music theory & history onlineindex
Dr. Brian Blood





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There is nothing more entirely natural or charming in the life of man than his love of flowers: it preceded his love of music; no doubt an appreciation of something better in the way of art than a jig played on the pipes would follow close on the purification of the home.
George Augustus Moore (1852-1933); The Lake (1905)

Important: To see and hear our 'live' music examples you will need to install the free Scorch plug-in for PC and MAC systems.



A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z | music dictionary | top
Abbreviations - repeated notes, repeated groups of notes, etc.
Accents, Variety of
Acciaccatura (see Grace Notes)
Accidentals and Ornamentation
Accidentals, Using
Alla Breve (see Common Time)
Alla Cappella Time (see Common Time)
Alto Clef (see Clef, Alto)
American Standard Pitch Notation (Scientific Pitch Notation)
Ametric Music
Anacrusis
Analysis, Musical - 20th century History of Music
Antecedent & Consequent
Anticipation
Appoggiatura, Non-Harmonic Note
Appoggiatura, Ornamentation
Appoggiatura, Passing (see Nachslag)
Arezzo, Guido d' (see Ut Queant Laxis Resonare Fibris)
Arpeggiation
Articulation & Phrasing on Percussion Instruments
Articulation on Stringed Instruments
Articulation on Wind Instruments
Asymmetrical Time/Meter
Augmented Triads (see Triads)
Auxiliary Note

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Ballet, Origins of Early Opera and - 16th century History of Music
Baritone Clef (see Clef, Baritone)
Bar Numbers and Letters
Bars, Incomplete
Bars & Measures
Bars and Bar Lines
Bars and Ties
Bass Clef (see Clef, Bass)
Beams & Beaming
Beats and Tuning
Beat Tables
Bebop Scales
Blues
Breakdown of Tonality - 20th century History of Music

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Cadence, Deceptive
Cadence, Feminine
Cadence, Half
Cadence, Imperfect
Cadence, Interrupted
Cadence, Perfect
Cadence, Plagal
Cadences
Cadences, Summary of
Cadence, The 'Six-Four'
Caesura (see Fetura)
Changing Notes
Chev System (see Rhythm Syllables)
Chinese Opera, Sixteenth Century - 16th century History of Music
Chord Calculator
Chord Charts, Reading
Chord Names, Transposing
Chords
Chords, Altered
Chords, Augmented Fifth
Chords, Augmented Sixth (see Chords, French Sixth, Italian Sixth and German Sixth)
Chords, Broken & Spread
Chords, Diminished Seventh
Chords (9th, 11th, 13th), Extended
Chords, French Sixth
Chords, German Sixth
Chords in Jazz
Chords, Inverted
Chords, Italian Sixth
Chords, Naming (general)
Chords, Naming (recommended)
Chords, Naming With Roman Numerals
Chords, Neapolitan Sixth
Chords, Seventh
Chords, Slash Notation
Chords, Special
Chords, Suspended Fourth
Chords, Transposing
Chords, Voicing
Chromatic Intervals
Chromatic Scale
Chromatic Scale, Harmonic
Chromatic Scale, Melodic
Chromatic Scale, The
Circle of Fifths, The
Classification of Common Musical Instruments
Clef, Alto, Viola or Counter-Tenor
Clef, Baritone
Clef, Bass
Clef, Contrabass (see Clef, Subbass)
Clef, Counter-Tenor (see Alto Clef)
Clef, Double
Clef, French Violin
Clef, Indefinite Pitch (Percussion)
Clef, Mezzo-Soprano
Clef, Neutral (see Clef, Indefinite Pitch)
Clef, Octave
Clef, Percussion (see Clef, Indefinite Pitch)
Clef, Rhythm (see Clef, Indefinite Pitch)
Clef Signs, Summary of
Clef Sign, The
Clef, Soprano
Clef, Subbass
Clefs Used, Chart of Sounding Range and
Clef, Tenor
Clef, Treble
Clef, Viola (see Alto Clef)
Clef, Violin (see Treble Clef)
Colla voce & Colla parte
Combining Major and Minor Keys
Common Time & Alla Breve
Composers Biographies
Composition, Alan Belkin's Practical Guide to
Compound Intervals
Compound Time/Meter (see Simple & Compound Time/Meter)
Computer Music - 20th century History of Music
Concord & Discord
Conducting
Consequent (see Antecedent & Consequent)
Contents Page
Counterpoint by Alan Belkin
Counter-Tenor Clef (see Clef, Counter-Tenor)
Cross Rhythm, Hemiola, Hemiolia or
Curwen System (see Tonic Sol-fa)
Cut Time (see Common Time)

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Da Capo
Dance Tempi, Early
d'Arezzo, Guido (see Ut Queant Laxis Resonare Fibris)
Dark Ages (475-1000), Music of the - pre-16th century History of Music
Degrees of the Scale
Delta (Δ) chords
Diatonic Intervals
Diabolus in musica (see Tritone, The)
Diatonic Scale, The
Diminished Triads (see Triads)
Discord (see Concord & Discord)
Dictionary, Music
Divisions
Dominant Diminished Scale
Dominants, Secondary
Dominants, Using
Dot and Wedge in Clavichord Music
Dotting & Double-Dotting (Notation)
Dotting & Double Dotting (Rhythm)
Double Clef
Double Mordent (see Mordents)
Double Sharps & Flats
Drills (see Ear Tests and Drills)
Drumming - Importance Of Tempo
Drumming - Rhythmic Patterns
Duplets
Duration
Dynamic Markings, Table of

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Early Christian Church - pre-16th century History of Music
Early Music Revival, The - 19th century History of Music
Ear Tests and Drills
gal & Ingal
Electronic Music - 20th century History of Music
English Octave-Naming Convention
English vs. US Music Nomenclature
Enharmonics
Enigmatic Scale
Equal Temperament
Escape Note
Experimental Music Today - 20th century History of Music

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Feminine Endings
Fermata
Fetura; also called caesura, tramlines, railroad tracks or cut-off
Figured Bass
Figured Bass Notation
Fingering Charts
Form, Musical - A Summary
Franco-Belgic Octave-Naming Convention
French Time Names (see Rhythm Syllables)
French Violin Clef (see Clef, French Violin)
From Earliest Times - pre-16th century History of Music

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Galin-Paris-Chev System (see Rhythm Syllables)
General Musical Markings, Table of
Glossary (see Music Dictionary)
Grace Notes
Grand Staff
Greeks & Romans - pre-16th century History of Music
Guide Tones (see Voicing Chords)
Guido d'Arezzo (see Ut Queant Laxis Resonare Fibris)
Guitar, Bass
Guitar, Special Effects
Guitar, Writing Chords
Guitar, Writing Notes

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Half Mordent (see Turns)
Harmonic Intervals (see Melodic & Harmonic Intervals)
Harmonic Melody
Harmonic or Overtone Series
Harmony, Alan Belkin's General Principles of
Helmholtz Pitch Notation
Hemiola, Hemiolia or Cross Rhythm
Historical Temperaments
History of Music Notation (see Music Notation, Origins of)
Humanism - 16th century History of Music
Hungarian Scale
Hypermeasures, Unusual Time Signatures and

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Impressionism - 20th century History of Music
Indefinite Pitch (Percussion) Clef (see Clef, Indefinite Pitch (Percusssion))
Indeterminacy - 20th century History of Music
Ingal (see gal & Ingal)
Inflections (see Notes and Keys in English, French, German and Italian)
Inharmonicity
Instrumental Ensembles, Scoring
Instrument Names in Other Languages
Instrument Names & Their Abbreviations
Instrument Ranges (see Ranges, Instruments)
Instruments, Transposing (see Transposing Instruments)
Integer Notation
Interval Calculator
Intervals, Chromatic
Intervals, Compound
Intervals, Diatonic
Intervals, Inversion of
Intervals, Naming
Intervals, Small
Intervals, Tempered (see Pitch, Temperament and Timbre)
Intervals, Unisons and Octaves
Inverted Mordent (see Mordents)
Inverted Turn (see Turns)

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Jazz Improvisation
Jazz, Influences of - 20th century History of Music
Jazz Scales
Just Intonation

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Keyboard Instruments
Keyboard, Multiple Voices
Keyboard, Scoring
Keyboard, The
Key, Changing
Key is My Instrument in?, What
Key Signature, The
Key Signature, The Order of Sharps & Flats in The
Keys and Notes, Chart of
Keys of Musical Pieces in Various Languages, Writing the
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Leger Lines (see Grand Staff)
Long Mordent (see Mordents)
Lydian Scales
Lute, The
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Machine Music - 20th century History of Music
Major Keys
Major Scale, The
Major Scales, Chart of
Major Scales, Deriving
Major Scales, The Twelve
Major Triads (see Triads)
Meantone Scale, The
Measures (see Bars)
Melodic & Harmonic Intervals
Melodic Substitution
Mensuration
Meter, Time Signature and
Metronome Marks
Mezzo-Soprano Clef (see Clef, Mezzo-Soprano)
Microtonal Music - 20th century History of Music
Microtones
Middle Ages (1000-1350), Music of the High - pre-16th century History of Music
Middle Ages (1350-1500), Music of the Late - pre-16th century History of Music
Middle C
MIDI - Musical Instrument Digital Interface
Minimalism - 20th century History of Music
Minor Key Problem, The
Minor Keys, The
Minor Scales, Chart of Harmonic
Minor Scales, Chart of Melodic
Minor Scales, Chart of Natural
Minor Scale, Harmonic
Minor Scale, Melodic
Minor Scale, Natural
Minor Triads (see Triads)
Minuet & Trio
Modal Interchange
Modes and related chords
Modes and scales
Modes, Rhythmic
Modulation
Mordents
Multiple Bars Rest
Musical Analysis - 20th century History of Music
Musical Form - A Summary
Musical Instruments, Classification of Common (see Classification of Common Music Instruments)
Musical Instrumental Ensembles, Scoring
Musical Instrument Names in Other Languages
Musical Instrument Names & Their Abbreviations
Musical Instrument Ranges (see Ranges, Instruments)
Musical Instruments, Transposing (see Transposing Instruments)
Musical Symbols, Chart of
Music Dictionary
Music, Electronic (see Electronic Music)
Music in New Spain - 16th century History of Music
Music of the 19th Century - 19th century History of Music
Music of the 20th Century - 20th century History of Music
Music Notation, Additional Note about the History of
Music Notation, Links about
Music Notation, Origins of - John Howell
Music Notation, Origins of - additional notes by Brian Blood
Music Printing, Renaissance - 16th century History of Music
Music Theory, Renaissance - 16th century History of Music
Music Theatre

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Nachslag
Naming The Notes
Nationalism, Folk Song & Primitivism - 19th century History of Music
Neapolitan Scales
Neapolitan Sixth (see Chords, Neapolitan Sixth)
Neighbouring Notes
Neo-Classicism - 20th century History of Music
Neo-Romanticism - 20th century History of Music
Neumatic Notation through History
Non-Chord Notes (see Non-Harmonic Notes)
Non-Harmonic Notes (see Anticipation, Appoggiatura, Auxiliary, Changing, Escape, Neighbouring, Passing, Pedal, Retardation, Suspension)
Notation, Origins of Musical
Note Reading & Keyboard Layout Test
Note-Octave Notation (see Scientific Pitch Notation)
Note Sign
Notes & Key Names in Other Languages
Notes & Rests, Chart of
Notes and Keys in Various Languages
Notes and Rests, Grouping

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Octatonic Scale
Octave Clef (see Clef, Octave)
Octave Equivalency
Octaves, Naming The
Octave, The
Opera, Origins of Early Ballet and - 16th century History of Music
Orientalism - 19th century History of Music
Other-lets
Orchestral Instrument Ranges (see Ranges, Instruments)
Orchestral Layout
Ornamentation
Ornamentation, Accidentals and
Overtone Series, Harmonic or
Oz Pitch-Naming Convention

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Parallel Major & Minor (see Relative & Parallel Major & Minor)
Passing Appoggiatura (see Nachslag)
Passing Notes
Pedalling on the Piano
Pedal Notes
Pentatonic Scales
Percussion Instruments
Percussion Instruments, Articulation & Phrasing on Percussion, Scoring
Performance Practice and Aesthetics of the 19th Century - 19th century History of Music
Phrase, Slur & see (Slur & Phrase)
Physics of Musical Instruments - A Brief History
Piano Keyboard Design, Thoughts on
Pitch
Pitch, History of Musical
Pitch Notation, Helmholtz
Pitch Notation, Scientific
Pitch, Temperament and Timbre
Pralltriller
Progressing into the 20th Century - 20th century History of Music
Pythagorean Series

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Quartertones (see Microtones)
Quality (of intervals)

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Railroad tracks (see Fetura)
Range and Clefs used, Chart of Sounding
Range of Orchestral Instruments, Sounding
Ranges, Clarinets
Ranges, Double Reeds
Ranges, Flutes
Ranges, Harp
Ranges, Horns
Ranges, Plucked Strings
Ranges, Recorders
Ranges, Saxophones
Ranges, Trombones
Ranges, Trumpets
Ranges, Tubas
Ranges, Tuned Percussion
Ranges, Viol Family
Ranges, Violin Family
Ranges, Voices
Reharmonisation
Rehearsal Letters
Relative & Parallel Major & Minor
Renaissance and the French Court, The - 16th century History of Music
Renaissance, Music of the Proto- - pre-16th century History of Music
Repeated Bars
Repeated Groups
Repeated Notes
Repeated Sections
Repeated Whole Bar Rests
Rests, Chart of Notes & (see Notes & Rests, Chart of)
Retardation
Retorted Time
Rhythmic Modes & Anacrusis
Rhythmic Modes
Rhythm Syllables
Roman Numerals, Naming Chords With
Romanticism - 19th century History of Music
Rootless Voicing (see Voicing Chords)

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Sample Scores
Scales (see Bebop, Blues, Chromatic, Diatonic, Dominant Diminished, Double Harmonic, Enigmatic, Hungarian, Jazz, Major, Meantone, Minor, Neapolitan, Octatonic, Pentatonic, Symmetrical)
Scale Calculator
Scales, Origin of Diatonic and Chromatic
Scales, Table of
Scales, Transposing
Scientific Pitch Notation
Score, The
Scoring for Voices
Secondary Dominants
Semitone (see Tone)
Serialism (see Twelve Note Method)
Setting Temperaments (see Beats and Tuning)
Shape Note Notation
Simple & Compound Time/Meter
Slash Chord Notation (see Chords, Slash Notation)
Slur & Phrase
Slurs and Staccato
Sol-fa (see Tonic Sol-fa)
Solos & Parts, Scoring
Soprano Clef (see Clef, Soprano)
Sounding Range and Clefs Used, Chart of
Staccato (see Tenuto & Staccato)
Staccato and Slurs (see Slurs and Staccato)
Staff or Stave
Staffs and Clefs
Stringed Instruments, Articulation on
Stringed Instruments, Tuning of
Subbass Clef (see Clef, Subbass)
Suspension
Swing
Symbolism, Late 19th Century - 19th century History of Music
Symmetrical Scales
Syncopation

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Tablature Notation, The Origins of
Temperament and Pitch Calculator
Temperaments, Information about
Temperaments, Setting (see Beats and Tuning)
Tempi, Early Dance (see Dance Tempi, Early)
Tempo Markings, Table of
Tempo through Notation
Tenor Clef (see Clef, Tenor)
Tenuto & Staccato
Terms and Concepts in 20th Century Music, Summary of - 20th century History of Music
Tetrachord, The
Tierce de Picardie
Ties
Timbre
Timeline, Early Renaissance - 16th century History of Music
Time Value (see Duration)
Time Signature and Meter
Time Signatures, Changing
Time Signatures, How We 'Say' Them
Time Signatures and Hypermeasures, Unusual
Time Signatures and Note Groupings
Tonality, Breakdown of - 20th century History of Music
Tonality, The Nature of
Tonal Languages and Music
Tone and Semitone
Tone Colour (see Timbre)
Tonic Sol-fa
Transilient Scales
Transposing Chord Names
Transposing Chords
Transposing Instruments
Transposing Instruments, How to Write Parts for
Transposing into another Key
Transposition at the Octave
Transposing Scales
Treble Clef (see Clef, Treble)
Triads, Diatonic
Triad Progressions
Triads
Trills
Triplets
Tritone, The
Tuning, Beats and (see Beats and Tuning)
Tunings for Stringed Instruments
Tunings, Historical (see Temperaments, Information about)
Turns
Twelve Note Method - 20th century History of Music

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Uneven Time/Meter
US vs. English Music Nomenclature
Ut Queant Laxis Resonare Fibris
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Vibrato
Voice, The
Voices and Vocal Ensembles in Other Languages
Voicing Chords

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Welcome Page
Whole Bar Rest
Wind Instruments, Articulation on
Wordless Singing
Words & Phrasing
Words & Meaning
Words & Syncopation

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