from this period. Embracing change and the present, modernism encompasses the works of thinkers who rebelled against nineteenth century academic and historicist traditions, believing the "traditional" forms of art, architecture, literature, religious faith, social organization and daily life were becoming outdated; they directly confronted the new economic, social and political aspects of an emerging fully industrialized world. Some people divide the twentieth century into movements designated Modernism and Postmodernism, whereas others see them as two aspects of the same movement
a term applied, in music, to post 1910 music by Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951) and Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971), although many use the term with reference to the changes after the Second World War and to a younger generation of European composers including Boulez, Xenakis, Barraque and Stockhausen who sought to 'wipe the slate clean' musically speaking and re-invent the language of music in the twentieth century. However, 'modernism' is not a term that finds meaning only in the twentieth century music. In every century, individual composers have been prepared to break with earlier traditions, sometimes having become the master of the style or form then in vogue but often by treading a path that nobody had trodden before
see 'Mod'
modernism was being used in a derogatory sense even in 1737, when Jonathan Swift branded those who abused contemporary language as 'modernists'
"It's not a good idea to be too modern, one goes out of fashion so terribly quickly." Oscar Wilde (1854-1900)
Modernista (s.), Modernistas (pl.)(Spanish m./f.) modernist
Modernistsa term which today would mean those who espouse modernism
modernizzare(Italian) to modernise
Modern jivealso called 'French Jive', 'Blitz' or 'Blitz jive', 'Jazz jive', Ceroc (which is a trademark), le Roc, le Rock 'n' Roll, le Jive and mo'jive. The original 'Jive' began in New York's Harlem district and was first called the 'Lindy Hop'. In the Swing era, it spread across the U.S., becoming known as the 'Jitterbug', and American GIs took it across the globe in World War II. In the 1950s, Bill Haley's "Rock Around the Clock" turned it into 'Rock 'n' Roll' or 'Jive'. 'Modern Jive' is a partner dance, a cross between 'Rock 'n' roll' and 'Ballroom Jive'. The man leads, i.e. signals the moves to the lady. No footwork is involved, it's just from the waist up. The music? Ideally, 'Modern Jive' should be danced to your average disco track, anything reasonably fast with a distinct beat
Modern Language Associationsee MLA
Modern musicmusic contempory with the present generations
moderno (m.), moderna (f.)(Italian) modern
Modern pitchthe notion of a standard of pitch has been an issue for instrument makers for many centuries. Today, we assume that instruments are build to a pitch standard of a'=440 Hz (where a' is the A above middle C), but this was not always the case. In the mid-nineteenth century, as the popularity of bands was beginning to grow, the number of different pitch standards was significant. In the early part of the nineteenth century, the general pitch standard was as low as a'=420 Hz (modern a' flat is 415 Hz). The standard rose quite dramatically throughout the course of the century so that by the end of the century in some venues, pitch was as high as a'=457 Hz (modern b' flat is 466 Hz), this despite the fact that a standard of a'=435 Hz was established by a French Commission in 1859, and in 1887 this was formally adopted by the Vienna Congress, an international conference on musical pitch. Many American band instrument makers in the later nineteenth century followed the general trend of building instruments at a higher standard. By the end of the century, however, the influence of the trend toward low pitch was also evident, perhaps owing to the 1887 resolution by the Vienna Congress. As a result, by the beginning of the twentieth century until about 1920, American instrument manufacturers were faced with the dilemma of having to accommodate at least two different pitch standards, which were termed "high pitch" (around a'=452 Hz) and "low pitch" (around a'=440 Hz). The use of the term "low pitch" here should not be confused with a quite different convention applied to naming pre-nineteenth-century pitches
the manner by which brass instrument manufacturers accommodated these two standards is most interesting. Some instruments were provided with two sets of main slides or with sleeves which could be inserted in the main slide to lengthen it. Some York tubas are equipped with an extra "doughnut" of tubing, located near the main slide, which can be incorporated into the main slide tubing by rearranging the slides. In each case, the objective is to lengthen or shorten the main slide so that the instrument could be tuned to the appropriate standard. Valve slides, if fitted, could be pulled or pushed in to accommodate the main tuning. While the practice of manufacturing instruments which could play at two standards was abandoned about 1920, some manufacturers continued to produce some high-pitch instruments for a few years. Eventually, of course, a'=440 Hz became the standard
Modern rocka phrase commonly used by radio stations to describe rock music styles that are commonly found on mainstream radio stations, generally beginning with late 1970s punk but referring especially to any rock music of the 1980s, 1990s or 2000s, mainly to differentiate the format from "classic rock", which focused upon music recorded in the 1960s and 1970s. More specifically, it is usually used to describe a "radio-friendly" variation of alternative rock. Many rock radio stations now refer to their format as modern rock
Modern rondosee 'rondo-sonata form'
Modern soula style of music with its own associated clothing and dance styles [obvious precursors to the Disco era of the later 70s] that developed in the north of England in the early 1970s
Modern Western square dancealso called 'Western square dance', 'contemporary Western square dance', or 'modern American square dance', has, as its basis, a form established during the 1930s and 1940s by Lloyd Shaw, who solicited definitions from callers across the country in order to preserve traditional American folk dance
Modessee 'mode'
Modes of limited transposition
a term used by the French composer Olivier Messiaen (1908-1992) for modes formed of repeating intervallic units and which as a result can be transposed only a certain number of times before the original set is repeated:
chromatic scaleone transposition (because any transposition repeats the original group of notes)
whole tone scaletwo transpositions (because a transposition of a major second repeats the original group of notes)
diminished scalethree transpositions (because a transposition of a minor third repeats the original group of notes)
augmented scalefour transpositions (because a transposition of a major third repeats the original group of notes)
major scaletwelve transpositions (because a transposition of an octave repeats the original group of notes)
tritonesix transpositions (because it is its own inversion)
other intervalstwelve transpositions
modesto(Italian) modestly, quietly, moderately
Modestia(Italian f., Spanish f.) modesty
modestia aparte(Spanish) modesty apart
Modi a trasposizione limitata(Italian m. pl.) modes of limited transposition
modico(Italian) reasonable
Modicum(Latin) a small quantity, a moderate amount
Modifica(Italian f.) modification
modificare(Italian) to modify
Modification du son(French f.) sound modification
Modificazione (s.), Modificazioni (pl.)(Italian) modification(s), light and shade of intonation, slight alteration(s)
Modified parallel organumsee organum
Modified strophic formsong structure that combines elements of strophic and through-composed forms, a variation of strophic form in which a section might have a new key, rhythm, or varied melodic pattern
Modifikation(German f.) modification
modifizieren(German) to modify
Modi maggiori(Italian m. pl.) major modes
Modi minori(Italian m. pl.) minor modes
Modinha(Portuguese) popular in the eighteenth century, a sentimental Brazilian dance directly derived from the Portuguese songs and dances of that name
modisch(German) fashionable
Modismsee 'Mod'
Modistin(German f.) a milliner
modoabbreviation of moderato (Italian: moderate speed)
Modo(Italian m., Spanish m.) manner, mode
(Italian m., Spanish m., Portuguese) diatonic modal scales
Modo auténtico(Spanish m.) authentic mode
Modo di suonare (s.), Modi di suonare (pl.)(Italian m.) playing technique, Spielart (German f.), façon de jouer (French f.)
Modo dorico(Italian m.) Dorian mode
Modo dórico(Spanish m., Portuguese) Dorian mode
Modo ecclesiastico(Italian m.) church mode
Modo eclesiástico(Spanish m.) church mode
Modo eolio(Italian m.) Aeolian mode
Modo eólio(Portuguese) Aeolian mode
Modo frigio(Italian m.) Phrygian mode
Modo frígio(Portuguese) Phrygian mode
Modo ionio(Italian m.) Ionian mode
modolare(Italian) to modulate, to accommodate the voice, or an instrument, to a certain intonation
Modo lidio(Italian m.) Lydian mode
Modo lídio(Portuguese) Lydian mode
Modo locrio(Italian m.) Locrian mode
Modo lócrio(Portuguese) Locrian mode
Modo maggiore(Italian m.) major mode
Modo minore(Italian m.) major mode
Modo misolidio(Italian m.) Mixolydian mode
Modo mixolídio(Portuguese) Mixolydian mode
Modo plagale(Spanish m.) plagal mode
Modo rítmicos(Spanish m.) rhythmic modes
Modos de transposición limitada(Spanish m. pl.) modes of limited transposition
Modos musicales(Spanish m.) musical modes
Mod Revivalsometimes known as 'punk mod', is a name given to a genre of rock music in the late 1970s and early 1980s, mainly centred in Southern England. Its mainstream popularity was relatively short, and it has been criticised for lack of originality
modrig(German) musty
modtoabbreviated form of moderato (Italian: moderate speed)
modulaatio(Finnish) modulation
Modulación(Spanish f.) modulation (for example, a change of key)
Modulación de frecuencia(Spanish f.) frequency modulation
Modulación rítmica(Spanish f.) rhythmic modulation
Modulant(Italian) to modulate
Modulant (m.), Modulante (f.)(French) to modulate
modular(Spanish) to modulate (for example, to change key)
modulare(Italian) to modulate, to accommodate the voice, or an instrument, to a certain intonation
Modular synthesisera synthesiser where the individual sound generators or processors such as oscillators, filters, amplifiers, envelope generators etc. are physically separate units which can, or have to be, connected together by the user. This is usually achieved by simply plugging a cable from one unit's output to an input on another or the same unit, using a patchcord. The earliest synthesisers where of this type and this is the origin of the usage "patch" to describe the parameter settings on modern synthesisers which no longer use this arrangement. Systems of this type where made by Moog (series III), Roland (System 100 and 700) and Korg (MS10, 20 etc.). These systems were very flexible and led naturally to creative experimentation, but were expensive to manufacture and market. This resulted in a newer generation of synthesisers which had a more or less predetermined signal path, which were often less flexible but easier to use. There has recently been a revival of interest in modular synthesisers and there are still manufacturers making them
Modulatemodulare (Italian), modulieren (German), moduler (French), to change key or mode (in a musical work)
to grade the tone
Modulatie(Dutch) modulation
Modulating sequencea melodic and or harmonic sequence stated successively at different pitches and in different keys
Modulation(English, German f.) in electroacoustic music, the term is applied to a change of frequency, amplitude, etc. through the use of electronics
see 'modulation (harmonic)'
Modulation (harmonic)a change in key or mode (in a musical work)
particular types of modulation are:
common chord modulationmodulation from the original key to the destination key (usually a closely related key) by way of a chord (called a pivot chord) that both keys share. When analyzing a piece that uses this style of modulation, the common chord is labeled with its function in both the original and the destination keys, as it can be seen either way
common-tone modulationcommon-tone modulation uses a sustained or repeated pitch from the old key as a bridge between it and the new key. Usually, this pitch will be held alone before the music continues in the new key
chromatic modulationmodulation where a secondary dominant or other chromatically altered chord is used to lead one voice chromatically up or down on the way to the new key or mode
diatonic modulationstepwise progression within a single diatonic scale
parallel or parallel key modulationchange of key (or mode) from one key (or mode) to another where the key note remains the same
(e.g. A minor to A major, or E major to E minor)
relative or relative key modulationchange of key (or mode) from one key (or mode) to another where the key signature remains the same
(e.g. A minor to C major, or G major to E minor)
enharmonic modulationwhere there is no audible change of key (or mode) (at least not in equal temperament) but a chord is rewritten using enharmonic equivalents. There are two main types of enharmonic modulations: dominant seventh/augmented sixth, and diminished seventh. By respelling the notes, any dominant seventh can be reinterpreted as a German or Italian sixth (depending on whether or not the fifth is present), and any diminished seventh chord can be respelled in multiple other ways to form other diminished seventh chords
final modulationchange of key (or mode) from one key (or mode) to another which persists to the end of the work
passing, transient, transitory modulationchange of key (or mode) from one key (or mode) to another but which is soon followed by further modulation either to a further key (or mode) or back to the original key (or mode). Transitory modulations are often considered tonicizations
false, transitory modulationalso called tonicization, a process that temporarily allows a chord other than the tonic to function as a goal of motion or point of stability, and therefore, function as a temporary tonic
phrase, direct, abrupt or shift modulationa modulation in which one phrase ends with a cadence in the original key, and begins the next phrase in the destination key without any transition material linking the two keys
sequential modulation or rosaliaa sequential passage that begins in the home key, may move either diatonically or chromatically; harmonic function is generally disregarded in a sequence, or, at least, it is far less important than the sequential motion. For this reason, a sequence may end at a point that suggests a different tonality than the home key, and the composition may continue naturally in that key. Although a sequence does not have to modulate, a modulating sequence is known as a rosalia
Modulation, falsesee 'tonicisation'
Modulation, non-harmonicsee 'non-harmonic modulation'
Modulationsakkord(German m.) pivot chord
Modulatory spacereaders should be aware that the term "modulatory space" is not a standard music-theoretical term. The spaces described in this article are pitch class spaces which model the relationships between pitch classes in some musical system. These models are often graphs, groups or lattices. Closely related to pitch class space is pitch space, which represents pitches rather than pitch classes, and chordal space, which models relationships between chords
Modulazione(Italian f.) modulation
moduler(French) to modulate
Modulering(Sweden) modulation
ModuliJohann Mattheson (1681-1764), in his Vollkommener Capellmeister, suggests that a composer have at his disposal a number of what are called moduli, that consist of "modulations, little turns, clever motives, pleasing figures" and the like, that the composer can apply to his own melodic invention. The origins of these moduli are not as important as their usage, because even great ideas poorly used will amount to nothing. Handel often used these moduli as an integral part of his compositional process
modulieren(German) to modulate
moduliren(German, archaic form) modulate
Modulus (s.), Moduli (pl.)(Latin) a coefficient, especially that by which Napierian logarithms must be multiplied to produce common logarithms
(Latin) the absolute value of a complex quantity
(Latin) a measure of stiffness (viz. Young's modulus, modulus of elasticity, elastic modulus or tensile modulus - the bulk modulus and shear modulus are different types of elastic modulus - which is defined as the ratio, for small strains, of the rate of change of stress with strain)
(Latin) a way to measure the smoothness of a mathematical function
Modus(Latin) the measurement of rhythm, key, mode, scale
Modus(German m., Swedish, Dutch) mode
Modus contrarius(Latin) indirect or dissimilar harmonic motion
Modus lascivus(Latin, literally 'wanton mode') in the Middle Ages, an alternative name given to the Ionian mode
Modus major(Latin) major mode or scale
Modus minor(Latin) minor mode or scale
Modus obliquus(Latin) oblique harmonic motion
Modus operandi (s.), Modi operandi (pl.)(Latin) way in which a thing or person operates
Modus rectus(Latin) direct or similar harmonic motion
Modus vivendi(Latin, literally 'way of living') a working arrangement agreed between different contending parties pending the final settlement of differences, or to overcome differences that are considered irreconcilable
Moeurs(French pl.) the manners or customs of a place or period
Mogano(Italian m.) mahogany, Mahogani (German n.), acajou (French f.), bois d'acajou (French m.), caoba (Spanish f.)
möglich(German) possible
Moguchaya Kuchkasee Kutchka
Mogulthe head of a major studio or communications company
Mohamed's Banneralso Turkish crescent, Chinese pavilion, Jingling Johnny or Turkish jingle
see chapeau chinois
Mohammedaner (m.), Mohammedanerin (f.)(German) Muslim
mohammedanisch(German) Muslim
Mohinda(Portuguese) a short Portuguese love song
Mohiniaattamsee mohiniyattom
Mohiniyattom(from the words mohini implying 'a feeling of warm enchantment' and aattam meaning 'graceful and sensuous body movements' - the word mohiniattam literally means 'dance of the enchantress') or mohiniaattam, the sinuous dance of the enchantress, a distinctive classical dance form of Kerala in Southern India. This dance was adopted by the Devadasi or temple 'brides', hence also the name Dasiattam which was very popular during the Chera reign from ninth to twelfth century
Mohn(German m.) poppy, poppyseed
Mohnblume(German f.) poppy
Mohrof FWV, after Wilhelm Mohr, the cataloguer of music by César Franck (1822-1890)
Mohrentanz(German m.) morisco, morris-dance
Moi, je...(French) As for me, I...
moins(French) less
moins vite(French) less fast, less quickly, slower
Moirafate or the three fates in Greek mythology
Moire(French) mohair
Moiré(French) (a fabric) having a watered or clouded appearance like watered silk
Moire antique(English, from the French) watered silk particularly of a type with a large pattern
Moiré patternan unintentional and unsightly pattern that may appear when two or more grid patterns overlap each other. This pattern can occur when overlapping halftones on a printing plate are aligned at less than 30 degree angles. They are also created when a halftone image or other patterned texture is reproduced in another media that also uses a screen. The combined sets of dots create an entirely new pattern breaking the illusion of optical tones. A scanned halftone image viewed on a computer screen will show a moiré pattern because the digital recording system remaps the image in a linear pattern, adding dots that were not in the original
Moiroloyia(Greek) laments, considered essential at times of death
Moiroloyistres(Greek) the women who sang moiroloyia
Moitié(French f.) half
MojesenoSouth-American duct flute
Mojigangaa Spanish entertainment form of theatrical performance that mixes the entremés, dance and music. It comes from the boxiganga of the seventeenth century, from the Spanish popular culture and from the medieval theatre. Chroniclers, like Father Bartolomé de las Casas, referred to the mojiganga as missionary theater which objective was to evangelize
  • Mojiganga from which this entry has been taken
Mokshaliberation from earthly bondage
Mokt'akfrom Korea, used by Buddhist priests to accompany the chanting of sutras. The handle is grasped with one hand and the wooden mallet is held in the other hand, and it is played by striking the instrument with the mallet
Mol(Danish) minor (reference to key)
flat sign(Dutch) a sign which lowers the pitch of a note by one semitone
Moliminaof unknown cause, circulatory symptoms, psychic tension, irritable behavior, belligerence, and other personality alterations before or during menstruation
moll(German n., Dutch, Swedish) minor (reference to key)
Molla(Italian) a key of the flute, etc., for raising or lower a note
Mollakkord(German m.) minor chord
Molldreiklang(German m.) minor triad
Molle(Latin) in medieval music the Latin word molle was used in the sense of flat. Thus B molle was B flat and B durum was B natural
molle(Italian, French) delicate, gentle, soft
mollemente(Italian) gently, softly, faintly
Molleton(French) swanskin, a heavy woollen fabric with a nap on both sides
Molli(Finnish) minor (reference to key)
mollig(German) cosy, warm, plump (rounded)
Mollisor molle (Latin: soft) the form of 'b' that represented 'B flat' (and has become the modern 'flat' sign), as opposed to the squarer 'hard' (durum) form of 'b', that represented 'B natural' and is the basis for both the modern 'natural' and 'sharp' signs
see 'hexachord'
Mollparallele(German f.) relative minor (for example, B minor is the relative minor to D major)
Mollskala(German f.) minor scale
Moll-Terz(German f.) minor third
Mollton(German m.) minor key
Molltonart(German f.) minor key
Molltonleiter (s.), Molltonleitern (pl.)(German f.) minor scale
Molly dancinga type of East Anglian ritual dance in which the dancers blacken their faces. Molly dancing is associated with the annual Plough Monday tradition (the first Monday after Twelth Night), during which young farmhands would drag a plough round the local villages, crying "a penny for the plough boys", and if no penny was forthcoming cut a furrow across the cheapskate's front lawn. As one would expect of such a "trick-or-treat" event, the Plough Monday procession usually took place after dark. However, during the daytime local Molly dancers would tour the region, dancing and collecting money/food/beer all day, then meet up in the evening for communal dancing
Molosee hoddu
moltasee molto
moltisonante(Italian) resounding, very sonorous
moltissimo(Italian) extremely
molto (m.), molta (f.)(Italian) much, very
molto accentuato(Italian) very accented, sehr betont (German), très accentué (French)
molto adagio(Italian) very slow
molto allegro(Italian) very quick
molto andante(Italian) slower than andante
molto animato(Italian) very animated
molto bombata(Italian) voûté (French), bombé (French), hoch gewölbt, high arched, bombatura alta (Italian)
molto cresc.become louder more quickly
molto crescendobecome louder more quickly
a tonal effect on a bassoon, which, if blown more strongly, produces a reedier tone
molto da fare con(Italian) a lot to do with
molto dim.become softer more quickly
molto diminuendobecome softer more quickly
molto largo(Italian) very slow
molto mosso(Italian) much movement, much motion
molto seria(Italian) soberly
molto slargando(Italian) much extended, much slower
molto sonore(Italian) very full sound
[entry provided by Katie Webb]
molto sostenuto(Italian) very sustained, very legato
molto vib.abbreviated form of molto vibrato an expression mark directing that the player uses an extra degree of vibrato
momentan(German) momentary, momentarily, at the moment
Momentaufnahme(German f.) snapshot
Moment critique(French) the critical moment, a time of great importance (in the development of something)
Moment de défaillance(French) a moment of weakness, a temporary lapse
Moment de vérité(English, from the French) the 'moment of truth', the moment when one is brough face to face with stark reality
the correct phrase in French is minute de vérité
Moment forma structural concept developed by Karlheinz Stockhausen (1928- ) for an idea that music could exist not so much for the relationships set up formally within a movement, sonata form, etc. but just for 'the moment'. The work that took 'moment form' to its limits is Momente upon which Stockhausen worked on and off during the period 1961/70. The work uses three different kinds of 'moments': K-moments (klang, sound or timbre), M-moments (melody) and D-moments (duration). Apparently it is no coincidence that these moments bear the initials of key people in Stockhausen's private life at the time where considerable personal conflict had arisen. D is Doris, Stockhausen's first wife and mother to four of his children, M is Mary Bauermeister an artist who Stockhausen met in 1960 and resulted in a relationship developing with two more children, and K is obviously Karlheinz
  • Licht aus Stockhausen - Stockhausen interviewed by Malcolm Ball from which some of this material has been taken
Moment psychologique(French) the 'psychological moment', the most propitious point in time for embarking on a course of action
Momentulum(Latin) a semiquaver or sixteenth rest
Momentum(Latin) a quaver or eighth rest
Momentum (s.), Momenta (pl.)(Latin) the impetus acquired through movement, the continuation of movement resulting from inertia
Momon(French) momon or mommon comes from the old French momer or mommer which means to wear a mask or perform mascarades ; this meaning was attested in the thirteenth century. The word has several definitions : according to the Tresor de la Langue Française, the momon is any sort of mumming or mascarade carried out during carnaval-time by masked dancers, or via metonymy, a tumbler or a masked dancer. Another meaning given is that it was a game of dice played without speaking, or money bet on dice carried by someone wearing a mask
Mon.abbreviation of 'Monmouthshire'
Moñalayered parts played by the horn section featuring staggered entrances, layered and contrapuntal parts building to a wailing, climactic intensity, usually introduced during the mambo section. They are generally written but may be improvised
Monacordio(Spanish m.) monochord, manicordion (French), manicorde (French)
Monacordo(Italian m.) monochord, manicordion (French), manicorde (French)
Monasterya community of monks, men who have taken vows of poverty, chastity and obedience
Monastery bells
bells used to signify particular times or events:
angelus belltower bell used as call to prayer in memory of the visit of the archangel announcing to Mary that she was to be the mother of Jesus. Its ringing consists of a triple stroke thrice repeated and followed by nine successive strokes (or else an indeterminate number). Dating from the thirteenth century, the angelus has traditionally been at 6 am., noon, and 6 pm. It is also found in all Catholic churches
campanalarge tower bell for general use
campanellasmaller suspended bell in the cloister
codonhandbell for summoning
corrigiunculumrung as summons to flagellation or prescribed penance
cymbalumsuspended bell in the cloister (smaller than the Campanella)
duplaclock bell
noctulabell to call sleepers to prayer
nolain the choir, rung at consecration of the elements
petasiussuspended bell (sizable) for summoning
sanctus bellaltar bell
signum belltower bell, a general-purpose bell for signaling. Among its functions is the ringing of the eight canonical hours: matins, lauds, prime, tierce, sext, nones, vespers, and compline
squilladinner bell in refectory (and elsewhere)
tiniolumevening bell rung to signal retirement
Monasticrefers to the life or community of monks
Monat(German m.) month
monatelang(German) for months
monatlich(German) monthly
Monatskarte(German f.) monthly season ticket
Monaulos(Greek) an ancient flute played like a flageolet
Mönch(German m.) a monk
Mon cher (m.), Ma chère (f.)(French) my dear
Mond(German m.) moon
mondain (m.), mondaine (f.)(French) belonging to the world of fashion, fashionable
mondän(German) fashionable, fashionably
Mondegreenthe mishearing or misinterpretation of a phrase, typically a standardized phrase such as a line in a poem or a lyric in a song, due to near homophony, in a way that yields a new meaning to the phrase. It should not be confused with Soramimis, which are songs that produce different meanings than those originally intended, when interpreted in another language
  • Mondegreen from which this material has been taken
Mondgitarre(German f.) moon lute, yue qin (Chinese)
Mondharmonica(Dutch) harmonica, mouth organ
mondhell(German) moonlit
Mondsichel(German m.) crescent moon
Mondschein(German m.) moonlight
Mondstuk(Dutch) mouthpiece
Monferina(Italian) a bright Italian dance in 6/8 time, danced mainly in Piedmont and Lombardy
Monga brass or bronze gong which comes in several sizes ranging from 8"-12" in diameter
Moniäänisyys(Finnish) polyphony
monieren(German) to criticise
Monikashort for Harmonika, an abbreviation used in the Netherlands for the accordion
Monje(Spanish m.) monk
Monje benedictino(Spanish m.) Benedictine monk
Monkin the Christian church, a man who submits to life in, and becomes a member of, a monastery or an equivalent form of communal living. There are men who submit to this kind of life in other religions too
Monkey drumsee 'clapper drum'
Monmouth cap(in use 1570-1625) a knitted wool cap that fit the head, and had a brim and a long peaked top that hung over one side and ended in a tassle. Common especially among soldiers and sailors
Mono(English, German) a prefix meaning 'single'
Monochord(English, German n.) an ancient instrument used for performing and teaching as well as tuning and experimentation, the monochord is said to have been invented by Pythagoras. It consists of a single string stretched between two fixed bridges, while a third, movable bridge is so placed between the two fixed bridges as to divide the whole string into two parts both being able to vibrate independently. It is then possible to relate musical intervals to the ratio of their sounding lengths which is what the ancient Greeks did
Monochromean image displaying all the gradations between black and white but only in a single colour
Monocoque(French) a fuselage or hull manufactured in one piece
Monocorde(French) monochord
Monocordo(Italian) in string playing, playing a whole piece or passage on only one string
(Italian) monochord
Monodia(Italian f., Spanish f.) monody, elegy, lament, a melody intended to be sung by a single voice, monodie (French)
Monodicmonody, for one voice, a solo
Monodie(French, German f.) monody
(French) monodie is used in the general sense of "melodic composition without written accompaniment", regardless of the way it is or was actually performed (with or without a more or less harmonic instrumental accompaniment). For example, the troubadours-trouveres repertoire is typically considered "monodic". Seay's and Hoppin's authoritative textbooks about medieval music use (in French translation) the term monodie profane as chapter headings for repertoire such as this
[Early Music List, 15 Jan 1997, from Olivier Bettens]
monodisch(German) monodic
Monodrama(English, Spanish f.) a melodrama for one character, monodrame (French)
Monodrame(French f.) a melodrama for one character, monodrama (English, Spanish)
Monody(from the Greek monoidos, literally 'singing alone') synonymous with monophony, in antique Greece, the term designated lyric monologues (elegy, dirge, etc.) in a tragedy
(from the Greek monoidos, literally 'singing alone') coined by Giovanni Battista Doni in the 1630s, from the late sixteenth-century Florentine Camerata until Monteverdi's death, monody was a musical composition with only a single melody line which could have an accompaniment. Early balletti used monody to convey most of the action of the drama, with more songlike numbers for choruses of nymphs and shepherds. Monody would eventually evolve into what we know today as recitative
Monofonía(Spanish f.) monophony
monofónico(Spanish) monophonic, monophonique (French)
Monofonie(German f.) monophony
monofonisch(Dutch, German) monophonic
Monogenesisthe theory that, if two similar stories, words, or images appear in two different geographic regions or languages, they are actually related to each other rather than appearing independently. Either one was the original source, and the others adopted it later, or all the surviving examples come from an older (possibly lost) source
Monogramm(German n.) monogram
Monographa book written by a single author, as opposed to a collection of essays or chapters by a number of authors, brought together by an editor
Monolog(German m.) monologue
Monologuean extended speech by one person directly addressing the audience or another character or speaking aloud to himself. An interior monologue does not necessarily represent spoken words, but rather the internal or emotional thoughts or feelings of an individual
Monologue airsee 'operatic air'
Monologue intérieur(French) an unspoken soliloquy, a passage in a work of fiction in which a character's thoughts are presented as they occur, the 'stream of consciousness' technique
Monophonica musical composition that has only a single melody line, regardless of the number of voices or instruments in the performance, and has no accompaniment
the ability (or restriction depending on your viewpoint) of some types of synthesiser to play only one note at a time. Generally a monophonic synthesiser will follow a rule to deal with any occasion when two notes appear. It might play the most recently received (remember that in MIDI although you think you play a chord, the notes are sent individually one after the other sufficiently fast (usually) that you think they sound together), or it might play the note with the highest pitch. Some MIDI controllers require synthesisers that can work monophonically across a number of channels, six in the case of a MIDI guitar. Thus although the synthesiser may be polyphonic it is working monophonically on each channel
Monophonie(German f., French f.) monophony
Monophonya musical composition that is monophonic
monophonisch(German) monophonic
monophonique(French) music that is not polyphonique, music comprising a single line, although homophone may be the preferred term (although some writers use the term homophony, in French homophonie, to mean "chord-based polyphony")
(French) monoaural, where the same sound signal is supplied to both ears, the opposite of stereophonique where different sound signals are supplied to each ear
Monophthongizationthe tendency of diphthongs to turn into simple vowels over time, or the actual process by which diphthongs turn into such vowels
Monopolio(Spanish m.) monopoly
Monorhymea poem or section of a poem in which all the lines have the same end rhyme. The rhyming pattern would thus look like this: AAAA AAAA, AAA AAA, or AA AA AA AA, etc. It is a common rhyme scheme in Latin, Italian, Arabic, Welsh, and Slav poetry, especially in the Slav poetry of the oral-formulaic tradition. Because of the fact that English nouns are not declined and our adjectives do not have gender consistently indicated by particular endings, it is much harder to make effective poetic use of monorhyme in the English poetry
Monosyllabichaving only one syllable
Monotheistica religion with only one god
Monotheletisma particular teaching about how the divine and human relate in the person of Jesus, known as a Christological doctrine, that began in Armenia and Syria in AD 633. Specifically, Monothelitism teaches that Jesus Christ had two natures but only one will
Monothematica composition based on a single theme
monothematisch(German) a composition based on a single theme
monoton(German) monotonous, monotonously
monoton brummend(German) droning (sound)
Monotonea single sustained, unvarying tone, or a succession of notes of the same tone
liturgical texts are sometimes recited to a monotone
Monotonie(French, German f.) monotony
mon petit chat(French) sweetie, poppet (terms of endearment)
mon petit chou(French) my dear
Mon petit doigt me l'a dit.(French) A little bird told me.
Monsignore (s.), Monsignori (pl.)(Italian m.) or monsignor (abbreviated Italian form, commonly used in England) a title given to domestic prelates of the Papal court
Monsoon(old Dutch, from the Arabic) a seasonal wind in southern Asia which blows from the south-west in summer (when it is accompanied by continuous rain) and from the north-east in winter
Monstre sacré(French m., literally 'sacred monster') a theatrical or cinema star whose public appeal is enhanced by acceptable eccentricities in his or her private life
monströs(German) monstrous
Monstrosität(German f.) monstrosity
Monsum(German m.) monsoon
Montag(German m.) Monday
Montage(French m., German f.) in art, a technique by which a picture is built up of fragments of photographs, drawings, etc. pasted to a surface
(French m., German f.) a picture produced in this way
(French m., German f.) the cutting or editing of a film made for cinema
(German f.) fitting, assembly (putting together)
Montage à cordes croisées(French m.) on a piano, a string layout where some strings lie under others
Montaggio con le immagini(Italian m.) photomontage (montage using images)
montags(German) on Mondays
Montal, Claude (1800-1865)see 'blind piano tuner'
montant(French) ascending
Monte-de-piété(French, from the Italian monte di pietà) a licensed pawn-shop
Monte di pietà(Italian) a licensed pawn-shop
monter(French) to raise, to ascend
to put strings on an instrument
to tune the strings on an instrument
to put the sections of a wind instrument together
monter à(French) to go up to visit, to work in (a city), to come up to
monter à bicyclette(French) to cycle up, to ride a bike
monter à bord (d'un navire)(French) to go on board a ship
monter à cheval(French) to get on a horse, to ride a horse
monter à sa chambre(French) to go up to one's room
monter à pied(French) to walk up
monter aux arbres(French) to climb trees
monter ... contre ...(French) to set ... against ...
monter dans l'estime de ...(French) to rise in ...'s estimation
monter dans sa chambre(French) to go up to one's room
monter dans un avion(French) to board a plane
monter dans un train(French) to board a train
monter des mailles(French) to cast on stitches (knitting)
monter en courant(French) to run up
monter ... en épingle(French) to blow ... all out of proportion
monter en flèche(French) to soar (literally and figuratively)
monter en grade(French) to be promoted
monter en lacets(French) to wind upwards
monter en parallèle(French) to connect in parallel
monter en pente douce(French) to rise gently
monter en série(French) to connect in series
monter en titubant(French) to stagger up
monter en train(French) to go up by train
monter en voiture(French) to drive up, to get into a car
monter jusqu'à(French) to come up to
monter le bourrichon à ...(French) to put ideas in ...'s head (colloquial)
monter le coup à ...(French) to take ... for a ride (colloquial)
monter l'escalier(French) to go up the stairs
monter la gamme(French) to go up the scale (music)
monter la garde(French) to go on guard, to be on guard
monter le son(French) to turn the volume up
monter la tête à ...(French) to get ... worked up
monter par l'ascenseur(French) to take the elevator up
monter prévenir ...(French) to go up and tell ...
monter sur(French) to climb up on
monter sur le trône(French) to ascend to the throne
monter sur un arbre(French) to climb a tree
monter sur une bicyclette(French) to get on a bicycle
monter sur une colline(French) to climb a hill
monter sur une échelle(French) to climb a ladder
monter un cheval(French) to ride a horse
monter une côté(French) to go up a hill
monter un coup(French) to plan a job
monter une histoire pour déshonorer ...(French) to invent a scandal to ruin ...'s name
monter voir ...(French) to go up and see ...
Monteur(German m.) a fitter
Monteuranzug(German m.) overalls
montez(French) raise!
Months of the year
each of twelve periods into which a year is divided:
January (1)gennaioJanuarjanvierenerojanuarijaneiro
February (2)febbraioFebruarfévrierfebrerofebruarifevereiro
March (3)marzoMärzmarsmarzomaartmarço
April (4)aprileAprilavrilabrilaprilabril
May (5)maggioMaimaimayomeimaio
June (6)giugnoJunijuinjuniojunijunho
July (7)luglioJulijuilletjuliojulijulho
August (8)agostoAugustaoûtaugustoaugustusagosto
September (9)settembreSeptemberseptembrese(p)tiembreseptembersetembro
October (10)ottobreOktoberoctobreoctubreoktoberoutubro
November (11)novembreNovembernovembrenoviembrenovembernovembro
December (12)dicembreDezemberdécembrediciembredecemberdezembro
montieren(German) to assemble (to put together)
Montón(Spanish m.) pile, heap
un montón (Spanish: a lot)
un montón con ellas (Spanish: a pile of them)
un montón de (Spanish: a load of, lots of)
un montón de gente (Spanish: loads of people)
un montón de niños (Spanish: crowds of children)
Montre(French, from the verb 'to show') an organ stop, the pipes of which are placed in front of the instrument
pipe namepitch
mounted diapason8ft. pitch
mounted double diapason16ft. pitch
mounted double double diapason32ft. pitch
montré(French) mounted, in front, a term applied to organ pipes that are placed in front of the case
Montre à tact(French f.) a watch without a glass, which allows the user to feel the position of the hands and so tell the time in the dark
Montre-bracelet(French f.) wrist-watch
Montre grande sonnerie(French f.) a clock or watch that strikes the quarter and the hour every quarter
montrer(French) to show
montrer à(French) to show to
montrer du doigt(French) to point to
montrer le bout de son nez(French) to show one's face, to peep around (the corner, door)
Montunofrom Latin music, the call and response section of salsa, between the lead singer and chorus
a term used to describe a repetitive syncopated vamp on the piano, for example, an indefinitely repeated pattern of 1, 2 or 4 bars in the piano, typically with ingeniously syncopated moving inner voices and a differently syncopated bass line
a slang Cuban popular music term, referring to the rhythmic section of a song that incorporates the refrain and involves more improvisation. After the verse and the bridge, when you get to the main hook, that is called the montuno (based on the Cuban son). As Cuban son developed, and the piano became incorporated, some people referred to the piano's patterns as the montuno. Others used a different term altogether: tumbao
[from an interview with Rebeca Mauleón inMeet The Composer]
often used incorrectly for a pyramiding vamp in which one instrument enters alone, then another is added, and so on at regular intervals
Mood(from Anglo-Saxon, mod "heart" or "spirit") while many cultural differences are evident, listeners nevertheless show a cross-cultural similarity when characterizing the moods evoked by various musical works - including sadness, exuberance, etc. Mood regulation (i.e. changing or enhancing moods) is possibly the most common "use" of recorded or broadcast music. Thayer (1996) found that roughly 50% of respondents use music to temper or eliminate a bad mood
the term mood is often used synonymously with atmosphere and ambiance
Moodi(Finnish) mode
Moody and SankeyDwight L Moody (1837-1899) and Ira D Sankey (1840-1908) were American evangelists who attracted vast audiences to their revivalist meetings in the USA and on their visits to Britain. Moody was a powerful preacher. Sankey was a composer and singer whose songs and hymn-singing (he accompanied himself on a small reed organ) helped draw the crowds to their meetings and create a suitably inspirational atmosphere for Moody's sermons. The two men visited Glasgow for the first time in 1874 and remained for more than five months. Their meetings on Glasgow Green and in the City Halls attracted huge crowds, and their farewell concert was held in the Kibble Palace. They returned to Glasgow in 1882 and 1891. The two men were involved in the foundation of the Bible Training Institute in Bothwell Street. The Sankey and Moody Hymn Book was published in 1873, with many subsequent editions - these hymns are still a staple of Methodist choirs
It's [a story] about a drunk who gets into a train with the famous evangelists Moody and Sankey. The drunk, trying to get home to a place 'on the Don side,' first boards a train for Stonehaven and is ejected by the guard. Then he stumbles onto a train to Ballater and is again told it's the wrong one. Finally he sits down in a compartment with the preachers who are heading for a series of revival meetings in Peterhead. "Naturally, in his drunken state, the man made himself a bit of a nuisance", says Skinner. "Moody gazed at him, more in pity than in condemnation, and then spoke slowly and deliberately:
"Do you know where you're going to, sir?" he said.
"Na." came the answer.
"Well, you're going to perdition." was the stern rejoinder.
"Eh?" exclaimed the maudlin one, waking up somewhat; "I'm in the wrang train again!"
Moog Synthesizer(English, Moog-Synthesizer (German m.)) the first synthesizers (a term applied by Moog in 1967) developed by Robert Moog in 1964 were modular, containing components such as oscillators, filters, envelope generators, amplifiers, and mixers, and they were typically performed with a keyboard
Moon guitarsee Yüeh ch'in
Moonlightingworking a second job, usually after hours
Moon lutesee Yüeh ch'in
Moon violinsee Yüeh ch'in
Moonwalka 'popping' move, that though associated with Michael Jackson, was not invented by him. The purpose of the moonwalk is to give the illusion that the dancer is walking forward while mysteriously moving backward
  • Moonwalk from which this extract has been taken
Moos(German n.) moss
moosig(German) mossy
Moosiqi Asil(Parsi) or 'Persian music', the traditional and indigenous music of Persia and Persian-speaking countries
Moosgummirad(German n.) rubber wheel
Moppetchild, especially child actor
Moquette(French f.) a strong pile fabric of wool on a hempen base, a kind of Wilton carpeting
moqueur(French) mocking, waggish
mor.abbreviated form of morendo (Italian: dying away)
Mora (s.), Morae (pl.)(Latin, literally 'delay') in music, like a dot in modern notation, in neume notation a mora lengthens the preceding note, typically doubling it
(Latin) in linguistics, a metrical unit equal in duration of a single short syllable
MoraharpaMedieval ancestor to the Swedish nyckelharpa, still played today
Moral(German f.) moral, morals, morale
Morale(from the French moral) the moral condition, loyalty, zeal, discipline, etc. (of a body of workers, troops, etc.)
moralisch(German) moral, morally
moralisieren(German) to moralize
Moralités(French f. pl.) moralities
Moralitiesan offshot of the Mysteries, allegorical plays popular in the Middle Ages. Their object was to point a moral, with characters personifying the virtues, vices, etc.
Morality playa genre of medieval and early Renaissance drama, often including music, that illustrates the way to live a pious life through allegorical characters. The characters tend to be personified abstractions of vices and virtues
Moral rightsthe rights of creators of copyrighted works generally recognized in civil law jurisdictions and first recognized in France and Germany, before they were included in the Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works in 1928. Canada recognizes moral rights in its Copyright Act, although the French translation of the phrase used in the legislation is droits moraux, not droit d'auteur. While the United States became a signatory to the convention in 1988, it still does not completely recognize moral rights as part of copyright law, but rather as part of other bodies of law, such as defamation or unfair competition. Moral rights include the right of attribution, the right to have a work published anonymously or pseudonymously, and the right to the integrity of the work. The preserving of the integrity of the work bars the work from alteration, distortion or mutilation. Anything else that may detract from the artist's relationship with the work even after it leaves the artist's possession or ownership may bring these moral rights into play. Moral rights are distinct from any economic rights tied to copyrights. Even if an artist has assigned his or her rights to a work to a third party, he or she still maintains the moral rights to the work. Some jurisdictions allow for the waiver of moral rights. In the United States, the Visual Artists Rights Act of 1990 (VARA) recognizes moral rights, but only applies to works of visual art
Moratorium(Latin, literally 'delay') a temporary suspension of any kind of obligation (make a payment, complete a contract, etc.)
Morbidezza(Italian f.) softness, gentleness
in art, lifelike smoothness and delicacy in the painitng of flesh-tints, subtle gradation of tones and edges
Morbidity ratethe likelihood that a person belonging to a particular group, categorized according to age or some other factor such as occupation, will suffer a disease, illness, injury, or sickness
morbido(Italian) soft, gentle
Morsedecorative fastener for a cope
Morceau (s.), Morceaux (pl.)(French m.) a short piece of music or a short literary composition (particularly one of an unpretentious character), a song, a tune
Morceau d'ensemble(French m.) a concerted piece, i.e. a composition for two or more parts, more especially quintets, sextets, septets, etc. in an opera, oratorio, and the like
Morceau de musique(French m.) piece of music, song, tune
Morceau imposé(French m.) compulsory piece
Morceau symphonic(French m.) symphonic piece
Morceaux semblables(French m. pl.) similar pieces
Morcellement(French) the parcelling out (of land, etc.) into small portions
Mord(German m.) murder, assassination
Mordanschlag(German m.) murder attempt, assassination attempt
Mordant(French m.) mordent
Mordant inférieur(French) lower mordent
morden(German) to murder, to kill
Mordant superieur(French m.) upper mordent
Mordent(from the Italian mordente, literally 'biting') a musical ornament
this ornament has a rather confusing terminology. The original form is a three note ornament - the rapid succession of the principal note, a lower auxiliary note a tone (step) or semitone (half-step) below, as the mode required, and a final return to the principal. Later, writers termed this ornament the 'lower' mordent (Mordent (German), pincé (French)) to distinguish it from a later form where the auxiliary note is the note above the principal, which was then termed the 'upper' mordent (Pralltriller (German), pincé renverse (French)). Unfortunately over time writers have named both forms 'mordent' or 'inverted' mordent, purely on the basis of what was believed then to be the standard form
Mordente(Spanish m., Italian m.) gruppetto, mordent, mordant (French)
Mordente ascendente(Portuguese m., Italian m., Spanish m.) or mordente roverso (Italian m.), rising or ascendent mordent
[corrected by Donald Skoog]
Mordente apoyado(Spanish m.) mordent
Mordente de anticipación(Spanish m.) mordent in which the auxiliary note is before the beat
Mordente de grado(Spanish m.) mordent in which the principal note is one degree away from the auxiliary note
Mordente de retardación(Spanish m.) mordent in which the auxiliary note is after the beat
Mordente de salto(Spanish m.) mordent in which the principal note is more than one degree away from the auxiliary note
Mordente descendente(Portuguese m., Spanish m.) falling or descending mordent
[corrected by Donald Skoog]
Mordente discendente(Italian m.) falling or descending mordent
Mordente doppio(Spanish m.) double mordent
Mordente imperfecto(Spanish m.) 'inverted' or upper mordent
Mordente inferiore(Italian m.) lower mordent, mordent
Mordenten und Doppelschläger(German) mordents and turns
Mordente roverso(Italian m.) see mordente ascendente
Mordente semplice(Italian m.) single mordent
Mordente superior(Spanish m.) 'inverted' or upper mordent
Mordente superiore(Italian m.) 'inverted' or upper mordent
Mordent superior(Catalan m.) 'inverted' or upper mordent
Mörder (m.), Mörderin (f.)(German) murderer (m.) murderess (f.), assassin
morder el anzuelo(Spanish) to take the bait, to swallow the hook (also figurative)
mörderisch(German) murderous, dreadful (familiar)
mordsmäßig(German) frightful, frightfully (familiar)
Morepiú (Italian), mehr (German), plus (French)
More majorum(Latin) according to the custom of our (or their) ancestors
morendo(Italian) dying away, diminishing in loudness, becoming fainter in tone, sterbend, en mourant
Mores(Latin) the manners or customs of a place or period
Moresca(Italian, Spanish) also known as danse des bouffons and almost certainly related to the English 'Morris' dance, a Renaissance dance simulating a battle between Moors and Christians, that involves elaborate makeup and costume
Morésca(Italian, mentioned in John Florio's Queen Anna's New World of Words (1611)) or morice, an antique dance
Moreskaa sword battle dance from the town of Korcula, in Croatia, that symbolises the conflict between the Spaniards and the Moors. Originally accompanied only by a drum (tamburin), from the beginning of the twentieth-century band music has been added. The dancers are always dressed in sumptuous red robes - naturally, "white" always wins out over "black"
More Socratico(Latin, literally 'in the manner of Socrates') by a process of question and answer
Moresque(French) moresca
More suo(Latin) in his (or her) own way, in his (or her) characteristic fashion
Moreville Communitoriuma shortlived community of the Communist Church established in 1843 in the Hanwell, Middlesex, house of Goodwyn & Catherine Barmby
Morganatic marriagea type of marriage which can be contracted in certain countries, usually between people of unequal social rank, which prevents the passage of the husband's titles and privileges to the wife and any children born of the marriage. It is also known as a left-handed marriage because in the wedding ceremony the groom held his bride's right hand with his left hand instead of his right
Morgen(German m.) morning
morgen(German) tomorrow
Morgendämmerung(German f.) dawn
morgendlich(German) morning
morgenfrüh(German) tomorrow morning
Morgengesang(German n.) morning song, aubade
Morgengrauen(German n.) dawn
Morgenlied(German n.) morning song, aubade
Morgenmantel(German m.) dressing-gown
morgennachmittag(German) tomorrow afternoon
Morgenrock(German m.) dressing-gown
Morgenrot(German n.) red sky in the morning
morgens(German) in the morning
Morgen-stänchen(German) morning music
morgig(German) tomorrow's
Morgue(French f.) supercilious, haught behaviour, an attitude of superiority
in English usage, the word has the sense 'mortuary' and 'a collection of obituary notices prepared for future use'
Morgue anglaise, la(French f.) the haughty superciliousness which is supposed to characterize the English
Morgue britannique, la(French f.) the haughty superciliousness which is supposed to characterize the English
Moricealternative spelling of 'Morris', as in Morris dance
moriente(Italian) morendo
Morinsee Morinhor
Morinhor(Mongolia) also called matoqin or 'horse-head' fiddle, a two string bowed instrument with a trapezoid body. It normally has the wooden head of a horse at the top of the neck, and its strings are made of horsehair
Morin huurmorinhor
Morin khurrmorinhor
Morin xuurmorinhor
Morion (s.), Moria (pl.)1/72 part of an octave, defined as 1/30 part of a fourth by the theorist Cleonides around 100 AD for description of Greek tetrachords. Likewise Aristoxenos used a cipher of 12 parts to a whole tone. This measure is surrounded by controversy, because it is unclear what Aristoxenos' measurements exactly are. Moria is Greek for molecules or small pieces. 72-tone equal temperament is a good approximation to many just intonation scales because the prime numbers 2, 3, 5, 7 and 11 are very well represented with deviations not exceeding 3 cents
morir ahogado(Spanish) to drown, to suffocate, to choke to death
morire(Italian) to die
morir en acto de servicio(Spanish) to die on active service, to die in the course of one's duty
Moriscoin the Moorish style, a dance said to imitate the dances of the Moors
Moriscosconverted Moors who remained, but held no important state positions in Spain. The Moriscos communities in Spain had not been integrated for they preserved links with Islam, spoke Arabic and preserved Arabic culture. Their failure to become 'Spanish' offended many in Madrid and elsewhere in Spain. In 1508 the Moriscos had been forbidden to wear their traditional costumes and their ancient customs were banned. In January 1567 further laws were published. Arabic and the wearing of traditional Arabic dress was forbidden. The Moriscans sent a deputation to Madrid to plead for the reforms not to be introduced but Pedro de Deza was put in charge of enforcing them. In 1568 there was a revolt in Andalusia (the Cadiz and Malaga area) which was symbolic of the bitter relationships between the Moricos and the Christians in southern Spain
Moritat(Latin, from mori, 'deadly' and tat, 'deed', German f.) a medieval version of the murder ballad performed by strolling minstrels
[entry promoted by Michael Zapf]
Moritat von Mackie Messer, die(German) known in English as Mack the Knife, a song composed by Kurt Weill with lyrics by Bertolt Brecht for their music drama Die Dreigroschenoper, or, as it is known in English, The Threepenny Opera. It premiered in Berlin in 1928
Morituri te sultant(Latin, literally 'those who are about to die salute you') taken from Suetonius Claudius xxi, the traditional greeting to the Roman Emperor from the gladiators in the arena
Mor khaen(Laotian) khaen player
Mor lam(Thai/Isan) an ancient Lao form of song found in Laos and Isan (Northeastern Thailand). Mor lam means 'expert song', or 'expert singer', referring to the music or artist respectively. Other romanisations used include mo lam, maw lam, maw lum, moh lam and mhor lum. In Laos, the music is known simply as lam; mor lam refers to the singer
  • Mor lam from which this extract has been taken
Mor lam sing(Thai/Isan) a fast-paced, racy, modernized version of the traditional Lao/Isan song form mor lam
mormorando(Italian) murmuring, muttering, whispering, in a subdued tone
mormorare(Italian) to murmur, to mutter, to whisper
mormorante(Italian) murmuring, muttering, whispering
mormorendomisspelling of mormorando
mormorevole(Italian) murmuring, muttering, whispering, in a subdued tone
mormorio(Italian) murmur, mutter, whisper
mormoroso(Italian) murmuring, muttering, whispering, in a subdued tone
Mornamusic of the sodade, or 'sense of nostalgia', a melancholic and soulful genre from Cape Verde, often sung in Creole-Portuguese, accompanied by the acoustic guitar, cavaquinho, violin, accordion and clarinet
Mornay(French) a cheese sauce made by adding Gruyère, Parmesan, etc. to Béchamel sauce
Morne(French) dismal, dreary
Morocco, music ofMorocco is a North African country inhabited mostly by Arabs along with Berbers and other minorities. Its music is predominantly Arab, but Andalusian and other imported influences have had a major effect on the country's musical character. Rock-influenced chaabi bands are widespread, as is 'trance music' with historical origins in Muslim music. Andalusian classical music is a style of classical music found across North Africa, though it evolved out of the music of Andalusia between the 10th- and 15th-centuries. Music is played everywhere in Morocco, from the muezzin which call the people to prayer to popular music being played at markets, music festivals moussem) and performers at cafes
Morphemelinguistically, the smallest collection of sounds in a word that has semiotic importance or significance--a unit of meaning that cannot be divided into tinier units of meaning
Morphologythe part of a language concerned with the structure of morphemes and how these morphemes combine. Linguists use this term in contrast with syntax
Morphosyntaxin linguistics, morphosyntax is an impressive word scholars use when most people would simply say "grammar." It is the study of how parts of a sentence relate to each other
Morris dancea folk dance genre, dating back at least to the seventeenth century, traditionally performed by men, and usually to pipe and tabor accompaniment - the women's equivalent genre was the clog dance. The name 'Morris' is almost certainly a reference to the Moors, a root in common with the that of the Renaissance dance, the moresca. The first revival morris dancing team was established in Thaxted in 1911
morsch(German) rotten
Morsealphabet(German n.) Morse code
MorsinghJew's harp from southern India
Mors janua vitae (novae)(Latin) death, the gateway to (a new) life, death considered as the threshold of eternity
mort(French) dead
Mortal sina sin committed with a clear knowledge of its guilt, with full consent of the will, and concerning a grave matter; where circumstances allow, every mortal sin must be confessed to a priest otherwise the soul suffers eternal damnation
Morte lenta(Latin) a slow death, a gradual decay or decadence (usually applied to countries or regions)
morto(Italian) dead
mortuus(Latin) dead, died
Mosaic authorshipthe medieval and Renaissance belief that Moses wrote all five books of the Pentateuch
Mosaik(German n.) mosaic
Moschee(German f.) mosque
Moshingsee 'slam dancing'
Moskau(German n.) Moscow
moslemisch(German) Muslim
Mos majorum(Latin) the custom of our (their) ancestors
mosso(Italian) moved, animated, motion
Mostra(Italian f.) a direct
Mostre(Croatia) or kumpanije, tThe chain sword dances in the villages of the island of Korcula
mostrando la lettera(Italian) showing her the letter
Mot(French m.) a word, a line (in a letter), a note, a witty remark, an epigram
Mot à mot(French) word for word, literally
Motard(French m.) biker, police motorcyclist
Mot de Cambronne(French m.) the French expletive merde, reputedly uttered by General Pierre Cambronne (1770-1842) when called upon to surrender at Waterloo
Mot de passe(French m.) password
Mot d'order(French m.) watchword
Möte(Swedish) conference, meeting, congress [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
Møte(Norwegian) conference, meeting, congress [corrected by Lars Hellvig]
Motetmottetto (Italian), Motette (German), motet (French)
the motet originated when clausulae were given new words, and then each voice part was given an entirely new text. Many different texts were used, and individual words even stopped working together as a textual unit. In this borrowing, although only the words were new and the notes were essentially unchanged, the character of the piece changed significantly. Primarily, this is seen through alterations in rhythm. The introduction of syllabic text into the formerly textless melisma transformed the melisma's fluid character into something heavier and more solid. Phrasing moved from iambic to trochaic. Essentially, text gave the music a new pulsation
to c.1400, a piece with one or more voices, often with different but related sacred or secular Latin or French texts, sung over a cantus firmus, a fragment of chant in longer note-values sung by the 'tenor'. The term motetus, originally the upper part with the added texts (from the French, mots), would soon be applied to the work as a whole
after 1400, the motet was a polyphonic setting of a short sacred text
the term motet is sometimes applied to works in anthem style
see grand motet
Motet(French) motet, anthem
Motet-chansona specialized musical form of the Renaissance, developed in Milan during the 1470s and 1480s, which combined aspects of the contemporary motet and chanson. It consisted of usually three voice parts, with the tenor voice, the lowest, singing a sacred text in Latin, usually drawn from chant, while the two upper voices sang a secular text in French. Generally the French text was either a commentary on the Latin text or served in a kind of symbolic relation to it. The tenor voice served as a cantus firmus, and usually sang in long notes, with phrases separated by long rests, while the upper voices, singing more quickly, followed the rigid formal structure of the contemporary formes fixes, particularly the rondeau and the bergerette.
Motete(Spanish m.) motet
Motet enté (s.), Motets entées (pl.)(French) emerging from the trope tradition, the motet was initially a poetic effort, underlaying preexisting clausulae with new text. Often poets took advantage of musical repetitions, supporting them with closely related texts that thus became suitable for quotation, so that they acquired 'refrain' character. Later these motets served as models for the newly composed motet enté where 'refrains' (text and melody) were taken as points of departure and textually and musically troped. By the end of the fourteenth century, the art of quotation died out in France, both in the literary and musical realms
Motet, grandsee grand motet
Motet Passiona particular genre of musical Passions, in which the entire text is sung by an a cappella chorus. Essentially, a series of motets. Because there are no soloists, the individual characters of the story cannot be developed or distinguished through the music
Motette(German) motet
Motettenköpfe(German m. pl.) phrases that opening sections of a motet or madrigal
Motetto(Italian) motet
Motettussee moteteus
Moteteus(Latin) or motettus, motet
(from the French, mot, literally 'word') from the 13th- to the 15th-centuries, the term for the line immediately above the tenor in an early two-part motet, sometimes called the duplum
Moteur à 2 temps(French m.) 2-stroke engine
Moteur à 4 temps(French m.) 4-stroke engine
Mother Hubbardsee mu-mu
Mother of pearlor 'abalone', a shell material commonly used on instrument inlays
Mother tonguesee 'first language'
Motief(Dutch) motif
Motifin music, a motif is a perceivable or salient recurring fragment or succession of notes that may be used to construct the entirety or parts of complete melodies and themes. A motif is distinguished from a figure in that a motif is foreground while a figure is background
often used interchangeably with the terms 'theme' and 'leit-motif' and appearing frequently in works of literature, a conspicuous recurring element, such as a type of incident, a device, a reference, or verbal formula
(English, French m.) motive, the theme of an artistic composition, a recurrent idea, the repeating feature of a regular design
Motif accrocheur(French m.) hook
Motif melodique(French m.) lick, pattern
Motif Description
a subset of 'Labanotation', a system for notating 'dance', with which it shares a common lexis. The main difference between the two forms is the type of information they record:
Labanotationdetailed description of movement so it may be reproduced exactly as it was performed or conceived
Motif Descriptiondepicts the most important elements, the essential aspects of the movement sequence. Motif Description is often used as an alternative to Labanotation when information needs to be written down quickly
Motionmoto (Italian), Bewegung (German), mouvement (French)
the progress of a melody can be described in terms of various types of 'motion'
type of motionexplanation
note repetitionmovement is stationary, resulting in no motion
conjunct motion
moto congiunto (Italian)
schrittweise Bewegung (German)
stufenweise Bewegung (German)
mouvement conjoint (French)
stapsgewijze beweging (Dutch)
a single melody moving by a step
contrary motion, opposite motion
moto contrario (Italian)
Gegenbewegung (German)
mouvement contraire (French)
tegenbeweging (Dutch)
two melodies moving in opposite directions
disjunct motion (English)
moto disgiunto (Italian)
sprunghafte Bewegung (German)
mouvement (mélodique) disjoint (French)
sprongsgewijze beweging (Dutch)
a single melody moving by a leap
oblique motion (English)
moto obliquo (Italian)
Seitenbewegung (German)
mouvement oblique (French)
zijdelingse beweging (Dutch)
one voice remains on the same pitch while the other ascends or descends
direct, parallel motion (English)
moto retto e parallelo (Italian)
Parallelbewegung (German)
mouvement parallèle (French)
parallelle beweging (Dutch)
two melodies moving so that the interval between them remains the same
direct, similar motion (English)
moto retto e simile (Italian)
Gleichbewegung (German)
mouvement semblable (French)
mouvement similaire (French)
mouvement pareil (French)
gelijke beweging (Dutch)
two melodies moving in the same direction but by dissimilar intervals
mixed motion (English)
moto misto (Italian)
gemischte Bewegung (German)
mouvement mixte (French)
gemengde beweging (Dutch)
where more than one variety of motion occurs at once between several parts
Motiv(German n.) motive
Motivation(English, German f.) in theatre, a character's individual desires or goals which propel them into action
(English, German f.) the driving force of an inciting event that starts the progression of a story
  • Motivation from which this information has been taken
Motivemotivo (Italian), Motiv (German), motif (French), the smallest identifiable self-existent element of melody or rhythm, the basis of large themes or phrases, which, by being repeated, gives a musical work a sense of cohesion
motivieren(German) to motivate
Motivik(German f.) motivic idea
Motivo(Italian, Spanish m.) motive, theme, leading idea, subject, motif (French)
Motivo principal(Spanish m.) theme song
Motivo principale(Italian m.) theme song
Motivo ricorrente(Italian m.) or tema di una canzone (Italian m.), recurring theme of a song
Mot juste, lesee le mot juste
Moto(Italian m.) movement, motion, for example, con moto meaning 'rather quicker'
Moto congiunto(Italian m.) conjunct motion
Moto contrario(Italian m.) contrary motion
Moto disgiunto(Italian m.) disjunct motion
Moto misto(Italian m.) mixed motion
Moto obbliquo(Italian m.) oblique motion
Moto obliquo(Italian m.) oblique motion
Moto perpetuo(Italian m.) perpetuum mobile, continuous movement
a very quick piece in rondo form, generally comprised of sequences of rapid notes that continue with virtually no break
Moto precedente(Italian m.) the same speed as before, at the former tempo, at the preceding tempo
Moto primo(Italian m.) the same speed as at the beginning
Motor aphasiasee 'Broca's aphasia'
Moto retto(Italian m.) similar motion, direct motion
Motor hornsee 'car horn'
Motor rhythman impelling rhythmic device, whose reiteration is a feature of music from the Baroque period onwards
Motoscafo (s.), Motoscafi (pl.)(Italian) a motor-boat, a motor-launch
Motown(English, German m.) a music style associated with 1960s and 1970s, black-owned, Detroit-based record label of the same name whose artists included The Supremes, The Temptations, etc.
Motown, also called 'Detroit soul', is strongly rhythmic and influenced by gospel. It often includes handclapping and a powerful bassline, and includes violins, bells and other untraditional instruments
Mots croisés(French m.) crossword (puzzle)
motteggiando(Italian) bantering, jeering, mockingly, jocosely
Mottete(German f.) motet
Mottetto(Italian) motet
Motto(English, German n.) in music, a motto is a melodic section larger than a motif and may appear at the beginning and often just before the end of a musical composition
Motto ariaan aria in which the vocalist begins directly with the opening phrase (or 'motto', or sometimes 'motif') and the full instrumental ritornello follows this before the opening phrase is repeated
Motto themesimilar to a leitmotif or an idée fixe, a theme that recurs and develops as the musical work progresses
Motu proprio(Latin) of one's own accord, of one's own free will
a personal memorandum from the Pope to the clergy
Motus(Latin) motion, movement
Motus contrarius(Latin) contrary motion
Motus obliquus(Latin) oblique motion
Motus et bouche cousue!(French) Mum's the word! Don't tell anyone! (colloquial)
Motus rectus(Latin) similar motion, direct motion
mou(French) soft
Mouchard(French m.) a police spy, a sneak, an informer
Mouchardage(French m.) informing, sneaking, grassing
moucharder(French) to spy, to sneak, to inform
Mouche(French f.) a fly, a beauty spot, a (beauty) patch, a short goatee (beard)
Moucheron(French m.) a small kid (child)
moucher ton nez(French) to blow your nose
moucheté(French) speckled, spotted, flecked, buttoned (foil in fencing)
moucheter(French) to speckle, to spot, to fleck
Moucheteur(French f.) a fleck, a spot, a speckle, a patch (on an animal)
Moucheteurs d'hermine(French f.) ermine tips
Mouchoir(French m.) (pocket) handkerchief, neckerchief
Mouchoir en papier(French m.) paper handkerchief, tissue
moudre(French) to grind, to mill, to grind out (a tune)
Moue(French f.) a pout, an expression of petulance (often feigned)
Moue de dédain(French f.) an expression of disdain
Moue de dégoût(French f.) an expression of disgust
Mouillé(French, literally 'moisened') in linguistics, palatized, usually of a consonant l
the l mouillé is the sound heard in the English 'bullion', but the so-called l mouillé of modern French has the sound of English y, for example, the sound heard in ville
Moujik(Russian) a Russian peasant, a clock or cape worn by a Russian peasant
Moulage(English, French) (the making of) a plaster cast, for example, by the police when preserving footprints in soft earth
Mouldingcontoured projection around an arch, window or door
Moulin(French m.) paradiddle
Mountain dulcimerAppalachian dulcimer
Mountain Jewsalso Juvuro or Juhuro, Jews of the eastern Caucasus, mainly of Azerbaijan and Dagestan. They are also known as Caucasus Jews, Caucasian Jews, or more uncommonly East Caucasian Jews, because the majority of these Jews settled the eastern part of Caucasus, though there were also historical settlements in Northwest Caucasus. The name "Mountain Jews" or "Caucasian Jews" is something of a misnomer, as it does not include Georgian Jews of the Caucasus Mountains
Mountaineer Loopone of the two-couple figures danced in a circle of four people traditionally associated with square dancing
Mount Avalonestablished in 1919 by the composer Rutland Boughton, house and grounds bought as a base for the Glastonbury festival by a devotee. Failed due to lack of finances. This was the closest Boughton came to his dream of a community of artists living on the land and supporting the festival
Mounted-corneta solo stop met with only in older organs, usually consisting of five ranks of pipes of large scale (stopped diapason, principal, twelfth, fifteenth and tierce), loudly voiced and placed upon a raised sound-board of their own
Mount Hermona mountain in the Anti-Lebanon mountain range, its highest point is 2,814 m (9,230 ft) above sea level. This summit is on the border between Syria and Lebanon
Mount Olympusat 9570 ft in height, the tallest mountain in Greece. It on the border between Thessaly and Macedonia. Mount Olympus was the home of their (Olympian) gods and goddesses and gave its name to the famous panhellenic games known as the Olympics
Mount Sinaia mountain peak in the southern Sinai Peninsula (7,500 ft high), believed to be the peak on which Moses received the Ten Commandments
Mount Sionalternative spelling for Mount Hermon or Mount Zion
Mount Taboran 1843 ft high mountain rising from the Plain of Jezreel, in Israel
Mount Ziona hill just outside the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem although the term Zion became a synecdoche referring to the entire city of Jerusalem and the Land of Israel
mourir(French) to die
mourir au champ d'honneur(French) to be killed in action
mourir d'envie de(French) to be dying to
Mournfulsad, lamentoso (Italian), klagend (German), lugubre (French)
mourut(French) died
Mousaisee Muses
Mousikaor Musica, one of the group of Horae that personified of the times of day. Mousika was the tutelary goddess of the morning hour of music and study
  • Horae from which this information is taken
Mousikê(Greek, literally 'the art of the Muse') consists primarily of the art of singing and playing instruments, corresponds to our notion of music and is what we would today refer to as 'culture'
Mousondia Haitian stick-fighting dance
see calenda, kalenda
Moussaka(Greek) a Greek dish consisting of minced meat cooked with a variety of vegetables
Mousse(French f.) froth, foam, fizz (in sparkling wines)
a frothy confection made from fruit, etc., beaten up with cream and white of egg (the term is applied to any food product of a similar consistency)
toiletry consisting of an aerosol foam used in hair styling
MoussemMoroccan music festivals
mousseux(French) sparkling, frothy (wine)
Moutarde me monte au nez, La(French) I'm losing my temper
Mouthboca (Italian), Mund (German), bouche (French), the speaking part of an organ pipe
Mouth bowa string is tied to both ends of a flexible pole which is then pulled into an arched shape. The string is held in the mouth and the string is struck at a point along its length. The cavity of the mouth is shaped to emphasize various partials which are produced naturally by the string when it is struck. The mouth cavity is also the cause of a degree of amplification of the original sound of the struck string. It is called ngbiti by the Aka Pygmies and gana by the Nama
Mouth harpharmonica
small slitted bamboo instrument held between the teeth and struck with the finger. Played in the same manner as the metal, lyre-shaped, Jew's harp
Mouth-holeor embouchure, embouchure (French f.), imboccatura (Italian f.), Ansatz (German m.), embocadura (Spanish f.)
Mouth musicGaelic song-form in which the lyrics are only of secondary importance - the dance rhythm is the most important aspect and the rhythm takes precedence over the rhythm and stresses of the Gaelic. The lyrics in puirt (plural of the word port, literally 'dance tune') are generally meaningless or nonsensical. Many Gaelic singers therefore do not believe in publishing translations of puirt-a-beul
synonymous with 'scat singing', 'vocal instrumental', 'mouth drumming', bols, solkattu, caoine, sean nos, canntaireachd, reel à bouche, turlute and kan ha diskan
Mouth organsee 'harmonica'
Mouthpieceimboccatura (Italian), Schnabel (German - of a woodwind instrument), Mundstück (German - of a brass instrument), bec (French - of a woodwind instrument), embouchure (French - of a brass instrument), the part of a wind instrument that is placed in, on, or by the performer's mouth
Moutiafrom the Western Indian Ocean islands, a hand drum
the Seychellois sega which is similar to the sega of Reunion
mouvant(French) moving
Mouvement(French m.) movement, motion, movimiento (Spanish)
"sometimes it means the slowness or speed of the notes in the musical measure. Thus one says a mouvement gai, a mouvement lent, a mouvement vif, etc., and in this sense it also often means an equalness that is regular and clearly marked for all the beats of the measure. It is in this sense that recitatives are not sung de mouvement and that the menuet, the gavotte, the sarabande, etc., are airs de mouvement, etc." - Brossard (1703)
"The degree of speed or slowness that gives a mesure the character of the piece being executed. Each sort of mesure has a mouvement that is most appropriate for it and that in Italian is called Tempo giusto. But in addition there are five principal degrees of mouvement [in the sense of tempo] that, moving from slow to fast, are expressed by the words largo, adagio, andante, allegro and presto, and these words in French are lent, modéré, gracieux, gai and vite. It is necessary, however, to point out that since the mouvement is always less precise in French music, the words that designate it have a much more vague meaning than in Italian music. ... Although generally mouvements lents [slow tempos] are usually appropriate for sad emotions and mouvements animés [animated tempos] for gay ones, there are nonetheless often modifications through which one emotion speaks in the tone of another. Still, it is true that gaiety is almost never expressed slowly, but the sharpest anguish often is expressed in the most emotional language." - Rousseau (1768)
type of motionexplanation
mouvement conjointa single melody moving by a step
mouvement contrairetwo melodies moving in opposite directions
mouvement mélodique disjointa single melody moving by a leap
mouvement obliqueone voice remains on the same pitch while the other ascends or descends
mouvement parallèletwo melodies moving so that the interval between them remains the same
mouvement directtwo melodies moving in the same direction
mouvementé(French) bustling, animated, lively, full of incident
Mouvement conjoint(French m.) conjunct movement, stepwise motion
Mouvement contraire(French m.) contrary motion
Mouvement du début(French m.) original speed, original tempo, at the same speed as at the beginning, tempo primo (Italian)
Mouvement direct(French m.) direct motion
Mouvement (mélodique) disjoint(French m.) disjunct (melodic) movement, skip
Mouvement initial(French m.) original speed
Mouvement mixte(French m.) mixed motion
Mouvement oblique(French m.) oblique motion
Mouvement original(French m.) original speed
Mouvement parallèle(French m.) parallel motion
Mouvement pareil(French m.) similar motion
Mouvement précédent(French m.) the resumption of the preceding speed
Mouvement rythmique de la basse(French m.) walking bass
Mouvement semblable(French m.) similar motion
Mouvement similaire(French m.) similar motion
Mouvements plagaux(French m. pl.) plagal progression
it should be noted that while cadences are usually classified by specific chord or melodic progressions, the use of such a progression does not necessarily constitute a cadence - there must be a sense of closure, as at the end of a phrase. The term 'plagal movement' is applied generally to any progression IV to I, whether a cadence or not
Movable chordsee 'barre chord'
Movable clefclefs, such as the 'C' and 'G' clefs, which, to facilitate writing the notes on the staff rather than having to resort to ledger lines, can be moved, for example, French violin clef
Movable doin solmization, do is the syllable given to the first degree of the scale. Movable do means that do is the name given to the first degree of the scale in the key at that particular point in the composition. This is in contrast to a fixed do where, whatever the key of the piece, do always represents the pitch of the note 'C'
Movementa self-contained section from a symphony, suite, sonata, concerto, etc., movimento (Italian), mouvement (French), movimiento (Spanish)
motion, movimento (Italian), Bewegung (German), mouvement (French), movimiento (Spanish)
MovementWritingor the 'International Movement-Writing Alphabet' is a movement notation system devised by Valerie Sutton. It is used for dance, as DanceWriting, for sign language, as SignWriting, for mime, as MimeWriting, for movement based-sports, for example gymnastics, ice skating, as SprotsWriting, and for various scientific studies relating to physical therapy, animal movement, etc, as ScienceWriting
movendo(Italian) moving
movendo il tempo(Italian) growing faster
movente(Italian) moving
Movimento(Italian m., Portuguese m.) motion, impulse, time
(Italian m., Spanish m., Portuguese m.) movement (section of an extended work, for example, of a symphony), mouvement (French)
(Italian m.) as a dance term, see scosso
Movimento accentato (dalla battuta)(Italian m.) down beat (in a bar), first beat (in a bar)
Movimento dos braços(Portuguese m.) port de bras (French)
Movimento in unaccentato(Italian m.) an unaccented beat
Movimiento ascendente(Spanish m.) rising movement
Movimiento conjunto(Spanish m.) conjunct motion
Movimiento contrario(Spanish m.) contrary motion
Movimiento de danza(Spanish m.) dance movement (a movement in a dance form, for example, a minuet)
Movimiento descendente(Spanish m.) falling movement
Movimiento directo(Spanish m.) direct motion
Movimiento disjunto(Spanish m.) disjunct motion
Movimiento final(Spanish m.) final movement, last movement
Movimiento lento(Spanish m.) slow movement
Movimiento oblícuo(Spanish m.) oblique motion
Movimiento paralelo(Spanish m.) parallel motion
Movimiento plagal(Spanish m.) plagal motion
Movimiento rápido(Spanish m.) quick movement
Movimientos plagales(Spanish m. pl.) plagal progression
it should be noted that while cadences are usually classified by specific chord or melodic progressions, the use of such a progression does not necessarily constitute a cadence - there must be a sense of closure, as at the end of a phrase. The term 'plagal movement' is applied generally to any progression IV to I, whether a cadence or not
movtabbreviation of 'movement'
movt(s)abbreviation of 'movement(s)'
Moxeños(Bolivian) family of three wooden Andean flutes of variable size (large, medium and small) that are always played simultaneously
Moxiethe first carbonated soft drink to be mass-produced in the United States based on Gentian root extracts. It was invented by Augustin Thompson in Lowell, Massachusetts, and patented in 1876 as a medicine
Moyen âge(French f.) Middle Ages
moyenâgeux(French) medieval, redolent of the Middle Ages (however, the term is used when that quality is exaggerated or spurious)
Mozambiqueone of the major new rhythms to emerge in post-revolutionary Cuba, is the result of crossing mambo with conga
a style of Cuban carnival music and dance created by Pedro Izquierdo, also known as Pello el Afrokán, derived, like the conga, from music of Cuban street carnivals or comparsas
Mozarabic chantalso known as Hispanic chant, Old Hispanic chant, Old Spanish chant, or Visigothic chant, canto mozarabico (Italian), Mozarabische Gesang (German), chant mozarabe (French), canto mozárabe (Spanish), canto hispánico (Spanish)
the derivation of the word Mozarabic came from the Arabic word musta'rab meaning a naturalised Arab or one who adapted Arab customs, and the term ajami meaning ugly or barbarous. The major literary figure of Visigothic (or Gothic) Spain was the prolific Isodoro of Sevilla (about 559-636), a Cartagena-born Catholic archbishop, who was also a music theorist. Under his influence a single order of liturgy, both prayer and song, was established throughout the territory. This repertoire of Visigothic (later called Mozarabic) chant, as extensive as the Gregorian chant sung by Catholics elsewhere, had a distinctly Iberian style. The Mozarabs were Christians who continued to observe their religion while the Arabs ruled Spain. Mozarabic chant did not survive the Roman-backed prelates newly installed in Spain during the period 718-1492 AD (known as the Reconquista) during which the Christian kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula succeeded in retaking the Iberian Peninsula from the Muslims. Restricted to a handful of dedicated chapels, modern Mozarabic chant is highly Gregorianised and bears no musical resemblance to its original form
other applied names to the Mozarabic rite are:
Gothicfrom the establishment of the Visigothic kingdom during the time of the Muslim period in Spain
Toledanwhich was the main city of the Mozarabic rite
Isidorianthe earliest arrangement of the rites from the Council of Toledo along with St. Isidore of Seville
Mozarabic neumesalso known as 'Hispanic neumes' or 'Visigothic script', these neumes have not been deciphered, but the Mozarabic liturgy varies somewhat from the Roman rite
Mozarabic ritea form of Catholic worship within the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church. It dates principally to the 7th and 8th centuries, and is localized in the Iberian Peninsula (the Roman Hispania). Its liturgy is particularly apt as a spiritual defense during Islamic rule, and is widely reputed to be spiritually fulfilling
MOZARTmusic notation software for computers running Microsoft Windows. Mozart allows you to type in music notation - as easily as entering text in a word processor - view it on the screen, hear it, edit it, and then print high quality music scores and individual parts for musicians
  • Mozart from which this extract has been taken
Mozmaror mizmar, an Egyptian double-reed woodwind instrument